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1

Wave formation on vertical falling liquid films  

SciTech Connect

The method of integral relations is used to derive a nonlinear ''two-wave'' structure equation for long waves on the surface of vertical falling liquid films. This equation is valid in a wide range of Reynolds numbers and reduces to the known equations for high and low Re. Theoretical data for the fastest growing waves are compared with the experimental results on velocities, wave numbers and growth rates of the waves in the inception region. The validity of theoretical assumptions is also confirmed by the direct measurements of the instantaneous velocity profiles in a wave liquid film.

Alekseenko, S.V.; Nakoryakov, V.E.; Pokusaev, B.G.

1985-09-01

2

Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

3

Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence  

E-print Network

We study the determinants of vertical integration. We first derive a number of predictions regarding the relationship between technology intensity and vertical integration from a simple incomplete contracts model. Then, ...

Acemoglu, Daron

4

Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking.

Philippacopoulos, A.J.

1985-01-01

5

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY  

E-print Network

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY Yeon SukChoi \\ Steven W. Van to measure the natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen between two vertical plates has been performed power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath

Chang, Ho-Myung

6

CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

7

Wave formation on a vertical falling liquid film  

SciTech Connect

The method of integral relations is used to derive a nonlinear two-wave equation for long waves on the surface of vertical falling liquid films. This equation is valid within a range of moderate Reynolds numbers and can be reduced in some cases to other well-known equations. The theoretical results for the fastest growing waves are compared with the experimental results concerning velocities, wave numbers, and growth rates of the waves in the inception region. The validity of the theoretical assumptions is also confirmed by direct measurements of instantaneous velocity profiles in a wave liquid film. The results of the experimental investigation concerning nonlinear stationary waves and the evolution of initial solitary disturbances are presented.

Alekseenko, S.V.; Nakoryakov, V.Ye.; Pokusaev, B.G.

1985-09-01

8

Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy  

PubMed Central

Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients’ best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism. PMID:21850551

Afendulis, Christopher C.

2011-01-01

9

Vertical integration, exclusive dealing, and ex post cartelization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uncovers an unnoticed connection between exclusive contracts and vertical organization. A vertically integrated …rm can use exclusive dealing to foreclose an equally e¢ cient upstream competitor and to cartelize the downstream industry. Neither vertical integration nor exclusive dealing alone achieves these anticompetitive eects. The cartelization eect of these two practices may be limited when downstream …rms are het-

Yongmin Chen; Michael H. Riordan

2006-01-01

10

Natural Convection of Liquid Metals in Vertical Cavities  

E-print Network

Natural Convection of Liquid Metals in Vertical Cavities F. Wolff Research Assistant C. Beckermann- ties. Temperature measurements are employed to deduce the significance of natural convection- rameters, it is found that the natural convection patterns in liquid metals are considerably different from

Beckermann, Christoph

11

Draining Collars and Lenses in Liquid-Lined Vertical Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed at which an annular liquid collar drains under gravity g in a vertical tube of radius a, when the tube has an otherwise thin viscous liquid lining on its interior, is determined by a balance between the collar's weight and viscous shear stresses confined to narrow regions in the neighborhood of the collar's effective contact lines. Whether a

Oliver E. Jensen

2000-01-01

12

A vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics for CO2 storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

vertically integrated models for CO2 storage usually adopt a vertical equilibrium (VE) assumption, which states that due to strong buoyancy, CO2 and brine segregate quickly, so that the fluids can be assumed to have essentially hydrostatic pressure distributions in the vertical direction. However, the VE assumption is inappropriate when the time scale of fluid segregation is not small relative to the simulation time. By casting the vertically integrated equations into a multiscale framework, a new vertically integrated model can be developed that relaxes the VE assumption, thereby allowing vertical dynamics to be modeled explicitly. The model maintains much of the computational efficiency of vertical integration while allowing a much wider range of problems to be modeled. Numerical tests of the new model, using injection scenarios with typical parameter sets, show excellent behavior of the new approach for homogeneous geologic formations.

Guo, Bo; Bandilla, Karl W.; Doster, Florian; Keilegavlen, Eirik; Celia, Michael A.

2014-08-01

13

Vertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in  

E-print Network

Vertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in Fuel-ethanol;Content 1. Research Objectives and Summary of Results 2. Introduction to Fuel-ethanol Industry 3. Fuel-Ethanol fuel sector has a significant effects on integration #12;Fuel-Ethanol Two main types of liquid

Aickelin, Uwe

14

Inclusion of Vertical Dynamics in Vertically-integrated Models for CO2 Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical models of different complexity are needed to answer a range of questions for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). One category of simplified models is based on vertical integration, which reduces the three-dimensional problem to two dimensions. Usually, these models assume that brine and CO2 are in vertical equilibrium. This type of model is useful and accurate for simulation times that are large relative to the time for buoyant segregation. But, vertical-equilibrium models are inappropriate in some situations, for instance, in the early stage of injection, when brine and CO2 have not fully segregated. Therefore, for these situations, the vertical equilibrium assumption needs to be relaxed and vertical dynamics needs to be included in the governing equations. To avoid significant increases of computational effort due to the inclusion of vertical dynamics, a multi-scale algorithm can be constructed where the vertically integrated equations are still used to model the (dominant) horizontal flow processes with the vertical reconstruction included as a dynamic problem. Such an approach allows each vertical column of grid cells to be solved independently, as a one-dimensional problem, during the dynamic reconstruction step. Because the top and bottom boundaries usually correspond to impermeable caprock, the total flow for these one-dimensional problems is zero and counter-current flow driven only by buoyancy and capillarity is involved. Solutions for this kind of problem are relatively simple and require little computational effort. With careful coupling between the vertical calculations and the horizontally integrated equations, an efficient algorithm can be developed to simulate a fairly wide range of problems including those with significant vertical dynamics. When vertical dynamics become insignificant, then usual vertical equilibrium reconstruction is used in the vertically integrated models. This new algorithm provides an intermediate choice in model complexity between full three-dimensional models and vertical-equilibrium two-dimensional models.

Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

2012-12-01

15

Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of post-contractural apportunistic behavior for improving market efficiency through intrafirm rather than interfirm transactions is examined under the assumption that vertical costs will increase less than contracting costs as specialized assets and appropriable quasi rents increase. Vertical integration protects against the risk of contract cancellation and can create market power which is not generally referred to as monopoly.

Benjamin Klein; Robert G. Crawford; Armen A. Alchian

1978-01-01

16

The organizational form of vertical relationships: Dimensions of integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that the organizational form of a buying firm's vertical relationship with a supplier can be defined as a configuration of four distinct, but related dimensions of integration. These dimensions pertain to ownership integration (the extent that the firm owns the upstream component supplier), coordination integration (the intensity of information exchange to align the two stages

Ferdinand Jaspers; Jan van den Ende

2006-01-01

17

Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence Ian Appelbauma  

E-print Network

Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence microscopy Ian Appelbauma directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL heterostructure, just below a luminescent Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1861961 In ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL , hot

Russell, Kasey

18

Stability of liquid films on a porous vertical cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of liquid films flowing down a vertical porous cylinder is investigated in this paper. Fluids in the porous medium are assumed to be governed by Darcy's law. The Beaver-Joseph conditions on the liquid-porous surface are applied, and the influence of the porous medium reduces as a slip condition on the cylinder, which leads to the one-sided model. A Benney-type equation governing the interfacial shape is derived to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid films. Linear stability analysis shows that the film flow system on a porous vertical cylinder is more unstable than that on a solid impermeable vertical cylinder and that increasing the permeability of the porous medium enhances the destabilizing effect. Nonlinear studies examine our linear stability analysis. We find that, for Reynolds number Re=0, as the permeability parameter increases, the rupture time of film decreases; for Re>0, Rayleigh-Plateau instability is suppressed, and disturbances evolve to saturated traveling waves. By increasing the permeability parameter, the amplitude of traveling wave increases, and the wave speed increases too. Aside from that, the wave speed increases with increasing Re.

Ding, Zijing; Liu, Qiusheng

2011-10-01

19

Liquid plug flow in a vertical two-dimensional channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity and pressure driven liquid plug flow in a two-dimensional vertical channel is investigated as a model of instilled liquid transport in the lungs. There are a number of clinical situations in which liquids are instilled into the lungs. Of particular interest is liquid ventilation where perfluorocarbon liquids are delivered to the lung and subsequently used for ventilation in place of gas. Additionally the perfuorocarbon can be used as a carrier for drugs or genetic material. Some other examples of liquid instillation into the lungs include surfactant replacement therapy, lung lavage, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. The desired distribution of liquid depends on the application. Our model is developed using the Stokes equation subject to interfacial and wall boundary conditions, and is solved using the boundary element method. We obtain steady-state and time-dependent solutions. As the plug propagates along the thin-film-lined channel, it takes up liquid from the leading film and deposit liquid in the trailing film. The trailing film thickness, interface shapes and plug speed are determined as functions of the parameters of the problem, Bond number, driving pressure, and leading film thickness and initial plug length for the time-dependent problem. These results are important clinically since the trailing film thickness determines when the plug ruptures affecting the ultimate liquid distribution, and thicker films can result in airway closure. This research was supported by NIH grants HL41126, HL64373, and HL54224-04S1. J.L. Bull is a Parker B. Francis Fellow in Pulmonary Research.

Bull, Joseph; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James

2001-11-01

20

Abstract --The transition from a vertically integrated industry to a horizontally integrated open market system changes  

E-print Network

Abstract -- The transition from a vertically integrated industry to a horizontally integrated open market system changes the operational planning activities of generation companies (GENCOs the technical aspects of unit operation, such as capacity limits, but also information about other market

Berleant, Daniel

21

Thermal dispersion in vertical gas-liquid flows with foaming and non-foaming liquids  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer experiments have been performed in gas-liquid upwards flow in a vertical column with non-foaming (water) and foaming (kerosene) liquids. The main purpose of the experiments has been to characterized the degree of thermal mixing in the system. For the range of conditions employed, the nonfoaming liquid exhibits complete mixing a low liquid superficial velocities. An increased in liquid velocity leads to incomplete mixing. In the latter case, the thermal dispersion coefficient at low gas superficial velocities is larger than what correlations in the literature predict. For the foaming liquid, when foaming and bubbling regions coexist in the bubble column, each region behaves as a completely-mixed subsystem.

Pino, L.R.Z.; Saez, A.E. [Univ. Simmon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transferecia] [Univ. Simmon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transferecia

1995-05-01

22

Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis II : Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for automatically associating detected waveform features with hypothesized seismic events, and localizing those events, are a critical component of efforts to verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). As outlined in our companion abstract, we have developed a hierarchical model which views detection, association, and localization as an integrated probabilistic inference problem. In this abstract, we provide more details on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods used to solve this inference task. MCMC generates samples from a posterior distribution ?(x) over possible worlds x by defining a Markov chain whose states are the worlds x, and whose stationary distribution is ?(x). In the Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) method, transitions in the Markov chain are constructed in two steps. First, given the current state x, a candidate next state x? is generated from a proposal distribution q(x? | x), which may be (more or less) arbitrary. Second, the transition to x? is not automatic, but occurs with an acceptance probability—?(x? | x) = min(1, ?(x?)q(x | x?)/?(x)q(x? | x)). The seismic event model outlined in our companion abstract is quite similar to those used in multitarget tracking, for which MCMC has proved very effective. In this model, each world x is defined by a collection of events, a list of properties characterizing those events (times, locations, magnitudes, and types), and the association of each event to a set of observed detections. The target distribution ?(x) = P(x | y), the posterior distribution over worlds x given the observed waveform data y at all stations. Proposal distributions then implement several types of moves between worlds. For example, birth moves create new events; death moves delete existing events; split moves partition the detections for an event into two new events; merge moves combine event pairs; swap moves modify the properties and assocations for pairs of events. Importantly, the rules for accepting such complex moves need not be hand-designed. Instead, they are automatically determined by the underlying probabilistic model, which is in turn calibrated via historical data and scientific knowledge. Consider a small seismic event which generates weak signals at several different stations, which might independently be mistaken for noise. A birth move may nevertheless hypothesize an event jointly explaining these detections. If the corresponding waveform data then aligns with the seismological knowledge encoded in the probabilistic model, the event may be detected even though no single station observes it unambiguously. Alternatively, if a large outlier reading is produced at a single station, moves which instantiate a corresponding (false) event would be rejected because of the absence of plausible detections at other sensors. More broadly, one of the main advantages of our MCMC approach is its consistent handling of the relative uncertainties in different information sources. By avoiding low-level thresholds, we expect to improve accuracy and robustness. At the conference, we will present results quantitatively validating our approach, using ground-truth associations and locations provided either by simulation or human analysts.

Arora, N. S.; Russell, S.; Sudderth, E.

2009-12-01

23

THE LAW OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION AND THE BUSINESS FIRM, 1880-1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aVertical integration occurs when a firm does something for itself that it could otherwise procure on the market. For example, a manufacturer that opens its own stores is said to be vertically integrated into distribution. Both classical political economy and marginalist economics saw vertical integration and vertical contractual arrangements as much less threatening to competition than cartels or other horizontal

Herbert Hovenkamp

2009-01-01

24

Draining Collars and Lenses in Liquid-Lined Vertical Tubes.  

PubMed

The speed at which an annular liquid collar drains under gravity g in a vertical tube of radius a, when the tube has an otherwise thin viscous liquid lining on its interior, is determined by a balance between the collar's weight and viscous shear stresses confined to narrow regions in the neighborhood of the collar's effective contact lines. Whether a collar grows or shrinks in volume as it drains depends on the modified Bond number B=rho g a(2)/(sigmaepsilon), where rho is the fluid density, sigma is its surface tension, and epsilona is the thickness of the thin film immediately ahead of the collar. Asymptotic methods are used here to determine the following nonlinear stability criteria for an individual collar, valid in the limit of small epsilon. For 0liquid's free surface, these critical values of B are reduced by a factor of 2 but the distance a collar must travel before it snaps off is unchanged. Gravitationally driven snap off is therefore most likely to occur in long tubes with radii substantially less than the capillary lengthscale sigma/rhog)(1/2). Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10623450

Jensen

2000-01-01

25

Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-amplifiers.

Wright, E.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

1993-11-01

26

Economics of vertically integrated livestock and meat operations  

E-print Network

studies dealt with the description and not the financial and economic analysis of the operations. Cothern and Peard conducted a study during the mid-seventies on direct farm-to-re- tail marketing outlets. They concluded questions that need... and 30, 500 pounds of carcass meat were wholesaled and re- tailed each week, Eight of the operations interviewed were vertically integrated from slaughter through retail. These operations had an average weekly slaughter of 12 to 140 head of cattle...

Crawford, David Paul

2012-06-07

27

Fabrication of Annealed Proton-Exchanged Waveguides for Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2011 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FABRICATION OF ANNEALED PROTON-EXCHANGED WAVEGUIDES FOR VERTICAL INTEGRATION A Thesis by JACOB DOUGLAS WEBB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Christi K. Madsen Ohannes Eknoyan Committee Members, Jim Ji Kenith Meissner Head...

Webb, Jacob Douglas

2011-08-08

28

Supplier Switching Costs and Vertical Integration in the Automobile Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tests a transactions cost theory of vertical integration with data from the U.S. automobile industry. Existing theory is first refined to take into account industrial know-how and the cost of transferring such know-how. A testable model is then developed, which is estimated by using probit techniques. The results support the view that transactions cost considerations surrounding the development

Kirk Monteverde; David J. Teece

1982-01-01

29

Coating flow of viscous Newtonian liquids on a rotating vertical disk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a Newtonian viscous liquid coating a vertical rotating disk in the creeping flow regime. Experiments were performed at varying disk rotation speeds and liquid volumes, and the thickness profile at steady state was measured. While the maximum liquid supported by the rotating disk varied with rotation rate and liquid viscosity, the numerical value of a dimensionless number signifying

Nilesh H. Parmar; Mahesh S. Tirumkudulu; E. J. Hinch

2009-01-01

30

STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

31

Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior.

Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

1985-01-01

32

An empirical evaluation of factors determining vertical integration in U.S. food manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical integration has become an important business strategy among food manufacturers because it allows them to manage and customize their production according to consumer needs. Economic theory has shown that vertical integration may be induced by transaction costs, demand variability, market power motives, and other factors. This paper presents an index of forward vertical integration for U.S. food manufacturing industries

Sanjib Bhuyan

2005-01-01

33

Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum  

PubMed Central

Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to adequate resources, and appropriate integration into existing medical education curricula. As focused ultrasonography increasingly penetrates academic and community practices, access to ultrasound equipment and trained faculty is improving. However, there has remained the major challenge of determining at which level is integrating ultrasound training within the medical training paradigm most appropriate. Methods The Ohio State University College of Medicine has developed a novel vertical curriculum for focused ultrasonography which is concordant with the 4-year medical school curriculum. Given current evidenced-based practices, a curriculum was developed which provides medical students an exposure in focused ultrasonography. The curriculum utilizes focused ultrasonography as a teaching aid for students to gain a more thorough understanding of basic and clinical science within the medical school curriculum. The objectives of the course are to develop student understanding in indications for use, acquisition of images, interpretation of an ultrasound examination, and appropriate decision-making of ultrasound findings. Results Preliminary data indicate that a vertical ultrasound curriculum is a feasible and effective means of teaching focused ultrasonography. The foreseeable limitations include faculty skill level and training, initial cost of equipment, and incorporating additional information into an already saturated medical school curriculum. Conclusions Focused ultrasonography is an evolving concept in medicine. It has been shown to improve education and patient care. The indications for and implementation of focused ultrasound is rapidly expanding in all levels of medicine. The ideal method for teaching ultrasound has yet to be established. The vertical curriculum in ultrasound at The Ohio State University College of Medicine is a novel evidenced-based training regimen at the medical school level which integrates ultrasound training into medical education and serves as a model for future integrated ultrasound curricula. PMID:23819896

2013-01-01

34

Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors  

PubMed Central

Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

2011-01-01

35

Vertical or integrated health programmes? The consequences for the laboratory information system in Mozambique  

E-print Network

Vertical or integrated health programmes? The consequences for the laboratory information system@ifi.uio.no #12;Vertical or integrated health programmes? The consequences for the laboratory information system to integrate the information systems. Keywords: health information systems, clinical laboratories, integration

Sahay, Sundeep

36

Vertically integrated double-layer on-chip silicon membranes for 1-to-12 waveguide fanouts  

E-print Network

Vertically integrated double-layer on-chip silicon membranes for 1-to-12 waveguide fanouts Yang integrated double-layer on-chip silicon membranes for 1-to-12 waveguide fanouts Yang Zhang,a) Amir Hosseini 2012) We present an on-chip vertically integrated three-dimensional photonic integrated circuit. Double-layer

Chen, Ray

37

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1988-06-17

38

Vertical III-V nanowire device integration on Si(100).  

PubMed

We report complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration of compound semiconductors on Si substrates. InAs and GaAs nanowires are selectively grown in vertical SiO2 nanotube templates fabricated on Si substrates of varying crystallographic orientations, including nanocrystalline Si. The nanowires investigated are epitaxially grown, single-crystalline, free from threading dislocations, and with an orientation and dimension directly given by the shape of the template. GaAs nanowires exhibit stable photoluminescence at room temperature, with a higher measured intensity when still surrounded by the template. Si-InAs heterojunction nanowire tunnel diodes were fabricated on Si(100) and are electrically characterized. The results indicate a high uniformity and scalability in the fabrication process. PMID:24628529

Borg, Mattias; Schmid, Heinz; Moselund, Kirsten E; Signorello, Giorgio; Gignac, Lynne; Bruley, John; Breslin, Chris; Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Werner, Peter; Riel, Heike

2014-04-01

39

RESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of the liquid film on a vertical wire  

E-print Network

remaining on a wire withdrawn from a liquid bath and forced through an annular jet is experimentally (doctor) blades or special dies are employed, is a mechanical technique whereas gas-jet wiping, which usesRESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of the liquid film on a vertical wire under the action

Zuccher, Simone

40

Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

Olson, M.

1997-10-01

41

Vertically integrated circuit development at Fermilab for detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today vertically integrated circuits, (a.k.a. 3D integrated circuits) is a popular topic in many trade journals. The many advantages of these circuits have been described such as higher speed due to shorter trace lenghts, the ability to reduce cross talk by placing analog and digital circuits on different levels, higher circuit density without the going to smaller feature sizes, lower interconnect capacitance leading to lower power, reduced chip size, and different processing for the various layers to optimize performance. There are some added advantages specifically for MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) in High Energy Physics: four side buttable pixel arrays, 100% diode fill factor, the ability to move PMOS transistors out of the diode sensing layer, and a increase in channel density. Fermilab began investigating 3D circuits in 2006. Many different bonding processes have been described for fabricating 3D circuits [1]. Fermilab has used three different processes to fabricate several circuits for specific applications in High Energy Physics and X-ray imaging. This paper covers some of the early 3D work at Fermilab and then moves to more recent activities. The major processes we have used are discussed and some of the problems encountered are described. An overview of pertinent 3D circuit designs is presented along with test results thus far.

Yarema, R.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Khalid, F.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Trimpl, M.; Zimmerman, T.

2013-01-01

42

The Luttinger Liquid and Integrable Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many fundamental one-dimensional lattice models such as the Heisenberg or the Hubbard model are integrable. For these microscopic models, parameters in the Luttinger liquid theory can often be fixed and parameter-free results at low energies for many physical quantities such as dynamical correlation functions obtained where exact results are still out of reach. Quantum integrable models thus provide an important testing ground for low-energy Luttinger liquid physics. They are, furthermore, also very interesting in their own right and show, for example, peculiar transport and thermalization properties. The consequences of the conservation laws leading to integrability for the structure of the low-energy effective theory have, however, not fully been explored yet. I will discuss the connection between integrability and Luttinger liquid theory here, using the anisotropic Heisenberg model as an example. In particular, I will review the methods which allow to fix free parameters in the Luttinger model with the help of the Bethe ansatz solution. As applications, parameter-free results for the susceptibility in the presence of nonmagnetic impurities, for spin transport, and for the spin-lattice relaxation rate are discussed.

Sirker, J.

2014-10-01

43

Low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs using novel hybrid assembly techniques  

E-print Network

A new heterogeneous integration technique has been developed and demonstrated to integrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on silicon CMOS integrated circuits for optical interconnect applications. Individual ...

Perkins, James Michael, 1978-

2007-01-01

44

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

1997-04-29

45

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

Bryan, Robert P. (12700 Indian School Rd. NE., Apt. 604, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Esherick, Peter (1105 Sagebrush Trail SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Jewell, Jack L. (12 Timberline Dr., Bridgewater, NJ 08807); Lear, Kevin L. (13713 Vic Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Olbright, Gregory R. (3875 Orange Ct., Boulder, CO 80304)

1997-01-01

46

Dry Vertical Alignment Method for Multi-domain Homeotropic Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-domain homeotropic liquid crystal alignment has been recognized as an alignment method to achieve wide viewing angle for thin-film-transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). In the past decade, several types of multi-domain homeotropic TFT-LCDs have been well studied. In all these LCDs, a homeotropic polyimide layer is used to align liquid crystal molecules. In this paper, a new homeotropic alignment method-dry deposition vertical alignment (or vacuum deposition vertical alignment) is introduced. We studied several different vacuum deposited vertical alignment materials and one of them was demonstrated on a high resolution ridge fringe-field multi-domain homeotropic (RFFMH) TFT-LCD@. This new method has advantages over the conventional polyimide alignment method: it simplifies the manufacturing process by avoiding wet chemical processes and improves the viewing angle by reducing light leakage.

Cai, C.; Lien, A.; Andry, P. S.; Chaudhari, P.; John, R. A.; Galligan, E. A.; Lacey, J. A.; Ifill, H.; Graham, W. S.; Allen, R. D.

2001-12-01

47

Airing Your Dirty Laundry: Vertical Integration, Reputational Capital, and Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between an ethnic-based social network and vertical integration decisions in the laundry services industry. We find that stores in the social network are significantly less likely to vertically integrate than nonmember stores. This has three primary implications. First, the social network may be lowering the costs of using the market more than facilitating in-house production.

Ricard Gil; Wesley R. Hartmann

2009-01-01

48

Slag and other liquid behavior on vertical surface at near-freezing temperature  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of liquid droplets from turbulent stream to vertical surface and the subsequent transient behavior of the liquid layer are analyzed for the surface temperatures near the freezing point of the liquid. General wave behavior of the equations governing the liquid layer is elucidated. The analysis is applied to the problem of slag layer accumulation on the passage walls of a magnetohydrodynamic regenerative heat exchanger using the coal combustion product as the heat source. The wave behavior predicts the emergence of an accumulation shock that leads to clogging of the passges for certain cyclic operations.

Im, K.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Chung, P.M.

1980-11-01

49

Effects of Reduced Surface Tension on Liquid Film Structure in Vertical Upward Gas-Liquid Annular Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate experimentally the effects of reduced surface tension on the liquid film structure in vertical-upward air-liquid annular flows in a 19.2 mm i.d. and 5.4 m long circular tube. The test liquid was water and/or a dilute water solution of Polyoxyethylene-Lauryl-Ether, and the surface tension of these liquids ranged from 72 to 45 dyne/cm. The liquid film structure was observed by use of both the still photographs and the maps of time and spatial characteristics of peripheral-mean liquid film thickness detected with a series of 63 liquid holdup sensors each axially 15 mm apart in a constant current method. The parameters studied were the wave heights of the liquid film, the passing frequencies of the waves, the mean value and the standard deviation of the wave velocities, each determined from the liquid film thickness signals through a computer program of signal processing. From the observations of still photographs and the maps of time and spatial characteristics of peripheral-mean liquid film thickness, it was cleared that the liquid film structure depends strongly on the surface tension, i.e., the reduction of surface tension makes the passing of the large waves decrease remarkably, the wave height of the large waves lower like small waves, the passing of the small waves more frequent, and the small wave velocity faster.

Furukawa, Tohru; Matsuyama, Fuminori; Sadatomi, Michio

50

Surface Instability of Liquid Propellant under Vertical Oscillatory Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid motion in a fuel tank produced during thrust oscillations can circulate sub-cooled hydrogen near the liquid-vapor interface resulting in increased condensation and ullage pressure collapse. The first objective of this study is to validate the capabilities of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, CFD-ACE+, in modeling the fundamental interface transition physics occurring at the propellant surface. The second objective is to use the tool to assess the effects of thrust oscillations on surface dynamics. Our technical approach is to first verify the CFD code against known theoretical solutions, and then validate against existing experiments for small scale tanks and a range of transition regimes. A 2D axisymmetric, multi-phase model of gases, liquids, and solids is used to verify that CFD-ACE+ is capable of modeling fluid-structure interaction and system resonance in a typical thrust oscillation environment. Then, the 3D mode is studied with an assumed oscillatory body force to simulate the thrust oscillating effect. The study showed that CFD modeling can capture all of the transition physics from solid body motion to standing surface wave and to droplet ejection from liquid-gas interface. Unlike the analytical solutions established during the 1960 s, CFD modeling is not limited to the small amplitude regime. It can extend solutions to the nonlinear regime to determine the amplitude of surface waves after the onset of instability. The present simulation also demonstrated consistent trends from numerical experiments through variation of physical properties from low viscous fluid to high viscous fluids, and through variation of geometry and input forcing functions. A comparison of surface wave patterns under various forcing frequencies and amplitudes showed good agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that thrust oscillations can cause droplet formation at the interface, which results in increased surface area and enhanced heat transfer between the liquid and gas phases as the ejected droplets travel well into the warmer gas region.

Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

2011-01-01

51

Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach  

PubMed Central

Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated. PMID:24959094

Al Qahtani, Fahd; Abdelaziz, Adel

2014-01-01

52

Enhanced orientational Kerr effect in vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We disclose the vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal whose Kerr constant (Kkerr?130??nm/V2 at ?=543??nm) is around one order of magnitude higher than any other value previously reported for liquid crystalline structures. Under certain conditions, the phase modulation with ellipticity less than 0.05 over the range of continuous and hysteresis-free electric adjustment of the phase shift from zero to 2? has been obtained at subkilohertz frequency. PMID:24978232

Pozhidaev, Evgeny P; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Vashchenko, Valery V; Krivoshey, Alexander I; Minchenko, Maxim V; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

2014-05-15

53

Polar anchoring energy measurement of vertically aligned liquid-crystal cells  

E-print Network

Polar anchoring energy measurement of vertically aligned liquid-crystal cells Xiangyi Nie-crystal cells, a linear fitting can be obtained, leading to a precise determination of the anchoring energy is usually more difficult to obtain than that in a homogeneous cell. The anchoring energy is an important

Wu, Shin-Tson

54

Vertically-Vibrated Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Surface Deformation and Breakup  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his pioneering work of 1831, Faraday demonstrated that a vertically\\u000avibrated gas-liquid interface exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation from a\\u000aflat state to a wavy configuration at certain frequencies or amplitudes.\\u000aTypical experiments performed using thin layers of water produce \\

T. J. O'Hern; E. F. Romero; C. F. Brooks; B. Shelden; J. R. Torczynski; A. M. Kraynik; L. A. Romero; G. L. Benavides

2010-01-01

55

Vertically-Vibrated Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Surface Deformation and Breakup  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his pioneering work of 1831, Faraday demonstrated that a vertically vibrated gas-liquid interface exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation from a flat state to a wavy configuration at certain frequencies or amplitudes. Typical experiments performed using thin layers of water produce \\

T. J. O'Hern; E. F. Romero; C. F. Brooks; B. Shelden; J. R. Torczynski; A. M. Kraynik; L. A. Romero; G. L. Benavides

2010-01-01

56

Bubble-wall interactions in a vertical gas–liquid flow: Bouncing, sliding and bubble deformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a study on the motion of single (individual) bubbles rising in upward shear liquid flow in the vicinity of a vertical wall. Bubbles were found to slide along the wall when their diameter is small. Bubbles could also experience multiple collisions with the wall at certain experimental parameters (geometry of a channel, range of

Alexander Zaruba; Dirk Lucas; Horst-Michael Prasser; Thomas Höhne

2007-01-01

57

Liquid jet propeller integrated with reservoir, channel, and cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a liquid jet propeller (based on a focused ultrasonic beam) that is integrated with a reservoir, microchannel, and cover. The integration allows continuous supply of a liquid thin film (through surface tension) to the jet propeller, and we have obtained continuous propulsion of an atomized liquid jet.

Joyita Dutta; Hongyu Yu; Chuang-Yuan Lee; Eun Sok Kim

2007-01-01

58

Vertically-Vibrated Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Surface Deformation and Breakup  

E-print Network

In his pioneering work of 1831, Faraday demonstrated that a vertically vibrated gas-liquid interface exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation from a flat state to a wavy configuration at certain frequencies or amplitudes. Typical experiments performed using thin layers of water produce "Faraday ripples", modest-amplitude nonlinear standing waves. Later experiments by Hashimoto and Sudo (1980) and Jameson (1966) as well as those performed in the present study show that much more dramatic disturbances can be generated at the gas-liquid free surface under certain ranges of vibration conditions. This breakup mechanism was examined experimentally using deep layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone oils over a range of viscosity and sinusoidal, primarily axial vibration conditions that can produce dramatic disturbances at the gas-liquid free surface. Large-amplitude vibrations produce liquid jets into the gas, droplets pinching off from the jets, gas cavities in the liquid from droplet impact, and bubble transp...

O'Hern, T J; Brooks, C F; Shelden, B; Torczynski, J R; Kraynik, A M; Romero, L A; Benavides, G L

2010-01-01

59

Revisiting Vertical Scope: Capabilities, Integration and Profitability in the Mortgage Banking Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reconsiders the drivers and implications of vertical scope, in particular by fleshing out currently loose theorizing about capability-driven integration. As the transaction-cost based view cannot fully explain vertical channel choices in our large-scale US Mortgage Banking Database (especially \\

Michael G. Jacobides

2001-01-01

60

Vertical Integration, Market Foreclosure, and Consumer Welfare in the Cable Television Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the effects of vertical integration between programming and distribution in the cable television industry. I assess the effects of ownership structure on program offerings, prices, and subscriptions, and I compare consumer welfare across integrated and unintegrated markets. The results of this analysis suggest two general conclusions. First, integrated operators tend to exclude rival program services, suggesting that certain

Tasneem Chipty

2001-01-01

61

Monolithic integration of latchable vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor for optical logic gates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show latchable optical switches and optical logic gates using the monolithically integrated vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor. By simply changing a reference switching voltage, this single device operates as two logic functions.

