Science.gov

Sample records for vertically integrated liquid

  1. Uncertainty in vertically integrated liquid water content due to radar reflectivity observation error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mark N.; Andrieu, Herve; Krajewski, Witold F.

    1995-01-01

    Radar reflectivity is used to estimate meteorological quantities such as rainfall rate, liquid water content, and the related quantity, vertically integrated liquid (VIL) water content. The estimation of any of these quantities depends on several assumptions related to the characteristics of the physical processes controlling the occurrence and character of water in the atmosphere. Additionally, there are many sources of error associated with radar observations, such as those due to brighthand, hail, and drop size distribution approximations. This work addresses one error of interest, the radar reflectivity observation error; other error sources are assumed to be corrected or negligible. The result is a relationship between the uncertainty in VIL water content and radar reflectivity measurement error. An example application illustrates the estimation of VIL uncertainty from typical radar reflectivity observations and indicates that the coefficient of variation in VIL is much larger than the coefficient of variation in radar reflectivity.

  2. Energy integral method model for the nonlinear dynamics of an axisymmetric thin liquid film falling on a vertical cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novbari, Elena; Oron, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of an axisymmetric liquid film falling on the outer surface of a vertical cylinder is investigated in this paper. Using the energy integral method we derive a set of two coupled evolution equations which constitute a first-order approximation to the original hydrodynamic equations. We carry out the linear stability analysis of the axially uniform axisymmetric flow of a liquid film in the framework of the evolution equations. The results of the linear theory are compared to experimental results and with several other relevant linear stability theories available in literature. Traveling wave solutions of the evolution equations are investigated and favorably compared to experiments and other nonlinear theories describing the dynamics of falling films on a vertical cylinder. A bifurcation structure of traveling wave flows is studied for the cases of fluids with both low and relatively large Kapitza number. Both γ1- and γ2-waves are found and investigated.

  3. Advancements of vertically aligned liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Jaggi, Chinky; Sharma, Vandna; Raina, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the recent advancements in the field of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays. The process and formation of different vertical alignment modes such as conventional VA, patterned VA, multi-domain VA, and polymer stabilised VA etc are widely discussed. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal due to nano particle dispersion in LC host, bifunctional PR-SAM formed by silane coupling reaction to oxide surfaces, azo dye etc., are also highlighted and discussed. Overall, the article highlights the advances in the research of vertical aligned liquid crystal in terms of their scientific and technological aspects. PMID:26800482

  4. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  5. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  6. Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking.

  7. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  8. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  9. Vertical integration strategies: more promising than diversification.

    PubMed

    Fox, W L

    1989-01-01

    Investment in businesses outside of traditional hospital services can help providers withstand the ill effects of today's business climate. However, the typical diversification approach must be discarded. This article describes a different approach that has been used successfully in other industries--vertical integration. PMID:2670833

  10. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling. PMID:26544156

  11. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction. PMID:26885948

  12. Integrated Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R. R.; Wu, J. C.; Stadler, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) Memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid state, block access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1 Gbit/sq cm areal storage density, data rates of hundreds of megabits/sec, and submillisecond average access time simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBLs are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of BVL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single chip memory using 25 Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. The current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results are described which are used to assist the design process.

  13. Violent liquid sloshing in vertically excited cylindrical containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Sudo, Seiichi

    1988-04-01

    The frequency characteristics of gas-liquid surface sloshing induced by the vertical vibration of cylindrical containers containing liquid were experimentally investigated using a vibration-testing system with an electrodynamic shaker. The results show that the resonance frequency of the liquid-container vibration system depends on the excitation acceleration, and that the acceleration distribution of the container wall was not axisymmetrical at higher excitation accelerations. Significant changes in liquid pressure, container wall acceleration, and amplitude of surface oscillation were noted following the formation of a bubble cluster.

  14. Surface disintegration and bubble formation in vertically vibrated liquid column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Sudo, S.

    1980-04-01

    A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study is made of free surface sloshing in a vertically oscillating cylindrical container at high frequency with emphasis placed upon the dynamics of the gas-liquid interface. The formation of liquid drops ejected from the free surface, gas entrainment in the liquid, and bubble motions are studied experimentally. It is found that the input acceleration required for surface disintegration is dominated by the liquid depth, and that the scales and the trajectory heights of the drops are dominated by the types of surface disintegration mechanisms achieved. An analysis is made of the gas entrainment caused by impacts of the drops upon the free surface. The behavior of the gas-liquid interface during the impacts and bubble formations are analyzed numerically. Theories for the vertical motions of the pulsating bubbles and their mutual attractive motions are also developed. Theoretical results agree approximately with the experimental results. Bubble motions in vertically vibrating liquid columns could be estimated quantitatively by the numerical results.

