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1

Construction & Therapy Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

Construction & Therapy Vertical Integration Pilot Project Collaboration Partners Department to work with a local population to realize direct construction. Titled Construction & Therapy the studio will be documented and developed as a therapeutic exercise. The production of the welcome building will be delivered

Strathclyde, University of

2

Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

3

Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2010-01-01

4

Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence  

E-print Network

We study the determinants of vertical integration. We first derive a number of predictions regarding the relationship between technology intensity and vertical integration from a simple incomplete contracts model. Then, ...

Acemoglu, Daron

5

Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration Gilles Chemla ¤ July 8, 2002 and Management Strategy 12, 2 (2003) 261-289." #12;Downstream Competition, Forclosure, and Vertical Integration Abstract This paper analyzes the impact of competition among downstream ¯rms on an upstream ¯rm's payo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Vertical Integration in Building Automation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building automation systems (BAS) are widely deployed in modern buildings. They are typically engineered adhering to the classical, hierarchical 3-layer model, which has served well in the past but is reaching its limits in complex BAS. The move to more integrated building services also requires tighter integration of the mostly heterogeneous technologies. Vertical integration promises seamless communication from the individual

Stefan Soucek; Dietmar Loy

2007-01-01

7

Food Supply Chains with Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

Food Supply Chains with Vertical Integration SOM 822 Research Paper Diogo Souza-Monteiro Dep. of Resource Economics 05/10/2004 #12;Introduction Food Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex in different tiers of food chains. Barkena and Drabenstott (1995) claim that contracts are quickly taking

Nagurney, Anna

8

Silicon Vertically Integrated Nanowire Field Effect Transistors  

E-print Network

of the threshold voltage is commonly observed due to the presence of surface and interface charge-trapping states. Herein we demonstrate the direct vertical integration of Si nanowire arrays into surrounding gate field challenging issues such as short-channel effects (SCEs), scaling of gate oxide thickness, and increasing power

Yang, Peidong

9

Integrated Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) Memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid state, block access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1 Gbit/sq cm areal storage density, data rates of hundreds of megabits/sec, and submillisecond average access time simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBLs are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of BVL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single chip memory using 25 Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. The current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results are described which are used to assist the design process.

Katti, R. R.; Wu, J. C.; Stadler, H. L.

1991-01-01

10

Vertically Integrated Rheology of Deforming Oceanic Lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonics of the oceans have traditionally been modeled in terms of rigid plates interacting at narrow boundaries. The now well-documented existence of diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, across which relative motion is distributed over hundreds to thousands of kilometers, demonstrates the need for a different approach to understanding the tectonics and geodynamics of a substantial fraction of oceanic lithosphere. A model that has usefully been applied to diffuse zones of continental deformation is that of a thin viscous sheet of fluid obeying a power-law rheology. The model has few adjustable parameters, typically a power-law exponent, n, and the Argand number [England & McKenzie, 1982], which is a measure of the size of buoyancy forces caused by the deformation, and which can be neglected for deformation of oceanic lithosphere. In prior investigations of a thin sheet of power-law fluid for continental regions, most studies have found that the most appropriate power-law exponent is ?3 [e.g., England & Molnar 1991, 1997], but a value as large as ?10 has been recently suggested by Dayem et al. [2009]. Because the rheology of oceanic lithosphere differs significantly from that of continental lithosphere, the most appropriate exponent may be larger than 3, and should in some sense be an appropriately weighted average between the properties of the upper lithosphere, which deforms brittlely and semi-brittlely, and for which the power-law exponent is n ? ?, and the lower lithosphere, which deforms by dislocation glide [Goetze 1978; Evans & Goetze 1979; Ratteron et al. 2003; Dayem et al. 2009; Mei et al. 2010], which obeys an exponential law, and by dislocation creep for which n?3 [Sonder & England, 1986]. To estimate the appropriate power-law exponent consistent with laboratory experiments we determine strain rate as a function of applied end load on the lithosphere for various ages of lithosphere. We find that a power-law fluid well approximates the vertically integrated rheology of oceanic lithosphere determined from laboratory experiments and that the best-fitting power-law exponent for the vertically integrated rheology is insensitive to strain rate. We also find that, except for very young lithosphere (< ?10 Ma old), the best-fitting power law exponent is insensitive to the age of the lithosphere, with the value of the exponent being between 14 and 16 when failing for thrust faulting for the flow laws of Kohlstedt et al [1995] and between 15 and 19 for more recently published flow laws. These results support the application of thin viscous sheet models to diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, such as the ones accommodating motion between the India, Capricorn, and Australia plates in the Indian Ocean.

Mishra, J. K.; Gordon, R. G.

2011-12-01

11

Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of post-contractural apportunistic behavior for improving market efficiency through intrafirm rather than interfirm transactions is examined under the assumption that vertical costs will increase less than contracting costs as specialized assets and appropriable quasi rents increase. Vertical integration protects against the risk of contract cancellation and can create market power which is not generally referred to as monopoly.

Benjamin Klein; Robert G. Crawford; Armen A. Alchian

1978-01-01

12

Temperature compensated overdrive in vertically aligned liquid crystal displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of backflow in vertically aligned liquid crystal displays (VA-LCDs) inhibits application of conventional overdrive techniques to achieve faster switching. This (hydro)dynamic behavior is simulated accurately by using the Leslie-Ericksen theory in a one-dimensional model. Taking the limitations due to backflow into account from these simulations, we designed overdrive schemes for VA-LCDs. The temperature sensitivity of a fixed overdrive table was eliminated by adapting the scheme to the simulated temperature variations in the dynamic behavior. Experimental verification in the 25-75 C range shows that the resulting temperature compensated overdrive leads to faster switching, which is expected to be artifact free.

Vanbrabant, Pieter J. M.; Velthoven-Dessaud, Nathalie; Strmer, Jan F.; Neyts, Kristiaan

2008-12-01

13

Vertical Integration and Market Power in Electricity Markets Seamus Hogan  

E-print Network

Vertical Integration and Market Power in Electricity Markets Seamus Hogan Senior Lecturer of generation from electricity retailing has often been required as a condition of electricity market. Integration is found to affect retail electricity prices only via its effect on retail marginal costs. We find

Hickman, Mark

14

Vertically integrated high-silica channel waveguides on Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the vertical integration of high-silica content low-loss channel waveguides on an Si substrate is reported. The fabrication process, which has made the vertical integration feasible, consists of a practical multistep combination of flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD), photolithographic patterning, and reactive ion etching. The successful application to a double integration of single-mode waveguides at 1.55 micron is also reported. This result, which has been possible thanks to the FHD peculiarities, by extending the optical interaction to a third dimension, opens a wide range of original and promising applications, such as vertically coupled devices or parallel optical signal processes, and it effectively increases the density of optical guided-wave functions available on the same substrate.

Barbarossa, G.; Laybourn, P. J. R.

1992-02-01

15

INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

16

AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

2014-01-01

17

CSEM WP 117 Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets  

E-print Network

to their retail customers at set rates. My model reflects this degree of vertical integration of PJM firms. Second of two producers that have relatively few retail customers with other firms. Consistent to buy in the market in order to provide power to their retail customers at set rates. Second, I account

California at Berkeley. University of

18

Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with liquid crystal external cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a technology to integrate a thin layer of liquid crystal (LC) on top of a Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser (VCSEL). Based on this technology, we demonstrate VCSELs with a chiral liquid crystal (CLC) layer, which acts as a tuneable mirror. The reflection properties of the CLC layer are controlled by temperature. Next we demonstrate VCSEL devices with tuneable external cavity using a nematic LC layer incorporated with an additional dielectric mirror (SiO2/Ta2O5). The VCSEL and the LC layer can be electrically driven independently and the optical length in the external cavity can be tuned by the applied voltage on the LC layer. In both configurations we show that the emission properties of the VCSEL can be changed, in terms of emission wavelength, polarization state and/or lasing threshold.

Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Panajotov, K.; Neyts, K.

2014-10-01

19

Terminal velocity of a bubble in a vertically vibrated liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We rigorously derive a formula for the terminal velocity of a small bubble in a vertically vibrated viscous incompressible liquid starting from the full Navier-Stokes equations and the exact boundary conditions at the bubble surface. This formula is derived using a perturbation analysis in which the small parameter is the nondimensional amplitude of the pressure oscillation. The analysis does not assume that the bubble remains spherical but does assume that the bubble is axisymmetric. It is shown that the bubble terminal velocity can be computed to second order while computing the full solution only to first order by applying a compatibility condition on the first-order solution. To second order, the bubble terminal velocity is shown to be the net value from an upward steady term and a rectified term that can be downward or upward. The perturbation formula depends on the vibration frequency nondimensionalized by the bubble radius and the liquid kinematic viscosity. We show that our perturbation formula links two heuristically developed formulas for the rectified component, which we denote the velocity-averaged and force-averaged formulas. Our perturbation formula reproduces the velocity-averaged formula for low frequencies and the forced-averaged formula for high frequencies and varies monotonically between these limits for intermediate frequencies. We furthermore develop a high-resolution spectral code specifically to simulate this type of bubble motion. Results from this code verify that the perturbation formula is correct for infinitesimal oscillating pressure amplitudes and suggest that it provides an upper bound for finite amplitudes of the pressure oscillation.

Romero, L. A.; Torczynski, J. R.; von Winckel, G.

2014-05-01

20

Supplier Switching Costs and Vertical Integration in the Automobile Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tests a transactions cost theory of vertical integration with data from the U.S. automobile industry. Existing theory is first refined to take into account industrial know-how and the cost of transferring such know-how. A testable model is then developed, which is estimated by using probit techniques. The results support the view that transactions cost considerations surrounding the development

Kirk Monteverde; David J. Teece

1982-01-01

21

Falling film and flooding phenomena in small diameter vertical tubes: The influence of liquid properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of liquid properties on flooding in small diameter vertical tubes is studied for various liquids with the aim to contribute to the interpretation of flooding mechanisms in such geometries. Data on free falling film characteristics for the various liquids used are acquired using a photographic technique from which mean layer thickness and its statistical quantities are calculated. The

A. A. Mouza; M. N. Pantzali; S. V. Paras

2005-01-01

22

High density vertical interconnects for 3-D integration of silicon integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a technology platform being developed for three-dimensional (3-D) integration of thin stacked silicon integrated circuits (ICs). 3-D integration technology promises to dramatically enhance on-chip signal processing capabilities of a variety of sensor and actuator array devices hybridized with silicon read-out electronics. Currently, advanced 3-D integrated infrared focal plane array detectors are being developed within the DARPA vertically

C. A. Bower; D. Malta; D. Temple; J. E. Robinson; P. R. Coffinan; M. R. Skokan; T. B. Welch

2006-01-01

23

Experimental and theoretical studies of vertical annular liquid jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical studies are described of vertical annular jets, the conditions are determined under which vertical jets form an enclosed volume which can be used as a chemical reactor, the influence is assessed of the nozzle gap width, nozzle geometry, pressure difference across the annular jet, and Froude, Weber and Reynolds numbers on the annular jet's covergence length, and the mass

J. I. Ramos

1990-01-01

24

Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics  

SciTech Connect

We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2011-01-01

25

Economics of vertically integrated livestock and meat operations  

E-print Network

, the risk and uncertainty 1n the pro- duct1on and marketing of livestock 1ncreased and the rap1dly changing price of retail meats affected the consumer 's shopp1ng and eating habits. With vertical integrat1on and direct marketing, 1t may be possible... in transportation and marketing costs. This may help the producer 1n his planning process because the demand for meat and meat products 1s more stable than the price of the live animals. The problem to be addressed is: "Can an integrated livestock and meat...

Crawford, David Paul

2012-06-07

26

Vertical cavity surface emitting laser with nematic and chiral liquid crystals overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technological platform for a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with tunable polarization is presented. It is realized by integrating an 850nm VCSEL chip in a liquid crystal (LC) cell that uses photo-alignment (PA) to orient the LC. Two kinds of LC are filled in and form a thin layer over the emitter of the VCSEL: nematic LC or chiral nematic LC (cLC). The VCSEL and the nematic LC layer can be electrically driven with separate electrodes. The polarization state of the laser emission can be controlled by applying an appropriate voltage over the nematic LC layer. The chiral nematic LC has a reflection band that contains the VCSEL emission wavelength, so that one circular polarized mode of the laser emission is reflected as a feedback into the VCSEL. We found that the emission from the VCSEL with cLC overlay is circularly polarized.

Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Woestenborghs, W.; Panajotov, K.; Neyts, K.

2013-03-01

27

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

1990-01-01

28

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1988-06-17

29

Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors  

PubMed Central

Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

2011-01-01

30

Vertically integrated double-layer on-chip silicon membranes for 1-to-12 waveguide fanouts  

E-print Network

Vertically integrated double-layer on-chip silicon membranes for 1-to-12 waveguide fanouts Yang integrated double-layer on-chip silicon membranes for 1-to-12 waveguide fanouts Yang Zhang,a) Amir Hosseini 2012) We present an on-chip vertically integrated three-dimensional photonic integrated circuit. Double-layer

Chen, Ray

31

Dependence of the electrooptical properties of polymer-dispersed vertical aligned liquid crystals on the surface affinity of the liquid crystal and monomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the dependence of the electrooptical properties of polymer-dispersed vertical aligned liquid crystals on the surface affinity of the liquid crystal and monomer. The liquid crystal mixture with a smaller contact angle formed more cylindrical droplet and showed uniform vertical orientation of liquid crystal molecules. On the other hand, the liquid crystal mixture with a greater contact angle formed spherical droplet and liquid crystal orientation was deformed near the polymer boundary, resulting in a light leakage between crossed polarizers.

Lee, Hyojin; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

2014-10-01

32

Heat-transfer mechanism of liquid film flow in a vertical, finely grooved heating surface  

SciTech Connect

The heating surface structure characteristic of a vertical tube is emphasized in order to obtain nucleate boiling stability in the liquid film and to avoid the splitting of the liquid film into rivulets. Horizontally, vertically, and obliquely grooved surfaces were used in this paper with a constant liquid flow rate and isothermal surface conditions. The overall, as well as local, heat-transfer coefficients, the heat-transfer mechanisms, the flow characteristics, and the dry-out have been observed and measured. A comparison with pool boiling data is made. Useful findings were obtained from the above experimental analysis.

Ouchi, M.; Izumi, M.; Yamakawa, N. (Faculty of Engineering, Iwate Univ. (JP)); Takamori, Y. (Shoa Cabot Co., Ltd. (JP)); Takeyama, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Univ. (JP))

1991-01-01

33

Heat transfer enhancement in a vertical annulus by electrophoretic forces acting on a dielectric liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of a sharp HV electrode, free charge can build up in a single-phase liquid by ion injection at the metal\\/liquid interface. Electrophoretic forces acting on ions can generate strong convective motion, thus augmenting the heat transfer rate.In a vertical annular duct, uniformly heated on the outer wall, a dielectric liquid is weakly forced to flow upward. Sharp

Walter Grassi; Daniele Testi; Mario Saputelli

2005-01-01

34

Vertical III-V nanowire device integration on Si(100).  

PubMed

We report complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration of compound semiconductors on Si substrates. InAs and GaAs nanowires are selectively grown in vertical SiO2 nanotube templates fabricated on Si substrates of varying crystallographic orientations, including nanocrystalline Si. The nanowires investigated are epitaxially grown, single-crystalline, free from threading dislocations, and with an orientation and dimension directly given by the shape of the template. GaAs nanowires exhibit stable photoluminescence at room temperature, with a higher measured intensity when still surrounded by the template. Si-InAs heterojunction nanowire tunnel diodes were fabricated on Si(100) and are electrically characterized. The results indicate a high uniformity and scalability in the fabrication process. PMID:24628529

Borg, Mattias; Schmid, Heinz; Moselund, Kirsten E; Signorello, Giorgio; Gignac, Lynne; Bruley, John; Breslin, Chris; Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Werner, Peter; Riel, Heike

2014-01-01

35

P2A.4 On the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby Frisch  

E-print Network

P2A.4 On the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby components of the vertical flux of liquid wa- ter in stratus clouds, one component is due to the mean fall microphysical retrievals can be used to estimate the stratus cloud droplet liquid water flux. Earlier retrievals

Zuidema, Paquita

36

Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

Olson, M.

1997-10-01

37

Melting characteristics of a vertical ice layer immersed in immiscible liquid  

SciTech Connect

Melting of a vertical ice layer immersed in immiscible liquid has been investigated experimentally to determine the interaction of melt flow based on ice melting and free convection induced by buoyancy in the liquid. Oil, which was contained in a rectangular vessel, was utilized as a testing liquid. During the melting process the solid-liquid interface behavior as well as the ambient liquid flow patterns were extensively observed. Three distinct flow regimes were identified for the ambient liquid temperatures of 7.6 to 30.0 C covered. Photographs of flow regimes are presented, and dependence of the flow structure on the melting morphology is discussed. The local/average heat transfer coefficient at the melting interface and the melt fraction were determined as a function of the ambient liquid temperature as well as melting time.

Yamada, M.; Fukusako, S.; Eman-Bellah Sayed, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Div. of Mechanical Science

1996-12-31

38

Surface Instability of Liquid Propellant under Vertical Oscillatory Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid motion in a fuel tank produced during thrust oscillations can circulate sub-cooled hydrogen near the liquid-vapor interface resulting in increased condensation and ullage pressure collapse. The first objective of this study is to validate the capabilities of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, CFD-ACE+, in modeling the fundamental interface transition physics occurring at the propellant surface. The second objective is to use the tool to assess the effects of thrust oscillations on surface dynamics. Our technical approach is to first verify the CFD code against known theoretical solutions, and then validate against existing experiments for small scale tanks and a range of transition regimes. A 2D axisymmetric, multi-phase model of gases, liquids, and solids is used to verify that CFD-ACE+ is capable of modeling fluid-structure interaction and system resonance in a typical thrust oscillation environment. Then, the 3D mode is studied with an assumed oscillatory body force to simulate the thrust oscillating effect. The study showed that CFD modeling can capture all of the transition physics from solid body motion to standing surface wave and to droplet ejection from liquid-gas interface. Unlike the analytical solutions established during the 1960 s, CFD modeling is not limited to the small amplitude regime. It can extend solutions to the nonlinear regime to determine the amplitude of surface waves after the onset of instability. The present simulation also demonstrated consistent trends from numerical experiments through variation of physical properties from low viscous fluid to high viscous fluids, and through variation of geometry and input forcing functions. A comparison of surface wave patterns under various forcing frequencies and amplitudes showed good agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that thrust oscillations can cause droplet formation at the interface, which results in increased surface area and enhanced heat transfer between the liquid and gas phases as the ejected droplets travel well into the warmer gas region.

Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

2011-01-01

39

Low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs using novel hybrid assembly techniques  

E-print Network

A new heterogeneous integration technique has been developed and demonstrated to integrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on silicon CMOS integrated circuits for optical interconnect applications. Individual ...

Perkins, James Michael, 1978-

2007-01-01

40

A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory  

SciTech Connect

Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; ,

2011-11-01

41

New Equipment for Liquid Metal Embrittlement Characterisation for Vertical Axis Testing Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text shows the design, validation and working of new experimental equipment. This set-up allows the performance of mechanical\\u000a test with vertical axis universal testing machines when the specimens have to be horizontally immersed in aggressive liquids.\\u000a A practical implementation to determine liquid metal embrittlement is showed in this paper. The design, validation process\\u000a and the results obtained with the

J. Carpio; J. A. Alvarez; J. A. Casado; F. Gutierrez-Solana

42

Enhanced orientational Kerr effect in vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We disclose the vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal whose Kerr constant (Kkerr?130??nm/V2 at ?=543??nm) is around one order of magnitude higher than any other value previously reported for liquid crystalline structures. Under certain conditions, the phase modulation with ellipticity less than 0.05 over the range of continuous and hysteresis-free electric adjustment of the phase shift from zero to 2? has been obtained at subkilohertz frequency. PMID:24978232

Pozhidaev, Evgeny P; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Vashchenko, Valery V; Krivoshey, Alexander I; Minchenko, Maxim V; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

2014-05-15

43

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

Bryan, Robert P. (12700 Indian School Rd. NE., Apt. 604, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Esherick, Peter (1105 Sagebrush Trail SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Jewell, Jack L. (12 Timberline Dr., Bridgewater, NJ 08807); Lear, Kevin L. (13713 Vic Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Olbright, Gregory R. (3875 Orange Ct., Boulder, CO 80304)

1997-01-01

44

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

1997-04-29

45

Vertical integration to avoid contracting with potential competitors: Evidence from bankers' banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine a vertical integration decision within the commercial banking industry. During the last quarter of the 20th century, some community banks reduced their traditional reliance on correspondent banks for upstream products and services by joining bankers' banks, a form of business cooperative. Research on vertical integration focuses primarily on firm-specific investment, market power, and government regulation. However, this case

James A. Brickley; James S. Linck; Clifford W. Smith

2012-01-01

46

Application specific vs. standard Web service interfaces for the vertical integration of fieldbus  

E-print Network

Application specific vs. standard Web service interfaces for the vertical integration of fieldbus approaches for developing Web service inter- faces for the vertical integration of TTP/A fieldbus systems describing fieldbus systems. In contrast standardised interfaces such as OPC XML DA only al- low lower levels

Turau, Volker

47

Airing Your Dirty Laundry: Vertical Integration, Reputational Capital, and Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between an ethnic-based social network and vertical integration decisions in the laundry services industry. We find that stores in the social network are significantly less likely to vertically integrate than nonmember stores. This has three primary implications. First, the social network may be lowering the costs of using the market more than facilitating in-house production.

Ricard Gil; Wesley R. Hartmann

2009-01-01

48

Vertically integrated moisture flux convergence as a predictor of thunderstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically Integrated Moisture Flux Convergence (VIMFC) alone and in combination with the lifted stability index of the most unstable layer (SMUL) is evaluated as a thunderstorm predictor. By using six-hourly standard pressure weather analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) during 30 days in the summers of 1992 and 1994 containing several severe weather events along with quiescent events in northwestern Europe 17,206 events are obtained. The location and time of a lightning discharge are obtained from the Arrival Time Difference (ATD) sferics lightning location system from the UK Meteorological Office. Using the Heidke Skill Score (HEIDKE) to determine the best threshold we conclude that VIMFC alone, does not perform well as a dichotomous thunderstorm predictor compared to the stability index. However, the Thundery Case Probability (TCP) tested as function of VIMFC results in a high correlation with thunderstorms. By combining SMUL and VIMFC the surplus value as a thunderstorm predictor of VIMFC was established. TCP percentages up to 95% were found in an unstable environment with high positive values of VIMFC. In a marginally unstable environment with a high positive VIMFC the thunderstorm probability is higher than in a very unstable environment with no or negative VIMFC. These results are illustrated with a study of the case of the disastrous flash flood at Vaison-La-Romaine (southeastern France) on September 22, 1992. Although latent instability was present in a large area surrounding Vaison-La-Romaine, nearly all and especially the most severe thunderstorm activity occurred within the smaller area with positive VIMFC and latent instability.

van Zomeren, Jeroen; van Delden, Aarnout

2007-02-01

49

Vertical Integration, Foreclosure, and profits in the Presence of Double Marginalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether vertical integration between a downstream oligopolist and an upstream oligopolist is profitable for an integrated pair of firms is shown to depend on whether one means by this that profits increase no matter what other firms do, that all integrated firms are better off when all firms are integrated than when none are, or simply that no downstream-upstream pair

Garard Gaudet; Ngo Long

1996-01-01

50

Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach  

PubMed Central

Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated. PMID:24959094

Al Qahtani, Fahd; Abdelaziz, Adel

2014-01-01

51

Vertical alignment nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by double-side in-plane switching with positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a vertical alignment liquid crystal cell controlled by double-side in-plane switching with a positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal material. In this structure, the pixel electrodes are interdigital electrodes, which are deposited on the bottom and top substrates parallel to each other. In the voltage-off state, the liquid crystal molecules are vertically aligned under the crossed polarizers; hence the

Hun Ki Shin; Ki-Han Kim; Tae-Hoon Yoon; Jae Chang Kim

2008-01-01

52

Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide  

DOEpatents

A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2008-02-26

53

On the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby Frisch Paquita Zuidema Chris Fairall  

E-print Network

On the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby Frisch estimating liquid water contents and droplet sizes within all-liquid,non-drizzling stratus clouds velocity of the cloud droplets can also be estimated for non-drizzling stratus. Previous work has shown

Zuidema, Paquita

54

Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Flow of Liquid Helium in a Vertical Converging-Diverging Nozzle  

SciTech Connect

The basic characteristics of the two-dimensional cavitating flow of liquid helium through a vertical converging-diverging nozzle near the lambda point are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new multiphase He II cooling systems. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multi-fluid model with generalized curvilinear coordinates system are presented, and several multiphase flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the cavitating flow of liquid helium though a vertical converging-diverging nozzle is shown in detail, and it is also found that the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow based on the thermomechanical effect is conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid to gas phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase.

Ishimoto, J. [Dept. Intelligent Machines and Sys. Eng., Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Kamijo, K. [Inst. Fluid Sci., Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2004-06-23

55

High-definition vertically aligned liquid crystal microdisplays using a circularly polarized light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-definition vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) microdisplay exhibits a excellent contrast ratio, but its fringing field effect splits the bright state unevenly and leads to a very slow response time. By utilizing a circularly polarized light instead of conventional linearly polarized light, we have overcome the long-standing problems of poor sharpness, low brightness, and slow response time. Confirming computer simulations agree with the experimental results well. This approach can be applied to both reflective and transmissive LC microdisplays.

Fan-Chiang, Kuan-Hsu; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Wu, Shin-Tson

2005-07-01

56

Nanofiltering via integrated liquid core waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate and describe how nanoporous liquid core waveguides can exclude scattering particles, making them an ideal integrated platform for analysis of turbid solutions. Milk with 0.5% fat showed an optical propagation loss of 0.05dB/mm at 633nm in nanoporous waveguides compared to the 10.6dB/mm loss in standard cuvette measurements. To examine the nanofiltering effect, waveguides were infiltrated with solutions containing Rhodamine B molecules (1nm) and 22nm red fluorescing polystyrene beads. With fluorescence spectroscopy we show that 22nm beads are excluded, while Rhodamine B molecules penetrate the waveguides. This is further confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, also revealing a homogenous distribution of Rhodamine in the waveguide volume.

Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Brkner Christiansen, Mads; Kristensen, Anders

2011-09-01

57

Nonlinear Vibrations of Elastic Structures Containing a Cylindrical Liquid Tank under Vertical Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the nonlinear vibrations of an elastic structure, with a liquid-filled cylindrical tank, which is subjected to a vertical sinusoidal excitation. This structure-tank system behaves as an autoparametric system. Modal equations governing the coupled motions of the structure and liquid sloshing are derived when the natural frequency of the structure is equal to twice the natural frequency of the first axisymmetric sloshing mode. Van der Pol's method is applied to the modal equations to determine the theoretical resonance curves. The theoretical results can be concluded as follows: (1) As the liquid level decreases, the resonance curve for the liquid sloshing changes from a soft spring type to a hard spring type. (2) The structure's resonance curve flattens out at small amplitude when the liquid level is appropriate. (3) Amplitude-modulated motions appear for the negative and positive values of the internal resonance ratio's deviation (the detuning parameter) in the high and low liquid levels, respectively. (4) Furthermore, the results of the bifurcation analysis, Poincar maps and Lyapunov exponents reveal that amplitude-modulated motions and chaotic oscillations can occur in the system. In experiments, the theoretical resonance curves were quantitatively in agreement with the experimental data.

Ikeda, Takashi; Murakami, Shin

58

Vertically Integrated Double-layer on-chip crystalline silicon nanomembranes based on adhesive bonding  

E-print Network

Vertically Integrated Double-layer on-chip crystalline silicon nanomembranes based on adhesive, double-layer silicon nanomembranes. A single-layer silicon photonic integrated circuit fabricated design [7]. Double-layer silicon photonic platforms have been demonstrated with film deposition

Chen, Ray

59

Screen Survival of Movies at Competitive Theaters: Vertical and Horizontal Integration in a Spatially Differentiated Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article empirically examines the effects of vertical integration and horizontal control on the exhibition of films at competing theaters in a market in which some theater owners are integrated into film distribution and others are not. It analyzes the duration of the exhibition runs of movies released by distributors who owned no theaters in Singapore during 2002 and 2003

W. Wayne Fu

2009-01-01

60

Experimental investigation of the local heat transfer in a vertical gas-liquid slug unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer mechanism in two-phase flows and particularly in vertical slug flow is of high interest both for basic hydrodynamic research and for industrial applications. Two-phase slug flow is highly complicated and only a limited number of heat transfer studies have been carried out. The flow field around a single Taylor bubble propagating in a vertical pipe can be subdivided into three distinct hydrodynamic regions: the gas bubble surrounded by a thin liquid film, a highly turbulent liquid wake in the vicinity of the bubble bottom, and the far wake region. Experimental and theoretical works were presented during the last decades investigating the hydrodynamic parameters in each region. Due to the complexity and intermittent nature of slug flow the existing data on the heat transfer in slug flow is limited to a narrow range of operational conditions. To improve the understanding of the heat transfer mechanism in slug flow a new experimental setup was constructed. A part of the vertical pipe wall was replaced by a thin metal foil heated by electrical current. An IR video camera was used to determine the temporal variation of the instantaneous temperature field along the foil at two locations: at the thermal entrance region and at the upper part of the foil where thermal boundary is thicker. The video camera was synchronized with a sensor that determined the instantaneous location of the Taylor bubble. The results of the instantaneous heat transfer measurements along the liquid film and in the wake of the Taylor bubble can be correlated with the detailed velocity measurements carried out in the same facility (Shemer et al. 2007)[1]. The effect of the local hydrodynamic parameters on the heat transfer coefficient in each region is examined.

Babin, Valery; Shemer, Lev; Barnea, Dvora

2012-03-01

61

Solid-liquid-vapor metal-catalyzed etching of lateral and vertical nanopores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etching is an essential tool for the creation of nanostructures, where patterned metal structures can be used as masks. Here, we investigate HCl gas etching of InP substrates decorated with Au nanoparticles, and find that the etch rate is strongly increased at the Au-InP interfaces. The {111}A facets of the InP are preferentially etched. The metal nanoparticles follow in the etch direction, thereby creating nanopores. The size and position of the pores is controlled by the Au nanoparticles, and we measure nanopores as thin as 20 nm with an aspect ratio of 25:1. The direction of the nanopores is influenced by the temperature and the substrate orientation, which we use to demonstrate lateral, vertical and inclined nanopores. We explain the process by a solid-liquid-vapor model, in which the liquid metal particle catalyzes the dissolution of the solid InP.

Wallentin, Jesper; Deppert, Knut; Borgstrm, Magnus T.

2013-10-01

62

Optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for monitoring the vertical structural dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical structural dynamics is a crucial factor for structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil structures such as high-rise buildings, suspension bridges and towers. This paper presents an optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for an automated multi-sensor monitoring system. The closed loop feedback algorithm for integrating the vertical GPS and accelerometer measurements is proposed based on a 5 state extended KALMAN filter (EKF) and then the narrow moving window Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is applied to extract structural dynamics. A civil structural vibration is simulated and the analysed result shows the proposed algorithm can effectively integrate the online vertical measurements produced by GPS and accelerometer. Furthermore, the accelerometer bias and scale factor can also be estimated which is impossible with traditional integration algorithms. Further analysis shows the vibration frequencies detected in GPS or accelerometer are all included in the integrated vertical defection time series and the accelerometer can effectively compensate the short-term GPS outages with high quality. Finally, the data set collected with a time synchronised and integrated GPS/accelerometer monitoring system installed on the Nottingham Wilford Bridge when excited by 15 people jumping together at its mid-span are utilised to verify the effectiveness of this proposed algorithm. Its implementations are satisfactory and the detected vibration frequencies are 1.720 Hz, 1.870 Hz, 2.104 Hz, 2.905 Hz and also 10.050 Hz, which is not found in GPS or accelerometer only measurements.

Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Jian; Han, Houzeng

2014-11-01

63

Vertical integration, separation and non-price discrimination: An empirical analysis of German electricity markets for residential customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on vertical integration in markets with regulated upstream prices suggests that the integrated upstream firm might engage in non-price discrimination. Several studies provide policy recommendations derived either from case study approaches or based on theoretical modeling which addresses the unbundling issue. In this study we analyze the impact of vertical integration of retail incumbent and network operator on

Vigen Nikogosian; Tobias Veith

2011-01-01

64

Vertical integration in the wine industry: a transaction costs analysis on the Rioja DOCa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors study the determinants of make or buy decisions for grapes made by wineries belonging to the Rioja Qualified Designation of Origin (DOCa). In particular, they analyze the relationship between product quality and vertical integration. Although there is a long tradition in transaction cost theory of analyzing the determinants of make or buy decisions in manufacturing, surprisingly few empirical

Marta Fernndez-Olmos; Jorge Rosell-Martnez; Manuel A. Espitia-Escuer

2009-01-01

65

VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

66

VISTA (Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications) user interface software study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) project is an initiative to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective application of basic research results by end users. Developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, VISTA's purpose is to develop and deploy information systems (software or software\\/hardware products) to broad segments of various markets. Inherent in these

1990-01-01

67

Measuring the impact of vertical integration on response times in Ethernet fieldbuses  

E-print Network

Measuring the impact of vertical integration on response times in Ethernet fieldbuses Bruno Denis 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany frey@eit.uni-kl.de Abstract The introduction of Ethernet and Internet functions? In this paper, we focus on switched Ethernet-based fieldbuses using Modbus TCP/IP. The evaluation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets: Measuring Market Efficiency and Firm Conduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other studies that have found substantial inefficiencies in restructured electricity markets, this paper provides estimates that reveal relatively competitive behavior in the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland market. This distinctive conclusion results from using a model that incorporates structural market features and particular production constraints that are not captured in previous studies. First, the vertical integration of firms in

Erin T. Mansur

2003-01-01

69

BILATERAL MARKET POWER AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION IN THE SPANISH ELECTRICITY SPOT MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spanish electricity spot market is highly concentrated both on the seller and the buyer side. Furthermore, unlike electricity spot markets in other deregulated electricity systems, large buyers and sellers are typically vertically integrated. This allows both large net sellers and large net buyers to strategically influence the spot market price. We develop a supply function model of this market

Kai-Uwe Khn; Matilde Pinto Machado

2004-01-01

70

Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.

Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

2011-01-01

71

Page 1 of 21 Vertical integration in a growing industry: security of supply  

E-print Network

and South America and reached about 6% of the global gasoline fuel market in 20093 . Bio-ethanol in fuel-ethanol value chain Jin Hooi Chan1 , PhD Candidate and Dr. David Reiner, Senior Lecturer: Bio-ethanol, Biofuel, Ethanol, Governance, Industry evolution, Value Chain, Vertical Integration 1

Aickelin, Uwe

72

Vertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in  

E-print Network

Vertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in Fuel-ethanol;Content 1. Research Objectives and Summary of Results 2. Introduction to Fuel-ethanol Industry 3. Fuel-Ethanol;Research Objectives and Results Examine evolution of governance structure of firms in bio-ethanol industry

Aickelin, Uwe

73

Liquid entrainment at an upward oriented vertical branch line from a horizontal pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under simulated accident conditions, tees in the primary coolant loop of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) can deviate from their original design purpose and become separators that effectively remove core heat sink capacity. This method of primary coolant removal is a phenomenological subset of phase separation known as liquid entrainment, whereby liquid is forced from its original path by the inertia of the gas. A comprehensive literature review revealed common deficiencies in previous studies. The Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design was chosen to assess the validity of entrainment models. Following a systematic scaling analysis of the prototypic design a model separate effects test was proposed and constructed at Oregon State University. Just under 100 tests were run to fill the deficiencies found in the literature review. New data from the Air-water Test Loop for Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Studies (ATLATS) could not be predicted by published correlations. A new theoretical model for predicting liquid entrainment onset and steady state entrainment was developed. Comparison with all available data shows a marked improvement for predicting the mass flow rate out the vertical branch.

Welter, Kent Byron

74

Integrated liquid-core optical fibers --- ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics  

E-print Network

We have developed a novel integrated platform for liquid photonics based on liquid core optical fiber (LCOF). The platform is created by fusion splicing liquid core optical fiber to standard single-mode optical fiber making it fully integrated and practical - a major challenge that has greatly hindered progress in liquid-photonic applications. As an example, we report here the realization of ultralow threshold Raman generation using an integrated CS2 filled LCOF pumped with sub-nanosecond pulses at 1064nm and 532nm. The measured energy threshold for the Stokes generation is ~ 1nJ, about three orders of magnitude lower than previously reported values in the literature for hydrogen gas. The integrated LCOF platform opens up new possibilities for ultralow power nonlinear optics such as efficient white light generation for displays, mid-IR generation, slow light generation, parametric amplification, all-optical switching and wavelength conversion using liquids that have orders of magnitude larger optical nonlinea...

Kieu, K; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

2011-01-01

75

The Integral Vapor Compression and Liquid Coolant refrigeration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integral Vapor Compression and Liquid (IVCL) coolant system developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company is described. The system operates on an innovative thermodynamic cycle that combines refrigeration and liquid coolant heat transport functions. Both analytical and empirical investigations show that the IVCL refrigeration system is technically feasible. When operating with low heat sink flow rates the performance coefficient of the

David L. Siems

1992-01-01

76

Design of Integrated Polarization Beam Splitter With Liquid Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated polarization beam splitter based on a directional coupler (DC) with an etched slot and filled-in liquid crystal covering layer, which utilizes the birefringence of liquid crystal materials, is proposed. A supermode solution for the DC involving birefringence materials and the corresponding full-vector anisotropic beam propagation method are employed as modeling tools. A numerical design of the proposed structure

Qian Wang; Gerald Farrell; Yuliya Semenova

2006-01-01

77

Realization of MEMS-IC Vertical Integration Utilizing Smart Bumpless Bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports fundamental technologies, properties, and new experimental results of SBB (Smart Bumpless Bonding) to realize MEMS-IC vertical integration. Although conventional bonding technologies have had difficulties integrating MEMS and its processing circuit because of their rough bonding surfaces, fragile structures, and thermal restriction, SBB technology realized the vertical integration without thermal treatment, any adhesive materials including bumps, and chemical mechanical polishing. The SBB technology bonds sealing parts for vacuum sealing and electrodes for electrical connection simultaneously as published in previous experimental study. The plasma CVD SiO2 is utilized to realize vacuum sealing as sealing material. And Au projection studs are formed on each electrode and connected electrically between two wafers by compressive plastic deformation and surface activation. In this paper, new experimental results including vacuum sealing properties, electrical improvement, IC bonding results on the described fundamental concept and properties are reported.

Shiozaki, Masayoshi; Moriguchi, Makoto; Sasaki, Sho; Oba, Masatoshi

78

Forced convection heat transfer of saturated liquid hydrogen in vertically-mounted heated pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer from the inner side of vertically-mounted heated pipes to forced flow of saturated liquid hydrogen was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate and saturated pressure. The tube heaters have lengths L of 100 mm and 167 mm with the diameter D of 4 mm and lengths of 150 mm and 250 mm with the diameter of 6 mm. The heat fluxes at departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) were higher for higher flow velocity, lower pressures and shorter L/D. The effect of L/D on the DNB heat flux was clarified. It is confirmed that our DNB correlation can describe the experimental data.

Tatsumoto, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Hata, Koichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Kobayasi, Hiroaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

79

Corporate Strategies along the LNG Value Added Chain An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global LNG market. In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration. Our hypothesis is that high transaction costs along the LNG value added chain induce a higher degree of vertical integration. This hypothesis is tested by implementing ordered response models. To explain determinants of

Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

80

Vertical integration of corporate management in international firms: implementation of HRM and the asset specificities of firms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the development requirements of an international firm in terms of the application of firm-specific assets and human resource management needed for the implementation of vertical integration decisions. The empirical investigation reported in this paper is based upon a sample of international joint venture (IJV) hotel firms in China. The evidence highlights how the vertical integration of corporate

Yanni Yan; John Child; Chan Yan Chong

2007-01-01

81

Integration of diffractive lenses with addressable vertical-cavity laser arrays  

SciTech Connect

An optical interconnection system is being developed to provide vertical, digital data channels for stacked multichip modules. A key component of the system is an array of individually addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with diffractive lenses integrated into the substrate to control beam divergence and direction. The lenses were fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography and reactive ion beam etching into the GaAs substrate. Preliminary device performance data and the design and fabrication issues are discussed.

Warren, M.E.; Du, T.C.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Carson, R.F.; Lear, K.L.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Schneider, R.P.; Zolper, J.C.

1995-04-01

82

A study of gas bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality observations of mesoscopic gas bubbles in liquid metal are vital for a further development of pyrometallurgical gas injection reactors. However, the opacity of metals enforces the use of indirect imaging techniques with limited temporal or spatial resolution. In addition, accurate interface tracking requires tomography which further complicates the design of a high-temperature experimental setup. In this paper, an alternative approach is suggested that circumvents these two main restrictions. By injecting gas in a thin layer of liquid metal entrapped between two flat and closely spaced plates, bubbles in a Hele-Shaw flow regime are generated. The resulting quasi-2D multiphase flow phenomena can be fully captured from a single point of view and, when using a non-wetted transparent plate material, the bubbles can be observed directly. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by observations on buoyancy-driven nitrogen bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. By using a moving high-speed camera to make continuous close up recordings of individual bubbles, the position and geometry of these bubbles are quantified with a high resolution along their entire path. After a thorough evaluation of the experimental accuracy, this information is used for a detailed analysis of the bubble expansion along the path. While the observed bubble growth is mainly caused by the hydrostatic pressure gradient, a careful assessment of the volume variations for smaller bubbles shows that an accurate bubble description should account for significant dynamic pressure variations that seem to be largely regime dependent.

Klaasen, B.; Verhaeghe, F.; Blanpain, B.; Fransaer, J.

2014-01-01

83

Planarization techniques for vertically integrated metallic MEMS on silicon foundry circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various micromachining techniques exist to realize integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which include sensors, signal processing and/or driving circuits, and/or actuators in one small die. Post-processing techniques performed on foundry-fabricated circuits (e.g., MOSIS) are attractive since such an approach eliminates the need for an in-house integrated circuit fabrication line to produce integrated MEMS. A method based on the combination of metallic (e.g., electroplating) micromachining techniques with multichip module deposited (MCM-D) processes is a possible candidate to realize vertically-stacked integrated MEMS using the post-processing of integrated circuits (post-IC) approach. In order to realize such devices, planarization of the surface of foundry-fabricated circuit chips or wafers is often required. In such planarization layers, mechanical and chemical stability, as well as adhesion between the circuit-containing substrate and the micromachined devices, should be addressed. A PI/BCB/PI sandwich interlayer system, which utilizes both advantages of DuPont polyimide PI 2611 and Dow benzocyclobutene (BCB) Cyclotene 3022 series, was developed as a planarization interlayer for vertically integrated MEMS. The PI/BCB/PI interlayer system shows an over 95% degree of planarization (DOP) as well as passes the Method 107G Thermal Shock from the military standard MIL-STD-202F. A 0960-1317/7/2/002/img7 interlayer system was also developed as an alternative to the PI/BCB/PI system.

Lee, J.-B.; English, J.; Ahn, C.-H.; Allen, M. G.

1997-06-01

84

High resolution retrieval of liquid water vertical distributions using collocated Ka-band and W-band cloud radars  

E-print Network

High resolution retrieval of liquid water vertical distributions using collocated Ka-band and W-band at an accuracy of about 0.15 gm?3 at 40 m resolution. This is demonstrated using the co-located Ka-band and W-band reflectivity alone. Citation: Huang, D., K. Johnson, Y. Liu, and W. Wiscombe (2009), High resolution retrieval

85

Natural convection liquid immersion cooling of high density columns of discrete heat sources in a vertical channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural convection liquid cooling of simulated electronic components in a vertical channel was investigated. The test surface consisted of three columns of fifteen flush mounted foil heaters. The channel was formed by placing a smooth movable shrouding wall parallel to the test surface. The experimental procedure called for temperature measurements and flow visualization at various power levels and channel spacings.

Alfred O. Gaiser

1989-01-01

86

A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.  

PubMed

A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity. PMID:24863393

Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

2014-07-23

87

Vertical integration of silica and electro-optic polymer waveguides using grayscale lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical Wmsition between silica a.nd elecrc-optic polymer (CX-2) planar waveg- uides is fabricated using grayscale lithography, witti low loss arid good sirnulation match. Tliis first demonstration combining silica and CX2 offers the potential for a new class of hybrid active devices. 2002 Optical Society of A~nerica OCIS codes: (130.3120) Integrated optics devices, (160.5470) Polyniers Silica.- based phar lightwave circuits

Daniel H. Chang; T. Azfar; H. R. Fetterman; Cheng Zhang; W. H. Steier

2003-01-01

88

Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children. PMID:20478054

2010-01-01

89

Exploring the aqueous vertical ionization of organic molecules by molecular simulation and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy.  

PubMed

To study the influence of aqueous solvent on the electronic energy levels of dissolved organic molecules, we conducted liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements of the aqueous vertical ionization energies (VIEaq) of aniline (7.49 eV), veratrole alcohol (7.68 eV), and imidazole (8.51 eV). We also reanalyzed previously reported experimental PES data for phenol, phenolate, thymidine, and protonated imidazolium cation. We then simulated PE spectra by means of QM/MM molecular dynamics and EOM-IP-CCSD calculations with effective fragment potentials, used to describe the aqueous vertical ionization energies for six molecules, including aniline, phenol, veratrole alcohol, imidazole, methoxybenzene, and dimethylsulfide. Experimental and computational data enable us to decompose the VIEaq into elementary processes. For neutral compounds, the shift in VIE upon solvation, ?VIEaq, was found to range from ?-0.5 to -0.91 eV. The ?VIEaq was further explained in terms of the influence of deforming the gas phase solute into its solution phase conformation, the influence of solute hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor interactions with proximate solvent molecules, and the polarization of about 3000 outerlying solvent molecules. Among the neutral compounds, variability in ?VIEaq appeared largely controlled by differences in solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions. Detailed computational analysis of the flexible molecule veratrole alcohol reveals that the VIE is strongly dependent on molecular conformation in both gas and aqueous phases. Finally, aqueous reorganization energies of the oxidation half-cell ionization reaction were determined from experimental data or estimated from simulation for the six compounds aniline, phenol, phenolate, veratrole alcohol, dimethylsulfide, and methoxybenzene, revealing a surprising constancy of 2.06 to 2.35 eV. PMID:25516011

Tentscher, Peter R; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Guerard, Jennifer J; Arey, J Samuel

2015-01-01

90

Multi-domain vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystals for reduced off-axis gamma shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several liquid crystal (LC) modes, such as twisted nematic, vertical alignment (VA), and in-plane switching, have been in competition with each other in the LC display market. Among them, the VA mode has been widely used because of the high contrast ratio. Since the LC molecules are aligned perpendicular to the substrate in the initial state, an excellent dark state can be obtained at normal viewing direction. However, effective phase retardation of LC layer at oblique viewing direction differs greatly from that at normal viewing direction. Thus, gamma distortion phenomenon occurs at oblique view direction. To reduce the gamma shift in the VA mode at oblique viewing direction, multi-domain VA modes were proposed. Although gamma shifts of these modes are smaller than that of the single domain VA mode, the problems still remain. Recently, several technologies for 8-domain alignment have been proposed to decrease the gamma shift at off-axis. However, additional driving circuits are required to realize the eight-domain structure. In this paper we report technologies for the multi-domain VA mode with no additional driving circuits. By using the proposed technologies, we can obtain the dual threshold voltage in each sub-pixel to realize the multi-domain VA mode with no decrease of contrast ratio.

Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Park, Byung Wok; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

2013-03-01

91

Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

2012-01-01

92

Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors.

Re, Valerio

2014-11-01

93

MACHINE LEARNING AT THE CTBTO. TESTING, AND EVALUATION OF THE FALSE EVENTS IDENTIFICATION (FEI) AND VERTICALLY INTEGRATED SEISMIC ASSOCIATION (VISA)  

E-print Network

, association, and location (Arora et al., 2011a, 2011b) The status of these different projects was presented) AND VERTICALLY INTEGRATED SEISMIC ASSOCIATION (VISA) PROJECTS Ronan J. Le Bras 1 , Stuart Russell 2 , Nimar Arora

Russell, Stuart

94

Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte  

DOEpatents

An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Xu, Liwei (Sylvania, OH)

2010-07-06

95

Modeling multiphase flow for high viscosity liquids: a study of vertical/inclined zero net liquid flow  

E-print Network

This experimental study investigates the effects of inclination angle and fluid viscosity on zero net liquid flow (ZNLF). Predicting liquid holdup under ZNLF conditions is necessary in several types of petroleum industry operations. These include...

Rodriguez, Jose Ramon

2001-01-01

96

Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

2014-10-01

97

Miniaturized vortex transitional Josephson memory cell by a vertically integrated device structure  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the smallest Josephson nondestructive read-out (NDRO) memory cell, called a vortex transitional (VT) memory cell, for a Josephson high-speed 16-Kbit RAM. Its size is 22 x 22 microns(sup 2), which is only 16% of the size of previously developed VT memory cells used in Josephson 4-Kbit RAM. This is achieved by developing a vertically integrated device structure and refining small-junction technology. The cell consists of Nb/AlO(sub x)/Nb junctions, three Nb wirings, SiO2 insulators and Mo resistors. The VT memory cells operate properly, with a large operating margin of +/- 20%. 13 refs.

Nagasawa, Shuichi; Tahara, Shuichi; Numata, Hideaki; Tsuchida, Sanae (NEC Corp., Tsukuba (Japan))

1994-03-01

98

Novel Vertical Interconnects With 180 Degree Phase Shift for Amplifiers, Filters, and Integrated Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, novel low loss, wide-band coplanar stripline technology for RF/microwave integrated circuits is demonstrated on high resistivity silicon wafer. In particular, the fabrication process for the deposition of spin-on-glass (SOG) as a dielectric layer, the etching of microvias for the vertical interconnects, the design methodology for the multiport circuits and their measured/simulated characteristics are graphically illustrated. The study shows that circuits with very low loss, large bandwidth and compact size are feasible using this technology. This multilayer planar technology has potential to significantly enhance RF/microwave IC performance when combined with semiconductor devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

99

Experimental investigation on gasliquid two-phase slug flow enhanced carbon dioxide corrosion in vertical upward pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon dioxide corrosion behavior of API N80 grade steel enhanced by gasliquid two-phase vertical upward slug flow has been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated. It is found that the hydrodynamic characteristics of slug flow, such as the direction alternated wall shear stress, the fluctuation of wall normal stress, and the mass transfer near the wall, have significant effects on

Donghong Zheng; Defu Che; Yinhe Liu

2008-01-01

100

Transmitted Light Enhancement of Electric-Field-Controlled Multidomain Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal Displays Using Circular Polarizers and a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed two new optical configurations to improve the light transmittance of a fringing-field-controlled multidomain vertically aligned liquid crystal display (FEF-MVA-LCD). We show that, by using a MVA-LC panel sandwiched between two circular polarizers, improvement of the maximum transmittance by more than 30% is achieved in comparison to the transmittance of a conventional panel configuration using two linear polarizers.

Yoshihisa Iwamoto; Yasufumi Iimura

2003-01-01

101

Vertically integrated sensible-heat budgets for stable nocturnal boundary layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable nocturnal boundary layer is commonly viewed or modelled as a balance between the temperature tendency (cooling) and vertical heat-flux divergence. Sometimes the radiative-flux divergence is also included. This perspective has dictated the design of field experiments for investigating stable nocturnal boundary layers.Tower-based micrometeorological data from three field campaigns are analysed to evaluate the vertically integrated sensible-heat budget for nocturnal stable conditions. Our analysis indicates frequent occurrence of large imbalance between the temperature tendency and vertical heat-flux divergence terms. The values of the radiative-flux divergence are generally too small and sometimes of the wrong sign to explain the residual. An analysis of random flux errors and uncertainties in the tendency term indicate that such errors cannot explain large imbalances, suggesting the importance of advection of temperature or possibly the divergence of mesoscale fluxes. The implied role of advection is consistent with circumstantial evidence. Even weak surface heterogeneity can create significant horizontal gradients in stable boundary layers. However, it is shown that existing field data and observational strategy do not allow adequate evaluation of advection and mesoscale flux divergence terms.

Nakamura, Reina; Mahrt, L.

2006-01-01

102

The Integral Vapor Compression and Liquid Coolant refrigeration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integral Vapor Compression and Liquid (IVCL) coolant system developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company is described. The system operates on an innovative thermodynamic cycle that combines refrigeration and liquid coolant heat transport functions. Both analytical and empirical investigations show that the IVCL refrigeration system is technically feasible. When operating with low heat sink flow rates the performance coefficient of the IVCL systems and the maximum attainable heat sink temperature are significantly greater than those of a comparable mechanical vapor compression cycle refrigeration system. The IVCL system superior performance at low heat sink flow rates can provide major benefits in terms of improving tactical aircraft thermal management.

Siems, David L.

1992-07-01

103

The Kirkwood-Buff integrals for one-component liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs) for one-component systems are calculated from either the pair correlation functions or from experimental macroscopic quantities. As in the case of mixtures, the KBIs provide important information on the local densities around a molecule. In the low density limit (?-->0) one can extract from the KBI some information on the strength of the intermolecular forces. No such information may be extracted from the KBIs at higher densities. We used experimental data on densities and isothermal compressibilities to calculate the KBIs for various liquids ranging from inert molecules, to hydrocarbons, alcohols, and liquid water.

Ben-Naim, Arieh

2008-06-01

104

Studies of Wavy Films in Vertical Gas-Liquid Annular Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annular gas-liquid flow is encountered in many industrial applications such as wetted-wall absorbers, falling-film reactors, condensers and evaporators and transport of oil and gas mixtures from offshore pipelines. Experimental observations show that the presence of waves on the liquid film increases the transport rates of momentum, heat and mass by 100 to 300% over those expected from the flat film. Previous modeling efforts to predict this transport enhancement have largely been unsuccessful as they were limited to very low Reynolds numbers. This work presents a new model for describing the evolution of large amplitude waves on laminar falling wavy films at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 100). The model is based on second-order boundary layer theory and includes the pressure variation across the film as well as higher order viscous terms. The consistency and accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the linear stability results with the classical Kapitza's boundary layer model and Orr-Sommerfeld studies of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The asymptotic behavior of the model is investigated by transforming it to a traveling wave coordinate. Numerical integration of the traveling wave simplification of the model predicts the existence of chaotic large amplitude, non-periodic waves as observed in the experiments. The computed wave statistics such as wave celerities, rms values of film thickness, probability density functions and film thickness power spectra using the model are in good agreement with those measured on naturally excited fully developed flows at Re > 100. The present model also overcomes the main deficiency of the classical boundary layer models (namely, negative wall shear stress) predicts large amplitude waves (with peak to substrate ratios of 3 to 4) and better agreement with data. The model developed for free falling film is also extended to countercurrent gas-liquid flow and it is shown that an increase in the gas flow rate increases the average film thickness, peak to substrate ratio and wave velocities. The model also predicts the existence of recirculation regions within the large waves which are responsible for the observed enhancement in the transport rates.

Yu, Li-Qun

1995-01-01

105

Stability of a vertical liquid film with consideration of the marangoni effect and heat exchange with the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of a free vertical liquid film under the combined action of gravity and thermocapillary forces has been studied. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes and thermal conductivity equations is obtained for the case of plane steady flow with constant film thickness. It is shown that if the free surfaces of the film are perfectly heat insulated, the liquid flow rate through the cross section of the layer is zero. It is found that to close the model with consideration of the heat exchange with the environment, it is necessary to specify the liquid flow rate and the derivative of the temperature with respect to the longitudinal coordinate or the flow rate and the film thickness. The stability of the solution with constant film thickness at small wave numbers is studied. A solution of the spectral problem for perturbations in the form of damped oscillations is obtained.

Burmistrova, O. A.

2014-05-01

106

From puddling to heaping to cracking - ordered and disordered reliefs in vertically vibrated liquid-saturated granular material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical vibrations are known to induce patterning instabilities in various fluid and fluid-like systems. Well known examples include the Faraday instability in viscous and nonviscous fluids and the patterned relief observed in dry granular systems. We study the instabilities of flat layers of granular material saturated with interstitial liquid and bounded above by an air interface. Increasing acceleration amplitude leads first to the accumulation of puddles of liquid on the surface as the grains compact, followed by a transition to a convection-driven heaping relief. This heaping phenomenon bears similarity to that observed in a granular system in a completely aqueous environment.^1 However, our system is quite different due to the air interface and because we study relatively thin layers of granular material, 20-50 diameters high, rather than hundreds of diameters in thickness. While the heaping relief we observe is generally disordered, under some conditions heaps arrange themselves into a robust and regular pattern. Heaps break up at higher drive accelerations, and the hilly relief gives way to cracking and violent breakup. We report on the phase portrait in critical acceleration versus frequency for the transitions to heaping and to cracking. ^1 V.G. Kozlov, A.A. Ivanova, and P. Evesque. Sand behavior in a cavity with incompressible liquid under vertical vibrations. Europhysics Lett. 42, 413-418 (1998).

Schleier-Smith, J. M.; Stone, H. A.

1999-11-01

107

Vertically integrated ZnO-Based 1D1R structure for resistive switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a ZnO-based 1D1R structure, which is formed by a vertical integration of a FeZnO/MgO switching resistor (1R) and an Ag/MgZnO Schottky diode (1D). The multifunctional ZnO and its compounds are grown through MOCVD with in situ doping. For the R element, the current ratio of the high-resistance state (HRS) over the low-resistance state (LRS) at 1 V is 2.4 106. The conduction mechanisms of the HRS and LRS are Poole-Frenkel emission and resistive conduction, respectively. The D element shows the forward/reverse current ratio at 1 V to be 2.4 107. This 1D1R structure exhibits high RHRS/RLRS ratio, excellent rectifying characteristics and robust retention.

Zhang, Yang; Duan, Ziqing; Li, Rui; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Reyes, Pavel I.; Ashrafi, Almamun; Zhong, Jian; Lu, Yicheng

2013-04-01

108

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

1982-01-01

109

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

1982-07-01

110

Light-control of liquid crystal alignment from vertical to planar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous or discontinuous transition from vertical to planar alignment was found in nematic cells, containing polyimide alignment layer exposed to linear polarized UV light, depending on whether the alignment layer was mechanically rubbed or not prior the illumination. The polyimide material is designed originally to promote vertical alignment when deposited onto the inner cell substrates' surface. The mechanism behind these observations is complicated. It includes inclination of the alkyl side chains of the polyimide alignment layer towards the rubbing direction and the bond breaking process due to UV illumination which are considered as the key factors for occurrence of such alignment transition.

Ata Alla, Rasha; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

2013-06-01

111

Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

112

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

113

Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of ?-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

114

Pixel-Level Delta-Sigma ADC with Optimized Area and Power for Vertically-Integrated Image Sensors  

E-print Network

has a temporal noise advantage over a Nyquist-rate ADC. In addition, since delta-sigma is robust with frame rate is another advantage of delta-sigma ADCs. The first implementation of a delta-sigma pixelPixel-Level Delta-Sigma ADC with Optimized Area and Power for Vertically-Integrated Image Sensors

Joseph, Dileepan

115

Economics of the LNG Value Chain and Corporate Strategies An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration leading to an industry in which a small number of large and powerful players are active. Our hypothesis of high transaction costs along the LNG value chain inducing a

Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

116

Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a pilot study conducted with last year occupational and physical therapy students. The study tested the benefits of vertical integration with anatomy courses and case studies in this population. Improvements in knowledge and retention were identified. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Suresh Parmar (Christian Medical College Anatomy)

2011-05-10

117

Evaluation of NSF's Program of Grants and Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, the National Science Foundation (NSF) launched a program of Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE). These grants were designed for institutions with PhD-granting departments in the mathematical sciences, for the purpose of developing high-quality education programs, at all levels,

National Academies Press, 2009

2009-01-01

118

Gasliquid flow around an obstacle in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel technique to study the two-phase flow field around an asymmetric obstruction in a vertical pipe with a nominal diameter of DN200. Main feature of the experiments is the shifting of a half-moon shaped diaphragm causing the obstruction along the axis of the pipe. In this way, the 3D void field is scanned with a stationary

Horst-Michael Prasser; Matthias Beyer; Thomas Frank; Suleiman Al Issa; Helmar Carl; Heiko Pietruske; Peter Schtz

2008-01-01

119

Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of integrated thruster/PMS tests demonstrate operation of the feed system in the relevant environment.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

2007-01-01

120

InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated and vertically coupled with silicon-on-insulator waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous integration of III-V materials with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuitry by an adhesive die-to-wafer bonding process has been proposed as a solution to Si-based lasers and photodetectors. Here, we present the design and optimization of an InGaAs PIN photodetector vertically coupled with the underlying SOI waveguide, which could be readily fabricated using this bonding process. With the help of grating couplers, a thick bonding layer of 2.5 ?m is applied, which inherently avoids the risk of low-bonding yield suffering in the evanescent coupling counterpart. An anti-reflection layer is also introduced between the bonding layer and the III-V layer stack to relieve the accuracy requirement for the bonding layer thickness. Besides, by optimizing the structure parameters, a high-absorption efficiency of 82% and a wide optical 1dB-bandwidth of 220nm are obtained. The analysis shows that the detection bandwidth of the present surface-illuminated photodetector is generally limited by transit-time in the i-InGaAs layer. The relationship of the detection bandwidth and the absorption efficiency versus the i-InGaAs layer thickness is presented for the ease of choosing proper structure parameters for specific applications. With the results presented here, the device can be readily fabricated.

Wang, Zhiqi; Qiu, Chao; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

2014-05-01

121

Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

2014-03-01

122

Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. Objective To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal) managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of exercised decision-space traditionally used to measure local level managers exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority classified as low, medium or high over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use). We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical) was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience), and M&E knowledge. Results Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4), and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84). A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49). There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. Conclusions This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system planning and management under the leadership of horizontal managers. PMID:23364092

Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon; Blaauw, Duane

2013-01-01

123

Observing Nitrogen Bubbles in Liquid Zinc in a Vertical Hele-Shaw Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of gas bubbles in liquid metal are strongly hindered by the opacity of metals. To circumvent this limitation, the authors recently proposed to study such systems under quasi-2D flow conditions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The current paper presents a successful application of this approach for nitrogen bubbles in liquid zinc at 973 K (700 C) in a fused quartz cell with a thickness of 1.5 mm. At low oxygen levels, the cell walls are not wetted by the liquid zinc, and bubbles can be observed directly through the transparent cell walls. Furthermore, using a moving high-speed camera that travels upwards with the bubbles, their properties are quantified in detail along the entire trajectory. In the range of equivalent diameters between 5.9 and 9.0 mm, this reveals a single periodic flow regime in which bubbles follow a sinusoidal path with a characteristic frequency of 3.31 Hz. In addition, systematic intermediate accelerations are observed of which the origin remains unexplained. Considering the unprecedented resolution of such observations for bubbles in liquid metals, especially at high temperatures, it is expected that this approach will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern gas injection in pyrometallurgy.