Woon-Kyung Choi; Doo-Gun Kim; Yon-Tae Moon; Do-Gyun Kim; Young-Wan Choi; Seok Lee; Deok-Ha Woo

2007-01-01

62

Vertical UWB CDM antenna with integrated band notched filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact vertical circular disc monopole (CDM) antenna with U-shape slot and inverted U - shape slot (radius, a=1.5 cm, thickness, t=0.02 cm, height gap, h=0.01 cm and the ground plane size of 14 cm2) is presented in this paper. The CDM antenna has been reported to yield wide-impedance bandwidth, good radiation efficiency and one of the best candidates for

S. A. Hamzah; S. H. Dahlan; R. M. Talib; S. M. Shah; A. Ubin

2007-01-01

63

Enhanced orientational Kerr effect in vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We disclose the vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (VADHFLC) whose Kerr constant ($K_{\\mathrm{kerr}}\\approx 130$~nm/V$^2$ at $\\lambda=543$~nm) is one order of magnitude higher than any other value previously reported for liquid crystalline structures. Under certain conditions, the phase modulation with ellipticity less than 0.05 over the range of continuous and hysteresis free electric adjustment of the phase shift from zero to 2$\\pi$ have been obtained at sub-kilohertz frequency.

Pozhidaev, Evgeny P.; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Kiselev, Alexei D.; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.; Vashchenko, Valery V.; Krivoshey, Alexander I.; Minchenko, Maxim V.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

2014-05-01

64

?-? interaction-induced vertical alignment of silica mesochannels templated by a discotic lyotropic liquid crystal.  

PubMed

The development of vertically aligned mesochannels in organic/inorganic hybrid films is in high demand and a challenging issue. However, there are no clear guiding principles to attain the surface-mediated vertical alignment. This work proposes the first clear versatile strategy to achieve the vertical alignment by utilizing the ?-? interaction between the organic template molecule of a planar discotic liquid crystalline and 2D ?-plane of graphite. The crucial role of the ?-? interaction can be verified by the exploration with other substrates such as silicon wafer surfaces with varied surface energy (water contact angle: 5°-105°), quartz plates, and polymer films, which provided common parallel alignment with respect to the substrate plane. PMID:20836502

Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Seki, Takahiro

2010-10-01

65

Chaos of liquid surface waves in a vessel under vertical excitation with slowly modulated amplitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free surface waves in a cylinder of liquid under vertical excitation with slowly modulated amplitude are investigated in the\\u000a current paper. It is shown by both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation that chaos may occur even for a single mode\\u000a with modulation which can be used to explain Gollub and Meyer's experiment. The implied resonant mechanism accounting for\\u000a this phenomenon

He Guowei; Li Jiachun

1997-01-01

66

Vertically Integrated Double-layer on-chip crystalline silicon nanomembranes based on adhesive bonding  

E-print Network

Vertically Integrated Double-layer on-chip crystalline silicon nanomembranes based on adhesive, double-layer silicon nanomembranes. A single-layer silicon photonic integrated circuit fabricated design [7]. Double-layer silicon photonic platforms have been demonstrated with film deposition

Chen, Ray

67

A vertically integrated media-isolated absolute pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, media-isolated, temperature-compensated, bulk-micromachined integrated absolute pressure sensor has successfully been developed. The sensor is usable for most applications involving exposure to harsh media, such as fuel vapor seen by manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensors. Characterization of the device indicates that the devices fabricated meet specifications of a MAP sensor

Ken Goldman; George Gritt; Ira Baskett; K. Sooriakumar; Dan Wallace; Don Hughes; Mahesh Shah

1997-01-01

68

Vertical integration: hospital ownership of physician practices is associated with higher prices and spending.  

PubMed

We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians--ownership of physician practices--was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured. PMID:24799571

Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

2014-05-01

69

A vertically integrated media-isolated absolute pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, media-isolated, temperature-compensated, bulk-micromachined integrated absolute pressure sensor has successfully been developed. The sensor is usable for most applications involving exposure to harsh media, such as fuel vapor seen by manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensors. The device consists of two dice bonded together. Devices are batch fabricated by bonding two wafers together prior to sawing. The bottom wafer contains

K. Goldman; G. Gritt; I. Baskett; W. Czarnocki; A. Ramirez; C. Brown; D. Hughes; D. Wallace; M. Shah

1998-01-01

70

How economic integration affects the vertical structure of the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of economic integration on the vertical structure of the public sector within a country.\\u000a To tackle this issue we set up a model of fiscal federalism, where economic integration is assumed to affect central government\\u000a tax revenues. The main findings are that when an increase of the impact of economic integration brings about a reduction

Paolo Liberati; Antonio Sciala

2011-01-01

71

Measurements of the fluctuating liquid velocity of a bidisperse suspension of bubbles rising in a vertical channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed in a vertical channel to study the behaviour of a bidisperse suspension of bubbles. Bubbles were produced using capillaries of two distinct inner diameters. The capillaries are small enough to generate bubbles in the range of 1 to 6 mm in diameter. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, the vertical component of the fluctuating liquid velocity was obtained

Juan Carlos Serrano; Santos Mendez; Roberto Zenit

2009-01-01

72

Fabrication of vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals for display application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focus on vertical alignment ferroelectric liquid crystals (VA-FLCs), because an FLC display with a high contrast ratio is expected. In the VA, although the normal of smectic layers is vertical to the substrate surface, the director of FLC molecules must tilt to the substrate surface at the tilt angle of FLC molecules. Thus, it is usually difficult to obtain a uniform VA in FLCs. We determine the optimum conditions for the fabrication of VA-FLC cells in terms of the tilt angle of FLC molecules, the anchoring strength of the alignment film, and the cell gap. Results indicate that the FLC with a small tilt angle tends to form good VA, which can be obtained by utilizing alignment films with high surface anchoring strengths. Good VA strongly depends on the cell gap.

Furue, Hirokazu; Horiguchi, Toshiki; Yamamichi, Miyuki; Oka, Shinichiro; Komura, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Shunsuke

2014-09-01

73

Measuring and evaluating the performance of vertically integrated rural health networks.  

PubMed

The growing interest in health care networks is extraordinary given the lack of a common understanding of what networks are and what they can accomplish. The purpose of this article is to develop a conceptual approach to the study of vertically integrated rural health networks. This article provides a network typology, a framework for assessing network performance, and examples of measurable performance indicators. It concludes with a description of the salient research questions that need to be addressed concerning the relationships between the environment, structure, and performance of vertically integrated rural health networks. PMID:10141281

Moscovice, I; Christianson, J B; Wellever, A

1995-01-01

74

Experimental investigation of the local heat transfer in a vertical gas-liquid slug unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer mechanism in two-phase flows and particularly in vertical slug flow is of high interest both for basic hydrodynamic research and for industrial applications. Two-phase slug flow is highly complicated and only a limited number of heat transfer studies have been carried out. The flow field around a single Taylor bubble propagating in a vertical pipe can be subdivided into three distinct hydrodynamic regions: the gas bubble surrounded by a thin liquid film, a highly turbulent liquid wake in the vicinity of the bubble bottom, and the far wake region. Experimental and theoretical works were presented during the last decades investigating the hydrodynamic parameters in each region. Due to the complexity and intermittent nature of slug flow the existing data on the heat transfer in slug flow is limited to a narrow range of operational conditions. To improve the understanding of the heat transfer mechanism in slug flow a new experimental setup was constructed. A part of the vertical pipe wall was replaced by a thin metal foil heated by electrical current. An IR video camera was used to determine the temporal variation of the instantaneous temperature field along the foil at two locations: at the thermal entrance region and at the upper part of the foil where thermal boundary is thicker. The video camera was synchronized with a sensor that determined the instantaneous location of the Taylor bubble. The results of the instantaneous heat transfer measurements along the liquid film and in the wake of the Taylor bubble can be correlated with the detailed velocity measurements carried out in the same facility (Shemer et al. 2007)[1]. The effect of the local hydrodynamic parameters on the heat transfer coefficient in each region is examined.

Babin, Valery; Shemer, Lev; Barnea, Dvora

2012-03-01

75

Unifying Laboratory Content of a Digital Systems and Computer Architecture Curriculum through Horizon and Vertical Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the application of horizontal and vertical integration to unify the digital systems and computer architecture curriculum for the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University Calumet. An enhanced set of twelve laboratory assignments and five design projects resulted from performing the integration. Horizontal integration was achieved by providing a consistent presentation of concepts across two computer architecture laboratory courses while simultaneously providing students the necessary skill-set for developing a successful career as a computer engineer. Vertical integration was achieved by interweaving common technical theories and skills to establish interdependence among all digital system and computer architecture laboratory coursework. The restructured laboratory sequence provides a cohesive educational experience and significant exposure to concepts, design methodologies, and software tools ubiquitous in the semiconductor and computer industry.

2011-05-17

76

Coating flow of viscous Newtonian liquids on a rotating vertical disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a Newtonian viscous liquid coating a vertical rotating disk in the creeping flow regime. Experiments were performed at varying disk rotation speeds and liquid volumes, and the thickness profile at steady state was measured. While the maximum liquid supported by the rotating disk varied with rotation rate and liquid viscosity, the numerical value of a dimensionless number signifying the ratio of gravity to viscous forces was the same in all the cases, ? =0.30. A lubrication analysis for the time evolution of the film thickness that accounted for gravity, surface tension, and viscous forces was solved numerically to steady state. The predicted thickness profiles are in quantitative agreement with those obtained experimentally. The lubrication equation at steady state was solved analytically in the absence of surface tension to obtain constant height contours that were circular and symmetric about the horizontal axis. However to obtain a complete solution, knowledge of the height variation across the contours is required, and this is controlled by the surface tension. On including this effect, we derived an asymptotic solution to predict thickness profiles that agree well with measurements for large values of viscosity or rotation rates.

Parmar, Nilesh H.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.; Hinch, E. J.

2009-10-01

77

Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.…

Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

2011-01-01

78

VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

79

Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence: Device and microscopy characterizations  

E-print Network

Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence: Device and microscopy directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL heterostructure with GaAs quantum-well active of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2208738 I. INTRODUCTION As a recent development of ballistic electron emission

Russell, Kasey

80

The Scope for Collusion and Competition in a Regulated Vertically Integrated Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the competitive implications of input price controls in a partially regulated industry where a vertically integrated firm has exclusive control over an input with natural monopoly characteristics. Such industry structures are commonly encountered in activities such as telecommunications railways electricity and water supply. It is shown that in a Cournot game such input price controls are unambiguously

D. Damania

1996-01-01

81

Realization of MEMS-IC Vertical Integration Utilizing Smart Bumpless Bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports fundamental technologies, properties, and new experimental results of SBB (Smart Bumpless Bonding) to realize MEMS-IC vertical integration. Although conventional bonding technologies have had difficulties integrating MEMS and its processing circuit because of their rough bonding surfaces, fragile structures, and thermal restriction, SBB technology realized the vertical integration without thermal treatment, any adhesive materials including bumps, and chemical mechanical polishing. The SBB technology bonds sealing parts for vacuum sealing and electrodes for electrical connection simultaneously as published in previous experimental study. The plasma CVD SiO2 is utilized to realize vacuum sealing as sealing material. And Au projection studs are formed on each electrode and connected electrically between two wafers by compressive plastic deformation and surface activation. In this paper, new experimental results including vacuum sealing properties, electrical improvement, IC bonding results on the described fundamental concept and properties are reported.

Shiozaki, Masayoshi; Moriguchi, Makoto; Sasaki, Sho; Oba, Masatoshi

82

Integration of diffractive lenses with addressable vertical-cavity laser arrays  

SciTech Connect

An optical interconnection system is being developed to provide vertical, digital data channels for stacked multichip modules. A key component of the system is an array of individually addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with diffractive lenses integrated into the substrate to control beam divergence and direction. The lenses were fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography and reactive ion beam etching into the GaAs substrate. Preliminary device performance data and the design and fabrication issues are discussed.

Warren, M.E.; Du, T.C.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Carson, R.F.; Lear, K.L.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Schneider, R.P.; Zolper, J.C.

1995-04-01

83

Vertical integration of corporate management in international firms: implementation of HRM and the asset specificities of firms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the development requirements of an international firm in terms of the application of firm-specific assets and human resource management needed for the implementation of vertical integration decisions. The empirical investigation reported in this paper is based upon a sample of international joint venture (IJV) hotel firms in China. The evidence highlights how the vertical integration of corporate

Yanni Yan; John Child; Chan Yan Chong

2007-01-01

84

Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. PMID:24965261

Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yue, Weisheng; Guo, Zaibing; Li, Liang; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xianbin; Abutaha, Anas I; Alshareef, H N; Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, X X

2014-08-01

85

Enhancement of electro-optic stability in the vertical configuration of a deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a reliable vertical configuration of a deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) mode in a transverse electrode structure by introducing reactive mesogens (RMs) into the DHFLC material. Polymerized RMs remember the direction of the DHFLC molecules in the absence of an applied voltage and suppress the bending and breaking of the smectic layer under a strong electric field. In this DHFLC mode with polymerized RMs, reliable switching characteristics are obtained in the vertical configuration.

Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Lee, You-Jin; Cho, Chuhyun; Heo, Jeong Uk; Baek, Ji-Ho; Kim, Youngsik; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Yu, Chang-Jae

2013-04-01

86

Lithium-ion batteries based on vertically-aligned carbon nanotube electrodes and ionic liquid electrolytes.  

PubMed

In conjunction with environmentally benign ionic liquid electrolytes, vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) sheathed with and without a coaxial layer of vanadium oxide (V(2)O(5)) were used as both cathode and anode, respectively, to develop high-performance and high-safety lithium-ion batteries. The VA-CNT anode and V(2)O(5)-VA-CNT cathode showed a high capacity (600 mAh g(-1) and 368 mAh g(-1), respectively) with a high rate capability. This led to potential to achieve a high energy density (297 Wh kg(-1)) and power density (12 kW kg(-1)) for the prototype batteries to significantly outperform the current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. PMID:22858720

Lu, Wen; Goering, Adam; Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming

2012-09-21

87

Integrated plant for treatment of liquid radwaste  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1980`s, AECL Research, at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, built a Waste Treatment Centre for managing low-level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes. At present, two industrial liquid waste streams are being routinely treated. One stream originates from the central Decontamination Centre (DC), where reactor components, protective plastic clothing, and respirators are cleaned. The other Active Drain (AD) stream is produced from a large and diverse number of research laboratories and radioisotope production facilities. The two waste streams, totalling about 2500 m per year (0.66 million US gallons), are volume reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO), and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies; two thin-film evaporators (TFE) are employed for (i) the final volume reduction step, and (ii) the subsequent solidification of evaporator bottom with bitumen for containment of the radioactivity.

Sen Gupta, S.K. [Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario (Canada)

1995-05-01

88

Optical logic gates based on integrated vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical switches and optical logic gates with AND and OR functionality are demonstrated by the monolithic integration of a vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor structure. The thyristors have a low threshold current of 0.65 mA and a high on\\/off contrast ratio of more than 50 dB. By simply changing a reference switching voltage, this single device operates as

Woonkyung Choi; Doo-Gun Kim; Yon-Tae Moon; Young-Wan Choi; Seok Lee; Deok-Ha Woo; Young-Min Jhon; Young-Tae Byun

2006-01-01

89

Vertical microcavities based on photonic crystal mirrors for III-V\\/Si integrated microlasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The on-coming photonic layer of CMOS integrated circuits needs efficient light sources to treat and transmit the flow of data. We develop new configurations of III-V\\/Si vertical cavity lasers coupled to silicon optical waveguides using mirror\\/coupler based on photonic crystals. These devices can be fabricated using fully CMOS-compatible technological steps. Using this approach, the optical gain is provided by the

Lydie Ferrier; Salim Boutami; Fabien Mandorlo; Xavier Letartre; Pedro Rojo Romeo; Pierre Viktorovitch; Philippe Gilet; Badhise Ben Bakir; Philippe Grosse; Jean-Marc Fedeli; Alexei Chelnokov

2008-01-01

90

Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)  

SciTech Connect

Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

2010-10-01

91

Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children. PMID:20478054

2010-01-01

92

Performance enhancement using a non-uniform vertical electric field and polymer networks for in-plane switching of multi-pretilt, vertically aligned liquid crystal devices.  

PubMed

A simple and reproducible alignment method for fabricating vertically aligned (VA) liquid crystal (LC) cells with a multi-pretilt structure is developed. A non-uniform vertical electric field is employed in the LC/monomer mixed cells during the photocuring process, and two pretilt domains with a functional small pretilt angle (?1.6°) in the stabilized VA LC/polymer cells are achieved. The enhanced electro-optical performance of the cell driven by an in-plane switching field is demonstrated. Compared to the pure cell, the 2 wt.% pretilt angle cell shows 36%, 64%, and 76% improvement in the optical switch, the gray-level rise time, and the gray-level fall time responses, respectively, which are obtained at a low driving voltage (?12??V). When applied to LC devices, the proposed method not only effectively benefits the LC molecular alignment, but it also significantly boosts the electro-optical performance. PMID:25361320

Lin, G J; Chen, T J; Tsai, Y W; Lin, Y T; Wu, J J; Yang, Y J

2014-11-01

93

Impact of capillary hysteresis and trapping on vertically integrated models for CO2 storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically integrated models are frequently applied to study subsurface flow related to CO2 storage scenarios in saline aquifers. In this paper, we study the impact of capillary-pressure hysteresis and CO2 trapping on the integrated constitutive parameter functions. Our results show that for the initial drainage and a subsequent imbibition, trapping is the dominant contributor to hysteresis in integrated models. We also find that for advective processes like injection and plume migration in a sloped aquifer the correct treatment of the hysteretic nature of the capillary fringe is likely of secondary importance. However, for diffusive/dispersive processes such as a redistribution of the CO2 plume due to buoyancy and capillary forces, the hysteretic nature of the capillary fringe may significantly impact the final distribution of the fluids and the timescale of the redistribution.

Doster, F.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.

2013-12-01

94

Effects of three-dimensional polymer networks in vertical alignment liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field.  

PubMed

Polymer network in vertical alignment liquid crystal cell driven by in-plane field (VA-IPS) is formed in three dimensions to achieve fast response time and to keep the liquid crystal alignment even when an external pressure is applied to the cell. The network formed by UV irradiation to vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with reactive mesogen does not disturb a dark state while exhibiting very fast decaying response time less than 2ms in all grey scales and almost zero pooling mura. The proposed device has a strong potential to be applicable to field sequential display owing to super-fast response time and flexible display owing to polymer network in bulk which supports a gap between two substrates. PMID:24921764

Lim, Young Jin; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Gi-Dong; Komitov, Lachezar; Lee, Seung Hee

2014-05-01

95

Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

2006-01-01

96

Integrated numerical prediction of atomization process of liquid hydrogen jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3-D structure of the liquid atomization behavior of an LH jet flow through a pinhole nozzle is numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. The present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis focuses on the thermodynamic effect on the consecutive breakup of a cryogenic liquid column, the formation of a liquid film, and the generation of droplets in the outlet section of the pinhole nozzle. Utilizing the governing equations for a high-speed turbulent cryogenic jet flow through a pinhole nozzle based on the thermal nonequilibrium LES-VOF model in conjunction with the CSF model, an integrated parallel computation is performed to clarify the detailed atomization process of a high-speed LH2 jet flow through a pinhole nozzle and to acquire data, which is difficult to confirm by experiment, such as atomization length, liquid core shape, droplet-size distribution, spray angle, droplet velocity profiles, and thermal field surrounding the atomizing jet flow. According to the present computation, the cryogenic atomization rate and the LH2 droplets-gas two-phase flow characteristics are found to be controlled by the turbulence perturbation upstream of the pinhole nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface and shear stress between the liquid core and the periphery of the LH2 jet. Furthermore, calculation of the effect of cryogenic atomization on the jet thermal field shows that such atomization extensively enhances the thermal diffusion surrounding the LH2 jet flow.

Ishimoto, Jun; Ohira, Katsuhide; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Chitose, Keiko

2008-05-01

97

Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte  

DOEpatents

An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Xu, Liwei (Sylvania, OH)

2010-07-06

98

Novel Vertical Interconnects With 180 Degree Phase Shift for Amplifiers, Filters, and Integrated Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, novel low loss, wide-band coplanar stripline technology for RF/microwave integrated circuits is demonstrated on high resistivity silicon wafer. In particular, the fabrication process for the deposition of spin-on-glass (SOG) as a dielectric layer, the etching of microvias for the vertical interconnects, the design methodology for the multiport circuits and their measured/simulated characteristics are graphically illustrated. The study shows that circuits with very low loss, large bandwidth and compact size are feasible using this technology. This multilayer planar technology has potential to significantly enhance RF/microwave IC performance when combined with semiconductor devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

99

Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

2014-10-01

100

3D integration of photonic crystal devices: vertical coupling with a silicon waveguide.  

PubMed

Two integrated devices based on the vertical coupling between a photonic crystal microcavity and a silicon (Si) ridge waveguide are presented in this paper. When the resonator is coupled to a single waveguide, light can be spectrally extracted from the waveguide to free space through the far field emission of the resonator. When the resonator is vertically coupled to two waveguides, a vertical add-drop filter can be realized. The dropping efficiency of these devices relies on a careful design of the resonator. In this paper, we use a Fabry-Perot (FP) microcavity composed of two photonic crystal (PhC) slab mirrors. Thanks to the unique dispersion properties of slow Bloch modes (SBM) at the flat extreme of the dispersion curve, it is possible to design a FP cavity exhibiting two quasi-degenerate modes. This specific configuration allows for a coupling efficiency that can theoretically achieve 100%. Using 3D FDTD calculations, we discuss the design of such devices and show that high dropping efficiency can be achieved between the Si waveguides and the PhC microcavity. PMID:20721002

Ferrier, L; Romeo, P Rojo; Letartre, X; Drouard, E; Viktorovitch, P

2010-07-19

101

Vertically integrated sensible-heat budgets for stable nocturnal boundary layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable nocturnal boundary layer is commonly viewed or modelled as a balance between the temperature tendency (cooling) and vertical heat-flux divergence. Sometimes the radiative-flux divergence is also included. This perspective has dictated the design of field experiments for investigating stable nocturnal boundary layers.Tower-based micrometeorological data from three field campaigns are analysed to evaluate the vertically integrated sensible-heat budget for nocturnal stable conditions. Our analysis indicates frequent occurrence of large imbalance between the temperature tendency and vertical heat-flux divergence terms. The values of the radiative-flux divergence are generally too small and sometimes of the wrong sign to explain the residual. An analysis of random flux errors and uncertainties in the tendency term indicate that such errors cannot explain large imbalances, suggesting the importance of advection of temperature or possibly the divergence of mesoscale fluxes. The implied role of advection is consistent with circumstantial evidence. Even weak surface heterogeneity can create significant horizontal gradients in stable boundary layers. However, it is shown that existing field data and observational strategy do not allow adequate evaluation of advection and mesoscale flux divergence terms.

Nakamura, Reina; Mahrt, L.

2006-01-01

102

Use of Vertically Integrated Ice in WRF-Based Forecasts of Lightning Threat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously reported methods of forecasting lightning threat using fields of graupel flux from WRF simulations are extended to include the simulated field of vertically integrated ice within storms. Although the ice integral shows less temporal variability than graupel flux, it provides more areal coverage, and can thus be used to create a lightning forecast that better matches the areal coverage of the lightning threat found in observations of flash extent density. A blended lightning forecast threat can be constructed that retains much of the desirable temporal sensitivity of the graupel flux method, while also incorporating the coverage benefits of the ice integral method. The graupel flux and ice integral fields contributing to the blended forecast are calibrated against observed lightning flash origin density data, based on Lightning Mapping Array observations from a series of case studies chosen to cover a wide range of flash rate conditions. Linear curve fits that pass through the origin are found to be statistically robust for the calibration procedures.

McCaul, E. W., jr.; Goodman, S. J.

2008-01-01

103

Fast switching of nematic liquid crystals over a wide temperature range using a vertical bias electric field.  

PubMed

We propose a drive scheme using a three-terminal electrode structure for submillisecond switching of nematic liquid crystals (LCs). A vertical bias electric field is continuously applied to the LCs, whereas an in-plane electric field controls the switching to the bright state. Applying the proposed scheme to a homogeneously aligned nematic LC cell yields a submillisecond response time of 0.7 ms at room temperature and 4.9 ms at -20°C. PMID:25321663

Kim, Jung-Wook; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

2014-09-10

104

Vertically integrated double-layer on-chip crystalline silicon nanomembranes based on adhesive bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration scheme based on crystalline silicon. We develop a process using SU-8 based adhesive bonding to fabricate vertically stacked, double-layer silicon nanomembranes. A single-layer silicon photonic integrated circuit fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip and a bare SOI chip are bonded together, followed by removal of the bare SOI chip's silicon substrate and buried oxide layer, to form a silicon nanomembrane as a platform for additional photonic layer. We designed and fabricated subwavelength nanostructure based fiber-to-chip grating coupler on the bonded silicon nanomembrane, and also inter-layer grating coupler for coupling between two silicon nanomembranes. The fiber-to-chip grating coupler has a peak efficiency of -3.9 dB at 1545 nm operating wavelength with transverse-electric (TE) polarization. The inter-layer grating coupler has a peak efficiency of -6.8 dB at 1533 nm operating wavelength with TE polarization. The demonstrated approach serves as a potential solution for 3D photonic integration and novel 3D photonic devices.

Zhang, Yang; Kwong, David; Xu, Xiaochuan; Hosseini, Amir; Yang, Sang Y.; Rogers, John A.; Chen, Ray T.

2013-02-01

105

Design of monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor for optical programmable gate array.  

PubMed

We have theoretically analyzed the depleted optical thyristor structure and experimentally demonstrated optical logic gates implemented by monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser--depleted optical thyristor (VCL-DOT) for an optically programmable gate array. The optical AND-and OR-gates have been realized by changing a input bias of the single VCL-DOTs and all kinds of optical logic functions are also implemented by adjusting an intensity of the reference input beams into the differential VCL-DOTs. To achieve the high sensitivity and low threshold current, a small active region of lasing part and a wide detecting area are simultaneously designed by using a selective oxidation process.. PMID:18958103

Choi, Woon-Kyung; Choi, Young-Wan

2008-10-27

106

Vertically integrated ZnO-Based 1D1R structure for resistive switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a ZnO-based 1D1R structure, which is formed by a vertical integration of a FeZnO/MgO switching resistor (1R) and an Ag/MgZnO Schottky diode (1D). The multifunctional ZnO and its compounds are grown through MOCVD with in situ doping. For the R element, the current ratio of the high-resistance state (HRS) over the low-resistance state (LRS) at 1 V is 2.4 × 106. The conduction mechanisms of the HRS and LRS are Poole-Frenkel emission and resistive conduction, respectively. The D element shows the forward/reverse current ratio at ±1 V to be 2.4 × 107. This 1D1R structure exhibits high RHRS/RLRS ratio, excellent rectifying characteristics and robust retention.

Zhang, Yang; Duan, Ziqing; Li, Rui; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Reyes, Pavel I.; Ashrafi, Almamun; Zhong, Jian; Lu, Yicheng

2013-04-01

107

Stability of a vertical liquid film with consideration of the marangoni effect and heat exchange with the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of a free vertical liquid film under the combined action of gravity and thermocapillary forces has been studied. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes and thermal conductivity equations is obtained for the case of plane steady flow with constant film thickness. It is shown that if the free surfaces of the film are perfectly heat insulated, the liquid flow rate through the cross section of the layer is zero. It is found that to close the model with consideration of the heat exchange with the environment, it is necessary to specify the liquid flow rate and the derivative of the temperature with respect to the longitudinal coordinate or the flow rate and the film thickness. The stability of the solution with constant film thickness at small wave numbers is studied. A solution of the spectral problem for perturbations in the form of damped oscillations is obtained.

Burmistrova, O. A.

2014-05-01

108

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

1982-01-01

109

From puddling to heaping to cracking - ordered and disordered reliefs in vertically vibrated liquid-saturated granular material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical vibrations are known to induce patterning instabilities in various fluid and fluid-like systems. Well known examples include the Faraday instability in viscous and nonviscous fluids and the patterned relief observed in dry granular systems. We study the instabilities of flat layers of granular material saturated with interstitial liquid and bounded above by an air interface. Increasing acceleration amplitude leads first to the accumulation of puddles of liquid on the surface as the grains compact, followed by a transition to a convection-driven heaping relief. This heaping phenomenon bears similarity to that observed in a granular system in a completely aqueous environment.^1 However, our system is quite different due to the air interface and because we study relatively thin layers of granular material, 20-50 diameters high, rather than hundreds of diameters in thickness. While the heaping relief we observe is generally disordered, under some conditions heaps arrange themselves into a robust and regular pattern. Heaps break up at higher drive accelerations, and the hilly relief gives way to cracking and violent breakup. We report on the phase portrait in critical acceleration versus frequency for the transitions to heaping and to cracking. ^1 V.G. Kozlov, A.A. Ivanova, and P. Evesque. Sand behavior in a cavity with incompressible liquid under vertical vibrations. Europhysics Lett. 42, 413-418 (1998).

Schleier-Smith, J. M.; Stone, H. A.

1999-11-01

110

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the executive summary of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

111

Vertical viewing angle enhancement for the 360??degree integral-floating display using an anamorphic optic system.  

PubMed

We propose a 360 degree integral-floating display with an enhanced vertical viewing angle. The system projects two-dimensional elemental image arrays via a high-speed digital micromirror device projector and reconstructs them into 3D perspectives with a lens array. Double floating lenses relate initial 3D perspectives to the center of a vertically curved convex mirror. The anamorphic optic system tailors the initial 3D perspectives horizontally and vertically disperse light rays more widely. By the proposed method, the entire 3D image provides both monocular and binocular depth cues, a full-parallax demonstration with high-angular ray density and an enhanced vertical viewing angle. PMID:24978984

Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Yoo, Kwan-Hee; Baasantseren, Ganbat; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Nam

2014-04-15

112

Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of ?-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

113

Electrical properties of semi-insulating GaAs crystals grown by vertical gradient freeze and liquid encapsulated Czochralski techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical, photoelectrical, luminescent characteristics and the spectra of deep levels are compared for undoped semi-insulating SI-GaAs crystals grown by vertical gradient freeze (VGF) and liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) techniques. It is shown that generally the reverse current of the Schottky diodes prepared on VGF material is considerably lower than for the LEC material which could be a serious advantage for use in radiation detectors. At the same time it is demonstrated that such parameters as photosensitivity and bandedge luminescence efficiency are to a greater extent dependent on the type of the ingots annealing procedure setting up the deep levels spectra in the material than on dislocation density.

Polyakov, A. Y.; Markov, A. V.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.

2004-01-01

114

A note on the movement of single large liquid bubbles in vertical tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The flow of single large liquid bubbles under gravity in closed tubes is studied here for the case when the liquid bubble exhibits micropolar behaviour. The film thickness, velocity profile in the bubble and film, and nonNewtonian effects are studied and compared with those for the correspondingNewtonian fluid. The investigation is restricted to the case where the bubble length

R. Ravindran

1975-01-01

115

Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a pilot study conducted with last year occupational and physical therapy students. The study tested the benefits of vertical integration with anatomy courses and case studies in this population. Improvements in knowledge and retention were identified. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Suresh Parmar (Christian Medical College Anatomy); Bertha Rathinam (Christian Medical College Anatomy)

2011-05-10

116

Vertical dipole antenna above a lossy half-space: Efficient and accurate two-image approximation for the Sommerfeld's integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, simple and general model for near field numerical calculation of the Sommerfeld's integral kernel (SIK) that corresponds to introduction of two fictitious images is proposed in this paper. Applying this model, the unknown current distribution (UCD) and input impedance of the vertical dipole antenna (VDA) placed above linear, isotropic and homogenous lossy half-space are determined. For this purpose,

Milica P. Ran?i?; Predrag D. Ran?i?

2006-01-01

117

MACHINE LEARNING AT THE CTBTO. TESTING, AND EVALUATION OF THE FALSE EVENTS IDENTIFICATION (FEI) AND VERTICALLY INTEGRATED SEISMIC ASSOCIATION (VISA)  

E-print Network

of California at Berkeley2 ABSTRACT Since 2009, an initiative to investigate the potential of machine learning and long-term goals included: · Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis (NET-VISA and SIG-VISA) detection to be tested operationally within the next year. RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHED The various short-term and long-term

Russell, Stuart

118

Vertical segregation in the self-assembly of nanoparticles at the liquid/air interface.  