  15. Retention of free liquids in landfills undergoing vertical expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Zornberg, J.G.; Jernigan, B.L.; Sanglerat, T.R.; Cooley, B.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the potential release of liquids stored within a waste mass undergoing compression due to a landfill vertical expansion. The mechanism of free liquid generation is initially evaluated and data interpretation methods are developed to estimate the maximum allowable waste thickness that a landfill could reach without releasing liquids stored within the waste. The proposed conceptual framework of free liquid generation is used to evaluate the environmental implications of the vertical expansion of an unlined case history landfill located in southern California. The moisture content of waste in southern California landfills is generally below field capacity. However, if the waste is compressed, its available moisture-holding capacity will decrease and its moisture content may eventually reach field capacity. Additional compression beyond this point will squeeze liquid from the waste. Laboratory testing and field characterization programs were undertaken to evaluate the field capacity, the in-situ moisture distribution, and the unit weight profiles of the waste in the case history landfill. These experimental data were used to evaluate the ability of the landfill to continue to retain moisture after continued waste placement. The evaluation indicated that the moisture content of the waste will not reach its field capacity for the proposed final grading of the case history landfill and, therefore, that the liquids should remain within the waste mass after the vertical expansion.

  16. Inclusion of Vertical Dynamics in Vertically-integrated Models for CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mathematical models of different complexity are needed to answer a range of questions for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). One category of simplified models is based on vertical integration, which reduces the three-dimensional problem to two dimensions. Usually, these models assume that brine and CO2 are in vertical equilibrium. This type of model is useful and accurate for simulation times that are large relative to the time for buoyant segregation. But, vertical-equilibrium models are inappropriate in some situations, for instance, in the early stage of injection, when brine and CO2 have not fully segregated. Therefore, for these situations, the vertical equilibrium assumption needs to be relaxed and vertical dynamics needs to be included in the governing equations. To avoid significant increases of computational effort due to the inclusion of vertical dynamics, a multi-scale algorithm can be constructed where the vertically integrated equations are still used to model the (dominant) horizontal flow processes with the vertical reconstruction included as a dynamic problem. Such an approach allows each vertical column of grid cells to be solved independently, as a one-dimensional problem, during the dynamic reconstruction step. Because the top and bottom boundaries usually correspond to impermeable caprock, the total flow for these one-dimensional problems is zero and counter-current flow driven only by buoyancy and capillarity is involved. Solutions for this kind of problem are relatively simple and require little computational effort. With careful coupling between the vertical calculations and the horizontally integrated equations, an efficient algorithm can be developed to simulate a fairly wide range of problems including those with significant vertical dynamics. When vertical dynamics become insignificant, then usual vertical equilibrium reconstruction is used in the vertically integrated models. This new algorithm provides an intermediate choice in model complexity between full three-dimensional models and vertical-equilibrium two-dimensional models.

  17. Drop formation mechanism in a vertically vibrated liquid column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Sudo, S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to clarify the hydrodynamical mechanism of surface disintegration and drop formation over a wide range of input frequency and amplitude. The experiment involved longitudinal excitation of a container of water on an electrodynamic shaker. The free surface behavior in the vibrating container was analyzed by using a 16-mm high-speed camera and an automatic liquid surface detector. The threshold of surface disintegration and the wave characteristics of large-amplitude surface motions with liquid drops in a vertically excited rectangular container have been investigated experimentally. The drop formation mechanism and the drop size distribution have also been examined, both theoretically and experimentally. The results obtained here should provide useful clues for future research and development of application fields of the liquid sloshing phenomena.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Chilldown of a Vertical Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Samuel; Hu, Hong; Schaeffer, Reid; Chung, Jacob; Hartwig, Jason; Majumdar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a one-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient chilldown of a vertical stainless steel tube with liquid nitrogen. The direction of flow is downward (with gravity) through the tube. Heat transfer correlations for film, transition, and nucleate boiling, as well as critical heat flux, rewetting temperature, and the temperature at the onset of nucleate boiling were used to model the convection to the tube wall. Chilldown curves from the simulations were compared with data from 55 recent liquid nitrogen chilldown experiments. With these new correlations the simulation is able to predict the time to rewetting temperature and time to onset of nucleate boiling to within 25% for mass fluxes ranging from 61.2 to 1150 kg/(sq m s), inlet pressures from 175 to 817 kPa, and subcooled inlet temperatures from 0 to 14 K below the saturation temperature.