Klaasen, Bart; Verhaeghe, Frederik; Blanpain, Bart; Fransaer, Jan

2015-01-01

124

Modeling of Taylor bubble rising in a vertical mini noncircular channel filled with a stagnant liquid  

E-print Network

with relatively low liquid flow rates. Slug flow is frequently encoun- tered during the immiscible displacement of viscous oil in the porous rock of an oil-wet reservoir, during the displacement of water from a natural and surface tension on the bubble velocity. Collins (1967) performed experiments to study the effect

Zhao, Tianshou

125

INVESTMENTS AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION - CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE OIL INDUSTRY OF AN EMERGING MARKET: THE CASE OF REFINING IN KUWAIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the possibilities of investment in the oil sector of a developing market and elaborated the advantage of vertical integration in a market where secondary raw materials are in shortage. I study a detailed of investment appeals and values that matters in investing. I argued that relevant business plans, based on vertical integration would create opportunity for FDI

Muhammad Sani Salisu; Semen Y. Yagudin

126

A NEW EXPERIMENTAL CORRELATION USING A CURVE-SHAPED CAPACITANCE SENSOR TO PREDICT LIQUID HOLDUP IN VERTICAL GAS-CONDENSATE PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a curve-shaped capacitance sensor for measuring the mean liquid holdup of the two-phase mixture of gas-condensate and nitrogen in a vertical pipeline was studied experimentally. The sensor consists of two electrodes placed on the external wall of a cylindrical test duct. The calibration curves for bubble, slug, and plug flow regimes were developed for vertical flow and

F. Esmaielzadeh; M. M. Izady; H. Moazzen J

2007-01-01

127

Formation of curvature singularities on the interface between dielectric liquids in a strong vertical electric field.  

PubMed

The nonlinear dynamics of the interface between two deep dielectric fluids in the presence of a vertical electric field is studied. We consider the limit of a strong external electric field where electrostatic forces dominate over gravitational and capillary forces. The nonlinear integrodifferential equations for the interface motion are derived under the assumption of small interfacial slopes. It is shown in the framework of these equations that, in the generic case, the instability development leads to the formation of root singularities at the interface in a finite time. The interfacial curvature becomes infinite at singular points, while the slope angles remain relatively small. The curvature is negative in the vicinity of singularities if the ratio of the permittivities of the fluids exceeds the inverse ratio of their densities, and it is positive in the opposite case (we consider that the lower fluid is heavier than the upper one). In the intermediate case, the interface evolution equations describe the formation and sharpening of dimples at the interface. The results obtained are applicable for the description of the instability of the interface between two magnetic fluids in a vertical magnetic field. PMID:24032931

Kochurin, Evgeny A; Zubarev, Nikolay M; Zubareva, Olga V

2013-08-01

128

Flow Characteristics and Control of Vertical Upward Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow through a Sudden Contraction Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow characteristics of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow through a vertical sudden contraction pipe is an area that has been less studied experimentally and numerically and that is still little known. The drag and its reduction for an upward bubbly two-phase flow in a sudden contraction pipe are investigated. Vortices are generated just prior to and after contraction and they significantly affect the flow characteristics. A simple and economical method to control and smoothen the flow is proposed by mounting a small obstacle (ring) upstream the contraction. The effects of ring position, Reynolds number and volumetric gas flow rate are examined and positive results were seen in all flow conditions. Moreover, the pressure fluctuation phenomenon and its control downstream the contraction was considered.

Voutsinas, Alexandros; Shakouchi, Toshihiko; Takamura, Junichi; Tsujimoto, Koichi; Ando, Toshitake

129

Forced convection heat transfer from a wire inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe to liquid hydrogen flowing upward  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced convection heat transfer from a PtCo wire with a length of 120 mm and a diameter of 1.2 mm that was inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe with a diameter of 8.0 mm to liquid hydrogen flowing upward was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate under saturated conditions. The pressures were varied from 0.4 MPa to 1.1 MPa. The non-boiling heat transfer characteristic agrees with that predicted by Dittus-Boelter correlation. The critical heat fluxes are higher for higher flow rates and lower pressures. Effect of Weber number on the CHF was clarified and a CHF correlation that can describe the experimental data is derived based on our correlation for a pipe.

Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.

2014-12-01

130

High resolution retrieval of liquid water vertical distributions using collocated Ka-band and W-band cloud radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retrieval of cloud water content using dual-frequency radar attenuation is very sensitive to error in radar reflectivity. Either a long radar dwell time or an average over many range gates is needed to reduce random noise in radar data and thus to obtain accurate retrievals - but at the cost of poorer temporal and spatial resolution. In this letter we have shown that, by using advanced mathematical inversion techniques like total variation regularization, vertically resolved liquid water content can be retrieved at an accuracy of about 0.15 gm-3 at 40 m resolution. This is demonstrated using the co-located Ka-band and W-band cloud radars operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. The liquid water path calculated from the radars agrees closely with that from a microwave radiometer, with a mean difference of 70 gm-2. Comparison with lidar observations reveals that the dual-frequency retrieval also reasonably captures the cloud base height of drizzling clouds - something that is very difficult to determine from radar reflectivity alone.

Huang, Dong; Johnson, Karen; Liu, Yangang; Wiscombe, Warren

2009-12-01

131

Numerical modelling of temperature fields in the flow boiling liquid through a vertical minichannel with an enhanced heating surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents results of heat transfer research on flow boiling in a rectangular minichannel positioned vertically, with an enhanced surface. One of the channel walls was made of thin foil powered by direct current. This foil is enhanced on the side contacting fluid in the minichannel. It is possible to observe both surfaces of the minichannel through two openings covered with glass panes. One allows detecting temperature of the plain side of the foil by liquid crystal thermography. The opposite surface of the minichannel (from the enhanced side of the foil) can be observed through the other glass pane. The observations of the flow structures allowed to calculate the void fraction for some cross-sections of selected two phase flow images. In mathematical modelling of the considered process stationary heat transfer in a glass pane, heating foil and boiling liquid can be described with Laplace equation, Poisson equation and energy equation, respectively. For completeness of the model a corresponding system of boundary conditions was given. The two-dimensional temperature fields of glass pane, heating foil and fluid was computed with the Trefftz method. The equalizing calculus used to smooth the measured data has reduced errors.

Ho?ejowska, Sylwia; Piasecka, Magdalena

2014-03-01

132

Remote measurements of ozone, water vapor and liquid water content, and vertical profiles of temperature in the lower troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several advanced atmospheric remote sensing systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were demonstrated under various field conditions to determine how useful they would be for general use by the California Air Resources Board and local air quality districts. One of the instruments reported on is the Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS). It has a pair of carbon dioxide lasers with a transmitter and receiver and can be flown in an aircraft to measure the column abundance of such gases as ozone. From an aircraft, it can be used to rapidly survey a large region. The LAS is usually operated from an aircraft, although it can also be used at a fixed location on the ground. Some tests were performed with the LAS to measure ozone over a 2-km horizontal path. Another system reported on is the Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing System (MARS). It is tuned to microwave emissions from water vapor, liquid water, and oxygen molecules (for atmospheric temperature). It can measure water vapor and liquid water in the line-of-sight, and can measure the vertical temperature profile.

Grant, W. B.; Gary, B. L.; Shumate, M. S.

1983-01-01

133

Anisotropy estimation of compacted municipal solid waste using pressurized vertical well liquids injection.  

PubMed

Waste hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy represent two important parameters controlling fluid movement in landfills, and thus are the key inputs in design methods where predictions of moisture movement are necessary. Although municipal waste hydraulic conductivity has been estimated in multiple laboratory and field studies, measurements of anisotropy, particularly at full scale, are rare, even though landfilled municipal waste is generally understood to be anisotropic. Measurements from a buried liquids injection well surrounded by pressure transducers at a full-scale landfill in Florida were collected and examined to provide an estimate of in-situ waste anisotropy. Liquids injection was performed at a constant pressure and the resulting pore pressures in the surrounding waste were monitored. Numerical fluid flow modeling was employed to simulate the pore pressures expected to occur under the conditions operated. Nine different simulations were performed at three different lateral hydraulic conductivity values and three different anisotropy values. Measured flowrate and pore pressures collected from conditions of approximate steady state were compared with the simulation results to assess the range of anisotropies. The results support that compacted municipal waste in landfills is anisotropic, provide anisotropy estimates greater than previous measurements, and suggest that anisotropy decreases with landfill depth. PMID:24824167

Singh, Karamjit; Kadambala, Ravi; Jain, Pradeep; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G

2014-05-13

134

Integration of vertical InAs nanowire arrays on insulator-on-silicon for electrical isolation  

E-print Network

and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 then be used for device fabrication, such as vertical wrap- around gate FETs;1,2,7­9 however, the presence

Wang, Deli

135

Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)  

SciTech Connect

Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

2011-04-13

136

Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

1998-12-31

137

Development of system level integration of compact RF components on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to optimize compactness for reconfigurable wireless communication systems by integrating Radio Frequency (RF) components on a multilayer Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) package while minimizing the size and interconnection of each component. To achieve this goal, various RF/microwave components have been integrated on LCP with the design, fabrication, and testing results to explore the feasibility of the designs for RF applications. The first chapter of this research focuses on the characterization of via interconnects for 3D system designs. As a crucial component for achieving compact multilayer designs, various transition designs are explored from DC to 110 GHz. In particular, High Density Interconnects (HDI) are investigated to achieve low loss performance at mm-wave frequencies. An example of accessing the input and output of a LCP packaged device using via interconnects is included. In addition, a heat sink using via technology is presented for active cooling of heat generating embedded devices. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 demonstrate the results of RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) switches integrated on LCP to create compact reconfigurable devices. RF MEMS switches are essential for designing compact multi-functional devices. A pattern reconfigurable antenna with monolithically integrated RF MEMS switches is presented. In addition, a compact 3D phase shifter using RF MEMS switches for a 2 x 2 phased antenna array is also presented in this work. To create a phased antenna array that is more compatible with Integrated Circuits (IC), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) RF MEMS switches are used to make a low voltage phase shifter. The actuation voltage is under 10 V, which is more easily achievable in a integrated system compared to commonly used electrostatic actuated RF MEMS switches that required at least 30 V. In Chapter 6, an expandable, low cost, and conformal multilayer phased antenna array is presented. Starting with a 4 x 8 element antenna array, the concept of beam steering is shown. Using this antenna array as a building block, an 8 x 8 element antenna array is shown with the measured results when conformed around a cylinder. Further expanding the antenna array, a 16 x 16 element antenna array is designed, fabricated, and measured. All of these antenna arrays use LCP as a platform for lightweight and low cost satellite communication applications. Finally, using the integration technology and expertise developed from the previous work, a 60 GHz transceiver front end is designed on LCP for high speed wireless communication applications. Two dual mode filters and high-gain vertical dipoles are integrated at the packaging level on LCP to create a low cost system. A PA and LNA are included in the system to increase the system gain. The measurements of the dual mode filters are presented as well as the fully integrated transceiver pattern measurements and gain measurements of each of the transmitting and receiving mode. This research contributes to LCP integration technology with more compact and higher frequency multilayer applications while focusing on integration of the components at the system packaging level to achieve optimal compactness. The highlight of this work is in developing key technologies for multilayer integration on organic LCP such as HDI interconnects and RF MEMS; applying the technology to create reconfigurable RF components such as reconfigurable antennas and compact low voltage phase shifters; and integrating the components to create compact low cost multilayer RF front end systems.

Chung, David

138

Physician Opinions About an Anatomy Core Curriculum: A Case for Medical Imaging and Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

was to assess the importance of a human gross anatomy course by soliciting the opinions of physicians fromPhysician Opinions About an Anatomy Core Curriculum: A Case for Medical Imaging and Vertical and Anatomy, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Pre-clinical anatomy curricula must provide medical

139

Monolithically-integrated long vertical cavity surface emitting laser incorporating a concave micromirror on  

E-print Network

with maximum output power of 39mW. I. INTRODUCTION Vertical extended cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs, the long stable cavity of a VECSEL allows for better transverse mode discrimination, reduced diffraction losses, and high-power high-quality single mode operation. VECSELs may find applications in optical

Miller, David A. B.

140

Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action

Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

2014-01-01

141

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22

142

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

143

Pulp Mill Integrated Gasification Based Liquid Biofuels Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 timeframe, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established today in the gas-to- liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This paper describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of

Eric D. Larson

144

RF Characterization of Vertical InAs Nanowire Wrap-Gate Transistors Integrated on Si Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present dc and RF characterization of InAs nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) heterogeneously in- tegrated on Si substrates in a geometry suitable for circuit applications. The FET consists of an array of 182 vertical InAs nanowires with about 6-nm HfO high- gate dielectric and a wrap-gate length of250nm. Thetransistor hasatransconductance of 155 mS\\/mm and an on-current of 550 mA\\/mm at

Sofia Johansson; Mikael Egard; Sepideh Gorji Ghalamestani; B. Mattias Borg; Martin Berg; Lars-Erik Wernersson; Erik Lind

2011-01-01

145

Dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in vertical fractures: Effect of finger residuals and dead-end pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dissolution behavior of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in rock fractures under different entrapment conditions is important for remediation activities and any related predictive modeling. This study investigates DNAPL dissolution in variable aperture fractures under two important entrapment configurations, namely, entrapped residual blobs from gravity fingering and pooling in a dead-end fracture. We performed a physical dissolution experiment of residual DNAPL blobs in a vertical analog fracture using light transmission techniques. A high-resolution mechanistic (physically-based) numerical model has been developed which is shown to excellently reproduce the experimentally observed DNAPL dissolution. We subsequently applied the model to simulate dissolution of the residual blobs under different water flushing velocities. The simulated relationship between the Sherwood number Sh and Peclet number Pe could be well fitted with a simple power-law function (Sh = 1.43Pe0.43). To investigate mass transfer from dead-end pools, another type of trapping in rock fractures, entrapment and dissolution of DNAPL in a vertical dead-end fracture was simulated. As the entrapped pool dissolves, the depth of the interface between the DNAPL and the flowing water increases linearly with decreasing DNAPL saturation. The interfacial area remains more or less constant as DNAPL saturation decreases, unlike in the case of residual DNAPL blobs. The decreasing depth of the contact interface changes the flow field and causes decreasing water flow velocity above the top of the DNAPL pool, suggesting the dependence of the mass transfer rate on the depth of the interface, or alternatively, the remaining mass percentage in the fracture. Simulation results show that the resultant Sherwood number Sh is significantly smaller than in the case of residual blobs for any given Peclet number, indicating slower mass transfer. The results also show that the Sh can be well fitted with a power-law function of Pe and remaining mass percentage. The obtained relationships of dimensionless groups concerning the mass transfer characteristics at the level of individual fractures can be further used in predictive modeling of dissolution at a larger (fracture network) scale.

Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Illangasekare, Tissa; Detwiler, Russell L.

2013-06-01

146

Ocular-Vestibular Integration, Height Anxiety and the Environmental Vertical Illusion.  

E-print Network

??The ocular-vestibular system integrates visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information in order to aid individuals in navigating the environment. Individual differences arise in the relative weight (more)

Willey, Chela

2012-01-01

147

Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the  

E-print Network

1 Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the Use-fuels (Wilhelm et al., 2001) are promising due to their straightforward use within the biorefinery. Furthermore

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

148

Vertical alignment of liquid crystal through ion beam exposure on oxygen-doped SiC films deposited at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the vertical alignment of liquid crystal (LC) through the ion beam exposure on amorphous oxygen-doped SiC (SiOC) film surfaces deposited at room temperature. The optical transmittance of these films was similar to that of polyimide layers, but much higher than that of SiO{sub x} films. The light leakage of a LC cell aligned vertically on SiOC films was much lower than those of a LC cell aligned on polyimide layers or other inorganic films. They found that LC molecules align vertically on ion beam treated SiOC film when the roughness of the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) data is high on the SiOC film surface, while they align homogeneously when the roughness of the EFM data is low.

Son, Phil Kook; Park, Jeung Hun; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Rho, Soon Joon; Jeon, Back Kyun; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jang Sub; Lim, Soon Kwon [School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); LC/OLED Research Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Process Development Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-09-03

149

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder.  

PubMed

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. Fluids 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. Fluids 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations. PMID:23767631

Mayo, Lisa C; McCue, Scott W; Moroney, Timothy J

2013-05-01

150

Two-dimensional integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and photodetectors  

E-print Network

sensing. Calculations using the reflection from a periodic metallic corrugation as a position gauge, single longi- tudinal mode operation, and low beam divergence. The monolithic integration of VCSELs- tectors can be used to spatially resolve reflections from a corrugated surface. In this case MSM photode

Choquette, Kent

151

Inferring the Effects of Vertical Integration from Entry Games: An Analysis of the Generic  

E-print Network

integration on market outcomes--such as prices, quantities, and product quality in the final goods market noncontractible investments in Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Univeristy of California, Berkeley, and Development Studies Center, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

152

Vision Sensor with a SIMD Processor Array in a Vertically Stacked 3D Integrated Circuit Technology  

E-print Network

, according to a program that is broadcast to all PEs from a single controller (currently implemented off-chip mixed-mode processing elements and operates in SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) mode, providing an integrated cellular sensor/processor array. The processing element (PE) cells span across three layers

Dudek, Piotr

153

Monolithically integrated surface and substrate emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for smart pixels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Oxidation of AlOx is a selective process over GaAs in an epitaxial stack, and can also be spatially selective over a wafer by defining predetermined areas of a wafer to be exposed to the oxidation process. Using the spatial selectivity of the oxidation we have fabricated monolithically integrated surface and substrate emitting VCSEL's side by side

Aaron E. Bond; P. Daniel Dapkus

1998-01-01

154

Engaged Learning across the Curriculum: The Vertical Integration of Food for Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a relatively new and decidedly healthy educational movement emerging across the United States, from grade schools to high schools, from community colleges to graduate programs at the nation's most prestigious universities. The movement goes by the name of "engaged learning." The authors describe two experiments to integrate

Duster, Troy; Waters, Alice

2006-01-01

155

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3633530 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3428753 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations.

Mayo, Lisa C.; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.

2013-05-01

156

On-Chip Liquid Cooling With Integrated Pump Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the capability of a novel cooling system for microchannels based on the principle of electrowetting is examined. To start with, the elcctrowetting effect in microchannels is experimentally investigated. The used electrowetting system consists of a liquid droplet deposited on a conductive Si substrate and electrically insulated from this substrate by a dielectric, layer. Microchannels of 100 mum

Herman Oprins; Geert Van der Veken; Cline C. S. Nicole; Clemens J. M. Lasance; Martine Baelmans

2007-01-01

157

Double-layered vertically integrated amorphous-In2Ga2ZnO7 thin-film transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two serially connected and vertically integrated amorphous-In2Ga2ZnO7 thin film transistors (V-TFTs) with 600 and 400-nm channel lengths were fabricated. Top and bottom V-TFTs showed well-behaved transfer characteristics with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 108 and a sub-threshold swing of 0.6 V/dec., which are much improved results compared with the previous report on single-layer V-TFTs. Electrical performances of two V-TFTs were cross-checked, and they showed certain influences from the other device depending on operation conditions, which was attributed to charge trapping in the gate dielectric layer during gate voltage sweeping. V-TFT with thermally grown SiO2 showed negligible charge trapping behavior.

Ho Rha, Sang; Ki Kim, Un; Jung, Jisim; Suk Hwang, Eun; Choi, Jung-Hae; Seong Hwang, Cheol

2013-10-01

158

Vertically integrated metal-clad/silicon dioxide-shell microtube arrays for high-spatial-resolution light stimuli in saline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microdevices composed of integrated microscale light source arrays are powerful tools in optogenetic applications. Herein, we prepared vertically aligned 3-?m inner diameter silicon dioxide (SiO2) tube-based optical light waveguide arrays. To increase the locality of the light stimuli through the tube, we also fabricated metal-cladded SiO2 tubes using iridium (Ir). After filling the tube with a saline solution, the saline-core/Ir-clad/SiO2-shell waveguide exhibited light stimuli without spreading. With a 532-nm wavelength, the half-power width of the light intensity measured 10 ?m above the tube tip was 3 ?m, while that of the saline/SiO2-shell waveguide was 9.6 ?m, which was more than three times wider. Such high-spatial-resolution optical light stimuli will offer a new class of optogenetic applications, including light stimuli for specific regions of a neuron (e.g., axons or dendrites).

Sakata, M.; Nakamura, T.; Matsuo, T.; Goryu, A.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

2014-04-01

159

Electrical and optical characterization of field emitter tips with integrated vertically stacked focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised version of the authors' BPM that includes quantitatively accurate closed-form expressions for the Fowler-Nordheim coefficients is summarized. For field emitter arrays with integrated focus with the gate and focus biased at the same potential (VG, = VF) the emission current was 100 nA\\/tip at 42 V, with about 50% intercepted by the focus. It was deduced that the

L. Dvorson; G. Sha; I. Kymissis; C.-Y. Hong; A. I. Akinwande

2003-01-01

160

A model of horizontal and vertical integration of teaching on the cadaveric heart.  

PubMed

This work was performed in a trial to organize the learning process by focusing on the integration of medical education particularly between the three main subjects: gross anatomy, histology and pathology. It was a theoretical teaching draft designed to be implemented with second year students of the Medical school of the King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA, in order to overcome disadvantages in traditional teaching. The objectives of this work were to make medical students, at the pre-clinical stage of their medical carrier, alert to diagnosis and handling of clinical problems and to develop their ability to integrate pre-clinical and clinical subjects. Fifty human cadaveric hearts were anatomically and histopathologically examined. This examination revealed six different clinical problems such as pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiac hypertrophy, parasitic infestation, rheumatic heart disease and fatty infiltration. The medical students of the second year will be first introduced to the normal anatomical and histological structure of the heart, then allowed to visualize and examine the specimens of the cadaveric heart both macroscopically and microscopically. They will be introduced to a set of clinical problems through some clinical scenarios and asked to search for the possible etiological factors causing these changes, associated signs and symptoms. Finally they will be asked to present their findings and interpretations. This paper demonstrated a pathway of self-directed learning in an integrated teaching setting in the medical curriculum using available cadaveric material at a preparatory stage before developing the system-based curriculum. PMID:20696558

Alsaggaf, Samar; Ali, Soad Shaker; Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Eldeek, Basem Salama; El-Haggagy, Amira

2010-12-20

161

Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film using ion-beam irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Using ion-beam (IB) irradiation, liquid crystals (LCs) were vertically aligned (VA) on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film. Atomic-layer deposition was used to orient the LCs on high-quality {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. The LC molecule orientation indicates the vertical direction of the atomic-layer-deposited {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that IB irradiation changed the chemical structure, shifting the Al-O binding energy and altering the Al-O bonding intensity. The low-voltage transmittance characteristics of the VA LC displays on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films were also measured, showing reduced voltage and power requirements.

Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Young-Hwan; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Seo, Dae-Shik [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Information Display Device Laboratory, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jeong-Yeon [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States)

2008-12-08

162

A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2008-12-01

163

Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 ?m thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 1015neq /cm2. We will also report on the R&D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 ?m and 150 ?m thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

2014-11-01

164

[Variation of diversity and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in the integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands].  

PubMed

The activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in different layers of Integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCW) treating eutrophic scenic water was measured, and the diversity and spatial distribution of AOB community structure in IVCW was investigated using PCR-DGGE. The results indicated that because of the integrated influence of competition of plant rhizodeposition, heterotrophic bacteria, DO and ammonia concentration, there were significant spatial differences in the activity and diversity of AOB along the flow direction of wetland. The activity of AOB was 0.79 mg x (kg x h)(-1) (in NO3- -N, the same below) near the surface of down-flow system in IVCW. From the surface of down-flow system to up-flow system, the activity of AOB decreased gradually, and slightly increased to 0.17 mg x (kg x h)(-1) near the surface of up-flow system. The spatial variation of diversity of AOB showed the similar change trend with the activity in IVCW and the diversity index in down-flow system (1.92) were higher than those in up-flow system (1.65). Most of AOB belong to oligotrophic bacterium in IVCW, and the population of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria showed a higher percentage of Nitrosomonas-like sequences from the wetland samples. Uncultured beta proteobacterium, Comamonas sp., Nitrosomonas oligotropha were also detected. The variation of the AOB community demonstrated spatial pattern in IVCW, which might be related to different wetland environment. PMID:18839566

Huang, De-feng; Li, Tian

2008-08-01

165

Studies of neutron-? pulse shape discrimination in EJ-309 liquid scintillator using charge integration method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse shape discrimination capability based on the charge integration has been investigated for liquid scintillator EJ-309. The effectiveness of neutron-? discrimination in 4-in. diameter and 3-in. thick EJ-309 cells coupled with 3-in. photomultiplier tubes has been carefully studied in the laboratory environment and compared to the commonly used EJ-301 liquid scintillator formulation. Influences of distortions in pulse shape caused by 13.7-m long cables necessary for some remote operations have been examined. The parameter space for an effective neutron-? discrimination for these assays, such as position and width of a gate used for integration of the delayed light, has been explored.

Pawe?czak, I. A.; Ouedraogo, S. A.; Glenn, A. M.; Wurtz, R. E.; Nakae, L. F.

2013-05-01

166

Integrated model development for liquid fueled rocket propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As detailed in the original statement of work, the objective of phase two of this research effort was to develop a general framework for rocket engine performance prediction that integrates physical principles, a rigorous mathematical formalism, component level test data, system level test data, and theory-observation reconciliation. Specific phase two development tasks are defined.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-01-01

167

Development of vertical SU-8 microtubes integrated with dissolvable tips for transdermal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Polymer-based microneedles have drawn much attention in the transdermal drug delivery resulting from their flexibility and biocompatibility. Traditional fabrication approach deploys various kinds of molds to create sharp tips at the end of needles for the penetration purpose. This approach is usually time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we developed an innovative fabrication process to make biocompatible SU-8 microtubes integrated with biodissolvable maltose tips as novel microneedles for the transdermal drug delivery applications. These microneedles can easily penetrate the skin's outer barrier represented by the stratum corneum (SC) layer. The drug delivery device of mironeedles array with 1000??m spacing between adjacent microneedles is proven to be able to penetrate porcine cadaver skins successfully. The maximum loading force on the individual microneedle can be as large as 7.36 0.48N. After 9?min of the penetration, all the maltose tips are dissolved in the tissue. Drugs can be further delivered via these open biocompatible SU-8 microtubes in a continuous flow manner. The permeation patterns caused by the solution containing Rhodamine 110 at different depths from skin surface were characterized via a confocal microscope. It shows successful implementation of the microneedle function for fabricated devices. PMID:24404018

Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakanksha; Pastorin, Giorgia; Lee, Chengkuo

2013-01-01

168

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 4: Reviews and presentation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid rocket booster integration study is presented. Volume 4 contains materials presented at the MSFC/JSC/KSC Integrated Reviews and Working Group Sessions, and the Progress Reviews presented to the KSC Study Manager. The following subject areas are covered: initial impact assessment; conflicts with the on-going STS mission; access to the LRB at the PAD; the activation schedule; transition requirements; cost methodology; cost modelling approach; and initial life cycle cost.

1988-01-01

169

Passive fluidic chip composed of integrated vertical capillary tubes developed for on-site SPR immunoassay analysis targeting real samples.  

PubMed

We have successfully developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement system for the on-site immunoassay of real samples. The system is composed of a portable SPR instrument (290 mm(W) 160 mm(D) 120 mm(H)) and a microfluidic immunoassay chip (16 mm(W) 16 mm(D) 4 mm(H)) that needs no external pump system. An integrated vertical capillary tube functions as a large volume (150 ?L) passive pump and a waste reservoir that has sufficient capacity for several refill operations. An immunoassay was carried out that employed the direct injection of a buffer and a test sample in sequence into a microfluidic chip that included 9 antibody bands and 10 reference reagent bands immobilized in the flow channel. By subtracting a reliable averaged reference sensorgram from the antibody, we effectively reduced the influence of the non-specific binding, and then our chip successfully detected the specific binding of spiked IgG in non-homogeneous milk. IgG is a model antigen that is certain not to be present in non-homogeneous milk, and non-homogeneous milk is a model of real sample that includes many interfering foreign substances that induce non-specific binding. The direct injection of a real sample with no pretreatment enabled us to complete the entire immunoassay in several minutes. This ease of operation and short measuring time are acceptable for on-site agricultural, environmental and medical testing. PMID:22969339

Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Miura, Toru; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Haga, Tsuneyuki; Tamechika, Emi

2012-01-01

170

Passive Fluidic Chip Composed of Integrated Vertical Capillary Tubes Developed for On-Site SPR Immunoassay Analysis Targeting Real Samples  

PubMed Central

We have successfully developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement system for the on-site immunoassay of real samples. The system is composed of a portable SPR instrument (290 mm(W) 160 mm(D) 120 mm(H)) and a microfluidic immunoassay chip (16 mm(W) 16 mm(D) 4 mm(H)) that needs no external pump system. An integrated vertical capillary tube functions as a large volume (150 ?L) passive pump and a waste reservoir that has sufficient capacity for several refill operations. An immunoassay was carried out that employed the direct injection of a buffer and a test sample in sequence into a microfluidic chip that included 9 antibody bands and 10 reference reagent bands immobilized in the flow channel. By subtracting a reliable averaged reference sensorgram from the antibody, we effectively reduced the influence of the non-specific binding, and then our chip successfully detected the specific binding of spiked IgG in non-homogeneous milk. IgG is a model antigen that is certain not to be present in non-homogeneous milk, and non-homogeneous milk is a model of real sample that includes many interfering foreign substances that induce non-specific binding. The direct injection of a real sample with no pretreatment enabled us to complete the entire immunoassay in several minutes. This ease of operation and short measuring time are acceptable for on-site agricultural, environmental and medical testing. PMID:22969339

Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Miura, Toru; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Haga, Tsuneyuki; Tamechika, Emi

2012-01-01

171

Numerical Pattern Formation on Magnetothermal Convection of Diamagnetic Liquids in a Cylindrical Vessel of RayleighBenard Model: Effects of Axisymmetric Horizontal Magnetic Forces on Vertical Magnetic Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out three-dimensional computations of the magnetothermal convection of diamagnetic liquids (e.g., water) in a shallow cylindrical vessel of the RayleighBenard model to investigate the effects of the radial components of the magnetic force (MFR) and the vertical components of the magnetic force (MFZ) on heat transfer and pattern formation. For the purpose of examining various magnitudes of radial and vertical components of the magnetic force, we used a 1800-turn coil instead of an actual conventional magnet, and a 2-turn coil as a new proposal. In the computation, the Prandtl number was constant at 6.0 (i.e., water at room temperature), and the Rayleigh number was 1.0 104. As a result, an axisymmetric pattern and a spokelike pattern appeared in the convection. Subsequently, we arranged all the results with a new parameter, which is the absolute ratio of the radial component of magnetic force at the vessel sidewall to the vertical resultant force at the vessel center. This parameter represents the relative contribution of MFR to the vertical resultant force (RFZ). The RFZ is the sum of the gravitational force and MFZ, and is associated with the magnetic Rayleigh number. By using this parameter, the spoke pattern convection appeared when the parameter was within 0.11 to 0.85. This result suggests that not only the MFR but also the MFZ plays an important role in determining whether the convection flow pattern transited to the axisymmetric flow or not. This parameter range is easily satisfied in a conventional superconducting magnet. We can say that the spoke pattern convection may be a common phenomenon in the magnet. On the other hand, the flow pattern had little effect on the heat transfer in convection. Thus, the effects of MFR and MFZ on the pattern formation in the magnet are much more complicated than those previously considered.