PubMed

Vertical segregation was induced by the size-dependent charge neutralization during the one-step interfacial self-assembly of colloidal gold nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution. This self-assembly approach also can assemble particles with tunable compositions into layered films. PMID:25374387

Liu, Yanming; Liu, Yang; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

2014-12-21

119

A numerical study of the effects of the vertical baffle on liquid sloshing in two-dimensional rectangular tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid sloshing in a moving partially filled rectangular tank with a vertical baffle is investigated. A numerical algorithm based on the volume of fluid (VOF) technique is used to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid sloshing. The numerical model solves the complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables by using of finite difference approximations with the moving coordinate system. The ratio of baffle height to the initial liquid depth has been changed in the range of 0? hB/ h?1.2. The critical baffle height to reach the roof of the tank and the baffle height beyond the liquid does not get over the baffle anymore have been investigated. The vortex originated by the flow separation from the baffle tip became weaker with increasing the baffle height. In order to assess the accuracy of the method used, some results with baffle height are compared with the experimental results. Comparisons show good agreement for slosh loads in the cases investigated. The free surface elevation and the time variations of pressures have been also presented.

Akyildiz, Hakan

2012-01-01

120

VISTA (Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications) user interface software study  

SciTech Connect

The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) project is an initiative to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective application of basic research results by end users. Developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, VISTA's purpose is to develop and deploy information systems (software or software/hardware products) to broad segments of various markets. Inherent in these products would be mechanisms for accessing PNL-resident information about the problem. A goal of VISTA is to incorporate existing, commercially available user interface technology into the VISTA UIMS. Commercial systems are generally more complete, reliable, and cost-effective than software developed in-house. The objective of this report is to examine the current state of commercial user interface software and discuss the implications of selections thereof. This report begins by describing the functionality of the user interface as it applies to users and application developers. Next, a reference model is presented defining the various operational software layers of a graphical user interface. The main body follows which examines current user interface technology by sampling a number of commercial systems. Both the window system and user interface toolkit markets are surveyed. A summary of the current technology concludes this report. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Chin, G.

1990-04-01

121

An integrated model of substrate clogging in vertical flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

This paper presents an integrated model of substrate clogging in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW). The model simulates the reduction of pore space in the wetland substrate due to combined influences of various physical, biogeochemical and plant-related processes. A series of experiments based on laboratory-scale VFCWs were conducted to examine and measure key parameters related to clogging of the wetland substrate during operation under different conditions. The model was then validated using data collected from the experiments. The results showed that the model was able to replicate the clogging phenomenon as observed in the experiments, in particular, the characteristic clogging time. The model also predicted well individual contributions to clogging by accumulated inert suspended solids, microbial biomass and plant root materials during the wetland operation. Although the validation was based on the laboratory data, the results indicated that the model describes well the processes underlying the clogging and has the potential to become a tool for assessing the performance of prototype CWs in relation to clogging at both the design and operation stages. PMID:23454415

Hua, G F; Li, L; Zhao, Y Q; Zhu, W; Shen, J Q

2013-04-15

122

Vertical integration of cosmid and YAC resources for interval mapping on the X-chromosome  

SciTech Connect

The vertical integration of cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) resources is of particular importance in the development of high-resolution maps of selected regions of the human genome. A resource of approximately 95,000 cosmids constructed using DNA from primary fibroblasts of karyotype 49,XXXXX was validated by detailed characterization of a 200-kb cosmid contig spanning exons 8-20 of the dystrophin gene. This resource was used to construct contigs in 0.65 Mb of Xq26 by hybridization of gel-purified YAC DNA to high-density gridded arrays of the cosmid library; positive cosmids were overlapped by fingerprinting. Contigs were oriented and ordered relative to existing YACs in the region using cross-hybridization. The overlaps between a representative set of cosmids define 54 intervals of 5-20 kb and were used to construct a high-resolution cosmid interval map of the region, locating markers, dinucleotide repeats, and candidate CpG islands. This approach can be applied rapidly to large regions of the genome and without recourse to subcloning of individual YACs. 49 refs., 5 figs.

Holland, J.; Coffey, A.J.; Giannelli, F.; Bentley, D.R. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, London (United Kingdom))

1993-02-01

123

Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12 ?m to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6 ?m) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

2011-10-01

124

Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of integrated thruster/PMS tests demonstrate operation of the feed system in the relevant environment.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

2007-01-01

125

Measurements of the fluctuating liquid velocity of a bidisperse suspension of bubbles rising in a vertical channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed in a vertical channel to study the behaviour of a bidisperse suspension of bubbles. Bubbles were produced using capillaries of two distinct inner diameters. The capillaries are small enough to generate bubbles in the range of 1 to 6 mm in diameter. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, the vertical component of the fluctuating liquid velocity was obtained using a flying hot wire anemometer technique. The system is characterized by the dimensionless Reynolds and Weber numbers in the range of 22liquid velocity variance increases with bubble concentration. We also found that the variance, normalized with the mean bubble velocity squared, Tf% =Uf^^'2/Ub^2, increased as the Reynolds number decreased. Bidisperse flows, in general, show larger values of fluctuation.

Serrano, Juan Carlos; Mendez, Santos; Zenit, Roberto

2009-11-01

126

China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?  

PubMed

The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain. PMID:21539027

Huang, Philip C C

2011-01-01

127

Edinburgh Research Explorer Integrating the horizontal and vertical cultural transmission of  

E-print Network

the Horizontal and Vertical Cultural Transmission of Novel Communication Systems Carrie Theisen and arbitrariness. For example, Kirby, Cornish, and Smith (2008) demonstrated how systematic compositionality could

Edinburgh, University of

128

Towards monolithic integration of mode-locked vertical cavity surface emitting laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed and performance of today's high end computing and communications systems have placed difficult but still feasible demands on off-chip electrical interconnects. However, future interconnect systems may need aggregate bandwidths well into the terahertz range thereby making electrical bandwidth, density, and power targets impossible to meet. Optical interconnects, and specifically compact semiconductor mode-locked lasers, could alleviate this problem by providing short pulses in time at 10s of GHz repetition rates for Optical Time Division Multiplexing (OTDM) and clock distribution applications. Furthermore, the characteristic spectral comb of frequencies of these lasers could also serve as a multi-wavelength source for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) applications. A fully integrated mode-locked Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is proposed as a low-cost high-speed source for these applications. The fundamental laser platform for such a device has been developed and a continuous-wave version of these lasers has been fabricated and demonstrated excellent results. Output powers close to 60mW have been obtained with very high beam quality factor of M2 < 1.07. The mode-locked laser utilizes a passive mode-locking region provided by a semiconductor saturable absorber integrated together with the gain region. Such an aggressive integration forces the resonant beam in the cavity to have the same area on the gain and absorber sections, placing high demands on the saturation fluence and absorption coefficient for the saturable absorber. Quantum Wells (QWs), excitons in QWs and Quantum Dots (QDs) have been investigated as possible saturable absorbers for the proposed device. QDs have been found to have the lowest saturation fluence and total absorption, necessary to meet the mode-locking requirements for this configuration. The need to further understand QDs as saturable absorbers has led to the development of a theoretical model on the dynamics of this quantum system. The model agrees very well with the experimental data obtained and predicts the design of unassisted ultrafast QD saturable absorbers, without the need to incorporate high concentrations of non radiative recombination centers by either ion-implantation or low temperature growth.

Aldaz, Rafael I.

129

Tight integration of GPS observations and persistent scatterer InSAR for detecting vertical ground motion in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for tightly integrating GPS observations and the persistent scatterer (PS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is proposed to detect vertical ground motion in Hong Kong, China. The tropospheric zenith wet delays (ZWD) derived from GPS observations at sites in the SAR scenes are used first to model and correct for the tropospheric effects in the interferograms generated from the SAR images. The vertical motion rates (VMR) of the GPS sites determined based on the continuous GPS observations obtained at the sites are then used as constraints in the PS InSAR solutions to further enhance the quality of the solutions. Data from 12 continuous tracking GPS sites in Hong Kong and 8 ENVISAT ASAR images acquired during 2006-2007 are used to demonstrate the application of the proposed method. The results from the example show that the method is capable of detecting accurately the vertical ground motion.

Chen, Qiang; Liu, Guoxiang; Ding, Xiaoli; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Yuan, Linguo; Zhong, Ping; Omura, M.

2010-12-01

130

Lab in a syringe: fully automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with integrated spectrophotometric detection.  

PubMed

A new approach for the integration of various analytical steps inside a syringe (Lab in a Syringe) is presented. Fully automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with integrated spectrophotometric detection is carried out in-syringe using a very simple instrumental setup. The lighter-than-water organic droplets released in the extraction step accumulate at the head of the syringe, where two optical fibers are placed on both sides of the syringe, facing each other and enabling the in situ quantification of the extracted compounds. By this, monitoring of the progressively accumulating droplet in the head of the syringe was further possible. In this first report, the developed instrumental setup has been applied to the determination of the dye rhodamine B in water samples and soft drinks. The main parameters influencing the extraction such as the selection of the extractant and disperser solvents, extractant/disperser and organic/water phase ratios, pH of the aqueous phase, extraction flow rates, and extraction time were investigated. Under the selected conditions, rhodamine B was quantified in a working range of 0.023-2 mg L(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.007 mg L(-1). Good repeatability values of up to 3.2% (RSD) were obtained for ten consecutive extractions. The enrichment factor for a 1 mg L(-1) rhodamine B standard was 23, and up to 51 extractions were accomplished in 1 h. PMID:22699237

Maya, Fernando; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

2012-08-01

131

Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

Integrated carbon?to?liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub?bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal?Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat?camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger?scale process demonstration studies of the CHI process in combination with CCU to generate synthetic jet and diesel fuels from algae and algae fertilized crops. Site assessment and project prefeasibility studies are planned with a major EPC firm to determine the overall viability of ICTL technology commercialization with Crow coal resources in south central Montana.

Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

2013-09-30

132

The characteristics of temperature near the ceiling of liquid fires in vertical laminar clean room environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations of a clean room were conducted by software FDS5.3 using large-eddy simulation (LES). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was first verified by comparing computational results with results of reduced scale clean room fire tests. The temperature near the ceiling round the fire location with three sizes acetone liquid fire were then studied for a typical full-scale clean

Y. Huo; Y. Gao; H. M. Wu; J. H. Zhao

2009-01-01

133

Flow pattern changes influenced by variation of viscosities of a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture flow in a vertical channel  

SciTech Connect

In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)

Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette (United States)

2011-02-15

134

Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverting optical logic gates based on the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a heterojunction photothyristor (PNPN) are described. Logic functions INVERT, NAND, and NOR are experimentally demonstrated for the first time using latchable and cascadable PNPN\\/VCSEL switches, which can be triggered with very low optical energy, while producing high optical gain and optical contrast. These gates

Ping Zhou; J. Chang; C. F. Schaus; S. Z. Sun; C. Hains; E. Armour; D. R. Myers; G. A. Vawter

1992-01-01

135

Nonstationary periodic spatial waves on the surface of a viscous liquid film falling down a vertical cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flows of viscous liquid film over the outer surface of a vertical cylinder are examined. Investigation of wave regimes in the case of low flow rates and large cylinder radii is reduced to the analysis of solutions to a nonlinear evolution equation for the film thickness. There are countable numbers of steady-state traveling solution families in the considered model. In turn, most of them are unstable to 2D and 3D perturbations. Thus, evolution of initial perturbations in different ranges of parameter values differs significantly. Some typical scenarios of perturbation development are presented in this work. Initial perturbations with some symmetries, kept in the process of evolution, are of a particular interest. In these cases, solutions are drawn up to the steady-state traveling solutions with similar symmetry.

Tsvelodub, O. Yu.; Bocharov, A. A.

2012-06-01

136

Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Cellular/WLAN Systems with Integrated Service-Based Vertical Handoff Schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose two vertical handoff schemes for cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) integration: integrated service-based handoff (ISH) and integrated service-based handoff with queue capabilities (ISHQ). Compared with existing handoff schemes in integrated cellular/WLAN networks, the proposed schemes consider a more comprehensive set of system characteristics such as different features of voice and data services, dynamic information about the admitted calls, user mobility and vertical handoffs in two directions. The code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular network and IEEE 802.11e WLAN are taken into account in the proposed schemes. We model the integrated networks by using multi-dimensional Markov chains and the major performance measures are derived for voice and data services. The important system parameters such as thresholds to prioritize handoff voice calls and queue sizes are optimized. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISHQ scheme can maximize the utilization of overall bandwidth resources with the best quality of service (QoS) provisioning for voice and data services.

Xia, Weiwei; Shen, Lianfeng

137

Vertically integrated shared learning models in general practice: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The numbers of learners seeking placements in general practice is rapidly increasing as an ageing workforce impacts on General Practitioner availability. The traditional master apprentice model that involves one-to-one teaching is therefore leading to supervision capacity constraints. Vertically integrated (VI) models may provide a solution. Shared learning, in which multiple levels of learners are taught together in the same session, is one such model. This study explored stakeholders’ perceptions of shared learning in general practices in northern NSW, Australia. Methods A qualitative research method, involving individual semi-structured interviews with GP supervisors, GP registrars, Prevocational General Practice Placements Program trainees, medical students and practice managers situated in nine teaching practices, was used to investigate perceptions of shared learning practices. A thematic analysis was conducted on 33 transcripts by three researchers. Results Participants perceived many benefits to shared learning including improved collegiality, morale, financial rewards, and better sharing of resources, knowledge and experience. Additional benefits included reduced social and professional isolation, and workload. Perceived risks of shared learning included failure to meet the individual needs of all learners. Shared learning models were considered unsuitable when learners need to: receive remediation, address a specific deficit or immediate learning needs, learn communication or procedural skills, be given personalised feedback or be observed by their supervisor during consultations. Learners’ acceptance of shared learning appeared partially dependent on their supervisors’ small group teaching and facilitation skills. Conclusions Shared learning models may partly address supervision capacity constraints in general practice, and bring multiple benefits to the teaching environment that are lacking in the one-to-one model. However, the risks need to be managed appropriately, to ensure learning needs are met for all levels of learners. Supervisors also need to consider that one-to-one teaching may be more suitable in some instances. Policy makers, medical educators and GP training providers need to ensure that quality learning outcomes are achieved for all levels of learners. A mixture of one-to-one and shared learning would address the benefits and downsides of each model thereby maximising learners’ learning outcomes and experiences. PMID:24079420

2013-01-01

138

Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)  

SciTech Connect

Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

2011-04-13

139

Remote measurements of ozone, water vapor and liquid water content, and vertical profiles of temperature in the lower troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several advanced atmospheric remote sensing systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were demonstrated under various field conditions to determine how useful they would be for general use by the California Air Resources Board and local air quality districts. One of the instruments reported on is the Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS). It has a pair of carbon dioxide lasers with a transmitter and receiver and can be flown in an aircraft to measure the column abundance of such gases as ozone. From an aircraft, it can be used to rapidly survey a large region. The LAS is usually operated from an aircraft, although it can also be used at a fixed location on the ground. Some tests were performed with the LAS to measure ozone over a 2-km horizontal path. Another system reported on is the Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing System (MARS). It is tuned to microwave emissions from water vapor, liquid water, and oxygen molecules (for atmospheric temperature). It can measure water vapor and liquid water in the line-of-sight, and can measure the vertical temperature profile.

Grant, W. B.; Gary, B. L.; Shumate, M. S.

1983-01-01

140

Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

1998-12-31

141

Two-dimensional integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and photodetectors  

E-print Network

devices. Laser interfero- metric position measurement systems and optical en- coders[7]yield high Society of America OCIS codes: 130.5990, 250.7260. 1. Introduction Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers position sensing over long ranges with high precision has many appli- cations. Lithography systems

Choquette, Kent

142

Performance Issues with Vertical Handovers --Experiences from GPRS Cellular and WLAN Hotspots Integration  

E-print Network

and variable round trip times, link outages and burst losses e.g. during deep fading and handovers, and presence of deep buffers in GPRS, can aggravate performance dur­ ing vertical handovers. This paper experiences of migrating TCP connec­ tions, and the impact that this has on applications such as ftp and web

Liblit, Ben

143

Performance Issues with Vertical Handovers Experiences from GPRS Cellular and WLAN Hot-spots Integration  

E-print Network

and variable round trip times, link outages and burst losses e.g. during deep fading and handovers, and presence of deep buffers in GPRS, can aggravate performance dur- ing vertical handovers. This paper experiences of migrating TCP connec- tions, and the impact that this has on applications such as ftp and web

Liblit, Ben

144

Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

2014-01-01

145

Development of system level integration of compact RF components on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to optimize compactness for reconfigurable wireless communication systems by integrating Radio Frequency (RF) components on a multilayer Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) package while minimizing the size and interconnection of each component. To achieve this goal, various RF/microwave components have been integrated on LCP with the design, fabrication, and testing results to explore the feasibility of the designs for RF applications. The first chapter of this research focuses on the characterization of via interconnects for 3D system designs. As a crucial component for achieving compact multilayer designs, various transition designs are explored from DC to 110 GHz. In particular, High Density Interconnects (HDI) are investigated to achieve low loss performance at mm-wave frequencies. An example of accessing the input and output of a LCP packaged device using via interconnects is included. In addition, a heat sink using via technology is presented for active cooling of heat generating embedded devices. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 demonstrate the results of RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) switches integrated on LCP to create compact reconfigurable devices. RF MEMS switches are essential for designing compact multi-functional devices. A pattern reconfigurable antenna with monolithically integrated RF MEMS switches is presented. In addition, a compact 3D phase shifter using RF MEMS switches for a 2 x 2 phased antenna array is also presented in this work. To create a phased antenna array that is more compatible with Integrated Circuits (IC), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) RF MEMS switches are used to make a low voltage phase shifter. The actuation voltage is under 10 V, which is more easily achievable in a integrated system compared to commonly used electrostatic actuated RF MEMS switches that required at least 30 V. In Chapter 6, an expandable, low cost, and conformal multilayer phased antenna array is presented. Starting with a 4 x 8 element antenna array, the concept of beam steering is shown. Using this antenna array as a building block, an 8 x 8 element antenna array is shown with the measured results when conformed around a cylinder. Further expanding the antenna array, a 16 x 16 element antenna array is designed, fabricated, and measured. All of these antenna arrays use LCP as a platform for lightweight and low cost satellite communication applications. Finally, using the integration technology and expertise developed from the previous work, a 60 GHz transceiver front end is designed on LCP for high speed wireless communication applications. Two dual mode filters and high-gain vertical dipoles are integrated at the packaging level on LCP to create a low cost system. A PA and LNA are included in the system to increase the system gain. The measurements of the dual mode filters are presented as well as the fully integrated transceiver pattern measurements and gain measurements of each of the transmitting and receiving mode. This research contributes to LCP integration technology with more compact and higher frequency multilayer applications while focusing on integration of the components at the system packaging level to achieve optimal compactness. The highlight of this work is in developing key technologies for multilayer integration on organic LCP such as HDI interconnects and RF MEMS; applying the technology to create reconfigurable RF components such as reconfigurable antennas and compact low voltage phase shifters; and integrating the components to create compact low cost multilayer RF front end systems.

Chung, David

146

Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits  

E-print Network

that sequential printing of NWs, nanoribbons, and/or CNTs is a viable approach for constructing 3D integrated) Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS

Xiong, Qihua

147

Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels  

SciTech Connect

Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} are investigated. The flow phenomena, which are bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and dispersed bubbly flow are observed and recorded by high-speed camera. When the phase shifts are increased, the onset of the transition from the bubbly flow to the churn flow shifts to a higher value of superficial air velocity, and the regions of the slug flow and the churn flow are smaller. In other words, the regions of the bubbly flow and the dispersed bubbly flow are larger as the phase shift increases. The slug flow pattern is only found in the test sections with phase shifts of 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Recirculating gas bubbles are always found in the troughs of the corrugations. The recirculating is higher when the phase shifts are larger. The relationship between the two-phase multipliers calculated from the measured pressure drops, and the Martinelli parameter is compared with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. The correlation in the case of turbulent-turbulent condition is shown to fit the data very well for the phase shift of 0{sup o} but shows greater deviation when the phase shifts are higher. (author)

Nilpueng, Kitti [Department of Mechanical Engineering, South East Asia University, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2006-06-15

148

Optical AND/OR gates based on monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure.  

PubMed

Latching optical switches and optical logic gates with AND and OR functionality are demonstrated for the first time by the monolithic integration of a vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor structure. The thyristors have a low threshold current of 0.65 mA and a high on/off contrast ratio of more than 50 dB. By simply changing a reference switching voltage, this single device operates as two logic functions, optical logic AND and OR. The thyristor laser fabricated by using the oxidation process and has achieved high optical output power efficiency and a high sensitivity to the optical input light. PMID:19529606

Choi, Woon-Kyung; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Do-Gyun; Choi, Young-Wan; Choquette, Kent D; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok-Ha

2006-11-27

149

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

150

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22

151

Effective cooling of integrated circuits using liquid alloy electrowetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical modulation of surface tension is proposed for actuation and pumping of discrete droplets of liquid metals\\/alloys for active heat management of ICs and removal of hot spots on any solid surface. The proposed technique is based on two observations: (i) by using liquid metals or alloys at room temperature heat transfer rate of a cooling system can be enhanced

Kamran Mohseni

2005-01-01

152

LIQUID MIXING STUDIES WITH AN INTEGRATED MIXER/VALVE  

E-print Network

@mtl.mit.edu Keywords: liquid mixers, wafer bonding, fluorescence Abstract This work presents the design, fabrication of their mixing performance - the mixing time. We have designed and fabricated a microfabricated liquid mixerH dependence of fluorescent dyes to correlate mixing length with a quantitatively measurable observable. 2

Voldman, Joel

153

Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays  

PubMed Central

Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy)-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs). PMID:20087476

Tsuda, Yusuke; OH, Jae Min; Kuwahara, Renpei

2009-01-01

154

Experimental natural convection on vertical surfaces for building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study on natural convection in an open channel is carried out in order to investigate the effect of the geometrical configuration of heat sources on the heat transfer behaviour. To this aim, a series of vertical heaters are cooled by natural convection of air flowing between two parallel walls. The objective of the work is to investigate the physical mechanisms which influence the thermal behaviour of a double-skin photovoltaic (PV) facade. This results in a better understanding of the related phenomena and infers useful engineering information for controlling the energy transfers from the environment to the PV surfaces and from the PV surfaces to the building. Furthermore increasing the heat transfer rate from the PV surfaces increases the conversion efficiency of the PV modules since they operate better as their temperature is lower. The test section consists in a double vertical wall, 2 m high, and each wall is constituted by 10 different heating modules 0.2 m high. The heater arrangement simulates, at a reduced scale, the presence of a series of vertical PV modules. The heat flux at the wall ranges from 75 to 200 W/m{sup 2}. In this study, the heated section is 1.6 m in height, preceded by an adiabatic of 0.4 m in height. Different heating configurations are analyzed, including the uniform heating mode and two different configurations of non uniform, alternate heating. The experimental procedure allows the wall surface temperature, local heat transfer coefficient and local and average Nusselt numbers to be inferred. The experimental evidences show that the proper selection of the separating distance and heating configuration can noticeably decrease the surface temperatures and hence enhance the conversion efficiency of PV modules. (author)

Fossa, M. [Diptem, Universita di Genova, Via Opera Pia 15a, 16145 Genova (Italy); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL UMR 5008, CNRS-INSA Lyon - Universite Lyon 1), Bat. Sadi Carnot, INSA de Lyon, 20 av. A. Einstein, 69 621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Leonardi, E. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

2008-02-15

155

[Integral evaluation of immune homeostasis in rockets liquidators and role of this evaluation for prophylaxis].  

PubMed

Long-standing clinical and immunologic monitoring and integral evaluation of immune homeostasis (through generalized parameter) in personnel of Center for liquid-fuel rockets liquidation demonstrated diagnostically reliable immunity parameters that enable to forecast changes in the workers' health state. The authors defined boundary values of the generalized parameter to form risk groups for specific entities formation. PMID:21446064

2010-01-01

156

An integrated view of the 1987 Australian monsoon and its mesoscale convective systems. II - Vertical structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vertical structure of monsoon thermal forcing by precipitating convection is diagnosed in terms of horizontal divergence. Airborne Doppler-radar divergence profiles from nine diverse mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are presented. The MCSs consisted of multicellular convective elements which in time gave rise to areas of stratiform precipitation. Each of the three basic building blocks of the MCSs - convective, intermediary, and stratiform precipitation areas - has a consistent, characteristic divergence profile. Convective areas have low-level convergence, with its peak at 2-4 km altitude, and divergence above 6 km. Intermediary areas have convergence aloft, peaked near 10 km, feeding into mean ascent high in the upper troposphere. Stratiform areas have mid-level convergence, indicating a mesoscale downdraught below the melting level, and a mesoscale updraught aloft. Rawinsonde composite divergence profiles agree with the Doppler data in at least one important respect: the lower-tropospheric convergence into the MCSs peaks 2-4-km above the surface. Rawinsonde vorticity profiles show that monsoonal tropical cyclones spin-up at these elevated levels first, then later descend to the surface. Rawinsonde observations on a larger, continental scale demonstrate that at large horizontal scales only the 'gravest vertical mode' of MCS heating is felt, while the effects of shallower components of the heating (or divergence) profiles are trapped near the heating, as predicted by geostrophic adjustment theory.

Mapes, Brian; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

1993-01-01

157

High-precision transfer-printing and integration of vertically oriented semiconductor arrays for flexible  

E-print Network

, Matthew Yee1 , Kazim G. Polat1 , Jin Y. Oh1 , Takashi Fuyuki4 , Fran�ois L�onard3 , and M. Saif Islam1 fashion. Complementary fabrication processes for integrating transferred arrays into flexible devices

Yoo, S. J. Ben

158

Dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in vertical fractures: effect of finger residuals and dead-end pools.  

PubMed

Understanding the dissolution behavior of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in rock fractures under different entrapment conditions is important for remediation activities and any related predictive modeling. This study investigates DNAPL dissolution in variable aperture fractures under two important entrapment configurations, namely, entrapped residual blobs from gravity fingering and pooling in a dead-end fracture. We performed a physical dissolution experiment of residual DNAPL blobs in a vertical analog fracture using light transmission techniques. A high-resolution mechanistic (physically-based) numerical model has been developed which is shown to excellently reproduce the experimentally observed DNAPL dissolution. We subsequently applied the model to simulate dissolution of the residual blobs under different water flushing velocities. The simulated relationship between the Sherwood number Sh and Peclet number Pe could be well fitted with a simple power-law function (Sh=1.43Pe?·?³). To investigate mass transfer from dead-end pools, another type of trapping in rock fractures, entrapment and dissolution of DNAPL in a vertical dead-end fracture was simulated. As the entrapped pool dissolves, the depth of the interface between the DNAPL and the flowing water increases linearly with decreasing DNAPL saturation. The interfacial area remains more or less constant as DNAPL saturation decreases, unlike in the case of residual DNAPL blobs. The decreasing depth of the contact interface changes the flow field and causes decreasing water flow velocity above the top of the DNAPL pool, suggesting the dependence of the mass transfer rate on the depth of the interface, or alternatively, the remaining mass percentage in the fracture. Simulation results show that the resultant Sherwood number Sh is significantly smaller than in the case of residual blobs for any given Peclet number, indicating slower mass transfer. The results also show that the Sh can be well fitted with a power-law function of Pe and remaining mass percentage. The obtained relationships of dimensionless groups concerning the mass transfer characteristics at the level of individual fractures can be further used in predictive modeling of dissolution at a larger (fracture network) scale. PMID:23608741

Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Illangasekare, Tissa; Detwiler, Russell L

2013-06-01

159

Vertical alignment of liquid crystal through ion beam exposure on oxygen-doped SiC films deposited at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the vertical alignment of liquid crystal (LC) through the ion beam exposure on amorphous oxygen-doped SiC (SiOC) film surfaces deposited at room temperature. The optical transmittance of these films was similar to that of polyimide layers, but much higher than that of SiO{sub x} films. The light leakage of a LC cell aligned vertically on SiOC films was much lower than those of a LC cell aligned on polyimide layers or other inorganic films. They found that LC molecules align vertically on ion beam treated SiOC film when the roughness of the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) data is high on the SiOC film surface, while they align homogeneously when the roughness of the EFM data is low.

Son, Phil Kook; Park, Jeung Hun; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Rho, Soon Joon; Jeon, Back Kyun; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jang Sub; Lim, Soon Kwon [School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); LC/OLED Research Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Process Development Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-09-03

160

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder.  

PubMed

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. Fluids 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. Fluids 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations. PMID:23767631

Mayo, Lisa C; McCue, Scott W; Moroney, Timothy J

2013-05-01

161

Implementing Vertical and Horizontal Engineering Students' Integration and Assessment of Consequence Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to…

Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

2012-01-01

162

Integrated Liquid-Frozen Blood Banking System for Operational Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second generation Liquid-Frozen Blood Bank System is capable of providing frozen red cells, frozen platelets, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate. Red cell concentrates can be frozen after after storage at 4 C for 3 to 6 days in CPD or CPDA-1 ant...

C. R. Valeri, K. L. Sims, J. F. Bates, D. Reichman, J. R. Lindberg

1982-01-01

163

Positive and negative Coulomb drag in vertically integrated one-dimensional quantum wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron interactions in and between wires become increasingly complex and important as circuits are scaled to nanometre sizes, or use reduced-dimensional conductors such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires and gated high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems. This is because the screening of the long-range Coulomb potential of individual carriers is weakened in these systems, which can lead to phenomena such as Coulomb drag, where a current in one wire induces a voltage in a second wire through Coulomb interactions alone. Previous experiments have demonstrated Coulomb electron drag in wires separated by a soft electrostatic barrier of width >~80 nm (ref. 12), which was interpreted as resulting entirely from momentum transfer. Here, we measure both positive and negative drag between adjacent vertical quantum wires that are separated by ~15 nm and have independent contacts, which allows their electron densities to be tuned independently. We map out the drag signal versus the number of electron sub-bands occupied in each wire, and interpret the results both in terms of momentum-transfer and charge-fluctuation induced transport models. For wires of significantly different sub-band occupancies, the positive drag effect can be as large as 25%.

Laroche, D.; Gervais, G.; Lilly, M. P.; Reno, J. L.

2011-12-01

164

Integration of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with gratings on SOI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which comprises a cladding, multiple quantum well (QW) active area, oxide restrict layer, substrate, and high reflectivity distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The VCSEL cavity consists of the cladding, multiple QW active area, and limiting layer. AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb has been used for the DBR mirror system to achieve lattice matching. The QW/barrier comprises GaInAsN/AlGaInAs. By epitaxial growth, the DBR is banded with the active layer at the cavity antinode of the standing wave field, and the cavity length is set to 1.0?. A double-oxide layer, which is more beneficial than a single-oxide layer, has been adopted in the laser. Discrete Fourier transform is performed on the captured signal to extract the spectral content of the measured signal. By the FDTD method and the PML boundary condition, we achieve a 35% relative light intensity by introducing a TE mode from the cavity to the in-plane grating.

Li, Hongqiang; Cui, Beibei; Zhang, Meiling; Zhou, Wenqian; Chen, Hongda; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Yu; Tang, Chunxiao; Li, Enbang

2014-12-01

165

Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

1987-01-01

166

Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

1988-01-01

167

Vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotube anode and nickel silicide integrated high performance microsized (1.25 ?L) microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an environmentally friendly method for water purification and self-sustained electricity generation using microorganisms. Microsized MFCs can also be a useful power source for lab-on-a-chip and similar integrated devices. We fabricated a 1.25 ?L microsized MFC containing an anode of vertically aligned, forest type multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m(2) of current density and 392 mW/m(3) of power density. The MWCNTs increased the anode surface-to-volume ratio, which improved the ability of the microorganisms to couple and transfer electrons to the anode. The use of nickel silicide also helped to boost the output current by providing a low resistance contact area to more efficiently shuttle electrons from the anode out of the device. PMID:22268850

Mink, Justine E; Rojas, Jhonathan P; Logan, Bruce E; Hussain, Muhammad M

2012-02-01

168

Vertically integrated metal-clad/silicon dioxide-shell microtube arrays for high-spatial-resolution light stimuli in saline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microdevices composed of integrated microscale light source arrays are powerful tools in optogenetic applications. Herein, we prepared vertically aligned 3-?m inner diameter silicon dioxide (SiO2) tube-based optical light waveguide arrays. To increase the locality of the light stimuli through the tube, we also fabricated metal-cladded SiO2 tubes using iridium (Ir). After filling the tube with a saline solution, the saline-core/Ir-clad/SiO2-shell waveguide exhibited light stimuli without spreading. With a 532-nm wavelength, the half-power width of the light intensity measured 10 ?m above the tube tip was 3 ?m, while that of the saline/SiO2-shell waveguide was 9.6 ?m, which was more than three times wider. Such high-spatial-resolution optical light stimuli will offer a new class of optogenetic applications, including light stimuli for specific regions of a neuron (e.g., axons or dendrites).

Sakata, M.; Nakamura, T.; Matsuo, T.; Goryu, A.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

2014-04-01

169

Cavity-resonator-integrated grating input/output coupler for high-efficiency vertical coupling with a small aperture.  

PubMed

A cavity-resonator-integrated grating input/output coupler (CRIGIC) is designed to operate at about 850 nm wavelength for high-efficiency vertical coupling of a guided wave and a free-space wave with a small aperture. The CRIGIC consists of a grating coupler and a waveguide cavity resonator constructed by two distributed Bragg reflectors. A coupling efficiency of 96% with a 3 dB bandwidth of 1.2 nm is predicted by a theoretical calculation. An output coupling efficiency of about 60% is experimentally demonstrated on a 20 microm aperture device, fabricated in a thin-film SiO(2)-based waveguide on a substrate with an Au reflection layer, for what we believe to be the first time. PMID:20548362

Kintaka, Kenji; Kita, Yuki; Shimizu, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Ura, Shogo; Nishii, Junji

2010-06-15

170

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3633530 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3428753 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations.

Mayo, Lisa C.; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.

2013-05-01

171

CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino County study phases 1-A, 1-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User needs, data types, data automation, and preliminary applications are described for an effort to assemble a single data base for San Bernardino County from data bases which exist at several administrative levels. Each of the data bases used was registered and converted to a grid-based data file at a resolution of 4 acres and used to create a multivariable data base for the entire study area. To this data base were added classified LANDSAT data from 1976 and 1979. The resulting data base thus integrated in a uniform format all of the separately automated data within the study area. Several possible interactions between existing geocoded data bases and LANDSAT data were tested. The use of LANDSAT to update existing data base is to be tested.

Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

172

Development of vertical SU-8 microtubes integrated with dissolvable tips for transdermal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Polymer-based microneedles have drawn much attention in the transdermal drug delivery resulting from their flexibility and biocompatibility. Traditional fabrication approach deploys various kinds of molds to create sharp tips at the end of needles for the penetration purpose. This approach is usually time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we developed an innovative fabrication process to make biocompatible SU-8 microtubes integrated with biodissolvable maltose tips as novel microneedles for the transdermal drug delivery applications. These microneedles can easily penetrate the skin's outer barrier represented by the stratum corneum (SC) layer. The drug delivery device of mironeedles array with 1000??m spacing between adjacent microneedles is proven to be able to penetrate porcine cadaver skins successfully. The maximum loading force on the individual microneedle can be as large as 7.36 ± 0.48N. After 9?min of the penetration, all the maltose tips are dissolved in the tissue. Drugs can be further delivered via these open biocompatible SU-8 microtubes in a continuous flow manner. The permeation patterns caused by the solution containing Rhodamine 110 at different depths from skin surface were characterized via a confocal microscope. It shows successful implementation of the microneedle function for fabricated devices. PMID:24404018

Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakanksha; Pastorin, Giorgia; Lee, Chengkuo

2013-01-01

173

Integral micro-channel liquid cooling for power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel integral micro-channel heat sink was developed, featuring an array of sub-millimeter channels fabricated directly in the back-metallization layer of the direct bond copper or active metal braze ceramic substrate, thus minimizing the material between the semiconductor junction and fluid and the overall junction-to-fluid thermal resistance. The ceramic substrate is bonded to a baseplate that includes a set of

Ljubisa D. Stevanovic; Richard A. Beaupre; Arun V. Gowda; Adam G. Pautsch; Stephen A. Solovitz

2010-01-01

174

An experimental study of the liquid film on a vertical wire under the action of an impinging annular jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid film remaining on a wire withdrawn from a liquid bath and forced through an annular jet is experimentally investigated\\u000a on a dedicated facility. An optical laser-based technique recently introduced to study liquid-film instabilities on small-radius\\u000a cylinders allows the measurement of the mean final thickness and wave characteristics. Experimental results are compared to\\u000a analytical predictions obtained with a simple

Simone Zuccher

2009-01-01

175

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 4: Reviews and presentation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid rocket booster integration study is presented. Volume 4 contains materials presented at the MSFC/JSC/KSC Integrated Reviews and Working Group Sessions, and the Progress Reviews presented to the KSC Study Manager. The following subject areas are covered: initial impact assessment; conflicts with the on-going STS mission; access to the LRB at the PAD; the activation schedule; transition requirements; cost methodology; cost modelling approach; and initial life cycle cost.

1988-01-01

176

An integral description of the propagation of steady-state perturbations of the heavy liquid surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of equations of motion describing the gravity wave propagation in a perfect heavy liquid layer is transformed into\\u000a a new integral equation for the free surface elevations. In the limit cases, this integral equation describes the linear and\\u000a nonlinear periodic waves as well as the known types of solitary waves. In this case a dispersion equation arises because

A. V. Kistovich; Yu. D. Chashechkin

2009-01-01

177

High performance liquid chromatography of integral glycoproteins of peripheral nerve myelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerve myelin contains a large quantity of integral glycoproteins, such as PO and PASII protein. The present paper reports a fast and sensitive method for separation of these glycoproteins. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with TSK-GEL 3000 SW column in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) was used. Whereas the separation of PO

Yao Wang; Yasushi Sakamoto; Kunio Kitamura; Keiichi Uyemura

1986-01-01

178

Test beam results of a stereo preshower integrated in the liquid argon accordion calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the construction of an integrated preshower within the RD3 liquid argon accordion calorimeter. It has a stereo view which enables the measurement of two transverse coordinates. The prototype was tested at CERN with electrons, photons and muons to validate its capability to work at LHC (Energy resolution, impact point resolution, angular resolution, {? o}/{?} rejection).

Astbury, A.; Aubert, B.; Augé, E.; Baisin, L.; Barreiro, F.; Battistoni, G.; Bazan, A.; Baze, J. M.; Beaudoin, G.; Beaugiraud, B.; Berset, J. C.; Boniface, J.; Boos, E.; Breton, D.; Camin, D. V.; Canton, B.; Cavalli, D.; Chase, R.; Chekhtman, A.; Chevalley, J. L.; Chmeissani, M.; Chollet, J. C.; Citterio, M.; Colas, J.; Collot, J.; Costa, G.; Cousinou, M. C.; Cozzi, L.; Dargent, P.; David, J.; Davis, R. A.; Delagnes, E.; de LaTaille, C.; Del Peso, J.; Depommier, P.; de Saintignon, P.; Dinkespiller, B.; Eek, L. O.; Etienne, F.; Eynard, G.; Fassnacht, P.; Fayard, L.; Fedyakin, N.; Fernandez, E.; Ferrari, A.; Fouchez, D.; Fournier, D.; Garcia, J.; Garrido, Ll.; Genat, J. F.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Gingrich, D. M.; Gonzales, J.; Gordon, H. A.; Gosset, L.; Greenious, G.; Hervas, L.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hrisoho, A.; Imbault, D.; Jacquier, Y.; Jézéquel, S.; Keeler, R.; Kitching, P.; Labarga, L.; Lavocat, P.; Le Dortz, O.; Lefebvre, M.; Leflour, T.; León-Florián, E.; Leroy, C.; Linossier, O.; Lissauer, D.; Lottin, J. P.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Ma, H.; Mahout, G.; Makowiecki, D.; Mandelli, L.; Mansoulié, B.; Marin, C. P.; Martin, L.; Martinez, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Miotto, A.; Monnier, E.; Nagy, E.; Nessi, M.; Nicoleau, S.; Nikolic, I.; Noppe, J. M.; Olivetto, C.; Olsen, B.; Padilla, C.; Parrour, G.; Perini, L.; Petroff, P.; Pinfold, J. L.; Poggioli, L.; Puzo, P.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D. C.; Renardy, J. F.; Rescia, S.; Resconi, S.; Richer, J. P.; Richter, W.; Robertson, S.; Rodning, N. L.; Romero, P.; Roy, P.; Sala, P.; Sauvage, G.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schaffer, A.; Scheel, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Söderqvist, J.; Stephani, D.; Taguet, J. P.; Takai, H.; Teiger, J.; Thion, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tisserant, S.; VanDenPlas, D.; Veillet, J. J.; Vichou, I.; Vuillemin, V.; Walter, C.; White, J.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zitoun, R.; Zolnierowski, Y. P.; RD3 Collaboration

1998-02-01

179

Effects of Cd2+ and Pb2+ on the substrate biofilms in the integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

The effects of single Cd2+ and Pb2+, and combined Cd2+ and Pb2+ on dehydrogenase activity and polysaccharide content of the substrate biofilms in the integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) were studied. Dehydrogenase activities decreased linearly with the increasing concentrations of Cd2+ and Pb2+ at different times (6, 24, 72, and 120 h). The activities at both 6 and 24 h were significantly higher than that at 72 and 120 h in the case of single and combined treatments. The single Cd2+ and Pb2+ treatments significantly inhibited dehydrogenase activities at concentrations in excess of 20 micromol/L Cd2+ and 80 micromol/L Pb2+, respectively. The inhibitory effect of Cd2+ was much greater than that of Pb2+. At the same time, the combined treatment of Cd2+ and Pb2+ significantly inhibited dehydrogenase activities at all five concentrations studied and the lowest combined concentration was 1.25 micromol/L Cd2+ and 5 micromol/L Pb2+. A synergistic effect of Cd2+ and Pb2+ was observed. On the other hand, polysaccharide contents varied unpredictably with the increasing concentrations of Cd2+ and Pb2+ and extended experimental time. There were no significant statistical differences within the range of concentration and time studied, whether singly or in combination. These results implied that the effects of heavy metals on biofilms should be a concern for the operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands. PMID:18817066

Zhang, Jinlian; Cheng, Shuiping; He, Feng; Liang, Wei; Wu, Zhenbin

2008-01-01

180

Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides.  

PubMed

We report a vertical p-i-n thin-film germanium photodetector integrated on 3microm thick large core silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. The device demonstrates very high external responsivity due to the low fiber coupling loss to the large core waveguides. The germanium width and thickness are carefully designed to achieve high responsivity yet retain high-speed performance. Even with fiber coupling loss included, the device has demonstrated greater than 0.7A/W external responsivity at 1550nm for TM polarization and 0.5A/W for TE polarization. A low dark current of 0.2microA at -0.5V bias is reported. 3dB bandwidths of 12GHz and 8.3GHz at -2.5V bias are also reported for 100microm and 200microm long devices, respectively. The device can cover the communication wavelength spectrum up to 1620nm with a relatively flat responsivity of >0.5A/W. Further studies suggest that with a modified design the device is capable of achieving 1A/W external responsivity for both TE and TM polarizations and greater than 30GHz bandwidth. PMID:20173827

Feng, Ning-Ning; Dong, Po; Zheng, Dawei; Liao, Shirong; Liang, Hong; Shafiiha, Roshanak; Feng, Dazeng; Li, Guoliang; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V; Asghari, Mehdi

2010-01-01

181

Passive fluidic chip composed of integrated vertical capillary tubes developed for on-site SPR immunoassay analysis targeting real samples.  

PubMed

We have successfully developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement system for the on-site immunoassay of real samples. The system is composed of a portable SPR instrument (290 mm(W) × 160 mm(D) × 120 mm(H)) and a microfluidic immunoassay chip (16 mm(W) × 16 mm(D) × 4 mm(H)) that needs no external pump system. An integrated vertical capillary tube functions as a large volume (150 ?L) passive pump and a waste reservoir that has sufficient capacity for several refill operations. An immunoassay was carried out that employed the direct injection of a buffer and a test sample in sequence into a microfluidic chip that included 9 antibody bands and 10 reference reagent bands immobilized in the flow channel. By subtracting a reliable averaged reference sensorgram from the antibody, we effectively reduced the influence of the non-specific binding, and then our chip successfully detected the specific binding of spiked IgG in non-homogeneous milk. IgG is a model antigen that is certain not to be present in non-homogeneous milk, and non-homogeneous milk is a model of real sample that includes many interfering foreign substances that induce non-specific binding. The direct injection of a real sample with no pretreatment enabled us to complete the entire immunoassay in several minutes. This ease of operation and short measuring time are acceptable for on-site agricultural, environmental and medical testing. PMID:22969339

Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Miura, Toru; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Haga, Tsuneyuki; Tamechika, Emi

2012-01-01

182

Vertically Integrated MEMS SOI Composite Porous Silicon-Crystalline Silicon Cantilever-Array Sensors: Concept for Continuous Sensing of Explosives and Warfare Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on arrays of cantilevers made of crystalline silicon (c-Si), using SOI wafers as the starting material and using bulk micromachining. The arrays are subsequently transformed into composite porous silicon-crystalline silicon cantilevers, using a unique vapor phase process tailored for providing a thin surface layer of porous silicon on one side only. This results in asymmetric cantilever arrays, with one side providing nano-structured porous large surface, which can be further coated with polymers, thus providing additional sensing capabilities and enhanced sensing. The c-Si cantilevers are vertically integrated with a bottom silicon die with electrodes allowing electrostatic actuation. Flip Chip bonding is used for the vertical integration. The readout is provided by a sensitive Capacitance to Digital Converter. The fabrication, processing and characterization results are reported. The reported study is aimed towards achieving miniature cantilever chips with integrated readout for sensing explosives and chemical warfare agents in the field.

Stolyarova, Sara; Shemesh, Ariel; Aharon, Oren; Cohen, Omer; Gal, Lior; Eichen, Yoav; Nemirovsky, Yael

183

Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy of hard spheres via a novel thermodynamic integration scheme  

E-print Network

The hard sphere crystal-liquid interfacial free energy, ($\\gamma_{\\rm cl}$), is determined from molecular dynamics simulations using a novel thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme. The advantage of this TI scheme compared to previous methods is to successfully circumvent hysteresis effects due to the movement of the crystal-liquid interface. This is accomplished by the use of extremely short-ranged and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls which prevent the drift of the interface while imposing a negligible free-energy penalty. We find that it is crucial to analyze finite-size effects in order to obtain reliable estimates of $\\gamma_{\\rm cl}$ in the thermodynamic limit.

Benjamin, Ronald

2014-01-01

184

Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.  

PubMed

In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission. PMID:21348530

Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

2011-03-01

185

Vertically integrated human P450 and oxygen sensing film for the assays of P450 metabolic activities.  

PubMed

An assaying method of cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) monooxygenase activities for toxicological evaluation of drugs and environmental pollutants was developed by immobilizing P450 on an oxygen sensoring layer. Membrane fractions from E. coli expressing human P450 were entrapped in agarose or silica-based gels and immobilized on 96-well microarrays having an oxygen sensing film at the bottom. The oxygen sensing film was made of an organically modified silica film (ORMOSIL) doped with Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium dichloride (Ru(dpp)(3)Cl(2)). P450 activity toward the substrates was monitored through the fluorescence intensity enhancement due to the oxygen consumption by the metabolic reactions. For the metabolism of chlortoluron, a selective herbicide used to control grass weeds, CYP1A1 immobilized in agarose gel showed a higher activity and stability compared with those in silica gels and free suspensions. The luminescence changing rate evaluated by the dynamic transient method (DTM) could be correlated with the substrate concentration. We also compared the metabolic responses of human P450s (CYP1A1,CYP2C8, CYP2E1, CYP3A4) toward various substances. The use of immobilized P450 on an oxygen sensing layer provides a versatile assaying platform owing to the following features. First, the oxygen sensor can detect metabolic reactions of any P450 species, in contrast with assays using fluorogenic substrates. Second, vertical integration of the oxygen sensor and immobilized P450 enhanced the sensitivity because of the effective depletion of oxygen in the vicinity of the oxygen sensing layer. Third, immobilization enables repeated use of P450 by replacing the substrate solutions using a flow cell. Furthermore, the activity of immobilized P450 was retained at least for 3 weeks at 4 °C, suggesting its long-term stability, which is an additional attractive feature. PMID:21434664

Chang, Gang; Morigaki, Kenichi; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Hikawa, Takashi; Goto, Tatsushi; Imaishi, Hiromasa

2011-04-15

186

Cleaning of soft-solid soil layers on vertical and horizontal surfaces by stationary coherent impinging liquid jets  

E-print Network

and polymethylmethacrylate (Perspex) substrates; (ii) Xanthan gum on stainless steel; and (iii) petroleum jelly on glass. The liquid stream nozzle sizes, mass and volumetric flow rates and mean jet velocities investigated were: PVA, 2 mm, 17-50 g s^-1 (0.06-0.139 m^3 h^-1...

Wilson, D. I.; Atkinson, P.; Köhler, H.; Mauermann, M.; Stoye, H.; Suddaby, K.; Wang, T.; Davidson, J. F.; Majschak, J. -P.

2014-02-03

187

Integration of liquid crystal elements for creating an infrared Lyot filter.  

PubMed

An infrared Lyot filter was fabricated by integrating a polarization beam splitter and two retarders into a single device. A liquid crystal layer was constructed between two silicon pentaprisms that were designed suitably so that light was incident on this layer at 28°. At this angle, the liquid crystal transmitted p-polarized light (Brewster's angle) and reflected s-polarized light (total internal reflection). The p- or s-polarized light was directed to another liquid crystal layer (retarder) between the prism and a mirror, which induced a wavelength-dependent retardation in the reflection process. Consequently, the light that returned to the beam splitter was transmitted or reflected depending on wavelength. PMID:23736420

Saito, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Keisuke

2013-05-20

188

Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental optical interconnection module of the Free-Space Accelerator for Switching Terabit Networks (FAST-Net) project is described and characterized. Four two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL s) and photodetectors (PD s) were designed, fabricated, and incorporated into a folded optical system that links a 10 cm 10 cm multichip smart pixel plane to itself in a

Michael W. Haney; Marc P. Christensen; Predrag Milojkovic; Jeremy Ekman; Premanand Chandramani; Richard Rozier; Fouad Kiamilev; Yue Liu; Mary Hibbs-Brenner

1999-01-01

189

An integrated test method for high-temperature liquid lubricants: Dynamic test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-ball-on-disk (TBOD) bench test has been developed to evaluate high-temperature liquid lubricants such as the polyphenyl ethers. The TBOD test method is capable of generating an integrated set of tribo-measurements including friction, wear, lubricant consumption, and lubricant tribochemistry. Unlike the four-ball wear test, well-defined wear scars of circular and elliptical shapes are exclusively produced, which is critical for precise wear volume calculation.

Chao, Kenneth K.; Toth, Douglas K.; Saba, Costandy S.

1994-04-01

190

Enrichment of Integral Membrane Proteins for Proteomic Analysis Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, most proteomic studies rely on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) to detect and identify constituent peptides of enzymatically digested proteins obtained from various organisms and cell types. However, sample preparation methods for isolating membrane proteins typically involve the use of detergents, chaotropes, or reducing reagents that often interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI). To increase the identification of integral membrane

Josip Blonder; Michael B. Goshe; Ronald J. Moore; Liljiana Pasa-Tolic; Christophe D. Masselon; Mary S. Lipton; Richard D. Smith

2002-01-01

191

Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship With Respect to Cervical and Cranial Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Methods: Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009–2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. Results: In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and “muscle” adjustments. Conclusion: There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction PMID:22778531

Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle

2012-01-01

192

Deep subwavelength confinement and giant enhancement of light field by a plasmonic lens integrated with a metal-insulator-metal vertical nanocavity.  

PubMed

A metal-insulator-metal vertical nanocavity is proposed to be integrated at the center of a plasmonic lens. Utilizing cavity resonance effect, the light intensity at the center of the integrated plasmonic lens gets enhancement up to 5500 times compared to that without the cavity, and the light field is tightly confined into a spot as small as 6.0 × 10(-3)?(0)(2). The Purcell factor of the cavity reaches up to 1400, ensuring greatly enhanced light-matter interaction inside the cavity. Moreover, the proposed structure takes advantage of linearly polarized light excitation and easy fabrication. PMID:23038546

Yue, Song; Li, Zhi; Chen, Jianjun; Gong, Qihuang

2012-08-13

193

A model of recent vertical movements of the earth's surface in Lithuania: integration of geodetic levelling data and geological parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precise geodetic levelling reveals the recent activity of the vertical movements of the earth's crust. However, the main shortcoming of the levelling networks is scarceness of the measurement tracks that cannot be compensated for by a high density of the levelling sites within the tracks. The pattern and trends of vertical movements between the measured lines remain unknown. A special approach has been developed to allow prediction of vertical movements within the test grounds. It is based on the multicomponent statistical correlation of the levelling data with the significant geological parameters. The correlations between among parameters were derived separately for each particular test ground and then combined into one common model. It allowed compilation of a rather detailed map of vertical movements in Lithuania during the past 30-40 years. The rate of vertical movements of the earth's surface, obtained from the geodetic levelling, varies from -2.7 mm to 3.5 mm/y. The closest correlation of the recent movements was identified for the topography and the sub-Quaternary surface. It indicates that the major morphological features of Lithuania have a tectonic background. Furthermore, a close correlation was obtained with the gravity and in some parts with the magnetic fields which reflect the deep structure of the earth's crust. A close correlation suggests that the heterogeneity of the crust is important for the distribution of its vertical movements. The application of the close correlation with the geoparameters allowed a considerable improvement of the map of the vertical movements in Lithuania.

Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Šliaupa, Saulius; Anik?nien?, Asta; D?nas, Žydr?nas; Šliaupien?, Rasa

2008-01-01

194

Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

2011-01-01

195

Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

1993-01-01

196

Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water from path-integral simulations using an ab initio force matching approach  

E-print Network

We have applied path integral simulations, in combination with new ab initio based water potentials, to investigate nuclear quantum effects in liquid water. Because direct ab initio path integral simulations are computationally expensive, a flexible water model is parameterized by force-matching to density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting effective potentials provide an inexpensive replacement for direct ab inito molecular dynamics simulations and allow efficient simulation of nuclear quantum effects. Static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions are presented and the role of nuclear quantum effects, exchange-correlation functionals and dispersion corrections are discussed in regards to reproducing the experimental properties of liquid water.

Thomas Spura; Christopher John; Scott Habershon; Thomas D. Kühne

2014-02-06

197

Enrichment of Integral Membrane Proteins for Proteomic Analysis Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Currently, most proteomic studies rely on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect and identify constituent peptides of enzymatically digested proteins obtained from various organisms and cell types. However, sample preparation methods for isolating membrane proteins typically involve the use of detergents, chaotropes, or reducing reagents that often interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI). To increase the identification of integral membrane proteins by LC-ESI-MS/MS, a sample preparation method combining carbonate extraction and surfactant-free organics solvent-assisted solubilization and proteolysis was developed and used to target the membrane subproteome of Deinococcus radiodurans. Out of 503 proteins identified, 135 were recognized as hydrophobic based on their positive grand average of hydropathicity values that covers 15% of the theoretical hydrophobic proteome. Using the PSORT algorithm, 268 identified proteins were recognized as integral membrane proteins covering 21% and 43% of the predicted integral cytoplasmic and outer membrane proteins, respectively. Of the integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins containing four or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs), 65% were identified by detecting at least one peptide spanning a TMD using LC-MS/MS. The extensive identification of highly hydrophobic proteins containing multiple TMDs confirms the efficacy of the described sample preparation protocol to isolate and solubilize integral membrane proteins and validates the method for large-scale analysis of bacterial membrane subproteomes using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

Blonder, Josip; Goshe, Michael B.; Moore, Ronald J.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Masselon, Christophe D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

2002-04-01

198

Estimating integrated cloud liquid water from extended time observations of solar irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated liquid water content (LWC) from the measured solar irradiance is described. The cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the same time on a cloudless day. From the transmittance and the zenith angle, the cloud LWC is computed using the radiative transfer parameterizations of Stephens et al., (1984). The results are compared with 17 days of mm-wave (20.6 and 31.65 GHz) radiometer measurements made during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observation (IFO) in July of 1987.

Fairall, C. W.; Rabadi, Raja El-Salem; Snider, Jack B.

1990-01-01

199

IL-GLOBO (1.0) - integrated Lagrangian particle model and Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO: development of the vertical diffusion module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and validation of the vertical diffusion module of IL-GLOBO, a Lagrangian transport model coupled online with the Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO, is described. The module simulates the effects of turbulence on particle motion by means of a Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM) consistently with the turbulent diffusion equation used in GLOBO. The implemented LSM integrates particle trajectories, using the native ?-hybrid coordinates of the Eulerian component, and fulfils the well-mixed condition (WMC) in the general case of a variable density profile. The module is validated through a series of 1-D offline numerical experiments by assessing its accuracy in maintaining an initially well-mixed distribution in the vertical. A dynamical time-step selection algorithm with constraints related to the shape of the diffusion coefficient profile is developed and discussed. Finally, the skills of a linear interpolation and a modified Akima spline interpolation method are compared, showing that both satisfy the WMC with significant differences in computational time. A preliminary run of the fully integrated 3-D model confirms the result only for the Akima interpolation scheme while the linear interpolation does not satisfy the WMC with a reasonable choice of the minimum integration time step.

Rossi, D.; Maurizi, A.

2014-09-01

200

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data on various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry; Ho, Cheng

2002-09-01

201

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01

202

An integrated control panel utilizing a programmable varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the conflicting demands of modern aircraft for increased systems/sensors and the decrease in cockpit panel size, weight, volume, and power, conventional discrete/dedicated methods of display and control are fast becoming obsolete. A means is sought to integrate the control and display into multifunctional programmable devices, thus giving the ability to increase system functions and yet conserve panel space. A potential solution to the control portion of the problem has come to be known as the Integrated Control Panel (ICP) approach. Flat panel display technology and controls using programmable flat panel displays with transparent capacitive touch control overlays offer the largest potential advantages. The flat panel display made of varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal (LCD) developed by GE in recent years appears to offer the ideal monochrome solution.

Whitton, I. J.

1981-01-01

203

Transparent image generator by using vertically aligned polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (VA-PSLC) for see-through display applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the feasibility of using a Vertically-Aligned Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal (VA-PSLC) film, which is also known as LC gel, as a transparent image generator to form a see-through display system. This is achieved, in its simplest form, by projecting a collimated LED light source onto a transparent glass screen, with the image generated by the scattered light from the VA-PSLC. By moving the observer's head slightly away from the incident light specular reflection direction, a clear image can be observed on the transparent glass screen together with the background objects that are behind the screen. From our experimental results, this see-through display system using VA-PSLC transparent image generator can achieve a fast response time (with rise time of ~10 ms and fall time of ~5ms) and an acceptable contrast ratio (< ~100:1). The driving voltage is about 15~20V. Further improvements can be achieved by further optimizing the LC material/monomer parameters, device fabrication process/conditions and the optical system setup. In this system, polarizers are not required so that very high light efficiency can be obtained.

Wang, Mu-Hao; Choi, Wing-Kit; Su, Guo-Dung

2012-10-01

204

Path-integral theory of the scattering of ⁴He atoms at the surface of liquid ⁴He  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path-integral theory of the scattering of a ⁴He atom near the free surface of liquid ⁴He, which was originally formulated by Echenique and Pendry, has been recalculated with use of a physically realistic static potential and atom-ripplon interaction outside the liquid. The static potential and atom-ripplon interaction are based on the variational calculation of Edwards and Fatouros. An important

D. R. Swanson; D. O. Edwards

1988-01-01

205

Vertical optical antennas integrated with spiral ring gratings for large local electric field enhancement and directional radiation.  

PubMed

We propose a device for reproducible achievement of enormous enhancement of local electric field intensities. In each device, a metallic spiral ring grating is employed for efficient excitation of local surface plasmon resonance in the tiny gap of a vertically oriented optical antenna. Radiation from the optical antenna is collimated by the ring grating which facilitates efficient collection. As a numerical example, for a gold nanosphere placed one nanometer above the center of a gold spiral ring grating, our simulations predict an increase in local electric field intensity of up to seven orders of magnitude compared to planewave illumination, and collection efficiencies of up to 68% by an objective with a numerical aperture of 0.7. Single molecule SERS application is discussed. PMID:21643263

Liu, Baoan; Wang, Dongxing; Shi, Chuan; Crozier, Kenneth B; Yang, Tian

2011-05-23

206

Integrative responses of neurons in parabrachial nuclei to a nauseogenic gastrointestinal stimulus and vestibular stimulation in vertical planes  

PubMed Central

The parabrachial and adjacent Kölliker-Fuse (PBN/KF) nuclei play a key role in relaying visceral afferent inputs to the hypothalamus and limbic system and are, thus, believed to participate in generating nausea and affective responses elicited by gastrointestinal (GI) signals. In addition, the PBN/KF region receives inputs from the vestibular system and likely mediates the malaise associated with motion sickness. However, previous studies have not considered whether GI and vestibular inputs converge on the same PBN/KF neurons, and if so, whether the GI signals alter the responses of the cells to body motion. The present study, conducted in decerebrate cats, tested the hypothesis that intragastric injection of copper sulfate, which elicits emesis by irritating the stomach lining, modifies the sensitivity of PBN/KF neurons to vertical plane rotations that activate vestibular receptors. Intragastric copper sulfate produced a 70% median change in the gain of responses to vertical plane rotations of PBN/KF units, whose firing rate was modified by the administration of the compound; the response gains for 16 units increased and those for 17 units decreased. The effects were often dramatic: out of 51 neurons tested, 13 responded to the rotations only after copper sulfate was injected, whereas 10 others responded only before drug delivery. These data show that a subset of PBN/KF neurons, whose activity is altered by a nauseogenic stimulus also respond to body motion and that irritation of the stomach lining can either cause an amplification or reduction in the sensitivity of the units to vestibular inputs. The findings imply that nausea and affective responses to vestibular stimuli may be modified by the presence of emetic signals from the GI system. PMID:22277934

Suzuki, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro

2012-01-01

207

Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

2014-10-01

208

Study of Thermodynamic Vent and Screen Baffle Integration for Orbital Storage and Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to determine the feasibility of integrating an internal thermodynamic vent system and a full wall-screen liner for the orbital storage and transfer of liquid hydrogen (LH2). Ten screens were selected from a comprehensive screen survey. The experimental study determined the screen bubble point, flow-through pressure loss, and pressure loss along rectangular channels lined with screen on one side, for the 10 screens using LH2 saturated at 34.5 N/cm2 (50 psia). The correlated experimental data were used in an analysis to determine the optimum system characteristics in terms of minimum weight for 6 tanks ranging from 141.6 m3 (5,000 ft3) to 1.416 m3 (50 ft3) for orbital storage times of 30 and 300 days.

Cady, E. C.

1973-01-01

209

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOEpatents

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01

210

Vertically Grown Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel Silicide Integrated High Performance Microsized (1.25 L) Microbial  

E-print Network

M. Hussain*, Integrated Nanotechnology Lab, Electrical Engineering, Physical Science) are an innovative method for generating power that can also be used for treating wastewaters.1-3 Milli for direct incorporation of advanced nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes, into the reactor. The most

211

Integration of Electric Resistivity Profile and Infiltrometer Measurements to Calibrate a Numerical Model of Vertical Flow in Fractured and Karstic Limestone.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karstic and fractured aquifers are among the most important drinking water resources. At the same time, they are particularly vulnerable to contamination. A detailed scientific knowledge of the behavior of these aquifers is essential for the development of sustainable groundwater management concepts. Due to their special characteristics of extreme anisotropy and heterogeneity, research aimed at a better understanding of flow, solute transport, and biological processes in these hydrogeologic systems is an important scientific challenge. This study integrates a geophysical technique with an infiltrometer test to better calibrate a mathematical model that quantifies the vertical flow in karstic and fractured limestone overlying the deep aquifer of Alta Murgia (Southern Italy). Knowledge of the rate of unsaturated zone percolation is needed to investigate the vertical migration of pollutants and the vulnerability of the aquifer. Sludge waste deposits in the study area have caused soil-subsoil contamination with toxics. The experimental test consisted of infiltrometer flow measurements, more commonly utilized for unconsolidated granular porous media, during which subsoil electric resistivity data were collected. A ring infiltrometer 2 m in diameter and 0.3 m high was sealed to the ground with gypsum. This large diameter yielded infiltration data representative of the anisotropic and heterogeneous rock, which could not be sampled adequately with a small ring. The subsurface resistivity was measured using a Wenner-Schlumberger electrode array. Vertical movement of water in a fracture plane under unsaturated conditions has been investigated by means of a numerical model. The finite difference method was used to solve the flow equations. An internal iteration method was used at every time step to evaluate the nodal value of the pressure head, in agreement with the mass- balance equation and the characteristic functional relationships of the coefficients.