Maki, Syou; Sumitani, Mariko; Udagawa, Chikako; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

2014-07-01

172

Vertically Integrated MEMS SOI Composite Porous Silicon-Crystalline Silicon Cantilever-Array Sensors: Concept for Continuous Sensing of Explosives and Warfare Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on arrays of cantilevers made of crystalline silicon (c-Si), using SOI wafers as the starting material and using bulk micromachining. The arrays are subsequently transformed into composite porous silicon-crystalline silicon cantilevers, using a unique vapor phase process tailored for providing a thin surface layer of porous silicon on one side only. This results in asymmetric cantilever arrays, with one side providing nano-structured porous large surface, which can be further coated with polymers, thus providing additional sensing capabilities and enhanced sensing. The c-Si cantilevers are vertically integrated with a bottom silicon die with electrodes allowing electrostatic actuation. Flip Chip bonding is used for the vertical integration. The readout is provided by a sensitive Capacitance to Digital Converter. The fabrication, processing and characterization results are reported. The reported study is aimed towards achieving miniature cantilever chips with integrated readout for sensing explosives and chemical warfare agents in the field.

Stolyarova, Sara; Shemesh, Ariel; Aharon, Oren; Cohen, Omer; Gal, Lior; Eichen, Yoav; Nemirovsky, Yael

173

Pressure changes associated with the ascent and bursting of gas slugs in liquid-filled vertical and inclined conduits  

Microsoft Academic Search

At basaltic volcanoes, the sources of long-period and very-long-period seismicity and acoustic signals are frequently described in terms of fluid dynamic processes, in particular the formation and ascent of gas slugs within the magma column and their bursting at the surface. To investigate pressure changes associated with these processes, two-phase flow experiments have been carried out in vertical and inclined

M. R James; B Chouet; J. S Gilbert

2004-01-01

174

Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy of hard spheres via a novel thermodynamic integration scheme  

E-print Network

The hard sphere crystal-liquid interfacial free energy, ($\\gamma_{\\rm cl}$), is determined from molecular dynamics simulations using a novel thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme. The advantage of this TI scheme compared to previous methods is to successfully circumvent hysteresis effects due to the movement of the crystal-liquid interface. This is accomplished by the use of extremely short-ranged and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls which prevent the drift of the interface while imposing a negligible free-energy penalty. We find that it is crucial to analyze finite-size effects in order to obtain reliable estimates of $\\gamma_{\\rm cl}$ in the thermodynamic limit.

Ronald Benjamin; Jrgen Horbach

2014-10-31

175

Comparative study of microbial community structure in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic and nitrified wastewaters.  

PubMed

Microbial processes play a vital important role in the removal of contaminants in constructed wetland (CW). However, the microbial physiology and community structure can be influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, four pilot-scale integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) were employed to treat domestic and nitrified wastewaters. The microbial properties, along with their response to wastewater quality characteristics and seasonal variation, were determined. The results showed higher Shannon-Weiner diversity (H) and evenness (E) index of fatty acids (FAs), and relative abundances of signature FAs in down-flow cells and in the systems fed with domestic wastewater (DW). The relative abundances of fungi and gram-negative and aerobic bacteria were greater in up-flow cells. The dominant anaerobic bacteria found in most cells might be accounted for the prevailing anaerobic environment within the wetland beds, which could mean that the system fed with nitrified wastewater (NW) should perform better in nitrogen removal. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that pollutant concentrations, especially organic matter, influence the FA compositions greatly, and the most significant difference of microbial community structures was detected in down-flow cells fed with DW and up-flow ones with NW. The branched FAs, which could be used to represent anaerobic bacteria, were observed in down-flow cells treating DW and had a significant positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, probably suggesting the important role of anaerobic bacteria in organic matter degradation in the IVCWs. Seasonal variation, however, did not greatly influence the microbial community structure in the IVCWs. PMID:25245259

Chang, Jun-Jun; Wu, Su-Qing; Liang, Kang; Wu, Zhenbin; Liang, Wei

2014-09-23

176

Evaluation of Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystals by measuring off-axis retardation in vertical electric field cells.  

PubMed

Because of the nonuniform electric field of the in-plane-switching cell in the thickness direction, an accurate and efficient way for evaluating the Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) needs to be developed. This study demonstrates a method for evaluating the Kerr constant by measuring the off-axis-induced retardation (R(th)) change in normal vertical field cells using a commercial polarimeter. The angle-dependent behavior of the R(th) change is observed as an electric-tunable positive C retarder. In this paper, a sigmoid fitting model has been chosen for calculating the Kerr constant for considering the very small intrinsic birefringence of the BPLC. PMID:21947049

Hsieh, Pao-Ju; Chen, Huang-Ming Philip

2011-09-20

177

Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.

Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.

2015-01-01

178

Integrated optical sensor for liquid control in micro-fluidic channel systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust optical sensor for liquid control in fluidic channels is reported. The sensor operates on light intensity modulation resulting from alteration of total internal reflection into partial reflection. When a liquid guided in a channel covers an integrated prism, the total internal reflection is changed into a partial reflection, resulting in an intensity modulation of the reflected light. The set-up comprises a fibre which is built in a coupler unit with integrated LED and photodiode as well as a prism micro-machined directly into a micro-fluidic polymeric channel by laser ablation. The Prism is of 45-90-45 type with a dimension of 0.5 mm 1 mm 2 mm. In this design the radiation of the LED light source is transmitted and collected from the prism by a 50:50 fibre coupler by means of total or partial internal reflection. The sensor was characterised by filling alternately the channel with water and air. The signal level for the liquid in contact with the prism was determined to be 222 mV while the signal level of the air filled channel was 336 mV. The influence of stray light onto the sensor signal was tested by applying a strong uncollimated illumination of the channel. Only a small increase in the output signal level in the presence of air but a strong increase in case of the presence of water could be detected. However, the discrimination between air and liquid was still possible sufficiently (290 mV for liquid, 340 mV for air). The sensor was also demonstrated to be operated as a micro-refractometer.

v. Germar, Frithjof; Klotzbcher, Thomas; Ben Mohammadi, Lhoucine; Claussen, Jan

2008-04-01

179

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01

180

Vertically integrated submicron amorphous-In2Ga2ZnO7 thin film transistor using a low temperature process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, vertically integrated amorphous-In2Ga2ZnO7 (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (V-TFTs) with 310 nm channel length were fabricated using a low temperature process (<300 C), and their device performance was evaluated. The fabricated V-TFTs show well behaved transfer characteristics with an Ion/Ioff current ratio greater than 104 and a threshold voltage of 1.7 V. The influence of the vertical structure on device performance was analyzed in detail. In addition, current polarity characteristics that arise from different metal/a-IGZO contacts were also examined. The non-optimum performance of the V-TFTs was attributed to the fringing-field effect, high defect density, and large source/drain contact resistance.

Ho Rha, Sang; Jung, Jisim; Soo Jung, Yoon; Jang Chung, Yoon; Ki Kim, Un; Suk Hwang, Eun; Keon Park, Byoung; Joo Park, Tae; Choi, Jung-Hae; Seong Hwang, Cheol

2012-05-01

181

Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water from path-integral simulations using an ab initio force matching approach  

E-print Network

We have applied path integral simulations, in combination with new ab initio based water potentials, to investigate nuclear quantum effects in liquid water. Because direct ab initio path integral simulations are computationally expensive, a flexible water model is parameterized by force-matching to density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting effective potentials provide an inexpensive replacement for direct ab inito molecular dynamics simulations and allow efficient simulation of nuclear quantum effects. Static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions are presented and the role of nuclear quantum effects, exchange-correlation functionals and dispersion corrections are discussed in regards to reproducing the experimental properties of liquid water.

Thomas Spura; Christopher John; Scott Habershon; Thomas D. Khne

2014-02-12

182

A liquid waveguide based evanescent wave sensor integrated onto a microfluidic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evanescent wave sensor based on liquid waveguide is integrated onto a microfluidic chip. The structure of the liquid waveguide consists of three streams with two low refractive index fluids as cladding layers, which envelop a high refractive index fluid as a core layer along a microchannel. Light is coupled into the core layer, and a detected sample is injected into one cladding layer. The profile of the output light modal power is changed by varying the concentration of the sample. The sensor with a sensitivity of 275?m2l/mol can be used for real-time, low-cost, and label-free measurements in a wide range of applications.

Li, X. C.; Wu, J.; Liu, A. Q.; Li, Z. G.; Soew, Y. C.; Huang, H. J.; Xu, K.; Lin, J. T.

2008-11-01

183

Integrated method of measuring the transverse thermal conduction and diffusion in a turbulent liquid stream  

SciTech Connect

A new integrated method is described for measuring the transverse diffusion and thermal conductivity coefficients of a parallel turbulent liquid stream. The method differs from other methods in a number of ways: the location of the temperature or impurity-concentration sensors outside and not inside the medium under study; simplicity of implementation; speed of measurements; and applicability to finely divided porous media as well as large bundles of tubes, lattices, and charges, and to free turbulent streams. On the basis of experimental data we establish a {open_quotes}limiting law of mixing{close_quotes} of a liquid in porous media and the previously known interrelation of turbulent diffusion and thermal conductivity with the hydraulic resistance of the porous medium.

Kharitonov, V.V.; Fedoseev, V.N.

1994-12-01

184

Defining Vertical Permeability Distribution to Support SAGD Operations: An Integrated Multi-Scale Approach to Modelling a Bitumen Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural bitumen deposits in Alberta, Canada, comprise about 1,700 billion bbls of bitumen in place with an estimated 174 billion bbls recoverable. They are deemed critical to the future security of North American energy supplies. The primary extraction method for these deposits will be steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), a method dependent on vertical reservoir permeability. The Lower Cretaceous

Peter Phillips

185

Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10-10 mbarL s-1, in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

Antelius, Mikael; Fischer, Andreas C.; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Gran; Roxhed, Niclas

2012-04-01

186

Estimating integrated cloud liquid water from extended time observations of solar irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated liquid water content (LWC) from the measured solar irradiance is described. The cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the same time on a cloudless day. From the transmittance and the zenith angle, the cloud LWC is computed using the radiative transfer parameterizations of Stephens et al., (1984). The results are compared with 17 days of mm-wave (20.6 and 31.65 GHz) radiometer measurements made during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observation (IFO) in July of 1987.

Fairall, C. W.; Rabadi, Raja El-Salem; Snider, Jack B.

1990-01-01

187

IL-GLOBO (1.0) - integrated Lagrangian particle model and Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO: development of the vertical diffusion module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and validation of the vertical diffusion module of IL-GLOBO, a Lagrangian transport model coupled online with the Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO, is described. The module simulates the effects of turbulence on particle motion by means of a Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM) consistently with the turbulent diffusion equation used in GLOBO. The implemented LSM integrates particle trajectories, using the native ?-hybrid coordinates of the Eulerian component, and fulfils the well-mixed condition (WMC) in the general case of a variable density profile. The module is validated through a series of 1-D offline numerical experiments by assessing its accuracy in maintaining an initially well-mixed distribution in the vertical. A dynamical time-step selection algorithm with constraints related to the shape of the diffusion coefficient profile is developed and discussed. Finally, the skills of a linear interpolation and a modified Akima spline interpolation method are compared, showing that both satisfy the WMC with significant differences in computational time. A preliminary run of the fully integrated 3-D model confirms the result only for the Akima interpolation scheme while the linear interpolation does not satisfy the WMC with a reasonable choice of the minimum integration time step.

Rossi, D.; Maurizi, A.

2014-09-01

188

First-order energy-integral model for thin Newtonian liquids falling along sinusoidal furrows.  

PubMed

An average modeling methodology under the lubrication approach is used to formulate a set of three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations based on the Nusselt scales. This system, known as the energy-integral method in literature, simplifies the Navier-Stokes equation at the first order and analyzes the dynamics of a thin sheet of fluid flowing over a topography with sinusoidally varying longitudinal furrows. Limiting cases of the linear stability results are mathematically discussed and the complete linear system is numerically handled by means of finite differences to approximate the eigenfunctions and their derivatives in a periodic domain. In a geometry which resembles a vertical shift of a topography, with the amplitude being equal to the shift length, it is found that such a geometry stabilizes the flow compared to its counterpart with no shift, such that the wave characteristics get affected. To confirm the stability results, a numerical investigation is performed. PMID:22587182

Sadiq, I Mohammed Rizwan

2012-03-01

189

A set of vertically integrated inquiry-based practical curricula that develop scientific thinking skills for large cohorts of undergraduate students.  

PubMed

Science graduates require critical thinking skills to deal with the complex problems they will face in their 21st century workplaces. Inquiry-based curricula can provide students with the opportunities to develop such critical thinking skills; however, evidence suggests that an inappropriate level of autonomy provided to underprepared students may not only be daunting to students but also detrimental to their learning. After a major review of the Bachelor of Science, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a series of three vertically integrated courses with inquiry-style laboratory practicals for early-stage undergraduate students in biomedical science. These practical curricula were designed so that students would work with increasing autonomy and ownership of their research projects to develop increasingly advanced scientific thinking and communication skills. Students undertaking the first iteration of these three vertically integrated courses reported learning gains in course content as well as skills in scientific writing, hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis, and interpreting results. Students also demonstrated increasing skills in both hypothesis formulation and communication of findings as a result of participating in the inquiry-based curricula and completing the associated practical assessment tasks. Here, we report the specific aspects of the curricula that students reported as having the greatest impact on their learning and the particular elements of hypothesis formulation and communication of findings that were more challenging for students to master. These findings provide important implications for science educators concerned with designing curricula to promote scientific thinking and communication skills alongside content acquisition. PMID:24292906

Zimbardi, Kirsten; Bugarcic, Andrea; Colthorpe, Kay; Good, Jonathan P; Lluka, Lesley J

2013-12-01

190

Fabrication and characterization of the Si-photonics-integrated vertical resonant-cavity light-emitting diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and fabricated a 1.3-um hybrid vertical Resonant-Cavity Light-Emitting Diode for optical interconnect by using direct III-V wafer bonding on silicon on insulator (SOI). The device included InP based front distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), InGaAlAs based active layer, and SOI-based high-contrast-grating (HCG) as a back reflector. 42-uW continuous wave optical power was achieved at 20mA at room temperature.

Kong, Duanhua; Kim, Taek; Kim, Sihan; Hong, Hyungi; Shcherbatko, Igor; Park, Youngsoo; Shin, Dongjae; Ha, Kyoung-Ho; Jeong, Gitae

2014-03-01

191

A microfabricated micropillar liquid chromatographic chip monolithically integrated with an electrospray ionization tip.  

PubMed

We present the first monolithically integrated silicon/glass liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization microchip for mass spectrometry. The microchip is fabricated by bonding a silicon wafer, which has deep reactive ion etched micropillar-filled channels, together with a glass lid. Both the silicon channel and the glass lid have a through-wafer etched sharp tip that produces a stable electrospray. The microchip is also compatible with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, due to the glass lid. Separation of drugs in less than 5 minutes using either SiO(2) (normal phase) or C(18) coated (reversed-phase) pillars with good sensitivity was demonstrated with mass spectrometric detection as well as separation of fluorescent compounds with LIF detection. PMID:22120065

Sainiemi, Lauri; Nissil, Teemu; Kostiainen, Risto; Franssila, Sami; Ketola, Raimo A

2012-01-21

192

New Love wave liquid sensor operating at 2 GHz using an integrated micro-flow channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on waveguide modes with shear-horizontal polarization (Love modes) are very promising for sensor applications, especially in liquid media. We present here the realization of a 2 GHz operating frequency sensor based on the SiO2/36YX LiTaO3 structure with an integrated PDMS micro-flow channel and using electron beam lithography to realize the submicronic interdigital transducers. Using our developed sensor operating at 2 GHz, we carried out alternate cycles of nitrogen and water circulating in the PDMS micro-flow channel. We measured an absolute sensitivity of -19 001 Hz mm2 ng-1 due to the interaction of the sensor with water. This sensitivity is higher than that of other devices operating at lower frequencies. The detection mechanism, including gravimetric and permittivity effects at high frequency, will be discussed.

Assouar, M. B.; Kirsch, P.; Alnot, P.

2009-09-01

193

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

194

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

195

Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

2014-10-01

196

A compact optofluidic cytometer with integrated liquid-core/PDMS-cladding waveguides.  

PubMed

We developed a simple method to construct liquid-core/PDMS-cladding optical waveguides through pressurized filling of dead-ended micro-channels with optical fluids. The waveguides are in the same layer as microfluidic channels which greatly simplifies device fabrication. With proper contrast between the refractive index of the core and cladding, the transmission loss of the waveguides is less than 5 dB cm(-1). We also developed a method to create flat and optically clear surfaces on the sides of PDMS devices in order to couple light between free-space and the waveguides embedded inside the chip. With these newly developed techniques, we make a compact flow cytometer and demonstrate the fluorescence counting of single cells at a rate of up to ~50 cell s(-1) and total sample requirement of a few microlitres. This method of making liquid-core optical waveguides and flat surfaces has great potential to be integrated into many PDMS-based microsystems. PMID:22699406

Fei, Peng; Chen, Zitian; Men, Yongfan; Li, Ang; Shen, Yiran; Huang, Yanyi

2012-10-01

197

Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector.  

PubMed

We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ?0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors. PMID:24514728

Zaugg, C A; Sun, Z; Wittwer, V J; Popa, D; Milana, S; Kulmala, T S; Sundaram, R S; Mangold, M; Sieber, O D; Golling, M; Lee, Y; Ahn, J H; Ferrari, A C; Keller, U

2013-12-16

198

Disruption of E. coli amyloid-integrated biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by a polysorbate surfactant  

PubMed Central

Functional amyloid fibers termed curli contribute to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in E. coli. We discovered that the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 inhibits biofilm formation by uropathogenic E. coli at the air-liquid interface, referred to as pellicle formation, and at the solid-liquid interface. At Tween 20 concentrations near and above the critical micelle concentration, the interfacial viscoelastic modulus is reduced to zero as cellular aggregates at the air-liquid interface are locally disconnected and eventually eliminated. Tween 20 does not inhibit the production of curli, but prevents curli-integrated film formation. Our results support a model in which the hydrophobic curli fibers associated with bacteria near the air-liquid interface require access to the gas phase to formed strong physical entanglements and to form a network that can support shear stress. PMID:23259693

Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G.; Cegelski, Lynette

2013-01-01

199

On the impact of large-amplitude fluctuations in deep integrated transports over sloping bathymetry on the vertical structure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-variable barotropic flow over the continental rises of the eastern and western boundaries of the Atlantic projects on the vertical structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) streamfunction. This AMOC component is invisible to density measurements, and is therefore difficult to quantify by observations. The RAPID/MOCHA array has provided daily estimates of the vigor of the AMOC at 26.5N since April 2004, based on simultaneous observations of (i) Gulf Stream transports using cable measurements across the Straits of Florida, (ii) Ekman transports inferred from satellite scatterometry, and (iii) mid-ocean baroclinic transports derived from density profiles taken at the Moroccan and Bahamas continental slopes. Time-variable reference transports for the baroclinic mid-ocean transports - required to estimate the daily strength of the AMOC - have previously been estimated indirectly, via the imposition of a physically plausible, integral zero-net-transport constraint at each time step (Cunningham et al., 2007). This constraint has been implemented in the form of a spatially uniform compensation velocity field. Using geostrophic reference transports inferred from deep bottom pressure measurements carried out on the eastern and western boundaries at 26.5N, Kanzow et al. (2007) showed that the AMOC strength was highly correlated with that using the integral transport constraint. At the same time AMOC related abyssal, basin-wide integrated meridional rms transport fluctuations using the former approach exceeded those relying on the transport constraint by a factor 3. Based on an analysis of bottom pressure records collected between April 2004 and October 2007 we show that abyssal, zonally integrated transport variations at 5000 m show pronounced seasonal variability, and that the amplitude of the observed fluctuations exceeds that at any other level below the thermocline, in contrast to the transport constraint solution. The reason for this are intense time-variable flows over the eastern continental rise, as revealed by the bottom pressure records, that vary out of phase with the integrated transports over the remaining part of zonal extent of the 6000 km wide section, thereby reducing basin-wide integrated transport on shallower levels. The presence of the large-amplitude abyssal transport variability is puzzling from an energetics point of view, as it clearly exceeds the level of variability required for a barotopic compensation of Gulf Stream and Ekman transports. Overall, our results reveal that the external mode exhibits a pronounced zonal structure. This suggests that a modification of the spatially invariant compensation flow field (required to estimate mid-ocean reference transports) to incorporate a simple approximation to the zonal structure inferred from the bottom pressure measurements, yields a much more realistic representation of the deep, time-variable, vertical structure of the AMOC.

Kanzow, T.; Cunningham, S. A.

2009-04-01

200

Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control  

DOEpatents

A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA)

2012-04-24

201

Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

2002-01-01

202

Integrated Bragg reflectors in low-index media: enabling strategies for wavelength tunability in electro-optic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports two configurations of Bragg reflectors based on liquid crystals confined between two small glass plates. Both approaches employ the efficient electro-optic effect in liquid crystals, which allows tunability of the reflectors by using low voltages. The molecular reorientation induced by an applied electric field implies a refractive index modulation seen by polarized light propagating into the liquid crystal. We show design criteria and profile optimization of the electrodes to induce a liquid crystal refractive index periodic modulation, providing a wavelength selective propagation of confined light in the liquid crystal. The two proposed device configurations differ for the top-bottom electrode configuration in one case and coplanar electrodes in the other case. Modeling of both configurations has been carried by calculating the applied electric field distribution and its interaction with the liquid crystal elastic properties taking into account the boundary conditions due to the alignment layer on the inner faces of the glass substrates. The calculated performance in terms of high wavelength selectivity and ultrawide spectral tuning range indicate that the two designed structures can be proposed for both optical filtering and to produce novel low power integrated distributed feedback resonators in dense wavelength division multiplexed fiber optic systems.

Asquini, Rita; Gilardi, Giovanni; D'Alessandro, Antonio; Assanto, Gaetano

2011-07-01

203

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07

204

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes.  

PubMed

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to ?(2)H and ?(18)O measurement errors (??(2)H and ??(18)O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m(BB), and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m(NB). These metrics are used to correct for ??(2)H and ??(18)O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and ??(18)O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while ??(2)H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m(NB). Using the isotope error versus m(NB) and m(BB) curves, ??(2)H and ??(18)O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 [per thousand] and 0.25 [per thousand] respectively, while ??(2)H and ??(18)O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 [per thousand] and 0.22 [per thousand]. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors. PMID:22559556

Brian Leen, J; Berman, Elena S F; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

2012-04-01

205

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-04-15

206

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to ?2H and ?18O measurement errors (??2H and ??18O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, mBB, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, mNB. These metrics are used to correct for ??2H and ??18O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and ??18O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while ??2H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with mNB. Using the isotope error versus mNB and mBB curves, ??2H and ??18O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 and 0.25 respectively, while ??2H and ??18O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 and 0.22 . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

2012-04-01

207

Characterization and modeling of a liquid-vapor phase change membrane actuator with integrated SU-8 micro capillary wicking structure.  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-vapor phase-change membrane actuator is demonstrated which integrates an open groove wicking structure to continuously pump liquid into the heat addition region of the pressure cavity. Integration of the wick yields a higher efficiency and operating speed compared with existing thermal phase-change actuators. This improvement results from control of the liquid thickness, volume, and fill rate. An experimentally validated numerical model is presented which determines the energy budget within the actuator and investigates factors controlling efficiency such as wick thickness, thermal mass, thermal conductivity, and membrane compliance. Work to date for this class of actuators has focused primarily on steady state behavior with detailed transient analyses receiving little attention. This investigation focuses strictly on characterization of transient operation and provides a benchmark for this class of dynamic thermal actuators. The actuator presented in this work develops pressure and deflection excursions of 148 kPa and 70 {micro}m at 10 Hz while consuming 150 mW. A peak force of 1.4 N is generated during each cycle and the thermal to mechanical efficiency is 0.11%.

Richards, R. (Washington State University); Won, S.Y. (Washington State University); Whalen, Scott; Richards, C. (Washington State University); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University)

2005-04-01

208

Performance of a liquid argon preshower detector integrated with an Accordion calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype liquid argon preshower detector with a strip granularity of 2.5 mm has been tested at the CERN SPS in front of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter. For charged tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 and a space resolution of 340 ?m were measured; the rejection power against overlapping photons produced in the decay of 50 GeV ? 0's is larger than 3; the precision on

Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y. P.; Gordon, H. A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J. L.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J. M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J. P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Renardy, J. F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D. V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sciamanna, M.; Aug, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J. C.; de La Taille, C.; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, Ph.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J. M.; Parrour, G.; Ptroff, P.; Repellin, J. P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

1993-06-01

209

Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

2005-01-01

210

Multi-band RF and mm-Wave Design Solutions for Integrated RF Functions in Liquid Crystal Polymer System-On-Package Technology  

E-print Network

Multi-band RF and mm-Wave Design Solutions for Integrated RF Functions in Liquid Crystal Polymer platform for low cost, multi-band and reconfigurable RF front-end module integration. LCP's very low water absorption (0.04%), low cost and high electrical performance makes it very appealing for RF applications

Papapolymerou, Ioannis "John"

211

Dielectric Characterization of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal in Microwave Range Material Integration in Specific Electronic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an original way to obtain reconfigurable microwave devices, filled with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC). We study the dielectric parameters of the material in the microwave range, using an original cell. Then, we manufacture a microwave tunable device using the PDLC.The purpose of our work is to cancel the polymer alignment layer used in microwave devices filled

Freddy Krasinski; Bertrand Splingart; Frdric Dubois; Ulrich Maschke; Christian Legrand

2011-01-01

212

Enhanced esterification conversion in a room temperature ionic liquid by integrated water removal with pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most esterification reactions equilibrium is reached without conversion to a sufficient level. A promising way to improve conversion consists in coupling the esterification reaction with a pervaporation process, able to selectively recover the reaction products in situ. This work is focused on the study of a catalyzed esterification reaction, taking place in the ionic liquid ([bmim] [BF4]), while one

Pavel Izk; Nuno M. M. Mateus; Carlos A. M. Afonso; Joo G. Crespo

2005-01-01

213

Natural convection immersion cooling of an array of vertically oriented heated protrusions in an enclosure filled with a dielectric liquid: Effects of enclosure width, Prandtl number and component orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural convection heat transfer characteristics of a 3 x 3 array of vertically oriented heated protrusions, immersed in a dielectric liquid, were investigated. Aluminum blocks, 24 x 8 x 6 mm, were used to simulate 20 pin dual in-line packages. Surface temperature measurements of the components were made by imbedding copper-constantan thermocouples below the surface of each component face. A constant heat flux was provided to each component using an Inconel foil heating element. Power supplied to each component varied from 0.115 to 2.90 W. The aluminum blocks were mounted on a plexiglass substrate to form a 3 x 3 array of simulated electronic components. The circuit board containing the components was placed in a rectangular, plexiglass enclosure with inner dimensions: L = 203.2 mm H = 152.0 mm W = 82.6 mm, and a wall thickness of 25.4 mm. The upper boundary was maintained at 10 C, while all other exterior surfaces were insulated. The chamber width, measured from the surface of the circuit board to the opposite, inner wall of the enclosure, was varied from 42 to 7 mm by inserting plexiglass spacers into the enclosure. Two dielectric liquids, FC-75 and FC-43, were used as working fluids. Nondimensional data from this study was combined with the data obtained for a horizontal component orientation, to develop an empirical correlation which predicts the Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, component orientation, and chamber width.

Matthews, Scott T.

1991-12-01

214

Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

Wild, R. L.

1988-01-01

215

Vertical axis hermetic helical screw rotary compressor with discharge gas oil mist eliminator and dual transfer tube manifold for supplying liquid refrigerant and refrigerant vapor to the compression area  

SciTech Connect

A vertical axis hermetic compressor includes an inner cylindrical housing fixed internally of a sealed outer enclosure bearing paired helical screw rotors defining with the inner housing closed thread compressor compression chambers. An electrical drive motor overlies the rotors and is shaft connected to one of the rotors. Compressed refrigerant vapor, where refrigerant is the working fluid, discharges through the motor rotor. Centrifugal force functions as a primary oil separator for oil entrained within the working fluid. An inverted dish deflector underlies a gas discharge port axially within the top of the outer enclosure such that oil impacted by gas flow discharging axially from the motor adheres to the deflector to provide secondary oil separation while the gas passes about the periphery of the deflector to escape through the discharge opening of the outer enclosure. A non-woven plastic mesh pad fixed to the bottom of the deflector acts as a shock absorber for the entrained oil to prevent re-entraining oil in the gas stream in mist form to provide tertiary oil separation thereby reducing oil mist carried by the escaping gas to less than about 0.5 percent by weight. Oil dropping from the deflector into the bottom of the outer enclosure functioning as an oil sump impacts against a two passage parallel flow dual transfer tube including one passage supplying liquid refrigerant from the condenser to the compressor working space for cooling the same through a liquid injection port and within a second passage, intermediate pressure refrigerant vapor injected into the compression process through a vapor injection port. This prevents excessive heating of the working fluid pulsing in the tubes during compression with control valves in the passages leading to the liquid injection and vapor injection ports closed.

Schaefer, D. D.

1984-10-16

216

Integrity of liquid transmission lines taking into account the fluid-structure interaction  

SciTech Connect

Two mechanical models have been presented in this paper for structural failure prediction of piping systems conveying liquids subjected to hydraulic transients. One model takes into account the axial fluid-structure interaction (fsi) phenomenon between fluid and pipe motion, whereas the other refers to an extension of the well-known waterhammer formulation. Numerical predictions of both models are presented and compared, so that the influence of the fsi term on the failure analysis is focused on.

Freitas Rachid, F.B.; Costa Mattos, H.S. [Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-01

217

Influence of the Pipe Diameter on the Structure of the Gas-Liquid Interface in a Vertical Two-Phase Pipe Flow  

SciTech Connect

Air-water two-phase flow tests in a large vertical pipe of 194.1-mm inner diameter (i.d.) are reported. Close to the outlet of a 9-m-tall test section, two wire-mesh sensors are installed that deliver instantaneous void fraction distributions over the entire cross section with a resolution of 3 mm and 2500 Hz used for fast-flow visualization. Void fraction profiles, gas velocity profiles, and bubble-size distributions were obtained. A comparison to a small pipe of 52.3-mm i.d. (DN50) revealed significant scaling effects. Here, the increase of the airflow rate leads to a transition from bubbly via slug to churn-turbulent flow. This is accompanied by an appearance of a second peak in the bubble-size distribution. A similar behavior was found in the large pipe; though the large bubbles have a significantly larger diameter at identical superficial velocities, the peak is less high but wider. These bubbles move more freely in the large pipe and show more deformations. The shapes of such large bubbles were characterized in three dimensions. They can be rather complicated and far from ideal Taylor bubbles. Also, the small bubble fraction tends to bigger sizes in the large pipe.

Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Boettger, A.; Carl, H.; Lucas, D.; Schaffrath, A.; Schuetz, P.; Weiss, F.-P.; Zschau, J. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)

2005-10-15

218

On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors demonstrate surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection on an optofluidic chip. Interconnected solid- and liquid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) form a planar beam geometry that allows for high mode intensities along microfluidic channels containing molecules optimized for SERS. The excitation power and concentration dependence of SERS from rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules adsorbed to silver nanoparticles were systematically studied. The data can be described by a model that takes into account the microphotonic structure. Detection sensitivity to a minimum concentration of 30nM is found, demonstrating the suitability of ARROW-based optofluidic chips for high sensitivity detection with molecular specificity.

Measor, Philip; Seballos, Leo; Yin, Dongliang; Zhang, Jin Z.; Lunt, Evan J.; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Schmidt, Holger

2007-05-01

219

The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems  

SciTech Connect

The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

Green, Michael A.

2003-07-09

220

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides.

Patrick Dumais; Claire L. Callender; Christopher J. Ledderhof; Julian P. Noad

2006-01-01

221

A new look at vertical motion around the San Andreas Fault in the Southern California from Integrated GPS and InSAR measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report on a new analysis of GPS and space-based InSAR-estimated vertical motions in the vicinity of the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) near the eastern Transverse Ranges. We consider GPS data from all of the available high precision geodetic networks in southern California such as the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and SCIGN networks. We analyze raw GPS observations using the GIPSY-OASIS software, and align the solutions to the newly updated NA12 reference frame, derived from ITRF2008. Vertical data are considered if the station has at least 4 years of data, have time series that are fit well by a linear plus seasonal terms plus steps from known equipment changes and earthquakes. We supplement the data with rates from time series analyses of ERS and ENVISAT radar data between 1992 and 2009, obtained from the WinSAR archive. We use 532 scenes from 7 track/frames to form 7476 interferograms, providing line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for overlapping descending (6) and ascending (1) frames. To separate the vertical from the horizontal signals, we align the InSAR LOS rates to the GPS LOS rates using a bilinear transformation and subtract the LOS signal of horizontal deformation estimated from a strain rate map constructed from horizontal GPS velocities. The result is an InSAR LOS rate map aligned to NA12, which we unproject into the vertical direction. InSAR and GPS motions track one another well, with RMS difference in vertical rate of 1.0 mm/yr, where the signal of vertical rate varies between -5.0 and 2.6 mm/yr. Aligning the InSAR to GPS reduces errors in InSAR attributable to long wavelength effects from the atmosphere and orbit uncertainties. The vertical rates show both basin-scale pockets of subsidence and regional wavelength variations in uplift rate. We detect previously reported signals in the San Bernadino, San Jacinto, Pomona, and LA basins with both the GPS and InSAR. Near the coast uplift patterns are similar to those from repeated leveling tied to tide gauges, and efforts are underway to extend this comparison farther inland. A longer wavelength uplift feature of between 1 to 2 mm/yr spans the southern SAF near its junction with the San Jacinto fault and eastern Transverse Ranges. Geodetic measurements of interseismic crustal deformation show north-south contraction and east-west extension, recording net contraction. We hypothesize that uplift is balancing the observed strain accumulation. Our model of elastic flexure and viscoelastic response in the lithosphere suggests that vertical data can improve estimates of SAF slip rate that currently vary depending on analysis method and dataset considered. However, attributing the vertical signal to fault strain accumulation requires accounting for the lingering effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, for which global models predict a down to the west trend, consistent with some features of the observed signals.

Hammond, W. C.; Johnson, K. M.; Weldon, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Burgette, R. J.

2013-12-01

222

Test results of the RS44 integrated component evaluator liquid oxygen\\/hydrogen rocket engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced LOX\\/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50

R. F. Sutton; B. W. Lariviere

1993-01-01

223

Waves, circulation and vertical dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper includes four appendices. The first appendix demonstrates the numerical process by which Stokes drift is excluded from the turbulence stress parameterization in the momentum equation. A second appendix determines a bottom slope criterion for the application of linear wave relations to the derivation of the wave radiation stress. The third appendix explores the possibility of generalizing results by non-dimensionalization. The final appendix applies the basic theory to a problem introduced by Bennis and Ardhuin (J Phys Oceanogr 41:2008-2012, 2011).

Mellor, George

2013-04-01

224

Convection in vertical Bridgman configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are interested in tracing the convective profiles of vertical Bridgman growth in two configurations, the pure Rayleigh convective mode and the combined Rayleigh-Marangoni mode. In order to do so, we conducted a numerical investigation that involved a finite volume calculation. The governing equations were integrated about a cell volume, using the Gauss Theorem and the volume variables like temperature and velocity were related to the surface variables. In order to solve for the pressure field, we employed the continuity equation and the residuals resulted in a Poisson equation. Results and comments for the Rayleigh and Marangoni problems in a vertical cylinder or Bridgman configuration are given.

Narayanan, Ranga

1991-01-01

225

Treatment of dairy wastewater using a vertical bed with passive aeration.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of treating liquid dairy wastes by a vertical bed equipped with an innovative passive aeration system. The vertical bed (32 liter) was operated by recirculating consecutive batches of liquid waste in the column. Batches of liquid waste were applied at two different rates: 1) each batch was recirculated for 72 hours, and 2) each batch was recirculated for 24 hours. Settled liquid dairy wastes (5000 mg l(-1) COD, 2000 mg l(-1) BOD and 2500 mg l(-1) TSS) were used in the experiments. When the reactor operated with each batch recirculating for 72 hours, the BOD and COD reduction were 66% and 40%, respectively. The vertical bed operated successfully without the need for an additional rest period. The main removal was observed to take place during the first 20 hours. No biomass or solids accumulation was observed indicating that the remaining 52 hours of recirculation were actually used for bed regeneration, i.e. integrated rest period. When the reactor operated with each batch recirculating for 24 hours, the system clogged after 21 days. An additional 24 day rest period was needed in order to free 94% of the initial void space. In this mode, the BOD and COD reduction were 67% and 47%, respectively. The overall COD removal in a complete operational cycle (feeding period followed by a rest period) was 467 g COD m(-3) d(-1) (996 g COD m(-2) d(-1)). This value is 1.4 higher than the COD removal obtained in the 72 hour per batch mode and shows the advantage of conventional vertical bed operation of intensive feeding followed by rest period rather than a rest period integrated into the feeding cycle. PMID:15551826

Green, M; Gidron, E; Beliavski, M; Lahav, O; Tarre, S

2004-10-01

226

Refractive Index-Based Detection of Gradient Elution Liquid Chromatography using Chip-Integrated Microring Resonator Arrays  

PubMed Central

Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as non-destructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with HPLC. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviating extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of post-column (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also makes it an attractive potential detection technology that could be integrated within lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic separation devices. PMID:24328221

Wade, James H.; Bailey, Ryan C.

2014-01-01

227

An investigation of the liquid to glass transition using integral equations for the pair structure of coupled replicae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive numerical solutions of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations are presented for the pair structure of a system of two coupled replicae (1 and 2) of a "soft-sphere" fluid of atoms interacting via an inverse-12 pair potential. In the limit of vanishing inter-replica coupling ?12, both integral equations predict the existence of three branches of solutions: (1) A high temperature liquid branch (L), which extends to a supercooled regime upon cooling when the two replicae are kept at ?12 = 0 throughout; upon separating the configurational and vibrational contributions to the free energy and entropy of the L branch, the Kauzmann temperature is located where the configurational entropy vanishes. (2) Starting with an initial finite coupling ?12, two "glass" branches G1 and G2 are found below some critical temperature, which are characterized by a strong remnant spatial inter-replica correlation upon taking the limit ?12 ? 0. Branch G2 is characterized by an increasing overlap order parameter upon cooling, and may hence be identified with the hypothetical "ideal glass" phase. Branch G1 exhibits the opposite trend of increasing order parameter upon heating; its free energy lies consistently below that of the L branch and above that of the G2 branch. The free energies of the L and G2 branches are found to intersect at an alleged "random first-order transition" (RFOT) characterized by weak discontinuities of the volume and entropy. The Kauzmann and RFOT temperatures predicted by RY differ significantly from their HNC counterparts.

Bomont, Jean-Marc; Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Pastore, Giorgio

2014-11-01

228

Determination of preservatives by integrative coupling method of headspace liquid-phase microextraction and capillary zone electrophoresis.  

PubMed

An integrative coupling method of headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was proposed in this paper. In the method, a separation capillary was used to create a microextraction droplet of the running buffer solution of CZE, hold the droplet at the capillary inlet, extract analytes of sample solutions in the headspace of a sample vial, inject concentrated analytes into the capillary and separate the analytes by CZE. The proposed method was applied to determine the preservatives of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in soy sauce and soft drink samples, in which the running buffer solution of 50 mmol/L tetraborate (pH 9.2) was directly used to form the acceptor droplet at the capillary inlet by pressure, and the preservatives in a 6-mL sample solution containing 0.25 g/mL NaCl were extracted at 90C for 30 min in the headspace of a 14-mL sample vial. Then the concentrated preservatives were injected into the capillary at 10 cm height difference for 20 s and separated by CZE. The enrichment factors of benzoic acid and sorbic acid achieved 266 and 404, and the limits of detection (LODs) were 0.03 and 0.01 ?g/mL (S/N=3), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 88.7-105%. The integrative coupling method of HS-LPME and CZE was simple, convenient, reliable and suitable for concentrating volatile and semi-volatile organic acids and eliminating matrix interferences of real samples. PMID:21035121

Ling, Da-Si; Xie, Hai-Yang; He, You-Zhao; Gan, Wu-Er; Gao, Yong

2010-12-01

229

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

230

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

231

Solar control on the cloud liquid water content and integrated water vapor associated with monsoon rainfall over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term observation over three solar cycles indicates a perceptible influence of solar activity on rainfall and associated parameters in the Indian region. This paper attempts to reveal the solar control on the cloud liquid water content (LWC) and integrated water vapor (IWV) along with Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall during the period of 1977-2012 over nine different Indian stations. Cloud LWC and IWV are positively correlated with each other. An anti-correlation is observed between the Sunspot Number (SSN) and ISM rainfall for a majority of the stations and a poor positive correlation obtained for other locations. Cloud LWC and IWV possess positive correlations with Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and SSN respectively for most of the stations. The wavelet analyses of SSN, ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV have been performed to investigate the periodic characteristics of climatic parameters and also to indicate the varying relationship of solar activity with ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV. SSN, ISM rainfall and IWV are found to have a peak at around 10.3 years whereas a dip is observed at that particular period for cloud LWC.

Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Adhikari, Arpita

2014-12-01

232

Analytic Solution to Integral Equations of Liquid State Theories for Potentials with a Hard Core at Low Densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper a general analytical solution to the integral equations of liquid state theories (Born-Green-Yvon, hyper-netted-chain, and Percus-Yevick Equations) at low-density limit for potentials with a hard core. For the specific case of the Lennard-Jones potential with a hard core, we have derived an analytical function for the radial distribution function at high temperature and low density. We have noted that this function has two humps which is the characteristic feature of the radial distribution function at low densities. In addition, this function has been used to calculate the third virial coefficient for such a fluid exactly. We see that for the especial case of Lennard-Jones fluid with a hard core, which its radial distribution function has explicitly been calculated at high temperatures, the correct behavior of the third virial coefficient with temperature is obtained. The magnitude of hard-core diameter has significant effect on the thermodynamic properties of fluid: for instance, when the diameter changes only by a few percent the third virial coefficient may change more than 100%. The hard-core diameter decreases when temperature increases. The reduction is less than 20%. For the supercritical fluid, the calculated compression factor and internal energy are in good agreement with those obtained from the simulation for the Lennard-Jones fluid.

Khanpour, Mehrdad; Parsafar, G. A.; Najafi, B.

2004-05-01

233

Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

2006-01-01

234

Integrated lab-in-syringe platform incorporating a membraneless gas-liquid separator for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

This manuscript reports the proof-of-concept of a novel integrated lab-in-syringe/gas-liquid separation (LIS/GLS) batch-flow system based on a programmable flow for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric assays. Homogeneous mixing of metered volumes of sample and reagent solutions drawn up in a sandwich-type mode along with in situ vapor generation are accomplished inside the microsyringe in a closed manner, while the separation of vapor species is achieved via the membraneless GLS located at the top of the syringe's valve in the upright position. The potentials of the proposed manifold were demonstrated for trace inorganic mercury determination in drinking waters and seawater. For a 3.0 mL sample, the limit of detection and repeatability (RSD) were found to be 0.03 ?g L(-1) Hg(II) and 3.1% (at the 2.0 ?g L(-1) concentration level), respectively, with a dynamic range extending up to 10.0 ?g L(-1). The proposed system fulfills the requirements of US-EPA, WHO, and EU Council Directives for measurements of the maximum allowed concentrations of inorganic mercury in drinking water. PMID:23977837

Giakisikli, Georgia; Mir, Manuel; Anthemidis, Aristidis

2013-10-01

235

Modeling and dynamic management of 3D multicore systems with liquid cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) circuits reduce communication de- lay in multicore SoCs, and enable efficient integration of cores, memories, sensors, and RF devices. However, vertical integration of layers exacer- bates the reliability and thermal problems, and cooling efficiency becomes a limiting factor. Liquid cooling is a solution to overcome the accelerated thermal problems imposed by multi-layer architectures. In this paper, we first

Ayse K. Coskun; Jose L. Ayala; David Atienza; Tajana Simunic Rosing

2009-01-01

236

Vertical axis wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical wind turbine having vertical blades, each blade being connected intermediate its ends by a hinge to a support arm having a hub that enables the blades to rotate around a vertical axis, a tie wire connected to the blade at positions spaced along the blade from the hinge, said tie wire engaging a spring-loaded pulley disposed inwardly of

P. E. Delgado; B. A. Holmes

1981-01-01

237

Vertical Map Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

Perry, Joanne M.

1982-01-01

238

Integrated system for on-line gas and liquid chromatography with a single mass spectrometric detector for the automated analysis of environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system has been developed which combines liquid (LC) and gas (GC) chromatographic separation with a single mass spectrometer (MS). On-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of 10200 ml aqueous samples on a short (10 2.0 mm I.D.) precolumn packed with a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer is used for analyte enrichment. The trace-enrichment procedure was automated by means of a PROSPEKT cartridge-exchange\\/solvent-selection\\/valve-switching

J. Slobodnk; A. C. Hogenboom; A. J. H. Louter; U. A. Th. Brinkman

1996-01-01

239

Design, fabrication and characterization of a femto-farad capacitive sensor for pico-liter liquid monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a femto-farad capacitive sensor, intended for pico-liter liquid measurements in microfluidic channels. The sensor has vertical silicon electrodes integrated into a through-wafer channel to measure the liquid level variations in the channel. An equivalent electrical model is developed to analyze the sensor's behavior. A six-mask, IC-compatible process is developed to fabricate

J. Wei; C. Yue; M. van der Velden; Z. L. Chen; Z. W. Liu; K. A. A. Makinwa; P. M. Sarro

2010-01-01

240

Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the

Kalyn, Brenda

2006-01-01

241

Vertical axis wind turbines  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

2011-03-08

242

Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector  

E-print Network

We report a versatile and cost-effective way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between SLG and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to$\\sim$0. We use this to mode-lock a VECSEL from 935 to 981nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors, dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors.

Zaugg, C A; Wittwer, V J; Popa, D; Milana, S; Kulmala, T; Sundaram, R S; Mangold, M; Sieber, O D; Golling, M; Lee, Y; Ahn, J H; Ferrari, A C; Keller, U

2013-01-01

243

Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This R&D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 ?m or 150 ?m, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 ?m thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 41015 neq/cm2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3 ?m10 ?m, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.

Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Ellenburg, M.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

2013-12-01

244

Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow  

E-print Network

The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

1972-01-01

245

1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved.

NONE

1997-09-01

246

Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.  

PubMed

An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:22975252

Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

2012-11-01

247

Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, we become familiar with integrals, both by understanding them as sums of areas under plots of functions, and by understanding them as anti-derivatives. We present the u-substitution rule, which is the analog of the chain rule for differentiating composite functions.

2013-06-21

248

Vertical axis wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical axis wind turbine comprises one or more aerofoil section blades attached to a support structure. The blade has at least one part thereof which is acted on by centrifugal forces as the blade rotates with the support structure and thereby caused to increase its angle of inclination to the vertical axis when the speed of rotation increases beyond

Musgrove

1978-01-01

249

CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The simulations show that the helium gas is trapped inside the grooves. The predicted time-averaged gas coverage is in good qualitative agreement with the measured gas coverage.

Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

2009-01-01

250

Fully integrated L-phenylalanine separation and concentration using reactive-extraction with liquid-liquid centrifuges in a fed-batch process with E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel in situ product recovery (ISPR) approach for the (fully) integrated separation of L-phenylalanine (L-phe) from a 20l fed-batch process with the recombinant L-tyrosine auxotrophic strain E. coli F-4\\/pF81 is presented. The strain was rationally constructed for the production of the aromatic amino acid. Glucose and tyrosine control is used. A reactive extraction system consisting of kerosene, the cation-selective

N. Rffer; U. Heidersdorf; I. Kretzers; G. A. Sprenger; L. Raeven; R. Takors

2004-01-01

251

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

252

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

2003-04-01

253

FUNDAMENTOS TERICOS DE LA INTEGRACIN VERTICAL 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze the concept of the vertical integration of companies and the possible effect s on the final prices and the power of market, this article leads from an approach of which it is the company and the relationships that occur internally and externally considering the approach which is different from the neoclassic conventional model. The n, the

Jos Vicente Cadavid Herrera; John Jairo; Garca Rendn; Gustavo Adolfo; Lpez lvarez

254

INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

255

Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of

Gregor, Robert J.

2008-01-01

256

Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator  

DOEpatents

A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-10-19

257

Vertical comb array microactuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical actuator fabricated using a trench-refilled-with-polysilicon (TRiPs) process technology and employing an array of vertical oriented comb electrodes is presented. This actuator structure provides a linear drive to deflection characteristic and a large throw capability which are key features in many sensors, actuators and micromechanisms. The actuation principle and relevant theory is developed, including FastCap simulations for theoretical verification.

Arjun Selvakumar; Khalil Najafi

2003-01-01

258

In vitro effects of l-carnitine and glutamine on motility, acrosomal abnormality, and plasma membrane integrity of rabbit sperm during liquid-storage.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of l-carnitine and glutamine (Gln) on the sperm quality parameters of liquid-stored rabbit semen maintained up to 24 h at 5C. Pooled and extended ejaculates were divided into two equal portions. l-Carnitine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2mM were added to the first portion, and glutamine was added at the same doses to the second portion. All samples were cooled to 5C and examined at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h of liquid storage. Supplementation of the semen extender with three different doses of l-carnitine provided significant increases in the percentage of motile sperm at 12 h (P<0.01), and 24h (P<0.001) and enabled significant protection of the sperm plasma membrane (P<0.01) at 12 and 24h of cool-storage, in comparison to the control samples. Only the 2mM dose of l-carnitine significantly (P<0.01) decreased the rate of acrosomal damage when compared to the control group. Furthermore, all doses of Gln caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in acrosomal damage at 6h, and provided significant improvement (P<0.01) in sperm motility, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrities at 12 and 24h of liquid storage, when compared to the controls. In conclusion, the supplementation of liquid-stored rabbit semen with l-carnitine and Gln provided a protection for sperm against cool storage-induced functional and structural damages. PMID:24759298

Sar?zkan, Serpil; Ozdamar, Saim; Trk, Gaffari; Cantrk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu

2014-06-01

259

Vertical structure and horizontal gradients of aerosol extinction coefficients over coastal India inferred from airborne lidar measurements during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosol, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) field campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative estimates of the vertical structure and the spatial gradients of aerosol extinction coefficients have been made from airborne lidar measurements across the coastline into offshore oceanic regions along the east and west coasts of India. The vertical structure revealed the presence of strong, elevated aerosol layers in the altitude region of ?2?4 km, well above the atmospheric boundary layer

S. K. Satheesh; K. Krishna Moorthy; S. Suresh Babu; V. Vinoj; Vijayakumar S. Nair; S. Naseema Beegum; C. B. S. Dutt; D. P. Alappattu; P. K. Kunhikrishnan

2009-01-01

260

Quantitative Analysis of Amyloid-Integrated Biofilms Formed by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli at the Air-Liquid Interface  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms are complex multicellular assemblies, characterized by a heterogeneous extracellular polymeric matrix, that have emerged as hallmarks of persistent infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative data are needed to elucidate the composition and architecture of biofilms, and such data need to be correlated with mechanical and physicochemical properties that relate to function. We performed a panel of interfacial rheological measurements during biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by the Escherichia coli strain UTI89, which is noted for its importance in studies of urinary tract infection and for its assembly of functional amyloid fibers termed curli. Brewster-angle microscopy and measurements of the surface elasticity (Gs?) and stress-strain response provided sensitive and quantitative parameters that revealed distinct stages during bacterial colonization, aggregation, and eventual formation of a pellicle at the air-liquid interface. Pellicles that formed under conditions that upregulate curli production exhibited an increase in strength and viscoelastic properties as well as a greater ability to recover from stress-strain perturbation. The results suggest that curli, as hydrophobic extracellular amyloid fibers, enhance the strength, viscoelasticity, and resistance to strain of E.coli biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface. PMID:22947862

Wu, Cynthia; Lim, JiYoun; Fuller, GeraldG.; Cegelski, Lynette

2012-01-01

261

Preservation of Geometrical Integrity of Supersolidus-Liquid-Phase-Sintered SKD11 Tool Steels Prepared with Powder Injection Molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The powder injection molded SKD11 tool steels often manifest shape retention problems during supersolidus liquid phase sintering due to the difficulties in controlling the amount of liquid phase. The typical temperature range for the sintering of SKD11 is only 10 K, between 1503 and 1513 K (1230 and 1240 C), and this narrow sintering range demands a special furnace with very uniform temperature distribution. Through the addition of carbides, in particular TiC, this problem is resolved by enlarging the liquid + ? + carbide region in the phase diagram and by impeding the grain growth with the carbides. The resulting sintering window is broadened to 40 K, between 1513 and 1553 K (1240 and 1280 C). The relevant mechanisms on the improvement of shape retention are discussed with a focus on the effect of carbide addition on the changes in the phase diagram and the microstructure. A guideline for the selection of effective carbides is also proposed based on the experimental results and the phase diagram analyses.

Chuang, K. H.; Hwang, K. S.

2011-07-01

262

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

263

Vertical axis wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

A vertical wind turbine having vertical blades, each blade being connected intermediate its ends by a hinge to a support arm having a hub that enables the blades to rotate around a vertical axis, a tie wire connected to the blade at positions spaced along the blade from the hinge, said tie wire engaging a spring-loaded pulley disposed inwardly of the blades, the arrangement being such that when the angle of inclination of the blades to the vertical axis alters under the action of centrifugal force the tie wire exerts a force on the pulley opposing the spring force whereby as the turbine speeds up the blades will remain at a predetermined angle of inclination until the force exerted by the wire exceeds the force of the spring. One end of the tie wire can be connected to a position on one blade and connected to another position on another blade so that all of the blades adopt the same angle of inclination to the vertical axis.

Delgado, P.E.; Holmes, B.A.

1981-06-23

264

An Integrated Approach Using Liquid Culture System Can it Make an Impact for Clinical Diagnosis of Genitourinary Tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in India. Genitourinary TB (GUTB) comprises 20% of all extrapulmonary TB, and is the most common extrapulmonary site to be affected by this disease. The spectrum of varied pathological changes occur in GUTB, hence a thorough knowledge is required to prevent complications related to GUTB. Diagnostic dilemma is a common problem faced as culture and polymerase chain reaction results vary in their sensitivity and specificity. A thorough knowledge of epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, and spectrum of the disease and importance of including liquid culture system for the diagnosis of this disease are presented in three cases. PMID:25184082

Shenoy, VP; Chakradhar, V; Munim, F; Mukhopadhyay, C

2014-01-01

265

Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.  

PubMed

Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

2012-05-01

266

Design and simulation of electrically addressed infrared filtering chip based on cascaded liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot effect for integration application of infrared spectral imaging sensor array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wavelength tunable optical filter based on cascaded Liquid-Crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) cavity with many working units has been proposed and simulated in this paper. By choosing different material and according geometric parameters, we simulated the structure in the wavelength of medium infrared (IR)(3-5?m) and far IR(8-14?m) with the algorithm of thin film matrix equation and iterative finite-difference. Finally, we give the spectrum of the structure under different driving-voltage. Combing this structure with uncooled infrared focal plane array (IRFPA), the image of many spectral bands can be obtained in one picture frame by applying different driving-voltage on each unit. Compared with other design, this structure has the advantages of wide free spectral range (FSR), compact integration, low cost and high stability.

Zhang, Huaidong; Fu, Anbang; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

2013-09-01

267

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey W.

2010-08-12

268

Large-area arrayed polarimeters with modulated polarization state of light beam based on electrically controlling liquid crystal architecture for integrating sensor array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an integrated polarization image sensing architecture, which can be used for measuring all the Stokes parameters, and then regulating the polarization state of light beam according to the polarization state we have known, by changing the voltage amplitude applied over the patterned electrodes. The architecture contains a liquid crystal (LC) device and an uncooled photo detector. We can calculate the polarization state of the polarized light beam by the intensities of the light passing through the different area of the LC device, and then modulate the polarization state of the light beam to other polarization state which we want by only varying the voltage amplitude of the driving signal in sub-millisecond. In this paper, we will give the simulating results of the polarimeter architecture we designed.

Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

2013-08-01

269

Integration of Satellite-Derived Cloud Phase, Cloud Top Height, and Liquid Water Path into an Operational Aircraft Icing Nowcasting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational products used by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to alert pilots of hazardous icing provide nowcast and short-term forecast estimates of the potential for the presence of supercooled liquid water and supercooled large droplets. The Current Icing Product (CIP) system employs basic satellite-derived information, including a cloud mask and cloud top temperature estimates, together with multiple other data sources to produce a gridded, three-dimensional, hourly depiction of icing probability and severity. Advanced satellite-derived cloud products developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provide a more detailed description of cloud properties (primarily at cloud top) compared to the basic satellite-derived information used currently in CIP. Cloud hydrometeor phase, liquid water path, cloud effective temperature, and cloud top height as estimated by the LaRC algorithms are into the CIP fuzzy logic scheme and a confidence value is determined. Examples of CIP products before and after the integration of the LaRC satellite-derived products will be presented at the conference.

Haggerty, Julie; McDonough, Frank; Black, Jennifer; Landott, Scott; Wolff, Cory; Mueller, Steven; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William, Jr.

2008-01-01

270

Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

1998-01-01

271

Fluid Mechanics of Liquid-Liquid Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed hydrodynamics of selected liquid -liquid flow systems are investigated to provide a firm foundation for the rational design of separation processes. The implementation of this objective centers on the development of a robust code to simulate liquid-liquid flows. We have applied this code to the realistic simulation of aspects of the complex fluid mechanical behavior, and developed quantitative insight into the underlying processes involved. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is combined with the Continuous Surface Force (CSF) algorithm to provide a numerically stable code capable of solving high Reynolds numbers free surface flows. One of the developments during the testing was an efficient method for solving the Young-Laplace equation describing the shape of the meniscus in a vertical cylinder for a constrained liquid volume. The steady-state region near the nozzle for the laminar flow of a Newtonian liquid jet injected vertically into another immiscible Newtonian liquid is investigated for various Reynolds numbers by solving the axisymmetric transient equations of motion and continuity. The analysis takes into account pressure, viscous, inertial, gravitational, and surface tension forces, and comparison with previous experimental measurements shows good agreement. Comparisons of the present numerical method with the numerical results of previous boundary-layer methods help establish their range of validity. A new approximate equation for the shape of the interface of the steady jet, based on an overall momentum balance, is also developed. The full transient from liquid-liquid jet startup to breakup into drops is also simulated numerically. In comparison with experiment, the results of the present numerical method show a greater sensitivity of the jet length to the Reynolds number than the best predictions of previous linear stability analyses. The formation of drops is investigated at low to high Reynolds numbers before and after jet formation. The numerical simulations are satisfactorily compared with n-heptane/water experiments and previous simplified analyses based on drop formation before and after jetting. Although the program and numerical techniques developed in this dissertation have been used mainly to solve problems involving liquid-liquid jets and drops, many features of more complex and general liquid-liquid contacting systems are explored in the process.

Richards, John Reed

272

Detection of ketamine and its metabolites in human hair using an integrated nanoflow liquid chromatography column and electrospray emitter fritted with a single porous 10 ?m bead.  

PubMed

Targeting metabolites incorporated into hair following drug administration is useful for evidential purposes as this approach can aid in differentiating between administration and passive exposure. Greater analytical sensitivity is required than for targeting the parent drug alone. A 20 ?m i.d. fused silica capillary column with an integrated electrospray emitter fritted with a single porous 10 ?m polymeric bead has been successfully fabricated to facilitate this purpose. The sensitivity gains through the use of these integrated single fritted columns coupled to a nanoelectrospray source (nanoflow-LC nanoESI) over conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) columns was explored by their application to the detection of ketamine and its phase I metabolites in human hair. Hair was collected from 4 volunteers following the administration of a small oral dose of ketamine (50 mg) and subsequently analysed by the capillary-LC nanoESI approach. The drug and its metabolites were extracted from hair using solid phase extraction following a methanolic wash, pulverisation with a ball mill and acid digestion. From a 50 ?L extract, 1 ?L was injected and the method provided a limit of detection estimated to be 5 fg on column for ketamine and norketamine and 10 fg for dehydronorketamine. The single porous frit minimises extra column band broadening and offers an alternative fritting approach which reduces the blocking of the electrospray emitter, in comparison with other approaches such as sintering and polymerisation. PMID:23332304

Parkin, Mark C; Longmoore, Alana M; Turfus, Sophie C; Braithwaite, Robin A; Cowan, David A; Elliott, Simon; Kicman, Andrew T

2013-02-15

273

Integrated, nontargeted ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry platform for the identification and relative quantification of the small-molecule complement of biological systems.  

PubMed

To address the challenges associated with metabolomics analyses, such as identification of chemical structures and elimination of experimental artifacts, we developed a platform that integrated the chemical analysis, including identification and relative quantification, data reduction, and quality assurance components of the process. The analytical platform incorporated two separate ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS(2)) injections; one injection was optimized for basic species, and the other was optimized for acidic species. This approach permitted the detection of 339 small molecules, a total instrument analysis time of 24 min (two injections at 12 min each), while maintaining a median process variability of 9%. The resulting MS/MS(2) data were searched against an in-house generated authentic standard library that included retention time, molecular weight (m/z), preferred adducts, and in-source fragments as well as their associated MS/MS spectra for all molecules in the library. The library allowed the rapid and high-confidence identification of the experimentally detected molecules based on a multiparameter match without need for additional analyses. This integrated platform enabled the high-throughput collection and relative quantitative analysis of analytical data and identified a large number and broad spectrum of molecules with a high degree of confidence. PMID:19624122

Evans, Anne M; DeHaven, Corey D; Barrett, Tom; Mitchell, Matt; Milgram, Eric

2009-08-15

274

Integrated strong cation exchange/capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography/on-target digestion coupled with mass spectrometry for identification of intact human liver tissue proteins.  