Caputo, M. C.; de Carlo, L.; Masciopinto, C.; Nimmo, J. R.

2007-12-01

212

A vertical/horizontal integration wind-induced circulation model (VH13D): A method for including surface and bottom logarithmic profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional model called VH13D is developed using the vertical/horizontal integration (VHI) approach. The double-logarithmic velocity profile including both the surface and bottom sublayer characteristic lengths is employed to accurately evaluate the bottom shear stress and depth-averaged advective terms. The model is verified using analytical solutions and laboratory data for shear-induced countercurrent flows and is compared with other two- and three-dimensional circulation models in a simplified basin. It is demonstrated that the newly developed model improves the conventional two-dimensional depth-averaged and Quasi-3D models and provides a new approach to the three-dimensional wind-induced circulation model. It can efficiently simulate the wind-induced 3D current structure in lakes and estuaries under isothermal conditions.

Wu, Jian; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

213

Fabrication and characterization of individually addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays and integrated VCSEL/PIN detector arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the emergence of the internet, the demand for high data transmission rates in short haul area networks and fiber-to-the- desktop applications is increasing every year. Densely packed one-dimensional and two-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays offer new possibilities for future short haul parallel optical links, free-space optical interconnects at the chip-to-chip, board-to-board, and on-board level. In this paper, we describe the manufacturing process of individually addressable two-dimensional VCSEL arrays, PIN detector arrays, and integrated VCSEL / PIN detector arrays. We also present measurement results of the fabricated devices and comment on the reliability.

Kasten, A. M.; Giannopoulos, A. V.; Long, C.; Chen, C.; Choquette, K. D.

2007-02-01

214

A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/sea for climate models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital change experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for sea ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged climate model. It is found that, in response to a change between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital change dominates over the opposite summer change for sea ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital change is shown to dominate.

Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

1988-01-01

215

On demand shape-selective integration of individual vertical germanium nanowires on a Si(111) substrate via laser-localized heating.  

PubMed

Semiconductor nanowire (NW) synthesis methods by blanket furnace heating produce structures of uniform size and shape. This study overcomes this constraint by applying laser-localized synthesis on catalytic nanodots defined by electron beam lithography in order to accomplish site- and shape-selective direct integration of vertically oriented germanium nanowires (GeNWs) on a single Si(111) substrate. Since the laser-induced local temperature field drives the growth process, each NW could be synthesized with distinctly different geometric features. The NW shape was dialed on demand, ranging from cylindrical to hexagonal/irregular hexagonal pyramid. Finite difference time domain analysis supported the tunability of the light absorption and scattering spectra via controlling the GeNW shape. PMID:23414075

Ryu, Sang-Gil; Kim, Eunpa; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Hwang, David J; Xiang, Bin; Dubon, Oscar D; Minor, Andrew M; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

2013-03-26

216

A new approach to untargeted integration of high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data.  

PubMed

Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, hyphenated mass spectrometry has become the predominant method to detect and quantify metabolites present in bio-samples relevant for all sorts of life science studies being executed. In contrast to targeted methods that are dedicated to specific features, global profiling acquisition methods allow new unspecific metabolites to be analyzed. The challenge with these so-called untargeted methods is the proper and automated extraction and integration of features that could be of relevance. We propose a new algorithm that enables untargeted integration of samples that are measured with high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In contrast to other approaches limited user interaction is needed allowing also less experienced users to integrate their data. The large amount of single features that are found within a sample is combined to a smaller list of, compound-related, grouped feature-sets representative for that sample. These feature-sets allow for easier interpretation and identification and as important, easier matching over samples. We show that the automatic obtained integration results for a set of known target metabolites match those generated with vendor software but that at least 10 times more feature-sets are extracted as well. We demonstrate our approach using high resolution LC-MS data acquired for 128 samples on a lipidomics platform. The data was also processed in a targeted manner (with a combination of automatic and manual integration) using vendor software for a set of 174 targets. As our untargeted extraction procedure is run per sample and per mass trace the implementation of it is scalable. Because of the generic approach, we envision that this data extraction lipids method will be used in a targeted as well as untargeted analysis of many different kinds of TOF-MS data, even CE- and GC-MS data or MRM. The Matlab package is available for download on request and efforts are directed toward a user-friendly Windows executable. PMID:24139572

van der Kloet, Frans M; Hendriks, Margriet; Hankemeier, Thomas; Reijmers, Theo

2013-11-01

217

Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

2010-03-01

218

Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control  

DOEpatents

A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA)

2012-04-24

219

Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes  

E-print Network

Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process involves the chemical conversion of natural gas (or other gas sources) into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. A leading...

Bao, Buping

2009-05-15

220

Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

2013-01-01

221

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes.  

PubMed

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to ?(2)H and ?(18)O measurement errors (??(2)H and ??(18)O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m(BB), and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m(NB). These metrics are used to correct for ??(2)H and ??(18)O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and ??(18)O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while ??(2)H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m(NB). Using the isotope error versus m(NB) and m(BB) curves, ??(2)H and ??(18)O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 [per thousand] and 0.25 [per thousand] respectively, while ??(2)H and ??(18)O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 [per thousand] and 0.22 [per thousand]. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors. PMID:22559556

Brian Leen, J; Berman, Elena S F; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

2012-04-01

222

Functions and Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

2010-01-01

223

Experimental Investigation of the Deposition of Liquid Droplets on the Walls of a Vertical Cylindrical Channel from Wall Gas-Droplet Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are given of an experimental investigation of the formation of liquid films from wall gas-droplet jets under quasi-isothermal conditions. The experiments are performed in the initial segment of a round cylindrical tube under conditions of varying cocurrent-flow parameter m = ?sws\\/?0w0 and concentration of liquid droplets. The instantaneous thickness of the liquid film is measured by a capacitive

V. I. Terekhov; A. F. Serov; K. A. Sharov; A. D. Nazarov

2003-01-01

224

Investigation of the liquid/vapor composition of compressed liquid CO2 with N2 and O2 in integrated pollutant removal systems for coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Accurate prediction of the processes in Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) using compression and condensation of coal combustion products requires an understanding of the liquid/vapor ternary CO2/O2/N2 system. At conditions close to the critical point of CO2 the existing equations of state deviate from the sparse measured results available in the literature. Building on existing data and procedures, the USDOE/Albany Research Center has designed an apparatus for examining compositions in this region. The design of the apparatus and planned initial experiments are presented.

Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Penner, Larry R.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

225

Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers.  

PubMed

A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented. PMID:17538673

Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho

2007-06-20

226

Path-integral Monte Carlo study of a lithium impurity in para-hydrogen: Clusters and the bulk liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation studies using the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics are reported for single atomic lithium impurities in bulk liquid para-hydrogen and in clusters, Li(p-H2)n, with n=12, 13, 32, 33, and 34. Over the range of temperatures studied in the clusters (T=2.5–6.0 K), the lithium impurity is found to reside outside or at the surface of the clusters. Nevertheless, perturbations

Daphna Scharf; Glenn J. Martyna; Michael L. Klein

1993-01-01

227

Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship with Respect to Lumbopelvic Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught in the undergraduate program used for patients with lumbopelvic conditions are expected to be utilized by students during their clinical internship program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or are being used by the clinical faculty. Methods: A confidential survey was distributed to clinical faculty at the college. It consisted of a list of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used for lumbopelvic conditions taught at that college. Clinicians were asked to indicate the frequency with which they performed or they required students to perform each item. Results: Seventeen of 23 clinicians responded. The following procedures were most likely required to be performed by clinicians: posture; ranges of motion; lower limb sensory, motor, and reflex testing; and core orthopedic tests. The following were less likely to be required to be performed: Waddell testing, Schober's test, Gillet tests, and abdominal palpation. Students were expected to perform (or clinicians performed) most of the mobilization (in particular, iliocostal, iliotransverse, and iliofemoral) and spinal manipulative therapies (in particular, the procedures referred to as the lumbar roll, lumbar pull/hook, and upper sacroiliac) taught at the college. Conclusion: This study suggests that there was considerable, but not complete, vertical integration between the undergraduate and clinical education program at this college. PMID:20480014

Vermet, Shannon; McGinnis, Karen; Boodham, Melissa; Gleberzon, Brian J.

2010-01-01

228

IL-GLOBO (1.0) - integrated Lagrangian particle model and Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO: development of the vertical diffusion module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and validation of the vertical diffusion module of IL-GLOBO, a Lagrangian transport model coupled online with the Eulerian General Circulation Model GLOBO, is described. The module simulates the effects of turbulence on particle motion by means of a Lagrangian Stochastic Model (LSM) consistent with the turbulent diffusion equation used in GLOBO. The implemented LSM integrates particle trajectories, using the native ?-hybrid coordinates of the Eulerian component, and fulfills the Well Mixed Condition (WMC) in the general case of a variable density profile. The module is validated through a series of 1-D numerical experiments by assessing its accuracy in maintaining an initially well mixed distribution. A dynamical time-step selection algorithm with constraints related to the shape of the diffusion coefficient profile is developed and gives accurate results, even for strongly peaked diffusivity profiles. Finally, the skills of a linear interpolation and a modified Akima spline interpolation method are compared, showing that the former generally introduces deviations from the WMC, due to the inconsistency between the local value of the diffusion coefficient and its derivatives. The Akima interpolation algorithm, for which the model satisfies the WMC rigorously, has a computational cost within 120% of the linear interpolation algorithm, making it a reasonable option for implementation in the 3-D model.

Rossi, D.; Maurizi, A.

2014-04-01

229

Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration.  

PubMed

We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 ?m long VDJ phase shifter shows a V?L? of ?0.6??V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of ?50??GHz at -2??V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50??Gb/s operation under 2.5??Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88??dB/100???m, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration. PMID:24978980

Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Sanggi

2014-04-15

230

An eight-month climatology of marine stratocumulus cloud fraction, albedo, and integrated liquid water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the FIRE/Extended Time Observations (ETO) program, extended time observations were made at San Nicolas Island (SNI) from March to October, 1987. Hourly averages of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance, and downward longwave irradiance were recorded. The radiation sensors were standard Eppley pyranometers (shortwave) and pyrgeometers (longwave). The SNI data were processed in several ways to deduce properties of the stratocumulus covered marine boundary layer (MBL). For example, from the temperature and humidity the lifting condensation level, which is an estimate of the height of the cloud bottom, can be computed. A combination of longwave irradiance statistics can be used to estimate fractional cloud cover. An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated cloud liquid water content (W) and the cloud albedo from the measured solar irradiance is also described. In this approach, the cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the same hour on a cloudless day. From the transmittance and the zenith angle, values of cloud albedo and W are computed using the radiative transfer parameterizations of Stephens (1978). These analysis algorithms were evaluated with 17 days of simultaneous and colocated mm-wave (20.6 and 31.65 GHz) radiometer measurements of W and lidar ceilometer measurements of cloud fraction and cloudbase height made during the FIRE IFO. The algorithms are then applied to the entire data set to produce a climatology of these cloud properties for the eight month period.

Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J. E.; Snider, Jack B.

1990-01-01

231

Vertically Integrated Projects: Polarised Growth  

E-print Network

mindedness towards other team members Organisational skills Team managing experience Self Motivation antibiotics from substrate hyphae in large fermenters Manipulation of growth for more efficient antibiotic carry a health warning...", Katherine Broadfoot "Achievement and Learning through Co-operation

Strathclyde, University of

232

Social Justice Vertical Integration Group  

E-print Network

Haven (homelessness and food insecurity) · Headrest (suicide prevention and substance abuse hotline House in Lebanon (residential support for pregnant/parenting teens). · Clara Martin Centers (multiple

Myers, Lawrence C.

233

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor

John S. Hsu; Curtis W. Ayers; Chester Coomer; Laura D. Marlino

2006-01-01

234

Path-integral theory of the scattering of /sup 4/He atoms at the surface of liquid /sup 4/He  

SciTech Connect

The path-integral theory of the scattering of a /sup 4/He atom near the free surface of liquid /sup 4/He, which was originally formulated by Echenique and Pendry, has been recalculated with use of a physically realistic static potential and atom-ripplon interaction outside the liquid. The static potential and atom-ripplon interaction are based on the variational calculation of Edwards and Fatouros. An important assumption in the path-integral theory is the ''impulse approximation'': that the motion of the scattered atom is very fast compared with the motion of the surface due to ripplons. This is found to be true only for ripplons with wave vectors smaller than q/sub m/approx.0.2 A/sup -1/. If ripplons above q/sub m/ made an important contribution to the scattering of the atom there would be a substantial dependence of the elastic reflection coefficient on the angle of incidence of the atom. Since this is not observed experimentally, it is argued that ripplons above q/sub m/ give a negligible effect and should be excluded from the calculation. With this modification the theory gives a good fit to the experimental reflection coefficient as a function of the momentum and angle of incidence of the atom. The new version of the theory indicates that there is a substantial probability that an atom may reach the surface of the liquid without exciting any ripplons. The theory is not valid when the atom enters the liquid but analysis of the experiments shows that, once inside the liquid, the atom has a negligible chance of being scattered out again.

Swanson, D.R.; Edwards, D.O.

1988-02-01

235

Vertical Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the continued growth of the human population of the Earth, there is increasing concern with the planet's ability to provide sustenance for all of its inhabitants. This compelling website by Dickson Despommier and his colleagues at Columbia University provides a worthy alternative to other forms of agriculture: the vertical farm. As Dr. Despommier notes on the site, "..they offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (year-round crop production), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming." The site offers a great deal of information about these vertical farms, a detailed essay on the importance of such farms, a number of potential designs, and a discussion forum. Finally, there are a number of plans that indicate how this type of farm might be effectively created and sustained.

2004-01-01

236

Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a variety of factors that influence the determination of precipitable water vapor (V) and integrated cloud liquid (L) by dual-channel microwave radiometers (MWRs). These factors include radiometric calibration; dry, water vapor, and liquid absorption coefficients; and physical versus statistical retrieval methods. We then applied the analysis to the MWR that was operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

Ed R. Westwater; Yong Han; Matthew D. Shupe; Sergey Y. Matrosov

2001-01-01

237

Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors.  

PubMed

The experimental optical interconnection module of the Free-Space Accelerator for Switching Terabit Networks (FAST-Net) project is described and characterized. Four two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) and photodetectors (PD's) were designed, fabricated, and incorporated into a folded optical system that links a 10 cm x 10 cm multichip smart pixel plane to itself in a global point-to-point pattern. The optical system effects a fully connected network in which each chip is connected to all others with a multichannel bidirectional data path. VCSEL's and detectors are arranged in clusters on the chips with an interelement spacing of 140 microm. Calculations based on measurements of resolution and registration tolerances showed that the square 50-microm detector in a typical interchip link captures approximately 85% of incident light from its associated VCSEL. The measured optical transmission efficiency was 38%, with the losses primarily due to reflections at the surfaces of the multielement lenses, which were not antireflection coated for the VCSEL wavelength. The overall efficiency for this demonstration is therefore 32%. With the measured optical confinement, an optical system that is optimized for transmission at the VCSEL wavelength will achieve an overall efficiency of greater than 80%. These results suggest that, as high-density VCSEL-based smart pixel technology matures, the FAST-Net optical interconnection concept will provide a low-loss, compact, global interconnection approach for high bisection-bandwidth multiprocessor applications in switching, signal processing, and image processing. PMID:18324143

Haney, M W; Christensen, M P; Milojkovic, P; Ekman, J; Chandramani, P; Rozier, R; Kiamilev, F; Liu, Y; Hibbs-Brenner, M

1999-10-10

238

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-print Network

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

239

Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the  

E-print Network

for the simultaneous production of liquid fuels and hydrogen. The production of hydrogen is competitive with the current automobile and gasoline supply chains. However, the profitability of biofuels depends heavily

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

240

Performance of a liquid argon preshower detector integrated with an Accordion calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype liquid argon preshower detector with a strip granularity of 2.5 mm has been tested at the CERN SPS in front of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter. For charged tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 and a space resolution of 340 ?m were measured; the rejection power against overlapping photons produced in the decay of 50 GeV ? 0's is larger than 3; the precision on

Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y. P.; Gordon, H. A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J. L.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J. M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J. P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Renardy, J. F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D. V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sciamanna, M.; Augé, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J. C.; de La Taille, C.; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, Ph.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J. M.; Parrour, G.; Pétroff, P.; Repellin, J. P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

1993-06-01

241

Liquid chromatography\\/time-of-flight mass spectrometry with high-speed integrated transient recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been interfaced to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The interface is a continuous flow probe and ions are desorbed from the liquid matrix by energetic ion bombardment. Pulsed and delayed ion extraction from the source permits the use of broad ionization times, results in the production of analog signals in each time-of-flight cycle, and provides both

W. Bart. Emary; Ihor. Lys; Robert J. Cotter; Richard. Simpson; Andrew. Hoffman

1990-01-01

242

A novel liquid plasma AOP device integrating microwaves and ultrasounds and its evaluation in defluorinating perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous media.  

PubMed

A simplified and energy-saving integrated device consisting of a microwave applicator and an ultrasonic homogenizer has been fabricated to generate liquid plasma in a medium possessing high dielectric factors, for example water. The microwave waveguide and the ultrasonic transducer were interconnected through a tungsten/titanium alloy stick acting both as the microwave antenna and as the horn of the ultrasonic homogenizer. Both microwaves and ultrasonic waves are simultaneously transmitted to the aqueous media through the tungsten tip of the antenna. The microwave discharge liquid plasma was easily generated in solution during ultrasonic cavitation. The simple device was evaluated by carrying out the degradation of the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a system highly recalcitrant to degradation by conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). PFOA is 59% degraded in an aqueous medium after only 90 s of irradiation by the plasma. Intermediates were identified by electrospray mass spectral techniques in the negative ion mode. PMID:21317014

Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Susumu; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

2011-09-01

243

Slow light based on stimulated Raman scattering in an integrated liquid-core optical fiber filled with CS2.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a fiber-based slow light system using a carbon disulfide (CS2)) filled integrated liquid-core optical fiber (i-LCOF). Using 1 meter of i-LCOF we were able to delay 18ps pulses up to 34ps; a delay of 188% of the pulse width. This experimental setup serves as a foundation for slow-light experiments in other nonlinear liquids. Numerical simulations of pulse-propagation equations confirmed the observed delay and a simplified method is presented that can be applied to calculate induced delay for non-cw Stokes pulses. The system is all-fiber and compact with delays greater than a pulse width, indicating potential application as an ultrafast controllable delay line for time division multiplexing in multiGb/s telecommunication systems. PMID:23571972

Herrera, Oscar D; Schneebeli, L; Kieu, K; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

2013-04-01

244

Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

2005-01-01

245

Fully integrated L-phenylalanine separation and concentration using reactive-extraction with liquid-liquid centrifuges in a fed-batch process with E. coli.  

PubMed

A novel in situ product recovery (ISPR) approach for the (fully) integrated separation of L-phenylalanine (L-phe) from a 20 l fed-batch process with the recombinant L-tyrosine auxotrophic strain E. coli F-4/pF81 is presented. The strain was rationally constructed for the production of the aromatic amino acid. Glucose and tyrosine control is used. A reactive extraction system consisting of kerosene, the cation-selective carrier D(2)EHPA and sulphuric acid, all circulating in liquid-liquid centrifuges, is applied for the on-line L-phe separation from cell- and protein-free permeate. Permeate is drained off from the bioreactor bypass. Using the novel ISPR approach, a significantly extended product formation period at 0.25 mmol/(g*h) together with a reduced by-product formation and a 28% relative glucose/L-phe yield increase is observed. Thus, the ISPR approach is superior to the reference non-ISPR process and even offers extraction rates approximately three times higher than the published membrane-based process. PMID:15045576

Rüffer, N; Heidersdorf, U; Kretzers, I; Sprenger, G A; Raeven, L; Takors, R

2004-07-01

246

Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber  

E-print Network

A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a pre-polymer/LC solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG are discussed. Experimental data here presented, demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, while further discussed.

Zito, Gianluigi

2013-01-01

247

Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a pre-polymer/LC solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG are discussed. Experimental data here presented, demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, while further discussed.

Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

2013-09-01

248

Monolithic Integration of Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography-Capillary Electrophoresis and Electrospray Ionization on a Microfluidic Device  

PubMed Central

A microfluidic device capable of two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography-capillary electrophoresis with integrated electrospray ionization (LC-CE-ESI) for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic applications is described. Traditional instrumentation was used for the LC sample injection and delivery of the LC mobile phase. The glass microfabricated device incorporated a sample-trapping region and an LC channel packed with reversed-phase particles. Rapid electrokinetic injections of the LC effluent into the CE dimension were performed at a cross channel intersection. The CE separation channel terminated at a corner of the square device, which functioned as an integrated electrospray tip. In addition to LC-CE-ESI, this device was used for LC-ESI without any instrumental modifications. To evaluate the system, LC-MS and LC-CE-MS analysis of protein digests were performed and compared. PMID:21214194

Chambers, Andrew G.; Mellors, J. Scott; Henley, W. Hampton; Ramsey, J. Michael

2011-01-01

249

In vivo silicon-based flexible radio frequency integrated circuits monolithically encapsulated with biocompatible liquid crystal polymers.  

PubMed

Biointegrated electronics have been investigated for various healthcare applications which can introduce biomedical systems into the human body. Silicon-based semiconductors perform significant roles of nerve stimulation, signal analysis, and wireless communication in implantable electronics. However, the current large-scale integration (LSI) chips have limitations in in vivo devices due to their rigid and bulky properties. This paper describes in vivo ultrathin silicon-based liquid crystal polymer (LCP) monolithically encapsulated flexible radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) for medical wireless communication. The mechanical stability of the LCP encapsulation is supported by finite element analysis simulation. In vivo electrical reliability and bioaffinity of the LCP monoencapsulated RFIC devices are confirmed in rats. In vitro accelerated soak tests are performed with Arrhenius method to estimate the lifetime of LCP monoencapsulated RFICs in a live body. The work could provide an approach to flexible LSI in biointegrated electronics such as an artificial retina and wireless body sensor networks. PMID:23617401

Hwang, Geon-Tae; Im, Donggu; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jooseok; Koo, Min; Park, So Young; Kim, Seungjun; Yang, Kyounghoon; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Kwyro; Lee, Keon Jae

2013-05-28

250

Fabrication of multi-functional integrated liquid sensors using MEMS and film-bonding technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the results of a basic study on fabrication technology of integrated sensors circuit, in which the various sensors based on the mass loading effect, a conductive change, and photo-luminescence methods are integrated on piezoelectric substrate. We propose a design of micro-pump with a simple structure for low cost. Also, the experimental result shows that its

C. Kaneshiro; K. Koh; K. Hohkawa; A. Yamamura; K. Matsumoto

2003-01-01

251

CO2-Binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System  

SciTech Connect

Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 ?C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

2011-04-01

252

Polymer-embedded colloidal lead-sulfide nanocrystals integrated to vertically slotted silicon-based ring resonators for telecom applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main drawback of the rapidly evolving field of silicon photonics lies in the absence of efficient monolithically integrated radiation sources as a consequence of the indirect bandgap of Si and Ge. Relevant alternatives based on the hybrid combination of Si with optically active materials have to be technologically simple, temporally stable, and provide efficient coupling to the Si waveguides. Lead-sulfide nanocrystals (NCs) were blended into a polymer resist suitable for deep-UV- and electron-beam lithography and integrated into Si-based vertically slotted waveguides and ring resonators. The polymer both stabilizes the NC's photoluminescence emission against degradation under ambient conditions and allows lithographic patterning of this compound material. After integration into the optoelectronic structures and upon optical pumping, intense photoluminescence emission from ring resonators was recorded at the output of bus-waveguides. The resonator quality factors were investigated for polymer-NC compounds with NC concentrations in the range between 0.1 and 8 vol%. The spontaneous emission rate enhancement for vertically slotted resonators was estimated to be a factor of two higher as compared to unslotted ones. The stable integration of colloidal NCs as well as the improved light coupling to silicon circuits is an important step in the development of silicon-based hybrid photonics.

Humer, Markus; Guider, Romain; Hackl, Florian; Fromherz, Thomas

2013-01-01

253

INTEGRATION OF FILTRATION AND ADVANCED OXIDATION: DEVELOPMENT OF A MEMBRANE LIQUID-PHASE PLASMA REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A tiered approach will be undertaken to achieve the overall project goal of demonstrating the integrated membrane/plasma process as an innovative, affordable, sustainable and effective treatment technology for small treatment systems. The team will first use a regimented ap...

254

A new look at vertical motion around the San Andreas Fault in the Southern California from Integrated GPS and InSAR measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report on a new analysis of GPS and space-based InSAR-estimated vertical motions in the vicinity of the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) near the eastern Transverse Ranges. We consider GPS data from all of the available high precision geodetic networks in southern California such as the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and SCIGN networks. We analyze raw GPS observations using the GIPSY-OASIS software, and align the solutions to the newly updated NA12 reference frame, derived from ITRF2008. Vertical data are considered if the station has at least 4 years of data, have time series that are fit well by a linear plus seasonal terms plus steps from known equipment changes and earthquakes. We supplement the data with rates from time series analyses of ERS and ENVISAT radar data between 1992 and 2009, obtained from the WinSAR archive. We use 532 scenes from 7 track/frames to form 7476 interferograms, providing line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for overlapping descending (6) and ascending (1) frames. To separate the vertical from the horizontal signals, we align the InSAR LOS rates to the GPS LOS rates using a bilinear transformation and subtract the LOS signal of horizontal deformation estimated from a strain rate map constructed from horizontal GPS velocities. The result is an InSAR LOS rate map aligned to NA12, which we unproject into the vertical direction. InSAR and GPS motions track one another well, with RMS difference in vertical rate of 1.0 mm/yr, where the signal of vertical rate varies between -5.0 and 2.6 mm/yr. Aligning the InSAR to GPS reduces errors in InSAR attributable to long wavelength effects from the atmosphere and orbit uncertainties. The vertical rates show both basin-scale pockets of subsidence and regional wavelength variations in uplift rate. We detect previously reported signals in the San Bernadino, San Jacinto, Pomona, and LA basins with both the GPS and InSAR. Near the coast uplift patterns are similar to those from repeated leveling tied to tide gauges, and efforts are underway to extend this comparison farther inland. A longer wavelength uplift feature of between 1 to 2 mm/yr spans the southern SAF near its junction with the San Jacinto fault and eastern Transverse Ranges. Geodetic measurements of interseismic crustal deformation show north-south contraction and east-west extension, recording net contraction. We hypothesize that uplift is balancing the observed strain accumulation. Our model of elastic flexure and viscoelastic response in the lithosphere suggests that vertical data can improve estimates of SAF slip rate that currently vary depending on analysis method and dataset considered. However, attributing the vertical signal to fault strain accumulation requires accounting for the lingering effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, for which global models predict a down to the west trend, consistent with some features of the observed signals.

Hammond, W. C.; Johnson, K. M.; Weldon, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Burgette, R. J.

2013-12-01

255

Preliminary evaluation of liquid integrity monitoring methods for gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tanks, which contain a supernatant over a layer of radioactive sludge, are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best way to remove the sludge and remediate the tanks. As part of this study, a preliminary assessment of liquid integrity (or ``tightness``) monitoring methods for the Gunite tanks has been conducted. Both an external and an internal liquid integrity monitoring method were evaluated, and a preliminary assessment of the liquid integrity of eight Gunite tanks was made with the internal method. The work presented in this report shows that six of the eight GAAT considered here are liquid tight and that, in the case of the other two, data quality was too poor to allow a conclusive decision. The analysis indicates that when the release detection approach described in this report is used during the upcoming treatability study, it will function as a sensitive and robust integrity monitoring system. Integrity assessments based on both the internal and external methods can be used as a means of documenting the integrity of the tanks before the initiation of in-tank operations. Assessments based on the external method can be used during these operations as a means of providing a nearly immediate indication of a release, should one occur. The external method of release detection measures the electrical conductivity of the water found in the dry wells associated with each of the tanks. This method is based on the fact that the conductivity of the liquid in the GAAT is very high, while the conductivity of the groundwater in the dry wells and the underdrain system for the GAAT is very low.

NONE

1996-02-01

256

Refractive index-based detection of gradient elution liquid chromatography using chip-integrated microring resonator arrays.  

PubMed

Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as nondestructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution, a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and, in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviates extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well-characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of postcolumn (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also make it an attractive potential detection technology that could be integrated within lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic separation devices. PMID:24328221

Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

2014-01-01

257

Well-aligned arrays of vertically oriented ZnO nanowires electrodeposited on ITO-coated glass and their integration in dye sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the effects of post-growth hydrothermal treatment and thermal annealing on properties of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires arrays (NWs). The samples were electrochemically deposited (ECD) on indium–tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and subjected to post-growth hydrothermal treatment (HT) at 150°C and, for the purpose of comparison, to conventional thermal annealing (CTA) in a furnace at 150, 400, and

O. Lupan; V. M. Guérin; I. M. Tiginyanu; V. V. Ursaki; L. Chow; H. Heinrich; T. Pauporté

2010-01-01

258

High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions Using an Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and th e control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are not valid during aU stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid flow equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Dr. Paul; Roth, Jacob

2012-01-01

259

Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface for High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and the control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are n0t va lid during all stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid now equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob

2012-01-01

260

Integration of a temperature-tunable InP/InAlGaAs/InGaAsP grating-assisted vertical codirectional coupler filter with an InGaAs pin-detector  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the first realization of a grating-assisted vertical codirectional coupler filter with an integrated pin-detector. The device was 5 nm bandwidth, 80% coupling efficiency for an interaction length of 1.25 mm, and an overall detection efficiency of 0.1 A/W. The effect of the MQW can be seen in a change of 11 nm in the TE-TM shift. Over 20 nm temperature tuning and a bandwidth of 2.6 nm are demonstrated, which makes this a very versatile device concept.

Vanderbauwhede, W.; Moerman, I.; Van Daele, P.; Demeester, P. [Univ. of Gent-IMEC (Belgium). Dept. of Information Technology

1996-12-31

261

Detailed assessment of integral thermodynamic quantities of liquid Bi-Sn alloy solution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculated in great detail all the relative partial molar thermodynamic quantities of Bi, \\u000a $$\\\\Delta \\\\bar Q_{Bi}^{xs} $$\\u000a , and \\u000a $$\\\\Delta \\\\bar Q_{Bi} $$\\u000a , where Q=H, S, and G, of the molten Bi-Sn system from their experimental counterparts, \\u000a $$\\\\Delta \\\\bar Q_{Sn}^{xs} $$\\u000a and ?\\u000a $$\\\\bar Q_{Sn} $$\\u000a , using the authentic Chiotti integration and assessed their unequivocal limiting values

Seung-Am Cho; Jose Luis Ochoa

1997-01-01

262

Polymer Microchips Integrating Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Using Reversed-Phase Polymethacrylate Monoliths  

PubMed Central

Polymer microfluidic chips employing in situ photopolymerized polymethacrylate monoliths for high performance liquid chromatography separations of peptides is described. The integrated chip design employs a 15 cm long separation column containing a reversed-phase polymethacrylate monolith as a stationary phase, with its front end seamlessly coupled to a 5 mm long methacrylate monolith which functions as a solid phase extraction (SPE) element for sample cleanup and enrichment, serving to increase both detection sensitivity and separation performance. In addition to sample concentration and separation, solvent splitting is also performed on-chip, allowing the use of a conventional LC pump for the generation of on-chip nano-flow solvent gradients. The integrated platform takes advantage of solvent bonding and a novel high-pressure needle interface which together enable the polymer chips to withstand internal pressures above 20 MPa (~2,900 psi) for efficient pressure-driven HPLC separations. Gradient reversed-phase separation of fluorescein-labeled model peptides and BSA tryptic digest are demonstrated using the microchip HPLC system. On-line removal of free fluorescein and enrichment of labeled proteins are simultaneously achieved using the on-chip SPE column, resulting in a 150-fold improvement in sensitivity and a 10-fold reduction in peak width in the following microchip gradient LC separation. PMID:19267447

Liu, Jikun; Chen, C. F.; Tsao, C. W.; Chang, C. C.; Chu, C. C.; DeVoe, D. L.