PubMed

We present a comprehensive method for proteome analysis that integrates both intact protein separation and proteolytic fragment characterization mass spectrometric approaches. Strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX) was used as the first separation dimension and capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography (cRPLC) was integrated as the second separation dimension. Fractions from SCX were collected offline and loaded onto cRPLC. Effluents from cRPLC were directly deposited onto the MALDI target plates and further digested by using a rapid on-probe tryptic digestion technique. This approach minimizes the amount of time and extensive labor required for traditional in-solution digestion followed by exhaustive sample cleanup and transfer. MALDI-TOF/TOF was used for subsequent analyses. The sensitivity of on-target digestion is showed by analyzing 0.07 ng of myoglobin, 0.07 ng of cytochrome c and 0.7 ng BSA. The high efficiency of the overall system was demonstrated by the analysis of intact proteins extracted from normal human liver tissue. In total, 458 proteins were identified, which proved the system's promising potential for analysis and application in proteomics. PMID:18709205

Gao, Mingxia; Yu, Wenjia; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Guoquan; Deng, Chunhui; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhang, Xiangmin

2008-09-01

275

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodrguez, P.; Tom, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

276

Integrity of chromatin and replicating DNA in nuclei released from fission yeast by semi-automated grinding in liquid nitrogen  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei. Findings Here we present a useful method for nuclear isolation from the important model organism, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To preserve in vivo molecular configurations, we flash-froze the yeast cells in liquid nitrogen. Then we broke their tough cell walls, without damaging their nuclei, by grinding in a precision-controlled motorized mortar-and-pestle apparatus. The cryo-ground cells were resuspended and thawed in a buffer designed to preserve nuclear morphology, and the nuclei were enriched by differential centrifugation. The washed nuclei were free from contaminating nucleases and have proven well-suited as starting material for genome-wide chromatin analysis and for preparation of fragile DNA replication intermediates. Conclusions We have developed a simple, reproducible, economical procedure for large-scale preparation of endogenous-nuclease-free, morphologically intact nuclei from fission yeast. With appropriate modifications, this procedure may well prove useful for isolation of nuclei from other organisms with, or without, tough cell walls. PMID:22088094

2011-01-01

277

A planar lens based on the electrowetting of two immiscible liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the development and characterization of a planar liquid lens based on electrowetting. The working concept of electrowetting two immiscible liquids is demonstrated with measurement and characterization of contact angles with regard to externally applied electric voltages. Consequently, a planar liquid lens is designed and implemented based on this competitive electrowetting. A droplet of silicone oil confined in an aqueous solution (1% KCl) works as a liquid lens. Electrowetting then controls the shape of the confined silicone oil and the focal length of the liquid lens varies depending upon an applied dc voltage. A unique feature of this lens design is the double-ring planar electrodes beneath the hydrophobic substrate. While an outer ring electrode provides an initial boundary for the silicone oil droplet, an inner ring works as the actuation electrode for the lens. Further, the planar electrodes, instead of vertical or out-of-plane wall electrodes, facilitate the integration of liquid lenses into microfluidic systems. With the voltage applied in the range of 50-250 V, the confined silicone oil droplet changed its shape and the optical magnification of a 3 mm-diameter liquid lens was clearly demonstrated. Moreover, focal lengths of liquid lenses with diameters of 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were characterized, respectively. The obtained results suggest that a larger lens diameter yields a longer focal length and a wider range of focal length change in response to voltage. The demonstrated liquid lens has a simple structure and is easy to fabricate.

Liu, Chao-Xuan; Park, Jihwan; Choi, Jin-Woo

2008-03-01

278

Method to Compute the Vertical Deflection Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To make a more exact mathematical model of the global atmosphere circulation and to improve the weather forecast one needs\\u000a to take into account the Vertical Deflection Components (VDCs). The required accuracy for these tasks is 12?? now and 0.41.0?? in future. The VDCs were calculated by integration of the free air gravity anomalies (taken from the Internet site of

E. A. Boyarsky; L. V. Afanasieva; V. N. Koneshov

279

Vertical Divestiture as a Competitive Strategy: the Case of Russian Railways Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the formal model we analyze the cost and benefits of vertical divestiture under different assumptions about the toughness of competition in the rail industry. We found that the welfare gain from the vertical divestiture may depend on the type of regulation applied to the vertically-integrated railway monopolist (RZD) and be conditioned by the nature of downstream competition. JEL classifications:

Andrei Dementiev

2006-01-01

280

Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

Pruess, K.

2011-05-15

281

A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species.  

PubMed

This study presents a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-TOF-MS methods and statistical tools, including untargeted PCA and targeted PLS/OPLS-DA models, to analyze 31 accessions representing 24 species in the eggplant genus Solanum (Solanaceae), including eight species whose metabolic profiles were studied for the first time. Sixty-two Solanum metabolites were identified after detailed analysis of UV absorbance spectra, mass spectral fragmentation patterns, NMR spectra, and/or co-injection experiments with authentic standards. Among these were two new 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives that were identified by analyzing their MS/MS fragmentation. Based on these results, a Solanum metabolic database (SMD) and a detailed biosynthetic pathway of Solanum metabolites were created. Results of analyses identified seven marker metabolites that distinguish four Solanum sections, and revealed species-specific chemical patterns. Combining LC-MS data with multivariate statistical analysis was proven effective in studying the metabolic network within the large genus Solanum, allowing for integration of complicated chemistry, morphology, and evolutionary relationships. PMID:24055226

Wu, Shi-Biao; Meyer, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Litt, Amy; Kennelly, Edward J

2013-11-01

282

Leachate injection using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate recirculation or liquid injection in municipal solid waste landfills offers economic and environmental benefits. The key objective of this study was to carry out numerical evaluation of key design variables for leachate recirculation system consisting of vertical wells. In order to achieve the objective, numerical modeling was carried out using the finite-element model HYDRUS-2D. The following design parameters were

Milind V. Khire; Moumita Mukherjee

2007-01-01

283

Integrated microscale analysis system for targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry proteomics on limited amounts of enriched cell populations.  

PubMed

Limited samples, such as those that are in vivo sourced via biopsy, are closely representative of biological systems and contain valuable information for drug discovery. However, these precious samples are often heterogeneous and require cellular prefractionation prior to proteomic analysis to isolate specific subpopulations of interest. Enriched cells from in vivo samples are often very limited (<10(4) cells) and pose a significant challenge to proteomic nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS) sample preparation. To enable the streamlined analysis of these limited samples, we have developed an online cell enrichment, microscale sample preparation, nanoLCMS proteomics workflow by integrating fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), focused ultrasonication, microfluidics, immobilized trypsin digestion, and nanoLCMS. To assess the performance of the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow, 5000 fluorescent labeled cells were enriched from a 5% heterogeneous cell population and processed for LCMS proteomics in less than 2 h. Within these 5000 enriched cells, 30 peptides corresponding to 17 proteins spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude of cellular abundance were quantified using a QExactive MS. The results from the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow starting from 5000 enriched cells were directly compared to results from a traditional macroscale sample preparation workflow starting from 2.0 10(6) cells. The microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow demonstrated high cellular enrichment efficiency and high peptide recovery across the wide dynamic range of targeted peptides. Overall the microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow has shown effectiveness in efficiently preparing limited amounts of FACS enriched cells in an online manner for proteomic LCMS. PMID:24083476

Martin, Jeffrey G; Rejtar, Tomas; Martin, Stephen A

2013-11-19

284

Vertical Motion Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

285

'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

2004-01-01

286

Vertical slender jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shape of a vertical slender jet of fluid falling steadily under the force of gravity is studied. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear free boundary-value problem for the potential. Surface tension effects are neglected. The use of perturbation expansions results in a system of equations that can be solved by an efficient numerical procedure. Computations were made for jets issuing from orifices in various shapes including an ellipse, a rectangle, and an equilateral triangle. Computational results are presented illustrating the propagation of discontinuities and the formation of thin sheets of fluid.

Geer, J. F.; Strikwerda, J. C.

1980-01-01

287

Augmentation of condensation heat transfer with electrohydrodynamics on vertical enhanced tubes  

E-print Network

from the surface can be realized. The liquid film thickness is reduced and as a result the condensation heat transfer coefficient is increased. A vertical single tube condenser (I m long) is used to investigate the electrohydrodynamically enhanced...

Motte, Edouard

1994-01-01

288

Preliminary estimation of horizontal fluxes of cloud liquid water in relation to subtropical moisture budget studies employing ISCCP, SSMI, and GEOS-1/DAS Data Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) retrievals of cloud liquid water, International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud estimates, and winds from the Goddard EOS (GEOS-1/DAS) assimilation are employed to evaluate vertically integrated cloud liquid water (CLW) transport for 1992. First, GEOS-1/DAS multiyear data are used to confirm an earlier finding of a paradoxical net moisture sink over the Arabian-Iraqi desert [Alpert and Shay-El, 1993]. The negative vertically integrated moisture flux divergence over this region is balanced mainly by the negative incremental analysis updates (IAU) of moisture. Moisture fluxes reveal strong convection but without precipitation in a shallow Hadley-type cell. Vertical profiles indicate that the moisture removal process is associated with middle and high clouds and probably with CLW flux divergence. The CLW fluxes are estimated explicitly and globally from ISCCP and SSM/I by using linear regression methods. Areas of significant CLW divergence are found over the eastern coasts of both the United States and Asia, in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio currents, as earlier conjectured by Peixoto [1973]. In both the Arabian-Iraqi desert and over the Sahara, divergence of a vertically integrated CLW flux opposes the convergence of a vertically integrated horizontal moisture flux, thus explaining at least partially the paradoxical net sink and source in these regions. However, the magnitude of the annual CLW flux estimates as calculated here is, in general, too small to play any significant role in the vertically integrated water budget, except perhaps along coastal regions and over dry subtropical deserts where precipitation minus evaporation is relatively small.

Shay-El, Yuval; Alpert, Pinhas; da Silva, Arlindo

2000-07-01

289

524 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 4, APRIL 2013 GreenCool: An Energy-Efficient Liquid Cooling  

E-print Network

--Liquid cooling using interlayer microchannels has appeared as a viable and scalable packaging technology for 3-D. Index Terms--3-D ICs, energy efficiency, liquid cooling. I. Introduction 3-DSTACKING technology enables, APRIL 2013 GreenCool: An Energy-Efficient Liquid Cooling Design Technique for 3-D MPSoCs Via Channel

Coskun, Ayse

290

Vertical root fractures and their management  

PubMed Central

Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

2014-01-01

291

Transversely excited liquid crystal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of photorefractive liquid crystal beam coupling devices into optical systems is often hampered by the need to tilt the liquid crystal cells to high angles of incidence in order to obtain efficient beam coupling. Owing to poor charge diffusion in most liquid crystal systems, charge migration depends mainly on an externally applied drift field. Conventional cells, with electrodes

Gary Cook; Jason P. Duignan; Lesley L. Taylor

2002-01-01

292

ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

293

Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. PMID:24534003

Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

2014-04-01

294

Liquid Crystal polymer (LCP): a new organic material for the development of multilayer dual-frequency\\/dual-polarization flexible antenna arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of dual-frequency (14 and 35 GHz), dual-polarization microstrip antenna arrays is presented for the first time on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) multilayer technology. Some of the properties of LCP, such as multilayer (three-dimensional) vertical integration capability, good electrical and mechanical properties, and near-hermetic nature, make this substrate a practical choice for the design of low-cost antenna arrays that

G. Dejean; R. Bairavasubramanian; D. Thompson; G. E. Ponchak; M. M. Tentzeris; J. Papapolymerou

2005-01-01

295

Identifying the component responsible for antagonism within ionic liquid mixtures using the up-to-down procedure integrated with a uniform design ray method.  

PubMed

Various chemicals in the environment always exist as mixtures. Toxicity interaction within mixtures may pose potential hazards and risks to the environmental safety and human health. Recent studies showed that toxicity interaction by ionic liquid (IL) mixtures can be related to a certain component. To identify the component, we developed a novel procedure integrating an up-to-down process with the uniform design-based ray method (UDUD) and applied it into an IL mixture system of four 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs (simply [bmim]X) where X=Cl(-), Br(-), CH3OSO3(-) and CH3(CH2)7OSO3(-). It was shown that two mixture rays in the quaternary system exhibited significant antagonistic interaction. In this paper, the UDUD was first employed to design four ternary mixture systems. The microplate toxicity analysis was used to determine the toxicities of various mixtures to a freshwater photobacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67. The concentration addition was taken as an additive reference to assess the toxicity interactions taking place in mixtures. The results revealed that some ternary mixture rays including [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 display antagonism while the ternary rays without [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 exhibit additivity. On these grounds, we again designed all binary mixtures containing [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3, determined their toxicities and assessed toxicity interaction. The results showed that three binary mixture systems produce antagonism. Thus, it may be concluded that [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 is indeed a key component inducing mixture antagonism. PMID:24905692

Zhang, Jin; Liu, Shu-Shen; Xiao, Qian-Fen; Huang, Xian-Huai; Chen, Qiong

2014-09-01

296

Get your vertical basket centrifuges off to a good start  

SciTech Connect

For solid-liquid separation, vertical-basket centrifuges are established workhorses in many of the chemical process industries. Despite this widespread familiarity, care must always be taken when specifying these centrifuges and starting them up. First, the author points out a wide range of features, options and product measures that should be kept in mind while preparing the specification for a vertical-basket centrifuge. Then, he describes good practices for the process design associated with the centrifuge. Finally, he offers a number of guidelines for trouble-free startup.

Jarosz, P.H. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

1997-06-01

297

DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF FLUID FLOW THROUGH A VERTICAL TUBE INTO A SEALED TANK FILLED WITH GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of the unsteady filling process that occurs when liquid entraps air in sealed lank vented by a vertical round tube. A mathematical model is developed to predict the pressure fluctuation of the closed tank and the rate of transfer of liquid into the tank. A drift-flux model is used to describe the two-phase effects in

R. S. DOUGALL; M. KATHIRESAN

1981-01-01

298

Theoretical analysis of film condensation heat transfer inside vertical mini triangular channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model is presented for predicting film condensation of vapor flowing inside a vertical mini triangular channel. The concurrent liquidvapor two-phase flow field is divided into three zones: the thin liquid film flow on the sidewall, the condensate flow in the corners, and the vapor core flow in the center. The model takes into account the effects of capillary

T. S. Zhao; Q. Liao

2002-01-01

299

Vertically reciprocating auger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

1988-01-01

300

The Gains from Vertical Scaling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations

Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

2013-01-01

301

Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from

Briggs, Derek C.

2013-01-01

302

Vertical axis wind turbine motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind power conversion turbine motor has a body supported to rotate about a vertical axis and carrying a plurality of substantially upright vanes substantially spaced from the vertical axis and circumferentially spaced from one another so that wind thrusting propulsively against outer sides of the vanes can move across the space circumscribed by the vanes and thrust propulsively against

Rumsey

1977-01-01

303

Modeling Verticality Estimation During Locomotion  

E-print Network

for gravitational vertical estimation is introduced including an inclinometer combined with an imu, as proposed´eal, Qc, Canada 3 Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, Coll`ege de France, Paris, France Abstract Estimation of the gravitational vertical is a fundamental problem faced by locomoting

Hayward, Vincent

304

Micron Resolution Electromechanical Liquid Level Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electromechanical liquid?level measurement system, able to achieve measurements on micron sensitivity, is presented in this study. A simple stepping motor provides vertical movements to electrodes sensing the water level. A microcontroller installed on the system determines the number of steps executed by the motor when electrodes move between an upper reference plane and the level of the liquid

Turkay Onacak

2007-01-01

305

On the Characteristics of Liquid Explosive Dispersing Flow  

E-print Network

AbstractIn this paper, some experiments of liquid dispersion flow driven by explosion in vertical plane were carried out using a liquid explosive dispersion device with film cylindrical constraints. The separated time series describing the breakup shape and dispersion process of liquid were recorded with high speed CMOS camera. The experimental results were analyzed and some essential characteristics of liquid dispersing flow are presented. KeywordsExplosive Disseminations; liquid dispersion Flow; Cavitations; Gasification.

Lei Li; Xiaobing Ren; Xiaoxia Lu; Xiaofang Yan

306

New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the R&D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m3 helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; de Rijk, G.; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Hanzelka, P.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.

2014-01-01

307

New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the R and D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m{sup 3} helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; Rijk, G. de; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Hanzelka, P. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno, CZ (Czech Republic)

2014-01-29

308

Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

309

Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel  

DOEpatents

The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

1981-01-01

310

A liquid level gauge working on the transmission line principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel form of liquid level gauge is described, based on a coaxial transmission line mounted vertically and partly filled by the liquid. A tunnel diode mounted at the top of the line sustains a square-wave oscillation, the period of which is a linear function of the distance between the diode and the surface of the liquid. Factors influencing the

J. B. Cole; J. K. L. Chin

1983-01-01

311

A Vertical Diffusion Scheme to estimate the atmospheric rectifier effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude and spatial distribution of the carbon sink in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere remain uncertain in spite of much progress made in recent decades. Vertical CO2 diffusion in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is an integral part of atmospheric CO2 transport and is important in understanding the global CO2 distribution pattern, in particular, the rectifier effect on the distribution

Baozhang Chen; Jing M. Chen; Jane Liu; Douglas Chan; Kaz Higuchi; Alexander Shashkov

2004-01-01

312

Investigation of Flow Along a Vertical Fault: Field Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A near-vertical fault, located in fractured welded tuff, that intercepts the formation in the underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provides a unique opportunity to evaluate important hydrological parameters associated with faults (e.g. flow velocity, matrix diffusion, fault-fracture-matrix interactions). Alcove 8, which is located in the cross drift of the ESF has been excavated for liquid releases

R. Salve; D. Hudson; P. Cook

2001-01-01

313

Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films have recently stimulated significant research interest to achieve better material functionality or multifunctionalities. In VAN thin films, both phases grow epitaxially in parallel on given...

Bi, Zhenxing

2012-07-16

314

Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

2014-10-01

315

Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

2012-12-18

316

Film boiling on the inside of vertical tubes with upward flow of the fluid at low qualities  

E-print Network

Flow regimes, local heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions along the wall have been studied for film boiling inside a vertical tube with upward flow of a saturated liquid. The area of interest has been ...

Dougall, R. S.

1963-01-01

317

Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat  

SciTech Connect

Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

318

van der Waals Epitaxy of InAs Nanowires Vertically Aligned on Single-Layer Graphene  

E-print Network

-organic vapor-phase epitaxy Hybrid junctions composed of semiconductor nanostruc- tures and graphene havevan der Waals Epitaxy of InAs Nanowires Vertically Aligned on Single-Layer Graphene Young Joon Hong ABSTRACT: Semiconductor nanowire arrays integrated vertically on graphene films offer significant

319

Mode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates  

E-print Network

for integrated photonic devices and nano photonics. In this paper, we present novel passively mode-locked fiberMode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto novel passively mode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes synthesized using

Maruyama, Shigeo

320

Effects of vertical wind shear, radiation, and ice clouds on a torrential rainfall event in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vertical wind shear, radiation, and ice clouds on surface rainfall processes associated with the torrential rainfall event over Jinan, China, during July 2007 are investigated through a series of sensitivity experiments. All experiments are integrated with an imposed large-scale vertical velocity and zonal wind from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Data Assimilation System for 36

Yushu Zhou

2011-01-01

321

Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.  

PubMed

Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.52.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.31.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. PMID:25151607

Tiadi, Aim; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loc; Bucci, Maria Pia

2014-11-01

322

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Provisions 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2012-07-01

323

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provisions 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2010-07-01

324

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provisions 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2013-07-01

325

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Provisions 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2014-07-01

326

Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed.

Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

2014-02-01

327

Liquid rocket valve assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

1973-01-01

328

On the identification of liquid surface properties using liquid bridges.  

PubMed

The term liquid bridge refers to the specific silhouette of a liquid volume when it is placed between two solid surfaces. Liquid bridges have been studied extensively both theoretically and experimentally during the last century due to their significance in many technological applications. It is worth noticing that even today new technological applications based on liquid bridges continue to appear. A liquid bridge has a well-defined surface configuration dictated by a rigid theoretical foundation so the potential of its utilization as a tool to study surface properties of liquids is apparent. However, it is very scarce in literature that the use of liquid bridges is suggested as an alternative to the well-established drop techniques (pendant/sessile drop). The present work (i) presents the theoretical background for setting up a liquid-bridge based surface property estimation problem, (ii) describes the required experimental equipment and procedures and (iii) performs a thorough literature review on the subject. A case with particular interest is that of liquid bridges made of electrically conducting liquids forming between two conducting solids; such a liquid bridge presents an integral electrical conductance value which is sensitive to the specific silhouette of the bridge. This enables the use of this integral conductance as shape descriptor instead of the conventional image processing techniques. Several attempts in literature for the estimation of liquid surface tension, liquid-solid contact angle and surfactant induced surface elasticity for conducting or non/conducting liquids are presented and the prospects of the technique are discussed. PMID:24819725

Kostoglou, M; Karapantsios, T D

2014-04-24

329

Experimental investigation for liquid holdup reduction of subsea riser with surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal pressure drop in a subsea riser is generally the gravitational pressure drop component due to liquid holdup. Surfactant is a kind of Chemical compound related to flow improvement. Gas-liquid two-phase flow in subsea riser with zero and small liquid flow rates was simulated in two vertical tubes with diameters of 40 mm and 65 mm, respectively. Liquid holdup

C. Li; L. Liu; Q. B. Bao; F. D. Zhou

2010-01-01

330

Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation.  

PubMed

Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

2012-09-01

331

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

332

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

333

Growth and photoluminescence properties of vertically aligned SnO 2 nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertically aligned SnO2 nanowires (NWs) were grown for the first time by a vaporliquidsolid method on c-sapphire with gold as a catalyst under Ar gas flow. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis indicated the NWs are single crystalline having the rutile structure, grow vertically along the [100] direction, and exhibit a consistent epitaxial relationship where lattice mismatch is estimated to be 0.3%

Lena Mazeina; Yoosuf N. Picard; Joshua D. Caldwell; Evan R. Glaser; Sharka M. Prokes

2009-01-01

334

Vertical Discretization of Hydrostatic Primitive Equations with Finite Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertical finite element (VFE) discretization of hydrostatic primitive equations is developed for the dynamical core of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) system at KIAPS, which is horizontally discretized by a spectral element on a cubed-sphere grid. The governing equations are discretized on a hybrid pressure-based vertical coordinate [1]. Compared with a vertical finite difference (VFD) discretization, which is only first order accurate for non-uniform grids, the VFE has many advantages such that it gives more accurate results, all variables are defined in the same full level, the level of vertical noise might be reduced [2], and it is easily coupled with existing physics packages, developed for a Lorentz staggering grid system. Due to these reasons, we adopted the VFE scheme presented by Untch [2] for the vertical discretization. Instead of using semi-Lagrangian and semi-implicit schemes of ECMWF, we use the Eulerian equations and second-order Runge-Kutta scheme as the first step in implementing the VFE for the dynamical core of the KIAPS's NWP model. Since the Eulerian hydrostatic equations are used in this study, both integral and derivative operators are required to implement the VFE using the Galerkin method with b-splines as basis functions. To compare the accuracy of the VFE with the VFD, the two-dimensional test case of mountain waves is used where physical configuration and initial conditions are the same as that of Durran [3]. In this case, the horizontal and vertical velocities obtained by the analytical solution, VFD, VFE-linear and VFE-cubic are compared to understand their numerical features and the vertical flux of horizontal momentum is also presented as the measurement of solution accuracy since it is sensitive to errors in a solution [3]. It is shown that the VFE with a cubic b-spline function is more accurate than the VFD and VFE with a linear b-spline function as the vertical flux is closer to unity, which will be presented in the conference. Reference Simmons, A. J., Burridge, D. M., 1981: An energy and angular momentum conserving vertical finite difference scheme and hybrid vertical coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 758-766. Untch, A., Hortal, M., 2004: A finite-element schemes for the vertical discretization of the semi-Lagrangian version of the ECMWF forecast model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1505-1530. Durran, D. R., Klemp, J. B., 1983: A compressible model for the simulation of moist mountain waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 2341-2361.

Yi, Tae-Hyeong; Park, Ja-Rin

2014-05-01

335

Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

2004-01-01

336

Integration Versus Outsourcing In Industry Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an equilibrium model of industrial structure in which the organization of firms is endogenous. Differentiated consumer products can be produced either by vertically integrated firms or by pairs of specialized companies. Production of each variety of consumer good requires a specialized component. Vertically integrated firms can manufacture the components they need, but they face a relatively high cost

Gene M. Grossman; Elhanan Helpman

2002-01-01

337

Characteristics of slug flow in narrow rectangular channels under vertical condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-liquid slug flow is widely encountered in many practical industrial applications. A detailed understanding of the hydrodynamics of gas slug has important significance for modeling of the slug flow. Non-intrusive flow visualization using a high speed video camera system is applied to study characteristics of slug flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel (3.2540 mm2). Ideal Taylor bubbles are hardly observed, and most of the gas slugs are deformed, much more seriously at high liquid superficial velocity. The liquid film thicknesses of left and right narrow sides surrounding gas slug are divergent and wavy, but it has weak effect on liquid film velocity. The gas and liquid velocity as well as the length of gas slug have significant effect on the separating liquid film thickness. The separating liquid film velocity is decreased with the increase of gas superficial velocity at low liquid velocity, and increased with the increase of liquid superficial velocity. The film stops descending and the gas superficial velocity has no significant effect on liquid film separating velocity at high liquid velocity (jL?1.204 m/s), and it is mainly determined by the liquid flow rate. The shape of slug nose has a significant effect on its velocity, while the effect of its length is very weak. The Ishii&Jones-Zuber drift flux correlation could predict slug velocity well, except at low liquid superficial velocity by reason of that the calculated drift velocity is less than experimental values.

Wang, Yang; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Xing, Dianchuan; Yan, Chaoxing; Tian, Daogui

2013-07-01

338

Natural convection on a vertical stretching cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow and natural (or mixed) convection due to a vertical stretching cylinder is studied. Using similarity transforms, the Navier-Stokes and energy equations reduce to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Asymptotic analysis for large Reynolds numbers shows the relation between axisymmetric flow and two-dimensional flow. Due to the algebraic decay of the similarity functions, numerical integration is performed using a compressed coordinate. The axial velocity is composed of forced convection due to stretching and natural convection from the heated cylinder. The heat transfer increases with both the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. The result is also a rare similarity solution of the free convection and Navier-Stokes equations.

Wang, C. Y.

2012-03-01

339

Low gravity liquid level sensor rake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low gravity liquid level sensor rake measures the liquid surface height of propellant in a propellant tank used in launch and spacecraft vehicles. The device reduces the tendency of the liquid propellant to adhere to the sensor elements after the bulk liquid level has dropped below a given sensor element thereby reducing the probability of a false liquid level measurement. The liquid level sensor rake has a mast attached internal to a propellant tank with an end attached adjacent the tank outlet. Multiple sensor elements that have an arm and a sensor attached at a free end thereof are attached to the mast at locations selected for sensing the presence or absence of the liquid. The sensor elements when attached to the mast have a generally horizontal arm and a generally vertical sensor.

Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor); Craddock, Jeffrey C. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

340

Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

E-print Network

is used to restrict the application of the geophysical retrieval algorithms which are developed to handle specific atmospheric absorptive situations. An improved semi-empirical sea surface emissivity model is integrated into this refined D-matrix procedure...

Manning, Norman Willis William

1997-01-01

341

Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.  

SciTech Connect

The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2008-01-01

342

Vertical capacitive SiBARs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work introduces high frequency, vertical silicon bulk acoustic resonators (SiBAR). A combination of the new resonator structures with much larger transduction area and the HARPSS fabrication process is used to demonstrate high frequency capacitive resonators with significantly lower impedances compared to the previous capacitive resonators. Impedances as low as a few kilo-Ohms and quality factors in the range of

Siavash Pourkamali; Gavin K. Ho; Farrokh Ayazi

2005-01-01

343

Long wavelength vertical cavity lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for low cost, high speed telecommunication sources demands the maturation of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers (VCLs). Both long haul fiber optic systems and gigabit ethernet links are potential markets for 1.3 and 1.55 micron VCLs. This past year has seen much progress to this end, but the emerging technology has yet to be determined. This paper overviews

K. A. Blacka; P. Abraham; A. Keating; Y. J. Chiu; E. L. Hu; J. E. Bowers

1999-01-01

344

Vertical Sextants give Good Sights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

Dixon, Mark

345

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

1983-01-01

346

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08

347

Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL  

SciTech Connect

A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars. The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.

Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.; Grau, M.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tallerico, T.; McIntyre, G.; Lederle, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.

2011-03-28

348

Vertical Photon Transport in Cloud Remote Sensing Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon transport in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds is investigated and applied to cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements for retrieving droplet effective radius. Transport is couched in terms of weighting functions which approximate the relative contribution of individual layers to the overall retrieval. Two vertical weightings are investigated, including one based on the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons in any given layer. A simpler vertical weighting based on the maximum penetration of reflected photons proves useful for solar reflectance measurements. These weighting functions are highly dependent on droplet absorption and solar/viewing geometry. A superposition technique, using adding/doubling radiative transfer procedures, is derived to accurately determine both weightings, avoiding time consuming Monte Carlo methods. Superposition calculations are made for a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Effective radius retrievals from modeled vertically inhomogeneous liquid water clouds are then made using the standard near-infrared bands, and compared with size estimates based on the proposed weighting functions. Agreement between the two methods is generally within several tenths of a micrometer, much better than expected retrieval accuracy. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived weightings can be applied to any multiple scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers.

Platnick, S.

1999-01-01

349

Liquid Crystals: LCD Displays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will learn the history and applications of liquid crystal technology. This interactive presentation will allow students to not only learn about the technology, but it will actually allow them to analyze and work with examples. Everything from flat panel televisions to mood rings are used to show how liquid crystal plays an integral role in many products. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

2008-10-08

350

Flow regimes and heat transfer in vertical narrow annuli  

SciTech Connect

In shell side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local thermal-hydraulic conditions which differ significantly from bulk fluid conditions. Understanding of the processes of boiling and dryout in flow restricted crevices can help in designing of tube support geometries to minimize the likelihood of tube support plate and tube corrosion observed in commercial power plant steam generators. This paper describes a one dimensional thermal-hydraulic model of a vertical crevice between a tube and a support plate with cylindrical holes. The annulus formed by the support plate hole and an eccentrically located tube has been represented by vertical strips. The formation, growth and collapse of a steam bubble in each strip has been determined. Based on the bubble history, and flow regimes characterized by ``isolated`` bubbles, ``coalesced`` bubbles and liquid deficient regions have been defined.

Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

1993-11-01

351

Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices  

SciTech Connect

The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

Paul Mattione

2007-05-01

352

Vertical combustor for refuse combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical combustor for refuse-particle combustion was analyzed for waste-to-energy recovery. A one-dimensional model was constructed that consisted of fuel particles, inert solid particles, and the gaseous mixture. The gaseous mixture was divided further into six chemical species that are involved in combustion at temperatures below about 2000°F. It was concluded that such combustors may be viable in the United

Chung

1981-01-01

353

Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth is surrounded by a protective atmosphere, composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and trace amounts of other gases, that protects Earth's surface from damaging solar radiation and plays a major role in water and energy transport. This interactive feature shows the vertical structure of the atmosphere. Viewers can see the regions of the atmosphere, some of the objects (natural and man-made) found at various altitudes, as well as the variations in air temperature and pressure with altitude.

354

Vertical Height of the Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the vertical dimension of the atmosphere and includes four activities. Activity 1 Introduces concepts related to distance, including length and height and units of measurement. Students are asked to make comparisons of distances. In activity 2, students learn about the vertical profile of the atmosphere. They work with a graph and plot the heights of objects and the layers of the atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. In activity 3, students learn about other forms of visual displays using satellite imagery. They compare images of the same weather feature, a hurricane, using two different images from MODIS and CALIPSO. One image is looking down on the hurricane from space, the other looks through the hurricane to display a profile of the hurricane. Activity 4 reinforces the concept of the vertical nature of the atmosphere. Students will take a CALIPSO satellite image that shows a profile of the atmosphere and use this information to plot mountains and clouds on their own graph of the atmosphere. The recommended order for the activities is to complete the first two activities on day one, and the second two activities on day two. Each day will require approximately 1 to 1.5 hours.

355

Liquid metal embrittlement of silicon enriched steel for nuclear applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leadbismuth eutectic (LBE) liquid metal is considered to act as the coolant and as spallation neutron source for a future accelerator driven system (ADS). In addition to the highly corrosive effect of the liquid leadbismuth eutectic, the liquid metal may also affect the mechanical integrity of the structural materials by a phenomenon called liquid metal embrittlement. Thus, although the addition

J. Van den Bosch; P. Hosemann; A. Almazouzi; S. A. Maloy

2010-01-01

356

Twins Vertices in Hypergraphs Raoul Medina1  

E-print Network

Twins Vertices in Hypergraphs Raoul Medina1 and Caroline Noyer and Olivier Raynaud2 Research Report;Abstract Twin vertices in graphs correspond to vertices sharing the same neighbor- hood. We propose an extension to hypergraphs of the concept of twin ver- tices. For this we give two characterizations of twin

Boyer, Edmond

357

7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

Boyer, Edmond

358

Interface wave diffraction by a thin vertical barrier submerged in the lower fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with interface wave diffraction by a thin vertical barrier which is completely submerged in the lower fluid of two superposed infinite fluids and which extends infinitely downwards into the lower fluid. By a suitable application of Green's integral theorem in the two fluid regions, the problem is formulated in terms of a hypersingular integral equation for

B. N. Mandal; Sudeshna Banerjea; D. R. Dolai

1995-01-01

359

Transient electromagnetic field generated by a vertical electric dipole on the surface of a dissipative earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of electromagnetic pulse propagation over a dissipative earth surface, excited by a vertical electric dipole located on the earth surface, is investigated. By deforming related integrals in the complex frequency domain it is shown that the scattering contribution of the earth, which is formally expressed in terms of several double inf'mite integrals, can be efficiently computed from some

Hussain Haddad; D. C. Chang

1981-01-01

360

FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF CYLINDRICAL TANKS PARTIALLY FILLED WITH LIQUID  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple but effective modal solution based on the underlying ideas of the hierarchical finite element method is presented for evaluating the free vibration characteristics of vertical, thin, circular, cylindrical shells, partially or completely filled with liquid and subjected to any variationally consistent set of boundary conditions on the lower and upper boundaries. Effects of static liquid pressure, in-plane inertias

P. B. Gonalves; N. R. S. S. Ramos

1996-01-01

361

Modeling Vertical Structure and Heat Transport within the Oceans of Ice-covered Worlds (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect observational evidence provides a strong case for liquid oceans beneath the icy crust of Europa and several other frozen moons in the outer solar system. However, little is known about the fluid circulation within these exotic oceans. As a first step toward understanding circulations driven by buoyancy (rather than mechanical forcing from tides), one must understand the typical vertical

J. C. Goodman

2010-01-01

362

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration  

SciTech Connect

The FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) configuration has been designed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF (toroidal-field) boundary. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged-shaped TF coils that surround a free-standing central solenoid (CS), a double-wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma-facing components. A center tie rod is used to help support the vertical magnetic loads and a compression ring is used to maintain wedge pressure in the inboard corners of the TF coils. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double-wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. The FIRE configuration development and integration process has evolved from an early stage of concept selection to a higher level of machine definition and component details. This paper describes the status of the configuration development and the integration of the major subsystem components.

T. Brown

1999-11-01

363

?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.

Richey, Michael

364

Neighbourly polytopes with few vertices  

SciTech Connect

A family of neighbourly polytopes in R{sup 2d} with N=2d+4 vertices is constructed. All polytopes in the family have a planar Gale diagram of a special type, namely, with exactly d+3 black points in convex position. These Gale diagrams are parametrized by 3-trees (trees with a certain additional structure). For all polytopes in the family, the number of faces of dimension m containing a given vertex A depends only on d and m. Bibliography: 7 titles.

Devyatov, Rostislav A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-10-31

365

Liquid nitrogen  

MedlinePLUS

Liquid nitrogen is a chemical that is super cold, about -200 degrees Celsius. Liquid nitrogen will instantly freeze anything it touches. It is used to kill cells that make up diseased or cancerous tissue. Tissue that has been frozen dries out and falls off.

366

Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence Ian Appelbauma  

E-print Network

directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL heterostructure, just below a luminescent in the detector region. The improved photonic coupling and effective collection angle in this scheme improves the BEEL signal by many orders of magnitude as compared to far-field detection with the most sensitive

Russell, Kasey

367

Vertical integration and strategic sourcing in the biopharmaceutical industry  

E-print Network

Biopharmaceutical companies are focusing on operational efficiency more than ever before due to cost pressures, generic competition, complex pricing, regulations, and globalization. Due to the low probabilities of success ...

Haupt, Lynne Felice

2005-01-01

368

Fabrication of Annealed Proton-Exchanged Waveguides for Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

-toxicity, and minimum damage to the LiNbO3 crystal lattice [1]. Benzoic acid is a powdered solid at room temperature, and exhibits a melting temperature of 129?C. Jackel first reported PE waveguide formation in 1982 by submersing x-cut LiNbO3 crystals in molten... in order to reach the desired exchange depth de. Table 2-1. Diffusion constants and activation energies for PE in x and z cut LiNbO3 Reference 1 from Almeida, and reference 2 for literature comparison in his report. D0 (x108) ?Q X-cut1 0.48 77...

Webb, Jacob Douglas

2011-08-08

369

Feed logistics management for a vertically integrated swine company  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the logistic problem from an animal feed industry to a cluster of pig farms is studied. In the swine production, the feed demand is dynamic and uncertain. Pigs in different growth stage require different feed types. Also, the feed quantity required in each growth stage is also varied depending on the animal health and environment conditions. Likewise,

S. Homkhampad; K. Piewthongngam; S. Pathumnakul

2009-01-01

370

INTEGRATED VERTICAL SCREEN MICROFILTER SYSTEM USING INCLINED SU-8 STRUCTURES  

E-print Network

approach without the need for stacking or lamination. A triple filtering system with multiple inlet serpentine channel [SI, and the use of fast diffusion in very low Reynolds number flow by means of injection

371

Vertical integration in the beef cattle industry: Harris Ranch Company  

E-print Network

is an inconvenience. At the meat packing plant, the slaughtering of packer cattle costs more money because each carcass is isolated and has to go through a more rigorous inspection by a USDA veterinarian. Finally, necropsy is performed on all cattle that die. A... or rejected. When cattle are sold, HRFC collects the money, and the customer is paid 2 to 3 d later. Feed Mig Division Organization At the feed mill, 28 people work in the following areas: manager, foreman, operation of the mixer, mechanics, operation...

Pedretti Fernandez, Carlos Luis

1990-01-01

372

Vertical Integration: Results from a Cross-Course Student Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report the results of a cross-class project involving sophomore-level students in an Operations Analysis (OA) class with junior-level students in an Operations Management (OM) class. The students formed virtual teams and developed a simulation model of a call center. The OM students provided the management expertise, while the OA

Sloan, Thomas; Lewis, David

2011-01-01

373

An Approach to Vertically Integrated Embedded Systems Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Historically, commercial market trends trickle down into engineering program curricula. In the computing systems marketplace, customers are demanding ever more complex features as computing systems become more capable and affordable. Today, engineering educators are feeling the pressure to provide more realistic, comprehensive, and complex lab experiences to the students in order to remain relevant and keep students attention. These demands are especially difficult in the university environment where students may lack several basic skills and the professor and student work under an intense 15-week time-to-market.

Bruce, Jw; Hathcock, Lee

2011-10-04

374

Contractual Hazards and Vertical Integration in Mexico's Community Forestry Sector  

E-print Network

and Management, College of Natural Resources, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley. Robert Gordon Sproul, O17, Q23. We wish to thank Irma Adelman, Louise Fortmann, Brian Wright, Ilya Segal, Stefan: antinori@nature.berkeley.edu. Postdoctoral researcher, Division of Environmental Science, Policy

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

375

Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells  

E-print Network

A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

2014-01-01

376

Liquid pearls  

E-print Network

This fluid dynamics video reports how to form liquid core capsules having a thin hydrogel elastic membrane named liquid pearls. These fish-egg like structures are initially made of a millimetric liquid drop, aqueous or not, coated with an aqueous liquid film containing sodium alginate that gels once the double drop enters a calcium chloride bath. The creation of such pearls with micrometer thick membrane requires to suppress mixing until gelling takes place. Here, we show that superimposing a two dimensional surfactant precipitation at the interface confers a transient rigidity that can damp the shear induced instability at impact. Based on this, pearls containing almost any type of liquids can be created. The video focuses on the dynamics of the entry of the compound drop into the gelling bath.

Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jrme

2010-01-01

377

Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430?Fcm(-2) for a scan rate of 0.1Vs(-1) and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100Vs(-1). Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices. PMID:24407158

Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Maboudian, Roya

2014-02-01

378

Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430 ?F cm-2 for a scan rate of 0.1 V s-1 and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100 V s-1. Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices.

Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Maboudian, Roya

2014-02-01

379

Natural Vertical Flow in the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on estimating the mass (M) and energy (E) flow rates, the permeability k, and the relative permeability functions R{sub L} and R{sub V} associated with the natural vertical flow in the reservoir. To estimate M and E we used the standard 1-D vertical equations for two-phase flow, complemented with boundary conditions at the boiling and dew interfaces. These boundary conditions were derived in an earlier stage of this study that established an approximate 1-D vertical model of the reservoir. The estimated values of M and E were then used together with the previously established liquid saturation vertical profile of the reservoir, and the differential equation expressing the pressure gradient, to fit, by trial and error, the observed natural pressure profile. The accuracy of the fit depends on the assumed value for the vertical permeability and on the chosen forms for the relative permeability functions. They estimated M {approx} 6.9 x 10{sup -8} kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and E {approx} 0.2 W m{sup -2}. These results lie well within the ample ranges of mass and energy flowrates per unit area found in geothermal fields worldwide. The estimated values of M and E support the previous inference that there is an extensive caprock in the reservoir. The best fit to the natural pressure gradient implies a vertical permeability of about 0.08 mD, residual water- and steam-saturations of about 0.04 and 0.00 respectively, and ''fracture relative permeabilities'' (i.e., R{sub L} + R{sub V} = 1). This work addresses a major obstacle for a successful analysis of the Los Azufres geothermal reservoir, which is characterized by an extensive two-phase region: the former unavailability of reasonably reliable relative permeability functions. Furthermore, the present characterization of the vertical natural flow provides important constraints for both lumped- and distributed-parameter models of the reservoir. Finally, this work gives information on reservoir properties that would be difficult to obtain by other means.

Iglesias, E.R.; Arellano, V.M.; Ortiz-Ramirez, J.

1986-01-21

380

Laser tracking for vertical control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

1993-01-01

381

Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical Pacific  

E-print Network

Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles 31 July 2006; published 9 September 2006. [1] Column-integrated moist static energy (MSE) budgets), Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical

Bretherton, Chris

382

How do liquids confined at the nanoscale influence adhesion?  

E-print Network

Liquids play an important role in adhesion and sliding friction. They behave as lubricants in human bodies especially in the joints. However, in many biological attachment systems they acts like adhesives, e.g. facilitating insects to move on ceilings or vertical walls. Here we use molecular dynamics to study how liquids confined at the nanoscale influence the adhesion between solid bodies with smooth and rough surfaces. We show that a monolayer of liquid may strongly affect the adhesion.

C. Yang; U. Tartaglino; B. N. J. Persson

2006-12-06

383

Liquid identification by Hilbert spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast and reliable identification of liquids is of great importance in, for example, security, biology and the beverage industry. An unambiguous identification of liquids can be made by electromagnetic measurements of their dielectric functions in the frequency range of their main dispersions, but this frequency range, from a few GHz to a few THz, is not covered by any conventional spectroscopy. We have developed a concept of liquid identification based on our new Hilbert spectroscopy and high- Tc Josephson junctions, which can operate at the intermediate range from microwaves to THz frequencies. A demonstration setup has been developed consisting of a polychromatic radiation source and a compact Hilbert spectrometer integrated in a Stirling cryocooler. Reflection polychromatic spectra of various bottled liquids have been measured at the spectral range of 15-300 GHz with total scanning time down to 0.2 s and identification of liquids has been demonstrated.

Lyatti, M.; Divin, Y.; Poppe, U.; Urban, K.

2009-11-01

384

A Characterization of Vertical Ozonesonde Measurements at the Equatorial Locations of SHADOZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beginning in 1997 ozonesonde observations have been obtained from Equatorial locations participating in SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozone) Project. Vertical ozone profiles are available from the western Pacific eastward to Kenya. Presently 10 stations provide vertical ECC ozonesonde measurements at least weekly. Statistical analysis shows the variation that occurs in the level of maximum ozone, the difference between integrated total ozone overburden from ECC and EP-TOMS observations, and with Dobson Spectrophotometers, when data are available.

Schmidlin, F. J.; Thompson, A. M.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Hoegger, B.; Oltmans, S.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

385

Vertical Handoff Procedure and Algorithm between IEEE802.11 WLAN and CDMA Cellular Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of wireless subscribers rapidly increases guaranteeing the quality of services anytime, anywhere, and by any-media\\u000a becomes indispensable. These services require various networks (such as CDMA2000 and Wireless LAN) to be integrated into IP-based\\u000a networks, which further require a seamless vertical handoff to 4th generation wireless networks. This paper presents a seamless vertical hando. procedure between IEEE802.11 WLAN,

Hyo Soon Park; Sung Hoon Yoon; Tae Hyoun Kim; Jung Shin Park; Mi Sun Do; Jai-yong Lee

2002-01-01

386

Conversion of cellulosic waste to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Progress report, August 1October 31, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four liquefaction reactor operating modes were explored in the integrated laboratory scale indirect liquefaction system: (1) liquid hydrocarbon product slurry liquid, (2) fluidized bed, (3) Chevron wax slurry liquid, and (4) paraffin oil slurry liquid. A total of 11 runs were performed. Two attempts were shutdown prior to integration due to equipment problems. Two procedure changes were initiated in this

Kuester

1984-01-01

387

A Cylindrical Capacitance Sensor with Three Electrodes for Liquid-Level Measurement in Two Different Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a practical sensing approach for monitoring the liquid-level in a container is presented. In this research we have developed a new structure sensor with three electrodes. When the container becomes inclined from vertical condition during measuring process, the liquid-level in the liquid container is determined correctly by detecting the change in capacitance between every two electrodes. In

Guirong Lu; Katsunori Shida

2004-01-01

388

Vertically aligned rolled-up SiO2 optical microcavities in add-drop configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant step towards integrated vertically rolled-up microcavities is demonstrated by interfacing an as-fabricated SiO2 microtube optical ring resonator with tapered fibers. In this transmission configuration, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is shown in subwavelength thick walled microcavities. Moreover, we present a four-port add-drop filter based on a lifted doubly interfaced vertically rolled-up microcavity. Our work opens opportunities for vertical resonant light transfer in 3D multi-level optical data processing as well as for massively parallel optofluidic analysis of biomaterials in lab-on-a-chip systems.

Bttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

2013-06-01

389

Rapid antibiotic drug monitoring: meropenem and ceftazidime determination in serum and bronchial secretions by high-performance liquid chromatography-integrated sample preparation.  

PubMed

A sensitive and rapid HPLC assay for the determination of the beta-lactam antibiotics ceftazidime and meropenem in serum and bronchial secretions is described. HPLC-integrated sample preparation allows direct injection of serum samples without any pretreatment. Sputum samples need only a simple homogenisation and volume measurement but no liquefying reagents are necessary. The inline extraction technique is realized by automatically switching from the extraction column to the analytical column. After the matrix passed the extraction column, the retained analyte is quantitatively transferred to the analytical column where separation by isocratic HPLC is performed. Ceftazidime and meropenem are detected according to their absorption maxima at 258 and 296 nm, respectively. The detection limit of both antibiotics is estimated to be better than 0.5 microg/ml in serum as well as in sputum samples. The described procedure allows determination of the antibiotics within 30-45 min, thereby facilitating drug monitoring in clinical routine. PMID:11236092

Ehrlich, M; Daschner, F D; Kmmerer, K

2001-02-25

390

Tracking Interfaces in Vertical Two-Phase Flows  

SciTech Connect

The presence of stratified liquid-gas interfaces in vertical flows poses difficulties to most classes of solution methods for two-phase flows of practical interest in the field of reactor safety and thermal-hydraulics. These difficulties can plague the reactor simulations unless handled with proper care. To illustrate these difficulties, the US NRC Consolidated Thermal-hydraulics Code (TRAC-M) was exercised with selected numerical bench-mark problems. These numerical benchmarks demonstrate that the use of an average void fraction for computational volumes simulating vertical flows is inadequate when these volumes consist of stratified liquid-gas interfaces. In these computational volumes, there are really two regions separated by the liquid-gas interface and each region has a distinct flow topology. An accurate description of these divided computational volumes require that separate void fractions be assigned to each region. This strategy requires that the liquid-gas interfaces be tracked in order to determine their location, the volumes of regions separated by the interface, and the void fractions in these regions. The idea of tracking stratified liquid-gas interfaces is not new. There are examples of tracking methods that were developed for reactor safety codes and applied to reactor simulations in the past with some limited success. The users of these safety codes were warned against potential flow oscillations, conflicting water levels, and pressure disturbances which could be caused by the tracking methods themselves. An example of these methods is the level tracking method of TRAC-M. A review of this method is given here to explore the reasons behind its failures. The review shows that modifications to the field equations are mostly responsible for these failures. Following the review, a systematic approach to incorporate interface tracking methods is outlined. This approach is applicable to most classes of solution methods. For demonstration, the approach to incorporate the tracking method into the field equations of TRAC-M is described in steps. The success of this approach is demonstrated by exercising TRAC-M with the same benchmark problems that were previously used to illustrate the difficulties the code suffered from in the presence of interfaces. Besides improvements to the accuracy of the code predictions, one of the benchmark problems, which simulates a strong condensation at the liquid-gas interface, shows that the code's runtime is improved significantly where the alternative methods like water packing fails. (authors)

Aktas, Birol [Information Systems Laboratory Inc., 11140 Rockville Pike, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2002-07-01

391

Vertical combustor for refuse combustion  

SciTech Connect

A vertical combustor for refuse-particle combustion was analyzed for waste-to-energy recovery. A one-dimensional model was constructed that consisted of fuel particles, inert solid particles, and the gaseous mixture. The gaseous mixture was divided further into six chemical species that are involved in combustion at temperatures below about 2000/sup 0/F. It was concluded that such combustors may be viable in the United States since US refuse contains large amounts of volatile matter. Combustion of the relatively small char, however, may not be cost-effective in the present combustor where the fuel residence time is on the order of 2 s for a combustor height of 20 to 30 ft. A computer solution was designed to optimize a given combustor system. A simplified version of the solution was programmed for a TI-59 programmable hand calculator for field use.

Chung, P.M.

1981-06-01

392

Exploring Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young learners investigate and observe the properties of three liquids -- water, vegetable oil, and corn syrup. They use their senses to collect data and ask and answer questions. This lesson for young learners introduces the scientific process.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

393

Wave field features of shallow vertical discontinuity and their application in non-destructive detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geotechnical integrity of critical infrastructure can be seriously compromised by the presence of fractures or crevices. Non-destructive techniques to accurately detect fractures in critical infrastructure such as dams and highways could be of significant benefit to the geotechnical industry. This paper investigates the application of shallow seismic and georadar methods to the detection of a vertical discontinuity using numerical simulations. The objective is to address the kinematical analysis of a vertical discontinuity, determine the resulting wave field characteristics, and provide the basis for determining the existence of vertical discontinuities based on the recorded signals. Simulation results demonstrate that: (1) A reflection from a vertical discontinuity produces a hyperbolic feature on a seismic or georadar profile; (2) In order for a reflection from a vertical discontinuity to be produced, a reflecting horizon below the discontinuity must exist, the offset between source and receiver ( x0) must be non-zero, on the same side of the vertical discontinuity; (3) The range of distances from the vertical discontinuity where a reflection event is observed is proportional to its length and to x0; (4) Should the vertical crevice (or fracture) pass through a reflecting horizon, dual hyperbolic features can be observed on the records, and this can be used as a determining factor that the vertical crevice passes through the interface; and (5) diffractions from the edges of the discontinuity can be recorded with relatively smaller amplitude than reflections and their ranges are not constrained by the length of discontinuity. If the length of discontinuity is short enough, diffractions are the dominant feature. Real-world examples show that the shallow seismic reflection method and the georadar method are capable of recording the hyperbolic feature, which can be interpreted as vertical discontinuity. Thus, these methods show some promise as effective non-destructive detection methods for locating vertical discontinuities (e.g., fractures or crevices) in infrastructure such as dams and highway pavement.

Liu, Jiangping; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe; Chen, Chao; Li, Xiuzhong; Huang, Yongqin

2007-07-01

394

Ionic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids are receiving an upsurge of interest as green solvents; primarily as replacements for conventional media in\\u000a chemical processes. This review presents an overview of the chemistry that has been developed utilising ionic liquids as either\\u000a catalyst and\\/or solvent, with particular emphasis on processes that have been taken beyond the pre-competetive laboratory\\u000a stage and represent clean industrial technology with

J. D. Holbrey; K. R. Seddon

1999-01-01

395

Screen channel liquid acquisition device outflow tests in liquid hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325 2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3-24.2 K), pressures (100-350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010-0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

Hartwig, J. W.; Chato, D. J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

2014-11-01

396

Monolithic vertical combdrive actuators for adaptive optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

High aspect ratio vertical combdrive actuators are demonstrated which advance the capabilities and applications of SOI-MEMS by adding additional independent degrees of freedom of operation: both upward and downward vertical pistoning motion as well as bi-directional pure rotation. The methodology for the first time enables monolithic fabrication of isolated vertical combdrive sets in the SOI device layer, with combfinger self-alignment

Veliko MilanoviC; Sunghoon Kwon; L. P. Lee

2002-01-01

397

Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

2004-01-01

398

Expanding Curtain Observations of Cloud Vertical Structure and Layering to Model-Relevant Spatial Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds, representing perhaps the most obvious physical manifestations of atmospheric dynamics at work, remain in many ways an enigmatic and unifying intellectual challenge to researchers of all disciplines within the atmospheric sciences. Given the universally acknowledged importance of cloud systems in determining the state of current and future climate through radiative, chemical, dynamic, and thermodynamic processes tied intimately to the hydrological cycle, it is no wonder that so much recent attention has been given to better understanding the non-linear feedbacks involving clouds and ways to improve their handling in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In terms of operational community interests, knowledge of cloud vertical structure, ceiling (cloud base) height, and phase is key to aviation safety assurance in the private, commercial, and defense-agency sectors alike. The launch of the NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder CloudSat (cloud radar; 3 mm wavelength) mission in 2006 changed forever the way we view cloud systems from the space platform--providing vertically-resolved 'cuts' through the cloudy troposphere. The Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) system resolves nearly all radiatively significant cloud structures present in the column at vertical resolutions sufficient to afford scientists the opportunity to examine new hypotheses on cloud formation (leading potentially to new/improved cloud process parameterizations) and make observationally-based discoveries bordering on the frontiers of our current understanding. At the same time, the non-scanning nature of the CPR (providing so-called 'curtain' observations) represents in some respects a frustrating tease to the potential of a three-dimensional scanning system, relegating its utility to the realms of research as opposed to full spatial environmental characterization and data assimilation. This research examines ways to extend via statistical methods the curtain slices provided by CloudSat into the horizontal to construct pseudo three-dimensional information. These statistics are based on cloud-type classification, which are identifiable from cloud top observations by conventional 2-D observing systems. Preliminary cloud-type-dependent vertical structures, based on the CloudSat Level-2 Cloud Water Content (CWC) product, are presented for an assortment of cloud classifications. Such statistics can then be applied to the vertically-integrated liquid/ice water content as retrieved by 2-D sensors to distribute this water in the column according to type-dependency. In addition, the degree to which cloud layer base heights can be extended into the cross-track direction (e.g., given an observation of similar cloud-type from a conventional 2-D optical radiometer) can be assessed via correlation lengths computed along the CloudSat track. The effective result is a pseudo 3-D swath of cloud water content of potential use to operational support and numerical weather prediction analysis and/or validation. Preliminary results from the currently available compilation of CloudSat data are presented to illustrate conceptually the potential and limitations of such approaches.

Miller, S.; Bankert, R.; Forsythe, J.; Mitrescu, C.; Reinke, D.; Austin, R.

2007-12-01

399

Competition, Integration and Innovation Tapas Kundu  

E-print Network

model upstream competition in the form of an innovation contest. We find that the integrated and non&D contest; Vertical integration; Innovation School of Business and Economics, University of Tromsø. EmailCompetition, Integration and Innovation Tapas Kundu Seongwuk Moon May 27, 2014 Please do not cite

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

400

Ultrasonic liquid level monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an ultrasonic probe for insertion into a tank for the measurement of the depth of petrochemical liquid stored in the tank, and for the detection of leaks in the tank in excess of a predetermined limit. It comprises: a substantially cylindrical probe body having a top end and a bottom end, and a length in excess of the depth of liquid to be measured, the probe body having a back ranging target at the bottom end of the body, the probe body being made of a high thermal resistance material; means for holding the probe body in a substantially vertical position within the tank, the probe body extending downward vertically through the surface of the liquid, the bottom end of the probe body being held in contact with the base of the tank; transducer means positioned within the probe body at a first distance above the bottom end of the probe body for transmitting bi-directional pulses along the longitudinal axis to the surface of the liquid and to the bottom end of the probe body, the back ranging target being positioned to reflect a portion of the bi-directional pulses back to the transducer, and the transducer being operable to receive echoes from the back ranging target and from the surface of the liquid; and at least two calibration rods within the probe body, between the transducer and the top end of the body, each calibration rod being positioned at a successively greater predetermined distance from the transducer, and each respective calibration rod having a larger reflective surface.

Caldwell, J.W.; Slobodnik, M.W.

1991-01-15

401

Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of shot points and receiver points in the field include the errors. We use these data as initial guesses, we invert iteratively shot and receiver positions to match the travel time data. After several iterations we could finally estimate the most probable positions. Integration of the constraint of VCS hydrophone positions, such as the spacing is 10m, can accelerate the convergence of the iterative inversion and improve results. The accuracy of the estimated positions from the travel time date is enough for the VCS data processing.

Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

2013-12-01

402

Thin section casting program: Volume 3, Vertical TSC (thin-section casting) approach: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A prototype vertical twin belt caster was designed, constructed and tested at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Homer Research Laboratory for the development of a thin section casting process. In the prototype caster the moving mold was aligned vertically and each of the two endless steel belts was tensioned around an upper and a lower large pulley by means of a third smaller pulley. The mold consisted of a long parallel lower section and a shorter V-shaped top section into which liquid steel was fed from a tundish via a submerged refractory nozzle. Mold length, defined as the distance from the meniscus in the V-mouth to the tangent point of the lower pulleys, was about eleven feet. The length of the V-mouth was 27 in. The belts were continuously supported between the upper and lower pulleys by a unique back-up system. Downstream support consisted of two pairs of foot rolls and a vertical water-cooled steel structure that would permit a cast length of about nineteen feet. A chain driven bar was used to start a cast and support the slab. The aim was to cast 1 in. /times/ 17 in. sections at 250 in./min. The details of the prototype vertical caster, except the end walls, are given. The water modeling studies conducted at USSteel to establish tundish nozzle port sizes, inclinations and depth of submergence below the meniscus for optimum flow pattern in the V-mouth are included. The design analyses of the copper end walls and the 10-ton liquid steel trials conducted with the refractory end walls are presented. The fourteen liquid steel trials conducted with the vertical caster and the concluding remarks on vertical feeding system development are discussed.

Not Available

1989-01-01

403

Vertical velocity-CCN correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that smaller cloud droplets evaporate more readily (Xue and Feingold 2006; Jiang et al. 2002) gives rise to an anti-indirect aerosol effect (IAE); less cloudiness with pollution. The greater latent heat exchange of the greater evaporation in more polluted clouds adds TKE and buoyancy gradients that can enhance vertical velocity (W), mixing and entrainment (Zhao and Austin 2005). Stronger W can increase horizontal motions, which can further enhance droplet evaporation, which further enhances latent heat exchange and vertical motions, thus, positive feedback. This could also include latent heat released during condensation (Lee and Feingold 2010), which is more rapid for the greater surface areas of the smaller more numerous droplets. These theories imply a positive relationship between within-cloud W variations; i.e., standard deviation of W (?w) and CCN concentration (NCCN) rather than W and NCCN. This implies greater turbulence in polluted clouds, which could possibly counteract the reduction of cloudiness of anti-IAE. During two stratus cloud projects, 50 cloud penetrations in 9 MASE flights and 34 cloud penetrations in 13 POST flights, within-cloud ?w-NCCN showed correlation coefficients (R) of 0.50 and 0.39. Panel a shows similar within-cloud ?w-NCCN R in all altitude bands for 17 RICO flights in small cumulus clouds. R for W-NCCN showed similar values but only at low altitudes. Out-of-cloud ?w-NCCN showed similar high values except at the highest altitudes. Within-cloud ?w showed higher R than within-cloud W with droplet concentrations (Nc), especially at higher altitudes. Panel b for 13 ICE-T cumulus cloud flights in the same location as RICO but during the opposite season, however, showed ?w and W uncorrelated with NCCN at all altitudes; and W and ?w correlated with Nc only at the highest altitudes. On the other hand, out-of-cloud ?w was correlated with NCCN at all altitudes with R similar to the corresponding R of the other projects. Overall these results are consistent with the theories noted above. Supported by NSF AGS-1035230 and DOE SC0009162. Jiang, H., G. Feingold, and W.R. Cotton, 2002: J. Geophys. Res, 107, D24, 4813. Lee, S.-S., and G. Feingold, 2010: Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L23806. Xue, H., and G. Feingold, 2006: J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1605-1622. Zhao, M., and P.H. Austin, 2005: J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 1291-1310. Fig. Correlation coefficients (R) between mean and standard deviations of vertical velocity (W; ?w within and outside of clouds) with CCN concentrations at 1% supersaturation (N1%) measured below the clouds and with droplet concentrations (Nc) within various altitude bands.

Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R.

2013-12-01

404

Cell Based Volume Integration for Boundary Integral Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of volume integrals that arise in boundary integral formulations for non-homogeneous problems is considered. Using the 'Galerkin vector' to represent the Green's function, the volume integral is decomposed into a boundary integral plus a simpler volume integral wherein the source function is everywhere zero on the boundary. This new volume integral can be evaluated using a regular grid of cells covering the domain, with all cell integrals, including partial cells at the boundary, evaluated by simple linear interpolation of vertex values. For grid vertices that lie close to the boundary, the near-singular integrals are handled by partial analytic integration. The method employs a Galerkin approximation and is presented in terms of the 3D Poisson problem. An axi-symmetric formulation is also presented, and in this setting, the solution of a nonlinear problem is considered.

Koehler, Matthew [Vanderbilt University; Yang, Ruoke [ORNL; Gray, Leonard J [ORNL

2012-01-01

405

Waferbonded active/passive vertically coupled microring lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the results of a European Project entitled WAPITI (Waferbonding and Active Passive Integration Technology and Implementation) dealing with the fabrication and investigation of active/passive vertically coupled ring resonators, wafer bonded on GaAs, and based on full wafer technology. The concept allows for the integration of an active ring laser vertically coupled to a transparent bus waveguide. All necessary layers are grown in a single epitaxial run so that the critical coupling gap can be precisely controlled with the high degree of accuracy of epitaxial growth. One key challenge of the project was to establish a reliable wafer bonding technique using BCB as an intermediate layer. In intensive tests we investigated and quantified the effect of unavoidable shrinkage of the BCB on the overall device performance. Results on cw-operation, low threshold currents of about 8 mA, high side-mode suppression ratios in the range of 40 dB and large signal modulation bandwidths of up to 5 GHz for a radius of 40 ?m shows the viability of the integration process.

Hamacher, M.; Heidrich, H.; Troppenz, U.; Syvridis, D.; Alexandropoulos, D.; Mikroulis, S.; Kapsalis, A.; Tee, C. W.; Williams, K.; Dragoi, V.; Alexe, M.; Cristea, D.; Kusko, M.

2008-02-01

406

Targeting human serum fucome by an integrated liquid-phase multicolumn platform operating in "cascade" to facilitate comparative mass spectrometric analysis of disease-free and breast cancer sera.  