2009-01-01

263

Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

NONE

1995-09-01

264

Combined Lateral Vertical RESURF (CLAVER) LDMOS structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a unique Combined Lateral Vertical RESURF (CLAVER) LDMOS structure is proposed for breakthrough performance. The structure uses a secondary RESURF design to terminate in the vertical direction to yield a much improved performance trade-off. The proposed device uses standard process steps available in integrated technology platforms to give a breakdown as high as 150 V with ground-breaking

T. Khan; V. Khemka; Ronghua Zhu; Weixiao Huang; Xu Cheng; P. Hui; Muh-ling Ger; B. Grote; P. Rodriquez

2009-01-01

265

Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Integration of structure and property measurements in a Paris-Edinburgh cell (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the structure and physical properties of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures is important in understanding dynamics and evolution of the Earth and other planets. However, understanding the physics of liquid materials remains a challenge, especially under high pressure and high temperature conditions. We have recently developed an integrated setup for multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, ultrasonic measurement, and falling sphere viscometer using a Paris-Edinburgh press at sector 16-BM-B, HPCAT, at the APS, for comprehensively studying structures and physical properties of liquids and amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures. The sector 16-BM-B is capable of amorphous and liquid structure measurements by using multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction technique at high pressure and high temperature conditions in a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell (e.g., Yamada et al., 2011). The PE cell is capable of compressing large volume samples (typically >1 mm3) up to 7 GPa at temperatures exceed 2000 °C. In addition to the liquid and amorphous structure measurement capability, we have developed ultrasonic elastic wave velocity and falling sphere viscosity techniques in the PE cell. The elastic wave velocity is measured by ultrasonic pulse echo overlap method in conjunction with white x-ray radiography measurement for determining the wave travel distance (Kono et al., 2012). The falling sphere viscosity measurements are made with high-speed white x-ray radiography (>1000 frame/second) (Kono et al., 2013). The integration of liquid structure measurement with elastic wave velocity measurement and viscosity measurement in the PE cell provides a unique opportunity to investigate in situ correlation between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties of liquids and amorphous solids. Knowledge of the correlation will provide valuable constraints for modeling liquid properties at high pressures and high temperatures, and thus improving our understanding the nature of magmas at depths and the dynamics of the Earth's interior.

Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Shen, G.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

266

Waves, circulation and vertical dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper includes four appendices. The first appendix demonstrates the numerical process by which Stokes drift is excluded from the turbulence stress parameterization in the momentum equation. A second appendix determines a bottom slope criterion for the application of linear wave relations to the derivation of the wave radiation stress. The third appendix explores the possibility of generalizing results by non-dimensionalization. The final appendix applies the basic theory to a problem introduced by Bennis and Ardhuin (J Phys Oceanogr 41:2008-2012, 2011).

Mellor, George

2013-04-01

267

An investigation of the liquid to glass transition using integral equations for the pair structure of coupled replicae.  

PubMed

Extensive numerical solutions of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations are presented for the pair structure of a system of two coupled replicae (1 and 2) of a "soft-sphere" fluid of atoms interacting via an inverse-12 pair potential. In the limit of vanishing inter-replica coupling ?12, both integral equations predict the existence of three branches of solutions: (1) A high temperature liquid branch (L), which extends to a supercooled regime upon cooling when the two replicae are kept at ?12 = 0 throughout; upon separating the configurational and vibrational contributions to the free energy and entropy of the L branch, the Kauzmann temperature is located where the configurational entropy vanishes. (2) Starting with an initial finite coupling ?12, two "glass" branches G1 and G2 are found below some critical temperature, which are characterized by a strong remnant spatial inter-replica correlation upon taking the limit ?12 ? 0. Branch G2 is characterized by an increasing overlap order parameter upon cooling, and may hence be identified with the hypothetical "ideal glass" phase. Branch G1 exhibits the opposite trend of increasing order parameter upon heating; its free energy lies consistently below that of the L branch and above that of the G2 branch. The free energies of the L and G2 branches are found to intersect at an alleged "random first-order transition" (RFOT) characterized by weak discontinuities of the volume and entropy. The Kauzmann and RFOT temperatures predicted by RY differ significantly from their HNC counterparts. PMID:25381529

Bomont, Jean-Marc; Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Pastore, Giorgio

2014-11-01

268

Effects of fish bioturbation on the vertical distribution of water temperature and dissolved oxygen in a fish culture-integrated waste stabilization pond system in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of wastewater stabilization with fish culture in a single-pond system is a double-benefit both due to the reclamation of the wastewater and fish production. In conventional fish ponds, it is known that fish activities (bioturbation) result in ecological benefits as they stir the sediment layer, improving aerobic conditions and, enhancing the oxidation of detritus in this layer. However,

Minh Phan-Van; Diederik Rousseau; Niels De Pauw

2008-01-01

269

Solar control on the cloud liquid water content and integrated water vapor associated with monsoon rainfall over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term observation over three solar cycles indicates a perceptible influence of solar activity on rainfall and associated parameters in the Indian region. This paper attempts to reveal the solar control on the cloud liquid water content (LWC) and integrated water vapor (IWV) along with Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall during the period of 1977-2012 over nine different Indian stations. Cloud LWC and IWV are positively correlated with each other. An anti-correlation is observed between the Sunspot Number (SSN) and ISM rainfall for a majority of the stations and a poor positive correlation obtained for other locations. Cloud LWC and IWV possess positive correlations with Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and SSN respectively for most of the stations. The wavelet analyses of SSN, ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV have been performed to investigate the periodic characteristics of climatic parameters and also to indicate the varying relationship of solar activity with ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV. SSN, ISM rainfall and IWV are found to have a peak at around 10.3 years whereas a dip is observed at that particular period for cloud LWC.

Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Adhikari, Arpita

2014-12-01

270

Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5- 3D. A set of numerical models were developed in parallel to the experimental work. RELAP5-3D models were developed for the salt-cooled PB-AHTR, and for the simulat fluid CIET natural circulation experimental loop. These models are to be validated by the data collected from CIET. COMSOL finite element models were used to predict the temperature and fluid flow distribution in the annular pebble bed core; they were instrumental for design of SETs, and they can be used for code-to-code comparisons with RELAP5-3D. A number of other small SETs, and numerical models were constructed, as needed, in support of this work. The experiments were designed, constructed and performed to meet CAES quality assurance requirements for test planning, implementation, and documentation; equipment calibration and documentation, procurement document control; training and personnel qualification; analysis/modeling software verification and validation; data acquisition/collection and analysis; and peer review.

Peterson, Per

2012-10-30

271

Research enrichment: evaluation of structured research in the curriculum for dental medicine students as part of the vertical and horizontal integration of biomedical training and discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research programs within medical and dental schools are important vehicles for biomedical and clinical discovery, serving as effective teaching and learning tools by providing situations in which predoctoral students develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. Although research programs at many medical and dental schools are well-established, they may not be well integrated into the predoctoral curriculum to effectively support the

Karl Kingsley; Susan O'Malley; Tanis Stewart; Katherine M Howard

2008-01-01

272

Integrating qualitative and quantitative characterization of traditional Chinese medicine injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present study aims to describe and exemplify an integrated strategy of the combination of qualitative and quantitative characterization of a multicomponent mixture for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections with the example of Danhong injection (DHI). The standardized chemical profile of DHI has been established based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray multistage tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry have been developed to identify the major constituents in DHI. The structures of 26 compounds including nucleotides, phenolic acids, and flavonoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized. Meanwhile, the simultaneous determination of seven marker constituents, including uridine, adenosine, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B, in DHI was performed by multiwavelength detection based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The integrated qualitative and quantitative characterization strategy provided an effective and reliable pattern for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex traditional Chinese medicine system. PMID:24723550

Xie, Yuan-yuan; Xiao, Xue; Luo, Juan-min; Fu, Chan; Wang, Qiao-wei; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

2014-06-01

273

Analysis of vertical precipitation characteristics using by Vertical Pointing Radar and Optical Disdrometer in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to understand the vertical precipitation structure by using the vertical pointing radar (MRR, Micro Rain Radar, OTT Inc.) and optical disdrometer (PARSIVEL, PARticle SIze and VELocity, METEK Inc.) set, established in the coastal and mountainous regions of South Korea. The observational factors measured by both instruments are precipitation drop size distribution (DSD), rain rate, and liquid water content. The MRR's DSD at its low level shows good agreement with that of PARSIVEL. We retrieve the vertical rain rate and liquid water content from MRR under melting layer, calculated by Cha et al's method, in Daegwallyeong (37°41' N,128°45' E, 843 m ASL, mountain area) and Haenam (34°33' N,126°34' E, 4.6 m ASL, coast area). The vertical variations of rain rate and liquid water content in Daegwallyeong are smaller than those in Haenam. We think that this different vertical rain rate characteristic for both sites is due to the vertical different cloud type (convective and stratiform cloud seem dominant at Haenam and Daegwallyeong, respectively). This suggests that the statistical precipitation DSD model, for the application of weather radar and numerical simulation of precipitation processes, be considered differently for the region. More detailed analysis of vertical DSD and microphysical structure of precipitation measured by MRR will be presented at the conference.

cha, J.; Chang, K.; Choi, Y.; Yum, S. S.

2011-12-01

274

Vertically integrated approaches to large scale CO2 storage: Evaluating long-term storage security of CO2 injection in saline aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. During the injection and early post-injection periods, CO2 leakage may occur along faults and leaky wells, but this risk may be partly managed by proper site selection and sensible deployment of monitoring and remediation technologies. On the other hand, long-term storage security is an entirely different risk management problem—one that is dominated by a mobile CO2 plume that may travel over very large spatial and temporal scales before it is trapped by different physical and chemical processes. The primary trapping mechanisms are capillary and solubility trapping, which evolve over thousands to tens of thousands of years and can immobilize a significant portion of the mobile, free-phase CO2 plume. However, these processes are complex, involving a combination of small and large spatial scales over varying time scales. Solubility trapping is a prime example of this complexity, where small-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO2 region leads to convective mixing that has that has a significant effect on the large-scale dissolution process over very long time scales. Using appropriate models that can capture both large and small-scale effects is essential for understanding the role of dissolution and convective mixing on the long-term storage security of CO2 sequestration operations. There are several approaches to modeling long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms. One modeling option is the use of traditional numerical methods, which are often highly sophisticated models that can handle multiple complex phenomena with high levels of accuracy. However, these complex models quickly become prohibitively expensive for the type of large-scale, long-term modeling that is necessary for risk assessment applications such as the late post-injection period. We present an alternative modeling option, the VESA model, that combines vertically-averaged governing equations with an upscaled representation of the dissolution-convective mixing process. CO2 injection is solved numerically on a coarse grid, capturing the large-scale injection problem and the post-injection capillary trapping, while the upscaled dissolution model captures large-scale solubility trapping without the need for expensive grid refinement to capture the subscale instabilities associated with convective mixing. With this modeling approach, we demonstrate the effect of different modeling choices associated with dissolution for typical large-scale geological systems.

Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J.; Celia, M. A.

2009-12-01

275

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

276

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

277

Evidence for Late Devonian vertical movements and extensional deformation in northern Africa and Arabia: Integration in the geodynamics of the Devonian world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Paleozoic geodynamic evolution is discussed at the scale of a wide part of Gondwana from North Africa to Arabia. With the aim of giving an integrated tectonic scenario for the study domain, we revisit six key areas, namely, the Anti-Atlas Belt (Morocco), the Bechar Basin (west Algeria), the Hassi R'Mel High (central Algeria), the Talemezane Arch (south Tunisia), the Western Desert (Egypt), and, finally, the High Zagros Belt (Iran). Below the so-called "Hercynian unconformity," which is in reality a highly composite discontinuity, surface and subsurface data display a well-known arch-and-basin geometry, with basement highs and intervening Paleozoic basins. We show that this major feature results mainly from a Late Devonian event and can no longer be interpreted as a far effect of the Variscan Orogeny. This event is characterized by a more or less diffuse extensional deformation and accompanied either by subsidence, in the western part of the system, or by an important uplift of probable thermal origin followed by erosion and peneplanation. By the end of the Devonian, the whole region suffered a general subsidence governed by the progressive cooling of the lithosphere. Such a primary configuration is preserved in Arabia with typical sag geometry of the Carboniferous and Permian deposits but strongly disturbed elsewhere by the conjugated effects of the Variscan Orogeny during the Carboniferous and/or by subsequent uplifts linked to the central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys rifting episodes. In conclusion, we try to integrate this new understanding in the geodynamics of the Late Devonian, which at world scale is characterized by the onset of the Variscan Orogeny on the one hand and by magmatism, rifting, and basement uplift on the other hand.

Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Tavakoli-Shirazi, Saeid; Leturmy, Pascale; Averbuch, Olivier; Mouchot, Nicolas; Raulin, Camille; Leparmentier, FrançOis; Blanpied, Christian; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

2013-03-01

278

Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an innovative type of varifocal liquid lens actuated by electrostatic parallel plates. The 3mm diameter lens is made of a polymer membrane that encapsulates a high permittivity liquid in a cavity on top of a glass wafer. Annular electrodes situated below the membrane and on the glass wafer form the electrostatic parallel plates actuator. Applying a voltage between

Arnaud Pouydebasque; Claudine Bridoux; Fabrice Jacquet; Stéphane Moreau; Damien Saint-Patrice; Christophe Bouvier; Christophe Kopp; Gilles Marchand; Sébastien Bolis; Nicolas Sillon; Emmanuelle Vigier-Blanc

2010-01-01

279

Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an innovative type of varifocal liquid lens actuated by electrostatic parallel plates. The 3mm diameter lens is made of a polymer membrane that encapsulates a high permittivity liquid in a cavity on top of a glass wafer. Annular electrodes situated below the membrane and on the glass wafer form the electrostatic parallel plates actuator. By applying a voltage

Arnaud Pouydebasque; Claudine Bridoux; Fabrice Jacquet; Stéphane Moreau; Eric Sage; Damien Saint-Patrice; Christophe Bouvier; Christophe Kopp; Gilles Marchand; Sébastien Bolis; Nicolas Sillon; Emmanuelle Vigier-Blanc

280

Determination of liquid water altitudes using combined remote sensors  

SciTech Connect

Methods by which altitude ranges of supercooled cloud liquid water in the atmosphere may be estimated are explored using measurements from a combination of ground-based remote sensors. The tests were conducted as part of the Winter Icing and Storms Project that took place in eastern Colorado during the winters of 1990, 1991, and 1993. The basic method augments microwave radiometer measurements of path-integrated liquid water with observations from additional remote sensors to establish height limits for the supercooled liquid. One variation uses a simple adiabatic parcel lifting model initiated at a cloud-base height determined from a ceilometer, temperature and pressure from a radio acoustic sounding system or rawinsonde, and combines these with the radiometer`s total liquid measurement to obtain an estimate of the liquid cloud-top height. Since it does not account for liquid loss by entrainment or ice-liquid interaction processes, this method tends to underestimate the true liquid cloud top; for two cases examined in detail, 54% of icing pilot reports in the area were from above this estimated height. Some error is introduced due to differences in sampling locations and from horizontal variability in liquid water content. Vertical cloud boundaries from a K{sub a}-band radar were also used in the study; these often indicated thicker clouds than the liquid-layer depths observed from research aircraft, possibly due to the ambiguity of the ice-liquid phase distinction. Comparisons of liquid vertical profiles are presented, using normalized profile shapes based on uniform, adiabatic, and aircraft-derived composite assumptions. The adiabatic and climatological profile shapes generally agreed well with measurements from a research aircraft and were more realistic than the uniform profile. Suggestions for applications of these results toward a real-time aviation hazard identification system are presented. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Politovich, M.K. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-09-01

281

1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results.

NONE

1996-09-01

282

Spatial decomposition of solvation free energy based on the 3D integral equation theory of molecular liquid: application to miniproteins.  

PubMed

We propose the method of spatial decomposition analysis (SDA) based on three-dimensional integral equation (3D-IE) theory of molecular liquids to study and decompose the thermodynamics of proteins in solution into atomic level contributions. The 3D-IE theory maps the solvation thermodynamic properties, such as the solvation free energy and solvation entropy, onto the 3D space around the solute, including the excluded volume of the solute macromolecule, with the elementary volume contributions expressed in terms of the 3D total and direct correlation functions. The SDA thus breaks down the thermodynamic quantity into partial contributions of the solute fragments (functional groups or residues) by applying the proximity criterion to the 3D-IE mapping onto both the solvation shell outside the solute macromolecule and its excluded volume inside the van der Waals cores, the latter giving a major contribution to the solvation thermodynamics. This is distinct from the previous use of the proximity criterion applied to the 3D distribution functions in the solvation shell only. As SDA does not require perturbing the protein molecule to extract the contributions from the constituent residues, it can become an alternative to the computational "alanine scanning approach". For illustration, we apply SDA to four miniproteins composed of 10-28 amino acid residues (chignolin, CLN025, Trp-cage, and FSD-1) and decompose their solvation free energy into the partial contributions of each residue. The present results show that SDA is capable of detecting a change in the protein thermodynamics due to mutations and local conformational changes. Furthermore, the SDA exhibits a convincing consistency with the experimental values of the whole-residue transfer free energies from water to 1-octanol. Thus, the SDA provides a meaningful decomposition of the protein thermodynamics which can bear a comparison with experimental measurements and therefore can serve as a valuable sensitive tool to analyze the protein thermodynamics at the atomistic resolution level. We envision that the SDA may also serve as a tool for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to correlate and predict various solute properties in a fragment-based manner. PMID:21166382

Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kovalenko, Andriy

2011-01-20

283

1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved.

NONE

1997-09-01

284

Integrated measurement of the wave characteristics of heated film of liquid by the capacitance and fluorescence methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the wave characteristics of a film of liquid by different methods enables one to improve the reliability of data\\u000a and obtain new information about the process being studied. Along with the data obtained using the capacitance method already\\u000a employed for the investigation of the field and dynamics of thickness of a nonisothermal film of liquid, results of measurement\\u000a by

E. A. Chinnov; S. M. Kharlamov; A. D. Nazarov; E. E. Sokolov; D. M. Markovich; A. F. Serov; O. A. Kabov

2008-01-01

285

[Is the sense of verticality vestibular?].  

PubMed

The vestibular system constitutes an inertial sensor, which detects linear (otoliths) and angular (semicircular canals) accelerations of the head in the three dimensions. The otoliths are specialized in the detection of linear accelerations and can be used by the brain as a "plumb line" coding earth gravity acceleration (direction). This property of otolithic system suggested that the sense of verticality is supported by the vestibular system. The preeminence of vestibular involvement in the sense of verticality stated in the 1900s was progressively supplanted by the notion of internal models of verticality. The internal models of verticality involve rules and properties of integration of vestibular graviception, somaesthesic graviception, and vision. The construction of a mental representation of verticality was mainly modeled as a bottom-up organization integrating visual, somatosensory and vestibular information without any cognitive modulations. Recent studies reported that the construction of internal models of verticality is not an automatic multi-sensory integration process but corresponds to more complex mechanisms including top-down influences such as awareness of body orientation or spatial representations. PMID:23856176

Barra, J; Pérennou, D

2013-06-01

286

Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.  

PubMed

An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:22975252

Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

2012-11-01

287

Offset vertical radar profiling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

Witten, A.; Lane, J.

2003-01-01

288

Fully integrated L-phenylalanine separation and concentration using reactive-extraction with liquid-liquid centrifuges in a fed-batch process with E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel in situ product recovery (ISPR) approach for the (fully) integrated separation of L-phenylalanine (L-phe) from a 20 l fed-batch process with the recombinant L-tyrosine auxotrophic strain E. coli F-4\\/pF81 is presented. The strain was rationally constructed for the production of the aromatic amino acid. Glucose and tyrosine control is used. A reactive extraction system consisting of kerosene, the cation-selective

N. Rüffer; U. Heidersdorf; I. Kretzers; G. A. Sprenger; L. Raeven; R. Takors

2004-01-01

289

Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow  

E-print Network

The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

1972-01-01

290

Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

E-print Network

overview. 5 b. Global total integrated water vapor algorithm of Alishouse et al. (1990a). 7 c. Global wind speed retrieval method of Goodberlet et al. (1989) 9 d. Global cloud liquid water algorithm of Alishouse et al. (1990b) 10 5. Research objectives.... . . . . . . . 19 3. Cloud models used as input for radiative transfer model. . . . . 4. Coefficients for each TAMU TIWV retrieval algorithm. . . . . 20 31 5. Root mean square error and R-square correlation coefticients for the TAMU PD and TAMU Global TIWV...

Manning, Norman Willis William

2012-06-07

291

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

2003-04-01

292

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

293

Laser ultrasonic investigations of vertical Bridgman crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The many difficulties associated with the growth of premium quality CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te alloys has stimulated an interest in the development of a non-invasive ultrasonic approach to monitor critical growth parameters such as the solid-liquid interface position and shape during vertical Bridgman growth. This sensor methodology is based upon the recognition that in most materials, the ultrasonic velocity (and the elastic stiffness constants that control it) of the solid and liquid phases are temperature dependent and an abrupt increase of the longitudinal wave velocity occurs upon solidification. The laser ultrasonic approach has also been used to measure the ultrasonic velocity of solid and liquid Cd0.96Zn0.04Te as a function of temperature up to 1140°C. Using longitudinal and shear wave velocity values together with data for the temperature dependent density allowed a complete evaluation of the temperature dependent single crystal elastic stiffness constants for solid and the adiabatic bulk modulus for liquid Cd0.96Zn0.04 Te. It was found that the ultrasonic velocities exhibited a strong monotonically decreasing function of temperature in the solid and liquid phases and the longitudinal wave indicated an abrupt almost 50% decrease upon melting. Because ray propagation in partially solidified bodies is complex and defines the sensing methodology, a ray tracing algorithm has been developed to analyze two-dimensional wave propagation in the diametral plane of cylindrical solid-liquid interfaces. Ray path, wavefront and time-of-flight (TOF) projections for rays that travel from a source to an arbitrarily positioned receiver on the diametral plane have been calculated and compared to experimentally measured data on a model liquid-solid interface. The simulations and the experimental results reveal that the interfacial region can be identified from transmission TOF data and when used in conjunction with a nonlinear least squares reconstruction algorithm, the interface geometry (i.e. axial location and shape) can be precisely recovered and the ultrasonic velocities of both solid and liquid phases obtained. To gain insight into the melting and solidification process, a single zone VB growth furnace was integrated with the laser ultrasonic sensor system and used to monitor the melting-solidification and directional solidification characteristics of Cd0.96Zn 0.04Te.

Queheillalt, Douglas Ted

294

Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of…

Gregor, Robert J.

2008-01-01

295

UPSTREAM COMPETITION BETWEEN VERTICALLY INTEGRATED FIRMS  

E-print Network

to downstream polyethylenes producers.2 In the video game industry, some firms (e.g., Epic Games, Valve Corporation) have designed their own 3D engines to develop 3D video games. They also license these engines on an earlier draft. We also thank the editor and two anonymous referees for their helpful and stimulating

Boyer, Edmond

296

CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The simulations show that the helium gas is trapped inside the grooves. The predicted time-averaged gas coverage is in good qualitative agreement with the measured gas coverage.

Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

2009-01-01

297

Multidimensional simulation of saturated nucleate boiling in a vertical channel  

SciTech Connect

Void fraction increase along boiling flows in heated vertical channels may be predicted fairly well from various one-dimensional correlations. However, these predictions do not provide information about the evolution of interfacial area concentration, which is one of the dominant parameters of dispersed gas-liquid flow and depends on the interface structure. In this paper, a three-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of saturated nucleate boiling in a uniformly heated vertical channel is proposed. Vapor is distributed in liquid in the form of discrete bubbles, and liquid-vapor mixture quality increases along the flow through bubble evaporation and additional nucleation.

Kljenak, I.

1996-12-31

298

Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

299

Thermochemical production of liquid fuels from biomass: Thermo-economic modeling, process design and process integration analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed thermo-economic model combining thermodynamics with economic analysis and considering different technological alternatives for the thermochemical production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. Energetic and economic models for the production of Fischer–Tropsch fuel (FT), methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) by means of biomass drying with steam or flue gas, directly or indirectly heated fluidized bed or

Laurence Tock; Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

2010-01-01

300

Preservation of Geometrical Integrity of Supersolidus-Liquid-Phase-Sintered SKD11 Tool Steels Prepared with Powder Injection Molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The powder injection molded SKD11 tool steels often manifest shape retention problems during supersolidus liquid phase sintering due to the difficulties in controlling the amount of liquid phase. The typical temperature range for the sintering of SKD11 is only 10 K, between 1503 and 1513 K (1230 and 1240 °C), and this narrow sintering range demands a special furnace with very uniform temperature distribution. Through the addition of carbides, in particular TiC, this problem is resolved by enlarging the liquid + ? + carbide region in the phase diagram and by impeding the grain growth with the carbides. The resulting sintering window is broadened to 40 K, between 1513 and 1553 K (1240 and 1280 °C). The relevant mechanisms on the improvement of shape retention are discussed with a focus on the effect of carbide addition on the changes in the phase diagram and the microstructure. A guideline for the selection of effective carbides is also proposed based on the experimental results and the phase diagram analyses.

Chuang, K. H.; Hwang, K. S.

2011-07-01

301

Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator  

SciTech Connect

A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion, micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

Lee, A.P.; Sommargren, G.E.; McConaghy, C.F.; Krulevitch, P.A.

1999-10-19

302

Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator  

DOEpatents

A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-10-19

303

Host Country Educational Attainment and Vertical Specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of the global economy through trade has enabled firms to adopt new production strategies. Rather than producing in a single country, stages of production are performed in multiple countries to exploit inherent locational advantages. This practice gives rise to vertical specialization across national boundaries. Here, the U.S. exports components to a foreign (host) country that uses them to produce

Don P. Clark

2008-01-01

304

An Integrated Approach Using Liquid Culture System Can it Make an Impact for Clinical Diagnosis of Genitourinary Tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in India. Genitourinary TB (GUTB) comprises 20% of all extrapulmonary TB, and is the most common extrapulmonary site to be affected by this disease. The spectrum of varied pathological changes occur in GUTB, hence a thorough knowledge is required to prevent complications related to GUTB. Diagnostic dilemma is a common problem faced as culture and polymerase chain reaction results vary in their sensitivity and specificity. A thorough knowledge of epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, and spectrum of the disease and importance of including liquid culture system for the diagnosis of this disease are presented in three cases.

Shenoy, VP; Chakradhar, V; Munim, F; Mukhopadhyay, C

2014-01-01

305

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now

Nathan A. Niemi; Michael Oskin; Thomas K. Rockwell

2008-01-01

306

Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.  

PubMed

A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Pr<0.0001) proved that the model matched the experimental data, and had a high predictive ability. The optimal technological parameters were: 81.5°C reaction temperature, 51.7cm fill height of catalyst KF/CaO and 105.98kPa system pressure. Under these conditions, the average yield of triplicate experiments was 93.7%, indicating the continuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. PMID:22940350

Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

2012-11-01

307

Integration of Satellite-Derived Cloud Phase, Cloud Top Height, and Liquid Water Path into an Operational Aircraft Icing Nowcasting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational products used by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to alert pilots of hazardous icing provide nowcast and short-term forecast estimates of the potential for the presence of supercooled liquid water and supercooled large droplets. The Current Icing Product (CIP) system employs basic satellite-derived information, including a cloud mask and cloud top temperature estimates, together with multiple other data sources to produce a gridded, three-dimensional, hourly depiction of icing probability and severity. Advanced satellite-derived cloud products developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provide a more detailed description of cloud properties (primarily at cloud top) compared to the basic satellite-derived information used currently in CIP. Cloud hydrometeor phase, liquid water path, cloud effective temperature, and cloud top height as estimated by the LaRC algorithms are into the CIP fuzzy logic scheme and a confidence value is determined. Examples of CIP products before and after the integration of the LaRC satellite-derived products will be presented at the conference.

Haggerty, Julie; McDonough, Frank; Black, Jennifer; Landott, Scott; Wolff, Cory; Mueller, Steven; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William, Jr.

2008-01-01

308

Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.  

PubMed

Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

2012-05-01

309

Detection of ketamine and its metabolites in human hair using an integrated nanoflow liquid chromatography column and electrospray emitter fritted with a single porous 10 ?m bead.  

PubMed

Targeting metabolites incorporated into hair following drug administration is useful for evidential purposes as this approach can aid in differentiating between administration and passive exposure. Greater analytical sensitivity is required than for targeting the parent drug alone. A 20 ?m i.d. fused silica capillary column with an integrated electrospray emitter fritted with a single porous 10 ?m polymeric bead has been successfully fabricated to facilitate this purpose. The sensitivity gains through the use of these integrated single fritted columns coupled to a nanoelectrospray source (nanoflow-LC nanoESI) over conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) columns was explored by their application to the detection of ketamine and its phase I metabolites in human hair. Hair was collected from 4 volunteers following the administration of a small oral dose of ketamine (50 mg) and subsequently analysed by the capillary-LC nanoESI approach. The drug and its metabolites were extracted from hair using solid phase extraction following a methanolic wash, pulverisation with a ball mill and acid digestion. From a 50 ?L extract, 1 ?L was injected and the method provided a limit of detection estimated to be 5 fg on column for ketamine and norketamine and 10 fg for dehydronorketamine. The single porous frit minimises extra column band broadening and offers an alternative fritting approach which reduces the blocking of the electrospray emitter, in comparison with other approaches such as sintering and polymerisation. PMID:23332304

Parkin, Mark C; Longmoore, Alana M; Turfus, Sophie C; Braithwaite, Robin A; Cowan, David A; Elliott, Simon; Kicman, Andrew T

2013-02-15

310

Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

1998-01-01

311

Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited *This effort was supported by the Liquid Propulsion portion of NASA's Integrated System Health Management project within the Exploration  

E-print Network

OF UNSUPERVISED ANOMALY DETECTION METHODS FOR SYSTEMS HEALTH MANAGEMENT USING SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE DATA* R. A to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data to serve the purpose of developing a comprehensive suite was supported by the Liquid Propulsion portion of NASA's Integrated System Health Management project within

Oza, Nikunj C.

312

Spatial Mapping of Protein Abundances in the Mouse Brain by Voxelation Integrated with High-Throughput Liquid Chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Temporally and spatially resolved mapping of protein abundance patterns within the mammalian brain is of significant interest for understanding brain function and molecular etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases; however, such imaging efforts have been greatly challenged by complexity of the proteome, throughput and sensitivity of applied analytical methodologies, and accurate quantitation of protein abundances across the brain. Here, we describe a methodology for comprehensive spatial proteome mapping that addresses these challenges by employing voxelation integrated with automated microscale sample processing, high-throughput LC system coupled with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer and a “universal” stable isotope labeled reference sample approach for robust quantitation. We applied this methodology as a proof-of-concept trial for the analysis of protein distribution within a single coronal slice of a C57BL/6J mouse brain. For relative quantitation of the protein abundances across the slice, an 18O-isotopically labeled reference sample, derived from a whole control coronal slice from another mouse, was spiked into each voxel sample and stable isotopic intensity ratios were used to obtain measures of relative protein abundances. In total, we generated maps of protein abundance patterns for 1,028 proteins. The significant agreement of the protein distributions with previously reported data supports the validity of this methodology, which opens new opportunities for studying the spatial brain proteome and its dynamics during the course of disease progression and other important biological and associated health aspects in a discovery-driven fashion.

Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Chin, Mark H.; Wang, Haixing H.; Livesay, Eric A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Anderson, David J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Desmond J.; Smith, Richard D.

2007-01-25

313

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

314

Jamming in Vertical Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona

2011-03-01

315

Jamming in Vertical Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a vertical channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona

2010-03-01

316

Integrated microscale analysis system for targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry proteomics on limited amounts of enriched cell populations.  

PubMed

Limited samples, such as those that are in vivo sourced via biopsy, are closely representative of biological systems and contain valuable information for drug discovery. However, these precious samples are often heterogeneous and require cellular prefractionation prior to proteomic analysis to isolate specific subpopulations of interest. Enriched cells from in vivo samples are often very limited (<10(4) cells) and pose a significant challenge to proteomic nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS) sample preparation. To enable the streamlined analysis of these limited samples, we have developed an online cell enrichment, microscale sample preparation, nanoLCMS proteomics workflow by integrating fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), focused ultrasonication, microfluidics, immobilized trypsin digestion, and nanoLCMS. To assess the performance of the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow, 5000 fluorescent labeled cells were enriched from a 5% heterogeneous cell population and processed for LCMS proteomics in less than 2 h. Within these 5000 enriched cells, 30 peptides corresponding to 17 proteins spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude of cellular abundance were quantified using a QExactive MS. The results from the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow starting from 5000 enriched cells were directly compared to results from a traditional macroscale sample preparation workflow starting from 2.0 × 10(6) cells. The microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow demonstrated high cellular enrichment efficiency and high peptide recovery across the wide dynamic range of targeted peptides. Overall the microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow has shown effectiveness in efficiently preparing limited amounts of FACS enriched cells in an online manner for proteomic LCMS. PMID:24083476

Martin, Jeffrey G; Rejtar, Tomas; Martin, Stephen A

2013-11-19

317

Experimental study of “laminar” bubbly flows in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of bubbly two-phase flow parameters in a vertical pipe were performed. To keep the pipe Reynolds number below that for single-phase turbulent transition, a water-glycerin solution was used as the test liquid. Local void fraction and liquid velocity profiles along with the wall shear stress were measured by an electrochemical method. Experiments were made with bubbles of two different

O. N. Kashinsky; L. S. Timkin; A. Cartellier

1993-01-01

318

Three-phase upward flow in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop an approach to design a three-phase, gas–solid–liquid flow system that transports pneumatically scarified solid particles, including sticky ones, through a vertical pipe. The proposed system permits the introduction and maintenance of a liquid film that coats the pipe’s inner wall and acts as a lubricant that ensures sticky particles continue to move upward without permanently

Fadel F. Erian; Leonard F. Pease

2007-01-01

319

Overview of STOVL aircraft propulsion research offtakes and vertical lift systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) Aircraft Propulsion Research program includes key technologies involving offtake systems, vertical lift systems, hot gas ingestion, STOVL augmentors, and integrated flight propulsion controls. A part of the NASA Lewis work involving STOVL aircraft propulsion systems is presented with the emphasis on component-level experiments and analysis related to offtakes and vertical lift systems.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Mcardle, Jack G.; Esker, Barbara S.

1993-01-01

320

Characterization of multi-domain bumps of organic resists in color filters for wide-viewing-angle liquid crystal displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative-type multi-domain vertical alignment(MVA) photoresist have been significantly synthesized and potentially integrated in the processing of color filter for the application of wide-viewing-angle liquid crystal display. The expectable results including excellent light transmittance, stability and uniformity of protrusion bumps in shape, superior reliability in material characteristics and wider gamut have significantly been achieved. The brightness of negative-type photoresist(NPR) is

Sheng-Hung Yang; Horng-Show Koo; T. Kawai

2007-01-01

321

Characterization of Multi-Domain Bumps of Organic Resists in Color Filters for Wide-Viewing-Angle Liquid Crystal Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative-type multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) photoresists have technically been fabricated and integrated in color filter processing for the application of wide-viewing-angle liquid crystal displays. The expectable results including excellent light transmittance, stability and uniformity of protrudent bumps in shape, superior reliability in material characteristics and wider gamut have extensively been achieved. The superior brightness (GY) of negative-type photo resists used

Horng-Show Koo; Mi Chen; Sheng-Hung Yang; Tomoji Kawai

2008-01-01

322

Vertical solar louver project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal network analysis computer program MICROPAS was used to analyze Vertical Solar Louvers and other reference solar designs in eight selected climates. The results have been used to generate a set of correlation coefficients for use in performance predictions by the Solar Load Ratio method. At low mass VSL were shown to be superior to ordinary direct gain and equal to the trombe wall systems in energy savings. The energy savings advantage of VSL over direct gain disappears in comparable systems of high mass. Identical solar water tanks of oval cross section were compared in the water wall and VSL configurations.

Bier, C. J.

1984-09-01

323

Vertical Motion Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

324

'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

2004-01-01

325

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-print Network

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01

326

Leachate injection using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate recirculation or liquid injection in municipal solid waste landfills offers economic and environmental benefits. The key objective of this study was to carry out numerical evaluation of key design variables for leachate recirculation system consisting of vertical wells. In order to achieve the objective, numerical modeling was carried out using the finite-element model HYDRUS-2D. The following design parameters were

Milind V. Khire; Moumita Mukherjee

2007-01-01

327

Coulomb blockade in vertical, bandgap engineered silicon nanopillars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically oriented, bandgap engineered silicon double tunnel junction nanopillars were fabricated and electrically addressed. The devices were tested at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Distinctive staircase steps in current were observed at cryogenic temperatures indicative of the Coulomb blockade effect present in asymmetric double tunnel junction structures. These features disappeared when the device was measured at room temperature.

Walavalkar, Sameer; Latawiec, Pawel; Scherer, Axel

2013-05-01

328

Forecast model applications of retrieved three dimensional liquid water fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forecasts are made for tropical storm Emily using heating rates derived from the SSM/I physical retrievals described in chapters 2 and 3. Average values of the latent heating rates from the convective and stratiform cloud simulations, used in the physical retrieval, are obtained for individual 1.1 km thick vertical layers. Then, the layer-mean latent heating rates are regressed against the slant path-integrated liquid and ice precipitation water contents to determine the best fit two parameter regression coefficients for each layer. The regression formulae and retrieved precipitation water contents are utilized to infer the vertical distribution of heating rates for forecast model applications. In the forecast model, diabatic temperature contributions are calculated and used in a diabatic initialization, or in a diabatic initialization combined with a diabatic forcing procedure. Our forecasts show that the time needed to spin-up precipitation processes in tropical storm Emily is greatly accelerated through the application of the data.

Raymond, William H.; Olson, William S.

1990-01-01

329

Experimental study of ``laminar'' bubbly flows in a vertical pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of bubbly two-phase flow parameters in a vertical pipe were performed. To keep the pipe Reynolds number below that for single-phase turbulent transition, a water-glycerin solution was used as the test liquid. Local void fraction and liquid velocity profiles along with the wall shear stress were measured by an electrochemical method. Experiments were made with bubbles of two different sizes. As the gas flow rate was increased, a gradual development of the liquid velocity profile from the parabolic Poiseuille flow to a flattened two-phase profile was observed. The evolution of the wall shear stress and of the velocity fluctuations were also quantified.

Kashinsky, O. N.; Timkin, L. S.; Cartellier, A.

1993-09-01

330

Vertical root fractures and their management  

PubMed Central

Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

2014-01-01

331

Observation of picometer vertical emittance with a vertical undulator.  

PubMed

Using a vertical undulator, picometer vertical electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the vertical electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel vertical emittance diagnostic. PMID:23215388

Wootton, K P; Boland, M J; Dowd, R; Tan, Y-R E; Cowie, B C C; Papaphilippou, Y; Taylor, G N; Rassool, R P

2012-11-01

332

Integration of knowledge-based metabolic predictions with liquid chromatography data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry for drug metabolism studies: application to studies on the biotransformation of indinavir.  

PubMed

Despite recent advances in the application of data-dependent liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to the identification of drug metabolites in complex biological matrixes, a prior knowledge of the likely routes of biotransformation of the therapeutic agent of interest greatly facilitates the detection and structural characterization of its metabolites. Thus, prediction of the [M + H]+ m/z values of expected metabolites allows for the construction of user-defined MS(n) protocols that frequently reveal the presence of minor drug metabolites, even in the presence of a vast excess of coeluting endogenous constituents. However, this approach suffers from inherent user bias, as a result of which additional "survey scans" (e.g., precursor ion and constant neutral loss scans) are required to ensure detection of as many drug-related components in the sample as possible. In the present study, a novel approach to this problem has been evaluated, in which knowledge-based predictions of metabolic pathways are first derived from a commercial database, the output from which is used to formulate a list-dependent LC/MS(n) data acquisition protocol. Using indinavir as a model drug, a substructure similarity search on the MDL metabolism database with a similarity index of 60% yielded 188 "hits", pointing to the possible operation of two hydrolytic, two N-dealkylation, three N-glucuronidation, one N-methylation, and several aromatic and aliphatic oxidation pathways. Integration of this information with data-dependent LC/MS(n) analysis using an ion trap mass spectrometer led to the identification of 18 metabolites of indinavir following incubation of the drug with human hepatic postmitochondrial preparations. This result was accomplished with only a single LC/MS(n) run, representing significant savings in instrument use and operator time, and afforded an accurate view of the complex in vitro metabolic profile of this drug. PMID:14750881

Anari, M Reza; Sanchez, Rosa I; Bakhtiar, Ray; Franklin, Ronald B; Baillie, Thomas A

2004-02-01

333

Liquid Crystal Optofluidics  

SciTech Connect

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-11

334

Vertical Velocities in a Thunderstorm Gust Front and Outflow.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous vertically pointing measurements of a thunderstorm outflow, including its gust front, were obtained with a Doppler radar near New Salem, North Dakota. The measurements provide a high-resolution depiction of the vertical structure of reflectivity and vertical velocity within the gust front, the outflow, and the parent storm. Earlier gust front remote sensing studies have used Doppler observations obtained with low-elevation-angle scans to accurately measure the horizontal flow pattern from which vertical velocities were subsequently estimated by integrating the continuity equation. In contrast, the New Salem case provides direct, rather than derived, Doppler measurement of vertical velocities with better vertical resolution and vastly superior temporal resolution. The gust front's vertical structure is in general agreement with earlier observations and numerical simulations, except that the transition from strong upward to strong downward motion was more abrupt. The maximum updraft, of almost 10 m s1, was measured in the gust front at 1.35 km above ground level and was followed by equally strong downward motion only 1 min later at a slightly higher altitude.The observations support the earlier use of the continuity method for deriving the basic pattern of vertical motions in density currents from quasi-horizontal scan data.

Martner, Brooks E.

1997-05-01

335

Recycle spray gas-liquid contactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for effecting gas-liquid mass transfer. It comprises a vertically oriented gas-tight vessel having at the base thereof means for passage of a gas into the vessel and at its top means for passage of a gas therefrom, at least one horizontal tray contained therein, a vertical housing resting on each the tray, an array contained

1991-01-01

336

Propagation of gas jet in liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive experimental study was made of discharge of a gas jet from an orifice and its evolution in a liquid medium. Nitrogen, air, helium, chlorine, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, and water vapor superheated to 200 to 250 C were discharged vertically up, vertically down, or laterally into water at 18 to 100 C as well as into aqueous

V. A. Surin; V. N. Yevchenko; V. M. Rubin

1984-01-01

337

4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

338

Liquid jet pumped by rising gas bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-phase mathematical model is proposed for calculating the induced turbulent vertical liquid flow. Bubbles provide a large buoyancy force and the associated drag on the liquid moves the liquid upward. The liquid pumped upward consists of the bubble wakes and the liquid brought into the jet region by turbulent entrainment. The expansion of the gas bubbles as they rise through the liquid is taken into account. The continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically for an axisymmetric air jet submerged in water. Water pumping rates are obtained as a function of air flow rate and depth of submergence. Comparisons are made with limited experimental information in the literature.

Hussain, N. A.; Siegel, R.

1975-01-01

339

Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

340

Critical heat flux prediction for saturated flow boiling of water in vertical tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a new analytical model for the prediction of the critical heat flux (CHF) in water saturated flow boiling in round vertical and uniformly heated pipes. The CHF is assumed to occur in annular flow when the liquid film vanishes at the exit section of the heated channel. Channel pressure drop is calculated using the Friedel correlation. Liquid

Gian Piero Celata; Kaichiro Mishima; Giuseppe Zummo

2001-01-01

341

Evaluation of a vertical continuous centrifuge for clarification of HTGR dissolver slurries  

SciTech Connect

A series of statistically designed centrifuge performance tests was conducted to evaluate the solid-liquid separation efficiency of a vertical continuous centrifuge. Test results show that 100% of the particles greater than 4 microns in diameter were removed from simulated HTGR fuel reprocessing dissolver solutions. Centrifugal force and liquid density are the principal variables affecting separation efficiency.

Olguin, L.J.

1980-03-01

342

Vertical antenna embedded in earth with conductive coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical antenna embedded in earth with conductive coating has been investigated by employing the method of integral equation.\\u000a This topic is available to EM-MWD (Electromagnetic Measurement-While-Drilling) system, which is a new real time system for\\u000a drilling measurement. Under the condition that the wave number of the earth is much larger than that of the air, a current\\u000a integral equation

Xia Mingyao; Feng Kongyu

1991-01-01

343

Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.  

PubMed

Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction. PMID:25271539

Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

2014-10-01

344

Theoretical analysis of vertical colloidal deposition.  

PubMed

We have modeled the dynamics of a relatively new deposition technique, vertical colloidal deposition (VCD), for preparing nanoparticle thin films. In this process, the substrate is placed vertically in a nanoparticle suspension and is gradually exposed by evaporation or other slow solvent removal. During the film's formation, we observe that the colloidal particles are deposited only at the solid-liquid-gas interface. In contrast with the horizontal geometry, treated elsewhere, where the meniscus is pinned, we observe qualitatively different deposition behaviors. In particular, uniform films rather than rings or lines are produced. Thus, we are led to model a diffusion-driven rather than a convection-driven film growth kinetics, and we are able to predict, consistent with our experimental observations, that the film's areal density is inversely proportional to the descent speed of the suspension surface. Additionally, we find that for submonolayer films, the areal density is proportional to the square of the suspension concentration, converting to a linear dependence once monolayer coverage is attained. PMID:15918750

Diao, J J; Hutchison, J B; Luo, Guanghong; Reeves, M E

2005-05-01

345

The Excitation of Surface Waves by a Vertical Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excitation of surface waves by a vertical, linear antenna erected on an infinite, flat, perfectly conducting image plane coated with a thin layer of dielectric is investigated theoretically. Helmholtz-type integral expressions, derived through the use of the results of a previous paper, are utilized in the computation of numerical data. The appendix is devoted to the development of an

D. B. Brick

1955-01-01

346

A wavelength multiplexer using cascaded three-dimensional vertical couplers  

E-print Network

than 15 dB was achieved. Strong coupled vertical couplers were fabricated using wafer bonding to invert of 3D photonic integrated circuits and the realization of multilevel optical interconnects possible to make multilevel electrical and optical inter- connects possible. The requirement for optical

Bowers, John

347

Further Development of Galileo-GPS RAIM for Vertical Guidance  

E-print Network

Further Development of Galileo-GPS RAIM for Vertical Guidance Alexandru Ene, Stanford University of combined GPS/Galileo signals, positioning error threat space and integrity. He holds a Bachelors anticipated deployment of Galileo, a new partner will rise on the sky of Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Stanford University

348

Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The vertical action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of vertical performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by

Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos

1997-01-01

349

46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical...

2010-10-01

350

Axisymmetric deformation of rotating liquid mirrors by laser heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation of rotating liquid surfaces by laser heating is experimentally and theoretically studied. A horizontal plate containing the liquid sample (crude oil with highly temperature-dependent viscosity and surface tension) turns around a vertical axis fixed in the inertial reference frame at an angular speed continuously variable between 0 and 60 rpm. The liquid surface then adopts a classic parabolic profile

German Da Costa

2005-01-01

351

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

...Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2010-07-01

353

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2013-07-01

354

New data on two-phase two-component heat transfer and hydrodynamics in a vertical tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forced-convective two-phase, two component (gas-liquid) flow, experimental data for mean heat-transfer coefficients, pressure drop and flow patterns were taken simultaneously for the flow in a 1.17-cm i.d. electrically heated vertical tube using three liquids: water, glycerine and water and silicone liquid with air as the gas phase. The combination of silicone liquid and the glycerine and water solution provided

K. S. Rezkallah; G. E. Sims

1987-01-01

355

Mode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates  

E-print Network

for integrated photonic devices and nano photonics. In this paper, we present novel passively mode-locked fiberMode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto novel passively mode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes synthesized using

Maruyama, Shigeo

356

Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.  

PubMed

Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT(®), e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. PMID:25151607

Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

2014-11-01

357

Integration Versus Outsourcing In Industry Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an equilibrium model of industrial structure in which the organization of firms is endogenous. Differentiated consumer products can be produced either by vertically integrated firms or by pairs of specialized companies. Production of each variety of consumer good requires a specialized component. Vertically integrated firms can manufacture the components they need, but they face a relatively high cost

Gene M. Grossman; Elhanan Helpman

2002-01-01

358

Evaluation of Gain Quenching Vertical Cavity Lasers with In-Plane Lasers for Smart Pixel Switching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed study of monolithically integrated, intracavity coupled in plane and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for smart pixel switching is performed. It is shown that the extent to which the VCSEL section output is quenched depends on t...

D. B. Shire, C. L. Tang

1995-01-01

359

Micro-liquid flow sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple to realise micro-liquid flow sensor with high sensitivity is presented. The sensor is based on well known thermal anemometer principles. An analytical model for the sensor behaviour applicable for gas\\/liquid fluids is presented. The realisation process of the sensor is described. Model and experimental results agree well. The sensor is simple to integrate with other micro-liquid handling components

Theo S. J. Lammerink; Niels R. Tas; Miko Elwenspoek; Jan H. J. Fluitman

1993-01-01

360

All-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light-valves integrated with electroactive anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films as driving electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

All-organic PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) light-valves using all-polymer conductive substrates containing thin films of polypyrrole doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSA?) as the driving electrodes were fabricated in this study. The all-polymer conductive substrates were prepared under ambient conditions by in situ depositing polypyrrole thin films on blank flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET, substrates from aqueous media in which oxidative polymerization of

Pen-Cheng Wang; Jing-Yu Yu; Kuan-Hsun Li

2011-01-01

361

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

362

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

363

Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

2004-01-01

364

Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

2014-01-01

365

Dip coating on a planar non-vertical substrate in the limit of negligible surface tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of dip coating of a planar non-vertical substrate is considered for negligible surface tension effects. As in the problem of vertical withdrawal (Cerro and Scriven, J. Fluid Mech. 208 (1980) 40), a singularity arises in the approximate steady-state equation governing the shape of the air–liquid interface; the ultimate thickness of the entrained film on the substrate follows directly

Steven J Weinstein; Kenneth J Ruschak

2001-01-01

366

7, 1275112779, 2007 Vertical distribution  

E-print Network

boundary layer and vertical distribution of pollutants are discussed in terms15 of the energy balance. In an urban area there are many buildings, which cause large inhomogeneities in the energy and wind profiles Center for the Energy and the Environment (MCE2), La Jolla, CA, USA 2 Department of Earth, Atmospheric

Boyer, Edmond

367

Wideband Fractal Vertical Patch Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wideband vertical patch antenna (VPA) is depicted, which is devised from fractal antenna technology. By using a dual-Koch loop structure, a wideband VPA with 42% bandwidth and 8 dBi gain at the center frequency is designed and tested. Symmetrical broadside patterns are obtained at the passband.

T. P. Wong; Carmen K. L. Lau; Kwai-Man Luk; Kai-Fong Lee

2007-01-01

368

Insulated vertical antennas above ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast efficient method is proposed to solve the problem of a vertical dielectric-coated antenna located in free space above ground. The solution is a moment method solution. The influence of lossy ground is taken into account via equivalent images due to Popovic, and the currents of images are expressed by the source current. The dielectric coating is modeled by

Xianshan Li; Khalil El Khamlichi Drissi; Françoise Paladian

2004-01-01

369

6, 72077233, 2006 Vertical distribution  

E-print Network

cloud sides. Inversion of measurements from the cloud sides requires rigorous understanding of10 the 3 cloud fields generated by a simple stochastic cloud model with the prescribed vertically resolved values of the droplet effective radius. The retrieval algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem that com

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

370

Vertical axis wind turbine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental research accomplished in evaluating an innovative concept for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is described. The concept is that of using straight blades composed of circulation controlled airfoil sections. The theoretical analysis was developed to determine the unsteady lift and moment characteristics of multiple-blade cross-flow wind turbines. To determine the drag data needed as input to the

R. E. Walters; J. B. Fanucci; P. W. Hill; P. G. Migliore

1979-01-01

371

An activity-integrated strategy involving ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fraction collector for rapid screening and characterization of the ?-glucosidase inhibitors in Coptis chinensis Franch. (Huanglian).  

PubMed

An activity integrated strategy was established and validated to screen ?-glucosidase inhibitors by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fraction collector (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS-FC). UHPLC was used to separate the components in Coptis chinensis Franch. (Huanglian in Chinese) extract, which was identified by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS to acquire structural information and collected by the fraction collector. Finally, the collected fractions were tested for inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase. The results showed that Huanglian extract had the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 value at 3.528mgmL(-1), which could be used for the treatment of diabetes. Alkaloids were the main components that had inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase in Huanglian extract, while the inhibitory activity of phenolic acids against ?-glucosidase was relatively weaker. Coptisine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizin and berberine were screened and identified as ?-glucosidase inhibitors from Huanglian extract in vitro. Compared with conventional methods, the integrated UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS-FC method could quantitatively analyze ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of individual constituent and provide the total ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the samples. The results demonstrated that the activity integrated UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS-FC method was an effective and powerful tool for screening and identifying active ingredients from Traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25137652

Ge, Ai-Hua; Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Jiao; He, Jun; Liu, Er-Wei; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

2014-11-01

372

Characteristics of slug flow in narrow rectangular channels under vertical condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-liquid slug flow is widely encountered in many practical industrial applications. A detailed understanding of the hydrodynamics of gas slug has important significance for modeling of the slug flow. Non-intrusive flow visualization using a high speed video camera system is applied to study characteristics of slug flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel (3.25×40 mm2). Ideal Taylor bubbles are hardly observed, and most of the gas slugs are deformed, much more seriously at high liquid superficial velocity. The liquid film thicknesses of left and right narrow sides surrounding gas slug are divergent and wavy, but it has weak effect on liquid film velocity. The gas and liquid velocity as well as the length of gas slug have significant effect on the separating liquid film thickness. The separating liquid film velocity is decreased with the increase of gas superficial velocity at low liquid velocity, and increased with the increase of liquid superficial velocity. The film stops descending and the gas superficial velocity has no significant effect on liquid film separating velocity at high liquid velocity (jL?1.204 m/s), and it is mainly determined by the liquid flow rate. The shape of slug nose has a significant effect on its velocity, while the effect of its length is very weak. The Ishii&Jones-Zuber drift flux correlation could predict slug velocity well, except at low liquid superficial velocity by reason of that the calculated drift velocity is less than experimental values.

Wang, Yang; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Xing, Dianchuan; Yan, Chaoxing; Tian, Daogui

2013-07-01

373

Ab initio molecular-dynamics method based on the restricted path integral: Application to the electron plasma and liquid alkali metal  

E-print Network

by an effective exchange potential. This path-integral molecular-dynamics method is able to simulate electron of the grand canonical parti- tion function of fermion systems.7 With this method the fer- mion sign problem10,14 to resolve the problem of negative weights to the partition function result- ing from the cross

Deymier, Pierre

374

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids  

SciTech Connect

This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States))

1992-05-01

375

Integrated two-liquid phase bioconversion and product-recovery processes for the oxidation of alkanes: Process design and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas oleovorans and recombinant strains containing the alkane oxidation genes can product alkane oxidation genes can produce alkane oxidation products in two-liquid phase bioreactor systems. In these bioprocesses the cells, which grow in the aqueous phase, oxidize apolar, non-water soluble substrates. The apolar products typically accumulate in the emulsified apolar phase. The authors have studied both the bioconversion systems and several downstream processing systems to separate and purify alkanols from these two-liquid phase media. Based on the information generated in these studies, the authors have now designed bioconversion and downstream processing systems for the production of 1-alkanols from n-alkanes on a 10 kiloton/yr scale, taking the conversion of n-octane to 1-octanol as a model system. Here, the authors describe overall designs of fed-batch and continuous-fermentation processes for the oxidation of octane to 1-octanol by Pseudomonas oleovoran, and the authors discuss the economics of these processes. The overall performance of each of these two systems has been modeled with Aspen software. Although the continuous process is about 10% more expensive than the fed-batch process, improvements to reduce overall cost can be achieved more easily for continuous than for fed-batch fermentation by decreasing the dilution rate while maintaining near constant productivity. Improvements relevant to both processes can be achieved by increasing the biocatalyst performance, which results in improved overall efficiency, decreased capital investment, and hence, decreased production cost.

Mathys, R.G.; Schmid, A.; Witholt, B.

1999-08-20

376

A generic approach for embedded catalyst-supported vertically aligned nanowire growth.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a general approach for growing vertically aligned, single-crystalline nanowires of any material on arbitrary substrates by using plasma-sputtered Au/Pd thin films as a catalyst through the vapor-liquid-solid process. The high-energy sputtered Au/Pd atoms form a reactive interface with the substrate forming nanoclusters which get embedded in the substrate, thus providing mechanical stability for vertically aligned nanowire growth. We demonstrate that our approach for vertically aligned nanowire growth is generic and can be extended to various complex substrates such as conducting indium tin oxide. PMID:18363342

Chung, Hee-Suk; Jung, Yeonwoong; Zimmerman, Tyler Jacob; Lee, Se-Ho; Kim, Ji Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seul Cham; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Agarwal, Ritesh

2008-05-01

377

Low gravity liquid level sensor rake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low gravity liquid level sensor rake measures the liquid surface height of propellant in a propellant tank used in launch and spacecraft vehicles. The device reduces the tendency of the liquid propellant to adhere to the sensor elements after the bulk liquid level has dropped below a given sensor element thereby reducing the probability of a false liquid level measurement. The liquid level sensor rake has a mast attached internal to a propellant tank with an end attached adjacent the tank outlet. Multiple sensor elements that have an arm and a sensor attached at a free end thereof are attached to the mast at locations selected for sensing the presence or absence of the liquid. The sensor elements when attached to the mast have a generally horizontal arm and a generally vertical sensor.

Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor); Craddock, Jeffrey C. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

378

The SNS Liquids Reflectometer  

SciTech Connect

The SNS Liquids Reflectometer [1], installed as one of the first instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source, has now been functional for more than a year. This instrument is designed to view liquid and solid surfaces in specular, off specular, and near-surface small angle scattering geometries. The guide system supplies 2 {angstrom} < {angstrom} < 16.5 {angstrom} neutrons at vertical incident angles ranging from 0{sup o} < {alpha}{sub i} < 5.5{sup o} for free liquid surfaces and up to 45{sup o} for solid surfaces. Three bandwidth choppers, synchronized with the spallation source and operating at 15-60 Hz, provide neutrons in bandwidths ranging from 3.5-14 {angstrom} at a fixed incident angle onto a sample. The sample stage enables all of the motions necessary for positioning liquid and solid surfaces, while the detector arm directs a position-sensitive detector to view the sample at specular or off specular angles up to 90{sup o} and can scan out of the specular plane by up to 30{sup o}.

Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Tao, Xiaodong [ORNL; Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Swader, Onome A [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Kharlampieva, Dr. Eugenia [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Sukhishvili, Prof. Svetlana A. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey

2008-01-01

379

Influence of Nocturnal Vertical Stability on Daytime Chemistry: A One-dimensional Model Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nocturnal chemistry can play an important role in determining the initial conditions for photochemistry of the next day, through the chemical removal and conversion of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The quantification of these processes is challenging because radiation cooling leads to the suppression of turbulence and vertical mixing. Consequently, emissions at the ground are only slowly transported vertically and vertical concentration gradients develop for many trace gases, making nocturnal chemistry dependent on altitude and vertical stability. The stable nocturnal boundary layer which is often capped by a neutrally stratified residual layer breaks up after sunrise and a vertically well-mixed boundary layer forms. The transition from a vertically non-uniform chemical regime to a well-mixed boundary layer makes the assessment of the influence of nocturnal vertical stability on daytime chemistry challenging. Here we present one-dimensional (1-D) chemical transport model calculations for different nighttime vertical stability (stable, weakly stable and neutral) and different O3 formation regimes, i.e. NOx- vs VOC-sensitive. We investigate the influence of nocturnal vertical stability on O3 formation during the next day by analyzing the vertically integrated nocturnal loss of NOx, and the concentrations of NOx and O3 during the next day. Our results show that the impact of nocturnal chemistry depends on whether O3 formation occurs under NOx- or VOC-sensitive conditions.

Wong, K.; Stutz, J.

2007-12-01

380

Vertical Photon Transport in Cloud Remote Sensing Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon transport in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds is investigated and applied to cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements for retrieving droplet effective radius. Transport is couched in terms of weighting functions which approximate the relative contribution of individual layers to the overall retrieval. Two vertical weightings are investigated, including one based on the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons in any given layer. A simpler vertical weighting based on the maximum penetration of reflected photons proves useful for solar reflectance measurements. These weighting functions are highly dependent on droplet absorption and solar/viewing geometry. A superposition technique, using adding/doubling radiative transfer procedures, is derived to accurately determine both weightings, avoiding time consuming Monte Carlo methods. Superposition calculations are made for a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Effective radius retrievals from modeled vertically inhomogeneous liquid water clouds are then made using the standard near-infrared bands, and compared with size estimates based on the proposed weighting functions. Agreement between the two methods is generally within several tenths of a micrometer, much better than expected retrieval accuracy. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived weightings can be applied to any multiple scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers.

Platnick, S.

1999-01-01

381

Si nanowire directly grown on a liquid metal substrate--towards wafer scale transferable nanowire arrays with improved visible-light sterilization.  

PubMed

Integrating vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) on a functional substrate is important for the application of NWs in wafer scale assemblies and functional devices. However, vertically aligned NWs via the current epitaxial growth route can only be prepared on crystalline wafers. A convenient method is thus presented to overcome NW substrate limitations. Liquid metal is proposed to serve as a substrate for the initial growth of vertically aligned NWs. NWs could then be harvested from the growth substrate and integrated with functional substrates. Fabricated vertically aligned silicon NWs (SiNWs) were grown on molten Sn and then integrated into a flexible transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane) film to obtain a SiNW/functional substrate device. The device showed enhanced visible-light absorption ability and refreshable visible-light bactericidal activities with a bacterial reduction rate of close to 100%, indicating that growth with molten metal as a substrate could be a promising approach for extending the function and application of NWs. PMID:24622242

Wang, Hui; Wang, Jian-Tao; Ou, Xue-Mei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

2014-04-11

382

Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices  

SciTech Connect

The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

Paul Mattione

2007-05-01

383

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

1983-01-01

384

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08

385

Bouncing droplets on a vibrated liquid\\/gaz interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coalescence of a droplet onto a planar liquid\\/air interface can be delayed by vertically vibrating the bath. Mechanisms that make the droplet bounce on the interface are investigated experimentally, by observing vertical trajectories of the droplet and interference fringes due to the air film between the droplet and the bath. A finite lifetime is generally observed. A dynamical model

Stephane Dorbolo; Denis Terwagne; Tristan Gilet; Nicolas Vandewalle

2006-01-01

386

Do liquidity measures measure liquidity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the key role of liquidity in finance research, identifying high quality proxies based on daily (as opposed to intraday) data would permit liquidity to be studied over relatively long timeframes and across many countries. Using new measures and widely employed measures in the literature, we run horseraces of annual and monthly estimates of each measure against liquidity benchmarks. Our

Ruslan Y. Goyenko; Craig W. Holden; Charles A. Trzcinka

2009-01-01

387

Sealing liquids with magnetic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability and durability of magnetic liquid seals have been tested under the condition of sealing other liquids. The results show that the deterioration of the magnetic fluid depends on the nature and combination of magnetic and nonmagnetic liquids as well as on the shaft speed, the temperature of the seal and the gradient of the magnetic field. Seal life

J. Kurfess; H. K. Müller

1990-01-01

388

5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. The 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel was built to study spinning characteristics of aircraft. It was an open throat tunnel capable of a maximum speed of 80 mph. NACA engineer Charles H. Zimmerman designed the tunnel starting in 1928. Construction was completed in December 1929. It was one of two tunnels which replaced the original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (The other was the 7x10-Foot Wind Tunnel.). In NACA TR 387 (p. 499), Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris report that 'the tunnel passages are constructed of 1/8-inch sheet iron, stiffened with angle iron and bolted together at the corners. The over-all dimensions are: Height 31 feet 2 inches; length, 20 feet 3 inches; width, 10 feet 3 inches.' The tunnel was partially constructed in the Langley hanger as indicated by the aircraft in the background. Published in NACA TR 387, 'The Vertical Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,' by Carl J. Wenzinger and Thomas A. Harris, 1931.