PubMed

A fully integrated platform was developed for capturing/fractionating human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera. It comprised a multicolumn operated by HPLC pumps and switching valves for the simultaneous depletion of high abundance proteins via affinity-based subtraction and the capturing of fucosylated glycoproteins via lectin affinity chromatography followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) were utilized. The platform allowed the "cascading" of the serum sample from column-to-column in the liquid phase with no sample manipulation between the various steps. This guaranteed no sample loss and no propagation of experimental biases between the various columns. Finally, the fucome was fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to trypsinolysis for LC-MS/MS analysis. This permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in breast cancer serum yielding a broad panel of 35 DEP from the combined LTA and AAL captured proteins and a narrower panel of eight DEP that were commonly differentially expressed in both LTA and AAL fractions, which are considered as more representative of cancer altered fucome. PMID:23533108

Selvaraju, Subhashini; El Rassi, Ziad

2013-05-01

407

Targeting Human Serum Fucome by an Integrated Liquid-phase Multi Column Platform Operating in Cascade to Facilitate Comparative Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Disease-Free and Breast Cancer Sera  

PubMed Central

A fully integrated platform was developed for capturing/fractionating human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera. It comprised multicolumn operated by HPLC pumps and switching valves for the simultaneous depletion of high abundance proteins via affinity-based subtraction and the capturing of fucosylated glycoproteins via lectin affinity chromatography followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) were utilized. The platform allowed the cascading of the serum sample from column-to-column in the liquid phase with no sample manipulation between the various steps. This guaranteed no sample loss and no propagation of experimental biases between the various columns. Finally, the fucome was fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to trypsinolysis for LC-MS/MS analysis. This permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in breast cancer serum yielding a broad panel of 35 DEP from the combined LTA and AAL captured proteins and a narrower panel of 8 DEP that were commonly differentially expressed in both LTA and AAL fractions, which are considered as more representative of cancer altered fucome. PMID:23533108

Selvaraju, Subhashini; Rassi, Ziad El

2013-01-01

408

Integrating Undergraduate and Graduate Research in the Psychology Department at the College of William &  

E-print Network

Integrating Undergraduate and Graduate Research in the Psychology Department at the College Overview of Psychology Department Research: Integration of Graduate and Undergraduate Students..............................................................................4 Description of Vertical Integration of Undergraduate and Graduate Student Research....5 Recent

Lewis, Robert Michael

409

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16

410

INVESTIGATING THERMODYNAMICS OF VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY TRANSPORT  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATING THERMODYNAMICS OF VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY TRANSPORT Wei Wu and Yangang Liu National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Thermodynamics of vertical atmospheric energy. Potential thermodynamic constraint(s) for the Earth's climate system are also explored from these simple

411

Evolution of Mutualistic Symbiosis without Vertical Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic symbioses are considered to evolve from parasitic relationships. Vertical transmission, defined as the direct transfer of infection from a parent organism to its progeny, has been suggested as a key factor causing reduction of symbiont virulence and evolution of mutualism. On the other hand, there are several mutualistic associations without vertical transmission, such as those between plants and mycorrhizal

Motomi Genkai-Kato; Norio Yamamura

1999-01-01

412

Silicon Micromachined Vertical Structures for Nanoparticle Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis we described a new approach to design, fabricate, package and test three silicon based porous vertical structures for nanoparticle separations. These vertical structures stand in between two microfluidic channels. In these walls nano channels that connect the two adjacent microchannels are embedded. Fluid and small particles can penetrate the walls through the embedded nano channels while particles

C. Shen

2011-01-01

413

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the current status of the FIRE configuration and the integration of the major subsystem components. FIRE has a major radius of 2 m, a field on axis of 10T, a plasma current of 6.4 MA. It is capable of 18 second pulses when operated with DT and 26 s when operated with DD. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged TF coils that surround a free standing central solenoid, a double wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma facing components that are segmented for maintenance through horizontal ports. Large rings located outside the TF coils are used to obtain a load balance between wedging of the intercoil case structure and wedging at the upper/lower inboard corners of the TF coil winding. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. Within the vacuum vessel, plasma-facing components frame the plasma. First wall tiles are attached directly to inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls. The divertor is designed for a high triangularity, double-null plasma with a short inner null point-to-wall distance and near vertical outer divertor flux line. The FIRE configuration has been developed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF boundary.

T. Brown

2000-10-17

414

Origami Multistabilty: From Single Vertices to Metasheets  

E-print Network

We explore the surprisingly rich energy landscape of origami-like folding planar structures. We show that the configuration space of rigid-paneled degree-4 vertices, the simplest building blocks of such systems, consists of at least two distinct branches meeting at the flat state. This suggests that generic vertices are at least bistable, but we find that the nonlinear nature of these branches allows for vertices with as many as five distinct stable states. In vertices with collinear folds and/or symmetry, more branches emerge leading to up to six stable states. Finally, we introduce a procedure to tile arbitrary 4-vertices while preserving their stable states, thus allowing the design and creation of multistable origami metasheets.

Scott Waitukaitis; Rmi Menaut; Bryan Gin-ge Chen; Martin van Hecke

2014-09-09

415

Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene has attracted considerable interest for future electronics, but the absence of a bandgap limits its direct applicability in transistors and logic devices. Recently, other layered materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) have been investigated to address this challenge. Here, we report the vertical integration of multi-heterostructures of layered materials for the fabrication of a new generation of vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs) with a room temperature on-off ratio > 103 and a high current density of up to 5,000?A?cm-2. An n-channel VFET is created by sandwiching few-layer MoS2 as the semiconducting channel between a monolayer graphene sheet and a metal thin film. This approach offers a general strategy for the vertical integration of p- and n-channel transistors for high-performance logic applications. As an example, we demonstrate a complementary inverter with a larger-than-unity voltage gain by vertically stacking graphene, Bi2Sr2Co2O8 (p-channel), graphene, MoS2 (n-channel) and a metal thin film in sequence. The ability to simultaneously achieve a high on-off ratio, a high current density and a logic function in such vertically stacked multi-heterostructures can open up possibilities for three-dimensional integration in future electronics.

Yu, Woo Jong; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2013-03-01

416

Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters.  

PubMed

Graphene has attracted considerable interest for future electronics, but the absence of a bandgap limits its direct applicability in transistors and logic devices. Recently, other layered materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS(2)) have been investigated to address this challenge. Here, we report the vertical integration of multi-heterostructures of layered materials for the fabrication of a new generation of vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs) with a room temperature on-off ratio > 10(3) and a high current density of up to 5,000 A cm(-2). An n-channel VFET is created by sandwiching few-layer MoS(2) as the semiconducting channel between a monolayer graphene sheet and a metal thin film. This approach offers a general strategy for the vertical integration of p- and n-channel transistors for high-performance logic applications. As an example, we demonstrate a complementary inverter with a larger-than-unity voltage gain by vertically stacking graphene, Bi(2)Sr(2)Co(2)O(8) (p-channel), graphene, MoS(2) (n-channel) and a metal thin film in sequence. The ability to simultaneously achieve a high on-off ratio, a high current density and a logic function in such vertically stacked multi-heterostructures can open up possibilities for three-dimensional integration in future electronics. PMID:23241535

Yu, Woo Jong; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2013-03-01

417

Layered Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves an exploration of density. Why does oil float on water? How does drain cleaner sink down into the clogged pipe right through standing water? These questions will be answered as students make a layered "parfait" of colored liquids ba

Eichinger, John

2009-05-30

418

Study of Multi-level Characteristics for 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) integration and multi-level cell (MLC) are two attractive technologies to achieve ultra-high density for mass storage applications. In this work, a three-layer 3D vertical AlO?/Ta2O5-x/TaOy resistive random access memories were fabricated and characterized. The vertical cells in three layers show good uniformity and high performance (e.g. >1000X HRS/LRS windows, >1010 endurance cycles, >104?s retention times at 125C). Meanwhile, four level MLC is demonstrated with two operation strategies, current controlled scheme (CCS) and voltage controlled scheme (VCS). The switching mechanism of 3D vertical RRAM cells is studied based on temperature-dependent transport characteristics. Furthermore, the applicability of CCS and VCS in 3D vertical RRAM array is compared using resistor network circuit simulation. PMID:25047906

Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wu, Riga; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Ning; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

2014-01-01

419

New apparatus for liquid-liquid extraction, "emulsion flow" extractor.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost apparatus for continuous and efficient liquid-liquid extraction, which does not need continual mechanical forces (stirring, shaking, etc.) other than solution sending, has newly been developed. This apparatus, named "emulsion flow" extractor, is composed of a column part where an emulsified state fluid flow (emulsion flow) is generated by spraying micrometer-sized droplets of an aqueous phase into an organic phase and a phase-separating part where the emulsion flow is destabilized by means of a sudden decrease in its vertical liner velocity due to a drastic increase in cross-section area of the emulsion flow passing through. In the present study, the performance of a desktop emulsion flow extractor in the extraction of Yb(III) and U(VI) from aqueous HNO(3) solutions into isooctane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was evaluated. The mixing efficiency of the emulsion flow extractor was found to be comparable with that of a popular liquid-liquid extractor, mixer-settler. Moreover, the emulsion flow extractor proved to have an overwhelming advantage in terms of phase-separating ability. PMID:21321440

Yanase, Nobuyuki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Noro, Junji

2011-01-01

420

Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the large-scale ocean circulation, and examine methods of validating mixing parameterizations using large-scale ocean models.

Tziperman, Eli

1992-01-01

421

Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

Adami, N.; Caps, H.

2015-01-01

422

Barrier inhomogeneities at vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of graphene and other atomically flat, two-dimensional materials has attracted much interest and been materialized very recently. An in-depth understanding of transport mechanisms in such heterostructures is essential. In this study, vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructure transistors were manufactured to elucidate the mechanism of electron injection at the interface. The temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was investigated from 300 to 90 K. In a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, an unusual decrease in the effective Schottky barrier height and increase in the ideality factor were observed with decreasing temperature. A model of thermionic emission with a Gaussian distribution of barriers was able to precisely interpret the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, mapping of the effective Schottky barrier height is unmasked as a function of temperature and gate voltage. The results offer significant insight for the development of future layer-integration technology based on graphene-based heterostructures.The integration of graphene and other atomically flat, two-dimensional materials has attracted much interest and been materialized very recently. An in-depth understanding of transport mechanisms in such heterostructures is essential. In this study, vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructure transistors were manufactured to elucidate the mechanism of electron injection at the interface. The temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was investigated from 300 to 90 K. In a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, an unusual decrease in the effective Schottky barrier height and increase in the ideality factor were observed with decreasing temperature. A model of thermionic emission with a Gaussian distribution of barriers was able to precisely interpret the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, mapping of the effective Schottky barrier height is unmasked as a function of temperature and gate voltage. The results offer significant insight for the development of future layer-integration technology based on graphene-based heterostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03677d

Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Li, Song-Lin; Xu, Yong; Aparecido-Ferreira, Alex; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Sun, Huabin; Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

2013-12-01

423

Growth and photoluminescence properties of vertically aligned SnO 2 nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically aligned SnO 2 nanowires (NWs) were grown for the first time by a vapor-liquid-solid method on c-sapphire with gold as a catalyst under Ar gas flow. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis indicated the NWs are single crystalline having the rutile structure, grow vertically along the [1 0 0] direction, and exhibit a consistent epitaxial relationship where lattice mismatch is estimated to be 0.3% along the SnO 2 [0 1 0] direction. The growth of these NWs is sensitive to many parameters, including growth duration, substrate type, source vapor concentration, and the thickness of the catalyst layer. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature showed that the vertically aligned NWs exhibit an intense transition at 3.64 eV, a near band-edge transition which is rarely observed in SnO 2.

Mazeina, Lena; Picard, Yoosuf N.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Glaser, Evan R.; Prokes, Sharka M.

2009-05-01

424

Vertical chip-to-chip coupling using silicon strip waveguide cantilever couplers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate vertical chip-to-chip light coupling using silicon strip waveguide cantilever couplers. A chip-to-chip coupling loss of 2.5 dB per connection is measured for TE polarization at 1550 nm wavelength. OCIS codes: (130.3120) Integrated optics devices; (200.4650) Optical interconnects A major challenge for silicon photonic integrated circuits is to achieve large off-chip bandwidth. The difference between off-chip and on-chip bandwidth

Peng Sun; Ronald M. Reano

2011-01-01

425

Electroviscoelasticity of liquid/liquid interfaces: fractional-order model.  

PubMed

A number of theories that describe the behavior of liquid-liquid interfaces have been developed and applied to various dispersed systems, e.g., Stokes, Reiner-Rivelin, Ericksen, Einstein, Smoluchowski, and Kinch. A new theory of electroviscoelasticity describes the behavior of electrified liquid-liquid interfaces in fine dispersed systems and is based on a new constitutive model of liquids. According to this model liquid-liquid droplet or droplet-film structure (collective of particles) is considered as a macroscopic system with internal structure determined by the way the molecules (ions) are tuned (structured) into the primary components of a cluster configuration. How the tuning/structuring occurs depends on the physical fields involved, both potential (elastic forces) and nonpotential (resistance forces). All these microelements of the primary structure can be considered as electromechanical oscillators assembled into groups, so that excitation by an external physical field may cause oscillations at the resonant/characteristic frequency of the system itself (coupling at the characteristic frequency). Up to now, three possible mathematical formalisms have been discussed related to the theory of electroviscoelasticity. The first is the tension tensor model, where the normal and tangential forces are considered, only in mathematical formalism, regardless of their origin (mechanical and/or electrical). The second is the Van der Pol derivative model, presented by linear and nonlinear differential equations. Finally, the third model presents an effort to generalize the previous Van der Pol equation: the ordinary time derivative and integral are now replaced with the corresponding fractional-order time derivative and integral of order p<1. PMID:15576102

Spasic, Aleksandar M; Lazarevic, Mihailo P

2005-02-01

426

Rotor-Liquid-Fundament System's Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is devoted to research of oscillation and sustainability of stationary twirl of vertical flexible static dynamically out-of-balance rotor with cavity partly filled with liquid and set on relative frame fundament. The accounting of such factors like oscillation of fundament, liquid oscillation, influence of asymmetry of installation of a rotor on a shaft, anisotropism of shaft support and fundament, static and dynamic out-of-balance of a rotor, an external friction, an internal friction of a shaft, allows to settle an invoice more precisely kinematic and dynamic characteristics of system.

Kydyrbekuly, A.

427

Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

1991-01-01

428

CloudSat: A Spacecraft to Measure the Vertical Structure of Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CoudSat is being developed to measure the vertical structure of clouds from space. It integrates a 94-GHz cloud profiling radar (CPR) with an A-band spectrometer/visible image (ABSI) and submillimer-wave cloud ice radiometer (CLIR).

Stephens, L.; Walter, Steven J.

1997-01-01

429

Disaster SitRep -A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management Domain  

E-print Network

Disaster SitRep - A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management at the right time. Needs for heterogeneous information integration in disaster management domain: People have and multimedia data like images and videos. However, information management and processing in disaster management

Chen, Shu-Ching

430

Gravity-driven Propagation of Thin Non-isoviscous Rivulets on Vertical and Inclined Planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many practical problems require the spreading of a liquid on a solid. The liquid may be paint, a lubricant, and ink, polymer, or a dye. In the glass industry, flows of molten glass on a vertical or inclined, in respect to the vertical, solid refractory surface are parts of several important applications. In present paper, propagation of a thin and relatively narrow rivulet on vertical and inclined solid planar surface is considered within a mathematical frame of general lubrication theory. In contrast to most of previous studies, the addressed flows are gravity driven, and the coefficient in front of the surface tension term in the dimensionless equations (the inverse Bond number) is small. It has been found that the flow pattern strongly depends on the inclination angle. For example, the rivulets on the positively inclined plates spread, increasing their width. On the contrary, the contact line of rivulets propagating on vertical and negatively inclined plates becomes unstable, sending ahead one or several smaller forerunner rivulet (finger) having a higher amplitude and moving faster than the main rivulet. This instability is similar to fingering instability of infinite films on solid surfaces, but the pattern of the flow was symmetric in respect to the middle line of the rivulet rather than a periodic. In the case of the gradient of viscosity applied in the cross-direction to the main flow, the symmetry broke and motion of both main rivulet and forerunners diverted in the direction of areas with lower viscosity.

Peng, Gaozhu; Filippov, Andrey

2008-11-01

431

Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles  

E-print Network

This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

2001-01-01

432

Stability of Granular Materials under Vertical Vibrations  

E-print Network

The influence of periodic vibrations on the granular flow of materials is of great interests to scientists and engineers due to both theoretical and practical reasons. In this paper, the stability of a vertically vibrated ...

Deng, Rensheng

433

Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs), sometimes called forests or carpets, are a promising material due to their unique physical and scale-dependent physical properties [1-3]. Continuous production of VACNTs is ...

Guzman de Villoria, R.

434

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

Lodde, P.F.

1980-07-01

435

Vertical Glider Robots for Subsea Equipment Delivery  

E-print Network

We have developed an underwater vehicle that offers significant performance improvements over existing sub sea elevators. Our Vertical Glider Robot falls under its own weight to a precise location on the seafloor, employing ...

Reed, Brooks L.

2011-01-01

436

Vertical axis wind turbine foundation parameter study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The foundation/anchor requirements for the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine are identified. Information is supplied concerning the selection, design, and cost estimates for the geologic conditions which may be encountered at potential wind turbine sites.

Ludde, P. F.

1980-07-01

437

Vertical Discretization in Tidal Flow Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an empirical law for vertical nodal placement in tidal simulations that depends on a single parameter p. The influence of dimensionless numbers on the optimal value of p is analysed through a series of numerical experiments for an individual vertical and a single value of p is found to be adequate for all cases. The proposed law can lead to gains in accuracy of over two orders of magnitude relative to a uniform grid and compares favourably with non-uniform grids previously used in the literature. In practical applications the most effective use of this law may require each vertical to have a different number of nodes. Criteria for the distribution of the total number of nodes among different verticals are also proposed, based on the concept of equalizing errors across the domain. The usefulness of the overall approach is demonstrated through a two-dimensional laterally averaged application to a synthetic estuary.

Fortunato, Andr B.; Baptista, Antnio M.

1996-05-01

438

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

439

Studying the vertical variation of cloud droplet effective radius using ship and space-borne remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The albedo of marine stratocumuli depends upon cloud liquid water content, droplet effective radius (r e ), and how these parameters vary with height. Using satellite data and shipborne data from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) Stratocumulus Study, this study investigates the cloud r e vertical variation for drizzling and nondrizzling clouds. Visible\\/near-infrared retrievals from the NASA Moderate

Ruiyue Chen; Robert Wood; Zhanqing Li; Ralph Ferraro; Fu-Lung Chang

2008-01-01

440

Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 19030 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

2006-12-01

441

The Liquids Reflectometer at the SNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and constructed a horizontal-surface reflectometer as one of the first instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source. This instrument is designed to view liquid and solid surfaces in specular, off specular, near-surface small angle scattering, and crystalline diffraction geometries. The guide system supplies 2 < lambda < 16.5 neutrons at vertical incident angles ranging from 0^o

John F. Ankner

2007-01-01

442

Effect of vertical motion on current meters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

Kallio, Nicholas A.

1966-01-01

443

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

444

WHICH HYDRAULIC MODEL TO USE IN VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS?  

E-print Network

WHICH HYDRAULIC MODEL TO USE IN VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS? Ania Morvannoua , Nicolas-equilibrium model, preferential flow path, vertical flow constructed wetlands INTRODUCTION Constructed wetlands (CWs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

Spectral properties of Luttinger liquids: A comparative analysis of regular, helical, and spiral Luttinger liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide analytic expressions for the Green's functions in position-frequency space as well as for the tunneling density of states of various Luttinger liquids at zero temperature: the standard spinless and spinful Luttinger liquids, the helical Luttinger liquid at the edge of a topological insulator, and the Luttinger liquid that appears either together with an ordering transition of nuclear spins in a one-dimensional conductor or in spin-orbit split quantum wires in an external magnetic field. The latter system is often used to mimic a helical Luttinger liquid, yet we show here that it exhibits significantly different response functions and, to discriminate, we call it the spiral Luttinger liquid. We give fully analytic results for the tunneling density of state of all the Luttinger liquids as well as for most of the Green's functions. The remaining Green's functions are expressed by simple convolution integrals between analytic results.

Braunecker, Bernd; Bena, Cristina; Simon, Pascal

2012-01-01

446

Hybrid optofluidic integration.  

PubMed

Complete integration of microfluidic and optical functions in a single lab-on-chip device is one goal of optofluidics. Here, we demonstrate the hybrid integration of a PDMS-based fluid handling layer with a silicon-based optical detection layer in a single optofluidic system. The optical layer consists of a liquid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) chip that is capable of single particle detection and interfacing with optical fiber. Integrated devices are reconfigurable and able to sustain high pressures despite the small dimensions of the liquid-core waveguide channels. We show the combination of salient sample preparation capabilities-particle mixing, distribution, and filtering-with single particle fluorescence detection. Specifically, we demonstrate fluorescent labelling of ?-DNA, followed by flow-based single-molecule detection on a single device. This points the way towards amplification-free detection of nucleic acids with low-complexity biological sample preparation on a chip. PMID:23969694

Parks, Joshua W; Cai, Hong; Zempoaltecatl, Lynnell; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D; Leake, Kaelyn; Hawkins, Aaron R; Schmidt, Holger

2013-10-21

447

Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials.  

PubMed

Layered materials of graphene and MoS?, for example, have recently emerged as an exciting material system for future electronics and optoelectronics. Vertical integration of layered materials can enable the design of novel electronic and photonic devices. Here, we report highly efficient photocurrent generation from vertical heterostructures of layered materials. We show that vertically stacked graphene-MoS?-graphene and graphene-MoS?-metal junctions can be created with a broad junction area for efficient photon harvesting. The weak electrostatic screening effect of graphene allows the integration of single or dual gates under and/or above the vertical heterostructure to tune the band slope and photocurrent generation. We demonstrate that the amplitude and polarity of the photocurrent in the gated vertical heterostructures can be readily modulated by the electric field of an external gate to achieve a maximum external quantum efficiency of 55% and internal quantum efficiency up to 85%. Our study establishes a method to control photocarrier generation, separation and transport processes using an external electric field. PMID:24162001

Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Hailong; Yin, Anxiang; Li, Zheng; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2013-12-01

448

IMU: inertial sensing of vertical CoM movement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use a quaternion rotation matrix in combination with an integration approach to transform translatory accelerations of the centre of mass (CoM) from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) during walking, from the object system onto the global frame. Second, this paper utilises double integration to determine the relative change in position of the CoM from the vertical acceleration data. Five participants were tested in which an IMU, consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers was attached on the lower spine estimated centre of mass. Participants were asked to walk three times through a calibrated volume at their self-selected walking speed. Synchronized data were collected by an IMU and an optical motion capture system (OMCS); both measured at 100 Hz. Accelerations of the IMU were transposed onto the global frame using a quaternion rotation matrix. Translatory acceleration, speed and relative change in position from the IMU were compared with the derived data from the OMCS. Peak acceleration in vertical axis showed no significant difference (p> or =0.05). Difference between peak and trough speed showed significant difference (p<0.05) but relative peak-trough position between the IMU and OMCS did not show any significant difference (p> or =0.05). These results indicate that quaternions, in combination with Simpsons rule integration, can be used in transforming translatory acceleration from the object frame to the global frame and therefore obtain relative change in position, thus offering a solution for using accelerometers in accurate global frame kinematic gait analyses. PMID:19442978

Esser, Patrick; Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken

2009-07-22

449

Time domain scattering of acoustic plane waves by vertical faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic plane wave scattering at a vertical fault structure represents the simplest two-dimensional model of geophysical exploration that can be investigated by analytical techniques. The exact and complete solution, in the time domain, for the scattering of the pressure field of an acoustic plane wave normally incident on a vertical fault structure is determined adapting previous results given for the frequency domain. The wave form of the pressure field of the incident plane wave is expressed by a causal time function that decays exponentially with time at every point above the fault ( z<0). The zero-order term of the scattered pressure field has been computed above the fault. This zero-order term consists of an inverse Fourier transform which reduces to a closed expression for x=0, and contains an integral of a Hankel function for x#0. The high frequency part of the inverse Fourier transform for x#0 is computed employing asymptotic expressions for the Hankel function. The integral of the asymptotic expression of the Hankel function reduces to: (i) a Fresnel integral which contains a plane wave term for | x|?| z|; and (ii) a stationary point plane wave term plus an upper limit term for | x|= O(| z|). For the latter case the plane wave term cancels, leaving a cylindrical wave emanated from the edge of the fault. The wave front is well defined in shape, in phase and in amplitude. The amplitude of the scattered field is discontinuous at x=0, presents a jump and is well defined for | x| small and is rather smooth for | x| large.

Sampaio, Edson E. S.; Popov, Mikhail M.

1996-03-01

450

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05

451

Fabrication of vertical GaN/InGaN heterostructure nanowires using Ni-Au bi-metal catalysts  

PubMed Central

We have fabricated the vertically aligned coaxial or longitudinal heterostructure GaN/InGaN nanowires. The GaN nanowires are first vertically grown by vaporliquid-solid mechanism using Au/Ni bi-metal catalysts. The GaN nanowires are single crystal grown in the [0001] direction, with a length and diameter of 1 to 10 ?m and 100 nm, respectively. The vertical GaN/InGaN coaxial heterostructure nanowires (COHN) are then fabricated by the subsequent deposition of 2 nm of InxGa1-xN shell on the surface of GaN nanowires. The vertical GaN/InGaN longitudinal heterostructure nanowires (LOHN) are also fabricated by subsequent growth of an InGaN layer on the vertically aligned GaN nanowires using the catalyst. The photoluminescence from the COHN and LOHN indicates that the optical properties of GaN nanowires can be tuned by the formation of a coaxial or longitudinal InGaN layer. Our study demonstrates that the bi-metal catalysts are useful for growing vertical as well as heterostructure GaN nanowires. These vertically aligned GaN/InGaN heterostructure nanowires may be useful for the development of high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:23803283

2013-01-01

452

A vertical high voltage termination structure for high-resistivity silicon detectors  

SciTech Connect

A new high voltage diode termination structure has been developed for the backside junction of silicon detectors which require double-sided processing. The new structure consists of a deep vertical etch through the diode at the edge of the detector. It requires only one mask, and is extremely robust to scratches or other mechanical damage. The vertical termination has been successfully applied to an integrated pixel detector, where it increased yield. It has also been applied to an 8 mm diameter cylindrical drift detector.

Segal, J.D. [HPL Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)] [HPL Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Kenney, C.J.; Parker, S.I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Physics] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Aw, C.H.; Plummer, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Center for Integrated Systems] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Center for Integrated Systems; Vilkelis, G.; Iwanczyk, J.S. [Photon Devices, Northridge, CA (United States)] [Photon Devices, Northridge, CA (United States)

1998-06-01

453

An alternative method for the measurement of the mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast.  

PubMed

An alternative method for the measurement of the total mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast due to an explosive charge is presented. The method differs from apparatus that employ a vertically displaced mass (similar in principle to the ballistic pendulum) in that a relatively compact spring-damper system is employed to constrain the movement of the mass. The mechanical impulse is determined by integrating, with respect to time, the net force applied to the spring-damper system. The details of an explosive impulse measuring instrument rated to 12 kN s are presented. PMID:18681729

Turner, Geoffrey R

2008-07-01

454

IGNITION AND COMBUSTION OF LIQUID FUEL DROPLETS. PART 2: IGNITION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of the ignition process of liquid fuel droplets. A laboratory flame maintained by a vertical, monosized liquid fuel droplet array surrounded by a laminar flow of a mixture of helium and oxygen represents the system investigated. A system of part...

455

IGNITION AND COMBUSTION OF LIQUID FUEL DROPLETS. PART 1: IMPACT ON POLLUTANT FORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of the ignition process of liquid fuel droplets and its impact on the formation of soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The system studied consists of a laboratory flame maintained by a vertical, monosized liquid fuel droplet array surrounded by a la...

456

Nation's tallest VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) turning out the watts. [Vertical Axis Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of the tallest and most powerful windmill of its kind in the U.S. Known as a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT), the machine is meant for testing new concepts in vertical axis turbine design. As part of its overall testing program, the turbine will supply electricity to automated water pumps used in irrigation research at

1988-01-01

457

Abstract --The transition from a vertically integrated industry to a horizontally integrated open market system changes  

E-print Network

are fuzzy set- based methods [4], possibility theory [5], and intelligent trading agents that use genetic market system changes the operational planning activities of generation companies (GENCOs the objective from cost minimization to profit maximization. This change requires considering not only

Berleant, Daniel

458

Vertical seismic profiling on the sea shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a numerical experiment on vertical seismic profiling of the sea bottom on the shelf are presented. The results are obtained by analyzing the acoustic fields in the shelf area with the use of both hydroacoustic and seismic bottom sources of radiation. The influence of both transmission depth and source type on the efficiency of seismic wave excitation in the bottom is investigated. The formation of the vertical wave hodographs and its dependence on the acoustic parameters and structure of the bottom in the oceanic shelf region is analyzed. A high sensitivity of the vertical wave hodographs to variations in the parameters of the bottom medium is revealed. For the layered bottom model, the possibility of estimating the positions of layer boundaries in depth and the velocities of waves within the layers is demonstrated.

Zaslavski?, Yu. M.; Kerzhakov, B. V.; Kulinich, V. V.

2008-05-01

459

Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

2013-07-01

460

Vertical Velocity Measurements in Warm Stratiform Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of vertical air motion in warm boundary layer clouds are key for quantitatively describing cloud-scale turbulence and for improving our understanding of cloud and drizzle microphysical processes. Recently, a new technique that produces seamless measurements of vertical air velocity in the cloud and sub-cloud layers for both drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus clouds has been developed. The technique combines radar Doppler spectra-based retrievals of vertical air motion in cloud and light drizzle conditions with a novel neural network analysis during heavily drizzling periods. Observations from Doppler lidars are used to characterize sub-cloud velocities and to evaluate the performance of the technique near the cloud base. The technique is applied to several cases of stratiform clouds observed by the ARM Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod. The observations clearly illustrate coupling of the sub-cloud and cloud layer turbulent structures.

Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

2013-12-01

461

Effect of Apex Flap Deflection on Vertical Tail Buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational study of the effect of vortex breakdown location on vertical tail buffeting is conducted. The position of the breakdown is modified by employing an apex flap deflected by an experimentally determined optimal angle. The delayed breakdown flow and buffeting response is then compared to the nominal undeflected case. This multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially for the fluid flow, the elastic tail deformations and the grid displacements. The fluid flow is simulated by time accurately solving the unsteady, compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting finite volume scheme. The elastic vibrations of the tails are modeled by uncoupled bending and torsion beam equations. These equations are solved accurately in time using the Galerkin method and a five-stage Runge-Kutta-Verner scheme. The grid for the fluid dynamics calculations is continuously deformed using interpolation functions to disperse the displacements smoothly throughout the computational domain. An angle-of-attack of 35 deg.is chosen such that the wing primary-vortex cores experience vortex breakdown and the resulting turbulent wake flow impinges on tile vertical tails. The dimensions and material properties of the vertical tails are chosen such that the deflections are large enough to insure interaction with the flow, and the natural frequencies are high enough to facilitate a practical computational solution. Results are presented for a baseline uncontrolled buffeting case and a delayed breakdown case in which the apex flap has been deflected 15 deg. The flap was found to be very effective in delaying the breakdown, increasing the location from 50%c to 94%c, which resulted in a 6% increase in lift coefficient and pitching moment. However, the integrated buffet loads and tip responses were roughly equivalent for the two cases.

Massey, Steven J.; Kandil, Osama A.

1998-01-01

462

On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

Gage, K. S.

1983-01-01

463

Combined high density solar panels and vertical wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined high density solar panels and vertical wind turbines consist of multiple solar panels with closely spaced solar cells on both sides which are supported by an open framework and vertical posts. The adoption of an elevated, rooftop solar panel array, supported by vertical posts makes the basic structure attractive for the inclusion of multiple vertical wind turbines, as

1978-01-01