1930-01-01

389

Cloud and rain liquid water statistics in the CHUVA campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to present statistics related to the integration of cloud and rain liquid water and the profiles for different cloud types and regimes. From 2010 to 2012, the CHUVA project collected information regarding cloud and rain characteristics in different precipitation regimes in Brazil. CHUVA had four field campaigns between 2010 and 2011, located in the North, Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, covering the semi-arid, Amazon, coastal and mountain regions. The synergy of several instruments allowed us to classify rain events and describe the cloud processes regionally. Microwave radiometers, LiDAR, radar, and disdrometers were employed in this study. The rain type classification was made using vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPR) and polarimetric variables from dual polarization radar (XPOL). The integrated liquid water (ILWC) for non-precipitating clouds was retrieved with a microwave ground-based radiometer using a neural network. For rainy conditions, the profiles from the rain liquid water content (LWCR) and their integrated (ILWR) properties were estimated by Micro Rain Radar (MRR) and XPOL VPRs. For non-precipitating clouds, the ILWC values were larger for the sites in tropical regions, in particular near the coast, than for Southeast Brazil. For rainy cases, distinct LWCR profiles were observed for different rain classifications and regions. The differences are small for low rain rates and a distinction between different rainfall regimes is more evident for high rain rates. Vale and Belém clouds present the deepest layers and largest convective rain rates. The clouds in the Southeast region of Brazil (Vale do Paraíba) and North region (Belém) showed the largest reflectivity in the mixed and glaciated layers, respectively. In contrast, the Northeast coastal site (e.g. Fortaleza) showed larger values in the warm part of the clouds. Several analyses are presented, describing the cloud processes and the differences among the cloud types, rain rates and regions.

Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Machado, Luiz A. T.

2014-07-01

390

Ice streams in a vertically integrated ice flow model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice streams, characterised by high basal sliding velocities, are found in various coastal regions around Antarctica. Although they cover only a small proportion of the ice sheet surface, they play a dominant role in ice sheet drainage. Understanding ice stream dynamics is therefore crucial for making accurate predictions about the response of ice sheets to global climate change. One of the challenges is in being able to capture the transition from ice sheet to ice stream flow. We consider a hybrid between the shallow ice approximation (SIA) and the shallow shelf approximation (SSA) that captures the leading order physics of low aspect ratio viscous fluid flow, regardless of the amount of slip at the bed. To do this, we introduce a new parameter ? that approximates the ratio of the basal stress to the shear stress scale, providing a measure of the slip. Our formulation is able to simultaneously describe the dynamics of both a slow moving sheet and rapidly flowing ice streams. To test this formulation, we apply a triple valued sliding law as the basal boundary condition. Sayag and Tziperman (2009) showed that such a sliding law can provide a basic instability mechanism allowing for ice stream formation. Jumps between the fast and slow stable branches of the sliding law, via the middle unstable branch, correspond to switching between ice stream and non ice stream flow behaviour. Here we present comparisons between our results and previous results. We will also consider possible ways in which to extend the work to couple the subglacial hydrology more directly to basal sliding with a physical model. REFERENCES Roiy Sayag and Eli Tziperman. Spatiotemporal dynamics of ice streams due to a triple- valued sliding law. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 640:483, Dec 2009.

Kyrke-Smith, T. M.; Katz, R. F.; Fowler, A.

2011-12-01

391

An Approach to Vertically Integrated Embedded Systems Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Historically, commercial market trends trickle down into engineering program curricula. In the computing systems marketplace, customers are demanding ever more complex features as computing systems become more capable and affordable. Today, engineering educators are feeling the pressure to provide more realistic, comprehensive, and complex lab experiences to the students in order to remain relevant and keep students attention. These demands are especially difficult in the university environment where students may lack several basic skills and the professor and student work under an intense 15-week time-to-market.

Bruce, Jw; Hathcock, Lee

2011-10-04

392

Vertical Integration: Results from a Cross-Course Student Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report the results of a cross-class project involving sophomore-level students in an Operations Analysis (OA) class with junior-level students in an Operations Management (OM) class. The students formed virtual teams and developed a simulation model of a call center. The OM students provided the management expertise, while the OA…

Sloan, Thomas; Lewis, David

2011-01-01

393

CSEM WP 117 Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets  

E-print Network

other studies that have found substantial inefficiencies in restructured electricity mar- kets, and Maryland market. This distinctive conclusion results from using a model that incorporates structural market-cost margins based on a commonly used method that does not incorporate these nonconvexities imply that market

California at Berkeley. University of

394

Vertical integration in the beef cattle industry: Harris Ranch Company  

E-print Network

-up and Laundry Department Plant Maintenance Department Conclusion . LITERATURE CITED Page 60 60 60 65 VITA 66 LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1. INGREDIENT CONTRACTING TABLE 2. MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM SPREAD BETWEEN DIFFERENT 16 OPTIONS ON A PER HEAD BASIS...-up and Laundry Department Plant Maintenance Department Conclusion . LITERATURE CITED Page 60 60 60 65 VITA 66 LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1. INGREDIENT CONTRACTING TABLE 2. MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM SPREAD BETWEEN DIFFERENT 16 OPTIONS ON A PER HEAD BASIS...

Pedretti Fernandez, Carlos Luis

2012-06-07

395

Vertical integration and strategic sourcing in the biopharmaceutical industry  

E-print Network

Biopharmaceutical companies are focusing on operational efficiency more than ever before due to cost pressures, generic competition, complex pricing, regulations, and globalization. Due to the low probabilities of success ...

Haupt, Lynne Felice

2005-01-01

396

Vertical Integration: Corporate Strategy in the Information Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles the corporate strategies of three sectors of the information industry and the trend toward consolidation in electronic publishing. Three companies' acquisitions are examined in detail using qualitative data from information industry columns and interpreting it on the basis of game theory. (EM)

Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

1986-01-01

397

Liquid Crystals: LCD Displays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will learn the history and applications of liquid crystal technology. This interactive presentation will allow students to not only learn about the technology, but it will actually allow them to analyze and work with examples. Everything from flat panel televisions to mood rings are used to show how liquid crystal plays an integral role in many products. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

2008-10-08

398

Boiling characteristics in small vertical tubes with closed bottom for nanofluids and nanoparticle-suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was carried out to understand the nucleate boiling characteristics and the critical heat flux (CHF)\\u000a of water, the water based nanofluids and the water based nanoparticle-suspensions in vertical small heated tubes with a closed\\u000a bottom. Here, the nanofluids consisted of the base liquid, the CuO nanoparticles and the surfactant. The nanoparticle-suspensions\\u000a consisted of the base liquid and

Lv Lun-Chun; Liu Zhen-Hua

2008-01-01

399

Vertical silicon nanowire arrays for gas sensing  

E-print Network

The goal of this research was to fabricate and characterize vertically aligned silicon nanowire gas sensors. Silicon nanowires are very attractive for gas sensing applications and vertically aligned silicon nanowires are ...

Zhao, Hangbo

2014-01-01

400

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration  

SciTech Connect

The FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) configuration has been designed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF (toroidal-field) boundary. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged-shaped TF coils that surround a free-standing central solenoid (CS), a double-wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma-facing components. A center tie rod is used to help support the vertical magnetic loads and a compression ring is used to maintain wedge pressure in the inboard corners of the TF coils. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double-wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. The FIRE configuration development and integration process has evolved from an early stage of concept selection to a higher level of machine definition and component details. This paper describes the status of the configuration development and the integration of the major subsystem components.

T. Brown

1999-11-01

401

Case study of landfill leachate recirculation using small-diameter vertical wells.  

PubMed

A case study of landfill liquids addition using small diameter (5cm) vertical wells is reported. More than 25,000m(3) of leachate was added via 134 vertical wells installed 3m, 12m, and 18m deep over five years in a landfill in Florida, US. Liquids addition performance (flow rate per unit screen length per unit liquid head) ranged from 5.6×10(-8) to 3.6×10(-6)m(3)s(-1) per m screen length per m liquid head. The estimated radial hydraulic conductivity ranged from 3.5×10(-6) to 4.2×10(-4)ms(-1). The extent of lateral moisture movement ranged from 8 to 10m based on the responses of moisture sensors installed around vertical well clusters, and surface seeps were found to limit the achievable liquids addition rates, despite the use of concrete collars under a pressurized liquids addition scenario. The average moisture content before (51 samples) and after (272 samples) the recirculation experiments were 23% (wet weight basis) and 45% (wet weight basis), respectively, and biochemical methane potential measurements of excavated waste indicated significant (p<0.025) decomposition. PMID:25164856

Jain, Pradeep; Ko, Jae Hac; Kumar, Dinesh; Powell, Jon; Kim, Hwidong; Maldonado, Lizmarie; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra R

2014-11-01

402

Bioactivity-integrated ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of nuclear factor-?B inhibitors and ?2 adrenergic receptor agonists in Chinese medicinal preparation Chuanbeipipa dropping pills.  

PubMed

A simple and dual-target method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with dual-bioactive [nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and ?2 -adrenergic receptor] luciferase reporter assay systems was developed to rapidly characterize the chemical structure of various bioactive compounds of TCM preparations. Chuanbeipipa dropping pills, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation used for the clinical therapy of chronic obstructive lung disease and cough caused by bronchial catarrh, was analyzed with this method. Potential anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic constituents were screened using NF-?B and ?2 -adrenergic receptor activity luciferase reporter assay systems and simultaneously identified according to the time-of-flight mass spectrometry data. One ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist (ephedrine) and two structural types of NF-?B inhibitors (platycosides derivatives and ursolic acid derivatives) were characterized. Platycodin D3 and E were considered new NF-?B inhibitors. Further cytokine and chemokine detection confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of the potential NF-?B inhibitors. Compared with conventional fingerprints, activity-integrated fingerprints that contain both chemical and bioactive details offer a more comprehensive understanding of the chemical makeup of plant materials. This strategy clearly demonstrated that multiple bioactivity-integrated fingerprinting is a powerful tool for the improved screening and identification of potential multi-target lead compounds in complex herbal medicines. PMID:23483566

Dong, Linyi; Luo, Yi; Cheng, Binfeng; Zhang, Yaoshu; Zhang, Ning; Hou, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Min; Luo, Guoan; Bai, Gang

2013-08-01

403

Wideband Circularly Polarized Vertical Patch Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact circularly polarized (CP) vertical patch antenna is presented that employs a microstrip to slot-line transition for a wideband operation. The antenna is composed of two vertical patches, which are shaped as helix to obtain a broadband CP performance. The loop structure and the vertical overlap configuration lead to significant size reduction as much as 48% when compared to

Ze-Hai Wu; Edward Kai-Ning Yung

2008-01-01

404

Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

Young, Larry A

2000-01-01

405

PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to optical study. Film formation goes a step beyond adsorption; some surfactants form monolayers or multilayers at the interface. A polymer microfilm or a polymer-particle matrix can be synthesized at the liquid-liquid boundary. Such films exhibit unique adsorption and ion-intercalation properties of their own. Electrowetting refers broadly to the phenomenon in which an applied voltage modulates the shape of a liquid-liquid interface, essentially by altering the surface tension. Electric fields can be used to induce droplets on solid substrates to change shape, or to affect the structure of liquid-liquid emulsions. Various chemical reactions can be performed at the liquid-liquid boundary. Liquid-liquid microelectrodes allow detailed study of ion-transfer kinetics at the interface. Photochemical processes can also be used to control the conformations of molecules adsorbed at the interface. But how much precise control do we actually have on the state of the interfacial region? Several contributions to this issue address a system which has been studied for decades in electrochemistry, but remains essentially unfamilar to physicists. This is the interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (ITIES), a progressing interdisciplinary field in which condensed-matter physics and physical chemistry meet molecular electrochemistry. Why is it so exciting? The reason is simple. The ITIES is chargeable: when positioned between two electrodes it can be polarized, and back- to-back electrical double layers form on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Importantly, the term immiscible refers not only to oil and water but also to the electrolytes. Inorganic electrolytes, such as alkali halides, tend to stay in water, whereas organic electrolytes, such as tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate, stay in oil. This behaviour arises because energies of the order of 0.2-0.3 eV are needed to drive ions across the interface. As long as these free energies of transfer are not exceeded by the external potential bias, the ITIES works as an 'electrode'; there is no traffic of ions

Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

2007-09-01

406

Neighbourly polytopes with few vertices  

SciTech Connect

A family of neighbourly polytopes in R{sup 2d} with N=2d+4 vertices is constructed. All polytopes in the family have a planar Gale diagram of a special type, namely, with exactly d+3 black points in convex position. These Gale diagrams are parametrized by 3-trees (trees with a certain additional structure). For all polytopes in the family, the number of faces of dimension m containing a given vertex A depends only on d and m. Bibliography: 7 titles.

Devyatov, Rostislav A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-10-31

407

Local flow characteristics of subcooled boiling flow of water in a vertical concentric annulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radial profiles of local void fraction and velocities of both phases were measured in subcooled boiling flow of water in a vertical concentric annulus with a heated inner tube. A two-conductivity probe technique was used for the measurements of local void fraction and vapor velocity and a Pitot tube method was applied to measure the local liquid velocity. Measurements

T. H. Lee; G. C. Park; D. J. Lee

2002-01-01

408

Physical modelling and similitude of air bubble entrainment at vertical circular plunging jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a plunging jet impinges into a pool of liquid, air bubble entrainment takes place if the inflow velocity exceeds a threshold velocity. This study investigates air entrainment and bubble dispersion in the developing flow region of vertical circular plunging jets. Three scale models were used and detailed air–water measurements (void fraction, bubble count rate, bubble sizes) were performed systematically

H. Chanson; S. Aoki; A. Hoque

2004-01-01

409

Instability analysis of nonlinear surface waves in a circular cylindrical container subjected to a vertical excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singular perturbation theory of two-time scale expansions was developed both in inviscid and weak viscous fluids to investigate the motion of single surface standing wave in a liquid-filled circular cylindrical vessel, which is subject to a vertical periodical oscillation. Firstly, it is assumed that the fluid in the circular cylindrical vessel is inviscid, incompressible and the motion is irrotational, a

Yongjun Jian; Xuequan E

2005-01-01

410

Analysis of film condensation heat transfer inside a vertical micro tube with consideration of the meniscus  

E-print Network

0017-9310(03)00293-X International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 46 (2003) 4669­4679 www and mass transfer processes in a micro heat pipe. The liquid flow in the triangular-shaped cornersAnalysis of film condensation heat transfer inside a vertical micro tube with consideration

Zhao, Tianshou

411

Liquid filtration simulation  

SciTech Connect

We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

1996-06-01

412

Vertical structure characteristics of tropical precipitating storms observed during CRYSTAL FACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During CRYSTAL FACE, the NASA S-band polarimetric radar (NPOL) and a NOAA Aeronomy S-Band vertical wind profiler were deployed in South Florida. NPOL was located near Everglade City along the west coast of Florida and the profiler was located west of Miami. NPOL and the profiler were separated by a distance of 94.5 km. This study examines the vertical characteristics of tropical precipitating systems for several priority cases observed during the experiment. The profiler provides high-resolution vertical measurements of radar reflectivity, mean Doppler velocity, and spectral width. This information gives insight to the vertical structure, fall speeds of the hydrometeors, updrafts/downdrafts, and turbulence in the clouds. Also, estimates of particle size distributions can be obtained from these data. NPOL provides similar information over a broader horizontal region, but has a lower vertical resolution than the wind profiler. Polarimetric data can also provide additional information about the hydrometeor type (liquid or frozen), size, and shape. It can also provide some indication of the budget of hydrometeors (percentage of liquid and frozen hydrometeors). Several cases when storms moved over the profiler site and there were coincident profiler and NPOL data will be examined. Vertical characteristics of storm structure for different periods of the convective lifecycle and when possible, preliminary hydrometeor budgets will be presented in this study.

Kucera, P.; Cifelli, R.; Williams, C.

2003-04-01

413

Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity (i.e., the ease with which it is traded) and traders' funding liquidity (i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding). Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and margin requirements, depends on the assets'

Markus K. Brunnermeier; Lasse Heje Pedersen

2009-01-01

414

How do liquids confined at the nanoscale influence adhesion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquids play an important role in adhesion and sliding friction. They behave as lubricants in human bodies, especially in the joints. However, in many biological attachment systems they act like adhesives, e.g. facilitating insects to move on ceilings or vertical walls. Here we use molecular dynamics to study how liquids confined at the nanoscale influence the adhesion between solid bodies

C. Yang; U. Tartaglino; B. N. J. Persson

2006-01-01

415

Highly directional liquid surface wave source based on resonant cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

By placing a point source inside a resonant cavity structure, we present a method to realize a highly directional liquid surface wave source. The resonant cavity is surrounded by two slabs of different thickness, with each slab consisting of a finite square array of rigid cylinders standing vertically in the liquid. It is shown that more than 68% of the

Jun Mei; Chunyin Qiu; Jing Shi; Zhengyou Liu

2009-01-01

416

Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430 ?F cm(-2) for a scan rate of 0.1 V s(-1) and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100 V s(-1). Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices. PMID:24407158

Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Maboudian, Roya

2014-02-01

417

Natural Vertical Flow in the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on estimating the mass (M) and energy (E) flow rates, the permeability k, and the relative permeability functions R{sub L} and R{sub V} associated with the natural vertical flow in the reservoir. To estimate M and E we used the standard 1-D vertical equations for two-phase flow, complemented with boundary conditions at the boiling and dew interfaces. These boundary conditions were derived in an earlier stage of this study that established an approximate 1-D vertical model of the reservoir. The estimated values of M and E were then used together with the previously established liquid saturation vertical profile of the reservoir, and the differential equation expressing the pressure gradient, to fit, by trial and error, the observed natural pressure profile. The accuracy of the fit depends on the assumed value for the vertical permeability and on the chosen forms for the relative permeability functions. They estimated M {approx} 6.9 x 10{sup -8} kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and E {approx} 0.2 W m{sup -2}. These results lie well within the ample ranges of mass and energy flowrates per unit area found in geothermal fields worldwide. The estimated values of M and E support the previous inference that there is an extensive caprock in the reservoir. The best fit to the natural pressure gradient implies a vertical permeability of about 0.08 mD, residual water- and steam-saturations of about 0.04 and 0.00 respectively, and ''fracture relative permeabilities'' (i.e., R{sub L} + R{sub V} = 1). This work addresses a major obstacle for a successful analysis of the Los Azufres geothermal reservoir, which is characterized by an extensive two-phase region: the former unavailability of reasonably reliable relative permeability functions. Furthermore, the present characterization of the vertical natural flow provides important constraints for both lumped- and distributed-parameter models of the reservoir. Finally, this work gives information on reservoir properties that would be difficult to obtain by other means.

Iglesias, E.R.; Arellano, V.M.; Ortiz-Ramirez, J.

1986-01-21

418

Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

2004-01-01

419

Levels of Responsiveness to Food or Its Absence and the Vertical Lobe Circuit of Octopus Vulgaris Lamarck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The visual learning system of an octopus depends upon the integrity of the vertical lobe circuit, which includes the median superior frontal and vertical lobes of the brain. In order to try to show the function of the different parts of this circuit it wa...

M. Nixon, J. Z. Young

1966-01-01

420

Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells  

E-print Network

A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

2014-01-01

421

Influence of via-connections on electrical performance of vertically-spaced RF passives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical performance of via-connected rectangular spiral inductors integrated on a low-loss spacer substrate and thus vertically-spaced above a lossy silicon substrate is analyzed using 3D electromagnetic simulation tool Ansoft HFSS with a goal to identify the optimum via-interconnect scheme. The results show that vertically spaced spiral inductors with a properly designed via-interconnect scheme is a viable option to achieve high-quality

M. Bartek; S. M. Sinaga; J. N. Burghartz

2005-01-01

422

Finite width coplanar waveguide patch antenna with vertical fed through interconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a finite width Coplanar waveguide (FCPW) patch antenna and a FCPW-to-FCPW vertical interconnect. The experimental results demonstrate the antenna and interconnect performance. A scheme to integrate an eight element FCPW patch array with MMIC phase shifters and amplifiers using vertical interconnects is described. The antenna module has potential applications in an advanced satellite to ground transmit phased array at K-Band.

Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Owens, Jonathan; Demarco, James; Leen, Joan; Sturzebecher, Dana

1996-01-01

423

Cell Based Volume Integration for Boundary Integral Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of volume integrals that arise in boundary integral formulations for non-homogeneous problems is considered. Using the 'Galerkin vector' to represent the Green's function, the volume integral is decomposed into a boundary integral plus a simpler volume integral wherein the source function is everywhere zero on the boundary. This new volume integral can be evaluated using a regular grid of cells covering the domain, with all cell integrals, including partial cells at the boundary, evaluated by simple linear interpolation of vertex values. For grid vertices that lie close to the boundary, the near-singular integrals are handled by partial analytic integration. The method employs a Galerkin approximation and is presented in terms of the 3D Poisson problem. An axi-symmetric formulation is also presented, and in this setting, the solution of a nonlinear problem is considered.

Koehler, Matthew [Vanderbilt University; Yang, Ruoke [ORNL; Gray, Leonard J [ORNL

2012-01-01

424

Three dimensional integration technology using copper wafer bonding  

E-print Network

With 3-D integration, the added vertical component could theoretically increase the device density per footprint ratio of a given chip by n-fold, provide a means of heterogeneous integration of devices fabricated from ...

Fan, Andy, 1976-

2006-01-01

425

Vertical profiles of condensation nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Condensation nuclei measurements using a low supersaturation (about 10%) thermal gradient diffusion cloud chamber (TGDCC) and a high supersaturation (about 200%) expansion type instrument were compared on a series of three balloon flights over Laramie, Wyoming. In general, the two instruments produced similar vertical profiles but some discrepancies remain unexplained. Agreement between the two would indicate that the low supersaturations used in the TGDCC were still large enough to cause the instrument to count essentially all of the particles present. The TGDCC condensation nuclei (CN) counter was flown at several sites in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The results indicate the existence of a relative maximum in the CN mixing ratio associated with the upper equatorial troposphere and what appears to be a worldwide constant mixing ratio of CN above 20-25 km.

Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.; Kaselau, K. H.

1978-01-01

426

Vertical structuring of gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigantic Jets (GJs) are initiated deep inside the thundercloud as intracloud discharges whose upward-directed leaders manage to escape through the thundercloud top and propagate up to the ionosphere. The speed at which leaders propagate is limited by the air heating of every newly formed leader section, rate of which is slower at upper altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Despite the expected deceleration of an upward-directed leader, GJs are observed to accelerate as they approach the ionosphere. In this letter, we discuss the dependence of the leader speed on current density in the leader stem, and we propose a simple time-dynamic model for GJ propagation that includes the effects of the expansion of the streamer zone adjacent to the leader head. We propose that the GJ acceleration is a consequence of its vertical structuring and, therefore, can be used to trace the transition altitude between the leader and streamer zone sections of GJs.

Silva, Caitano L.; Pasko, Victor P.

2013-06-01

427

Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kg m-3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neutron monitor data from Oulu. Model ionisation rates agree well with the observed cosmic ray ionisation below 20 km altitude. Above 10 km, the measured ionisation rates also correlate well with simultaneous neutron monitor data, although, consistently with previous work, measured variability at the ionisation maximum is greater than that found by the neutron monitor. However, in the lower atmosphere (below 5 km altitude), agreement between the measurements and simultaneous neutron monitor data is poor. For studies of transient lower atmosphere phenomena associated with cosmic ray ionisation, this indicates the need for in situ ionisation measurements and improved lower atmosphere parameterisations.

Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Aplin, K. L.

2014-11-01

428

Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes  

PubMed Central

Summary This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs. PMID:23504581

Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-Francois

2013-01-01

429

Vertically aligned rolled-up SiO2 optical microcavities in add-drop configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant step towards integrated vertically rolled-up microcavities is demonstrated by interfacing an as-fabricated SiO2 microtube optical ring resonator with tapered fibers. In this transmission configuration, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is shown in subwavelength thick walled microcavities. Moreover, we present a four-port add-drop filter based on a lifted doubly interfaced vertically rolled-up microcavity. Our work opens opportunities for vertical resonant light transfer in 3D multi-level optical data processing as well as for massively parallel optofluidic analysis of biomaterials in lab-on-a-chip systems.

Böttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

2013-06-01

430

Preliminary design of a supersonic Short-Takeoff and Vertical-Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. Three configurations (a lift plus lift/cruise concept, a hybrid fan vectored thrust concept, and a mixed flow vectored thrust concept) were initially investigated with one configuration selected for further design analysis. The selected configuration, the lift plus lift/cruise concept, was successfully integrated to accommodate the powered lift short takeoff and vertical landing requirements as well as the demanding supersonic cruise and point performance requirements. A supersonic fighter aircraft with a short takeoff and vertical landing capability using the lift plus lift/cruise engine concept seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

1990-01-01

431

Tracking Interfaces in Vertical Two-Phase Flows  

SciTech Connect

The presence of stratified liquid-gas interfaces in vertical flows poses difficulties to most classes of solution methods for two-phase flows of practical interest in the field of reactor safety and thermal-hydraulics. These difficulties can plague the reactor simulations unless handled with proper care. To illustrate these difficulties, the US NRC Consolidated Thermal-hydraulics Code (TRAC-M) was exercised with selected numerical bench-mark problems. These numerical benchmarks demonstrate that the use of an average void fraction for computational volumes simulating vertical flows is inadequate when these volumes consist of stratified liquid-gas interfaces. In these computational volumes, there are really two regions separated by the liquid-gas interface and each region has a distinct flow topology. An accurate description of these divided computational volumes require that separate void fractions be assigned to each region. This strategy requires that the liquid-gas interfaces be tracked in order to determine their location, the volumes of regions separated by the interface, and the void fractions in these regions. The idea of tracking stratified liquid-gas interfaces is not new. There are examples of tracking methods that were developed for reactor safety codes and applied to reactor simulations in the past with some limited success. The users of these safety codes were warned against potential flow oscillations, conflicting water levels, and pressure disturbances which could be caused by the tracking methods themselves. An example of these methods is the level tracking method of TRAC-M. A review of this method is given here to explore the reasons behind its failures. The review shows that modifications to the field equations are mostly responsible for these failures. Following the review, a systematic approach to incorporate interface tracking methods is outlined. This approach is applicable to most classes of solution methods. For demonstration, the approach to incorporate the tracking method into the field equations of TRAC-M is described in steps. The success of this approach is demonstrated by exercising TRAC-M with the same benchmark problems that were previously used to illustrate the difficulties the code suffered from in the presence of interfaces. Besides improvements to the accuracy of the code predictions, one of the benchmark problems, which simulates a strong condensation at the liquid-gas interface, shows that the code's runtime is improved significantly where the alternative methods like water packing fails. (authors)

Aktas, Birol [Information Systems Laboratory Inc., 11140 Rockville Pike, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2002-07-01

432

Integrated system for temperature-controlled fast protein liquid chromatography comprising improved copolymer modified beaded agarose adsorbents and a travelling cooling zone reactor arrangement.  

PubMed

An integrated approach to temperature-controlled chromatography, involving copolymer modified agarose adsorbents and a novel travelling cooling zone reactor (TCZR) arrangement, is described. Sepharose CL6B was transformed into a thermoresponsive cation exchange adsorbent (thermoCEX) in four synthetic steps: (i) epichlorohydrin activation; (ii) amine capping; (iii) 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) immobilization; and 'graft from' polymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-tert-butylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide). FT-IR, (1)H NMR, gravimetry and chemical assays allowed precise determination of the adsorbent's copolymer composition and loading, and identified the initial epoxy activation step as a critical determinant of 'on-support' copolymer loading, and in turn, protein binding performance. In batch binding studies with lactoferrin, thermoCEX's binding affinity and maximum adsorption capacity rose smoothly with temperature increase from 20 to 50 °C. In temperature shifting chromatography experiments employing thermoCEX in thermally jacketed columns, 44-51% of the lactoferrin adsorbed at 42 °C could be desorbed under binding conditions by cooling the column to 22 °C, but the elution peaks exhibited strong tailing. To more fully exploit the potential of thermoresponsive chromatography adsorbents, a new column arrangement, the TCZR, was developed. In TCZR chromatography, a narrow discrete cooling zone (special assembly of copper blocks and Peltier elements) is moved along a bespoke fixed-bed separation columnfilled with stationary phase. In tests with thermoCEX, it was possible to recover 65% of the lactoferrin bound at 35 °C using 8 successive movements of the cooling zone at a velocity of 0.1mm/s; over half of the recovered protein was eluted in the first peak in more concentrated form than in the feed. Intra-particle diffusion of desorbed protein out of the support pores, and the ratio between the velocities of the cooling zone and mobile phase were identified as the main parameters affecting TCZR performance. In contrast to conventional systems, which rely on cooling the whole column to effect elution and permit only batch-wise operation, TCZR chromatography generates sharp concentrated elution peaks without tailing effects and appears ideally suited for continuous operation. PMID:23481470

Müller, Tobias K H; Cao, Ping; Ewert, Stephanie; Wohlgemuth, Jonas; Liu, Haiyang; Willett, Thomas C; Theodosiou, Eirini; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias

2013-04-12

433

Photonic integrated circuits for optical logic applications  

E-print Network

The optical logic unit cell is the photonic analog to transistor-transistor logic in electronic devices. Active devices such as InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) emitting at 1550 nm are vertically integrated ...

Williams, Ryan Daniel

2007-01-01

434

Characteristics of vertical climbing in African apes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of bipedalism is a key event in the transition from apes to early hominids. Vertical climbing has been proposed\\u000a to be the critical locomotor behaviour preadaptive to habitual bipedalism, although quantitative data about vertical climbing\\u000a in nonhuman primates are scarce. This study focuses on 3D-kinematics of vertical climbing in different hominoid species in\\u000a zoos. Emphasis is laid on

Karin Isler

2002-01-01

435

Wave field features of shallow vertical discontinuity and their application in non-destructive detection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geotechnical integrity of critical infrastructure can be seriously compromised by the presence of fractures or crevices. Non-destructive techniques to accurately detect fractures in critical infrastructure such as dams and highways could be of significant benefit to the geotechnical industry. This paper investigates the application of shallow seismic and georadar methods to the detection of a vertical discontinuity using numerical simulations. The objective is to address the kinematical analysis of a vertical discontinuity, determine the resulting wave field characteristics, and provide the basis for determining the existence of vertical discontinuities based on the recorded signals. Simulation results demonstrate that: (1) A reflection from a vertical discontinuity produces a hyperbolic feature on a seismic or georadar profile; (2) In order for a reflection from a vertical discontinuity to be produced, a reflecting horizon below the discontinuity must exist, the offset between source and receiver (x0) must be non-zero, on the same side of the vertical discontinuity; (3) The range of distances from the vertical discontinuity where a reflection event is observed is proportional to its length and to x0; (4) Should the vertical crevice (or fracture) pass through a reflecting horizon, dual hyperbolic features can be observed on the records, and this can be used as a determining factor that the vertical crevice passes through the interface; and (5) diffractions from the edges of the discontinuity can be recorded with relatively smaller amplitude than reflections and their ranges are not constrained by the length of discontinuity. If the length of discontinuity is short enough, diffractions are the dominant feature. Real-world examples show that the shallow seismic reflection method and the georadar method are capable of recording the hyperbolic feature, which can be interpreted as vertical discontinuity. Thus, these methods show some promise as effective non-destructive detection methods for locating vertical discontinuities (e.g., fractures or crevices) in infrastructure such as dams and highway pavement. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Liu, J.; Xia, J.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.

2007-01-01

436

Targeting Human Serum Fucome by an Integrated Liquid-phase Multi Column Platform Operating in "Cascade" to Facilitate Comparative Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Disease-Free and Breast Cancer Sera  

PubMed Central

A fully integrated platform was developed for capturing/fractionating human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera. It comprised multicolumn operated by HPLC pumps and switching valves for the simultaneous depletion of high abundance proteins via affinity-based subtraction and the capturing of fucosylated glycoproteins via lectin affinity chromatography followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) were utilized. The platform allowed the “cascading” of the serum sample from column-to-column in the liquid phase with no sample manipulation between the various steps. This guaranteed no sample loss and no propagation of experimental biases between the various columns. Finally, the fucome was fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to trypsinolysis for LC-MS/MS analysis. This permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in breast cancer serum yielding a broad panel of 35 DEP from the combined LTA and AAL captured proteins and a narrower panel of 8 DEP that were commonly differentially expressed in both LTA and AAL fractions, which are considered as more representative of cancer altered fucome. PMID:23533108