  19. Thermal dispersion in vertical gas-liquid flows with foaming and non-foaming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, L.R.Z.; Saez, A.E.

    1995-05-01

    Heat transfer experiments have been performed in gas-liquid upwards flow in a vertical column with non-foaming (water) and foaming (kerosene) liquids. The main purpose of the experiments has been to characterized the degree of thermal mixing in the system. For the range of conditions employed, the nonfoaming liquid exhibits complete mixing a low liquid superficial velocities. An increased in liquid velocity leads to incomplete mixing. In the latter case, the thermal dispersion coefficient at low gas superficial velocities is larger than what correlations in the literature predict. For the foaming liquid, when foaming and bubbling regions coexist in the bubble column, each region behaves as a completely-mixed subsystem.

  20. Wicking and flooding of liquids on vertical porous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Chang, Young Soo; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-03-01

    When one brings a wet paintbrush into contact with a vertical watercolor paper, the paint may wick into the porous sheet completely or run down to ruin the art. We study a simple model of this spreading dynamics of liquids on hydrophilic porous sheets under the effects of gravity, using a capillary as a liquid source and thin fabrics of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate. Upon finding the maximum flow rate, Qw, that can be absorbed into the fabric, we show that the model can be used to obtain an estimate of the in-plane permeability of fabrics in a simpler manner than the conventional schemes. The shape of a wetting area that grows when the flow rate exceeds Qw to lead to rivulet formation is also theoretically given. The nose shape of the wetting front is shown to be time-invariant, while its profile depends on the properties of the liquid and the fabric. This study can be applied to understand and improve the liquid absorption behavior of hygiene items, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning equipments, and fuel cell membranes in addition to elucidating the mundane painting activity.

  1. Evaluation of Vertical Integrated Nanogenerator Performances in Flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Hinchet, R.; Ardila, G.; Mouis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric nanowires have attracted great interest as new building blocks of mechanical energy harvesting systems. This paper presents the design improvements of mechanical energy harvesters integrating vertical ZnO piezoelectric nanowires onto a Silicon or plastic membrane. We have calculated the energy generation and conversion performance of ZnO nanowires based vertical integrated nanogenerators in flexion mode. We show that in flexion mode ZnO nanowires are superior to bulk ZnO layer. Both mechanical and electrical effects of matrix materials on the potential generation and energy conversion are discussed, in the aim of guiding further improvement of nanogenerator performance.

  2. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  3. Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis II : Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, N. S.; Russell, S.; Sudderth, E.

    2009-12-01

    Methods for automatically associating detected waveform features with hypothesized seismic events, and localizing those events, are a critical component of efforts to verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). As outlined in our companion abstract, we have developed a hierarchical model which views detection, association, and localization as an integrated probabilistic inference problem. In this abstract, we provide more details on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods used to solve this inference task. MCMC generates samples from a posterior distribution π(x) over possible worlds x by defining a Markov chain whose states are the worlds x, and whose stationary distribution is π(x). In the Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) method, transitions in the Markov chain are constructed in two steps. First, given the current state x, a candidate next state x‧ is generated from a proposal distribution q(x‧ | x), which may be (more or less) arbitrary. Second, the transition to x‧ is not automatic, but occurs with an acceptance probability—α(x‧ | x) = min(1, π(x‧)q(x | x‧)/π(x)q(x‧ | x)). The seismic event model outlined in our companion abstract is quite similar to those used in multitarget tracking, for which MCMC has proved very effective. In this model, each world x is defined by a collection of events, a list of properties characterizing those events (times, locations, magnitudes, and types), and the association of each event to a set of observed detections. The target distribution π(x) = P(x | y), the posterior distribution over worlds x given the observed waveform data y at all stations. Proposal distributions then implement several types of moves between worlds. For example, birth moves create new events; death moves delete existing events; split moves partition the detections for an event into two new events; merge moves combine event pairs; swap moves modify the properties and assocations for pairs of events. Importantly, the rules for accepting such complex moves need not be hand-designed. Instead, they are automatically determined by the underlying probabilistic model, which is in turn calibrated via historical data and scientific knowledge. Consider a small seismic event which generates weak signals at several different stations, which might independently be mistaken for noise. A birth move may nevertheless hypothesize an event jointly explaining these detections. If the corresponding waveform data then aligns with the seismological knowledge encoded in the probabilistic model, the event may be detected even though no single station observes it unambiguously. Alternatively, if a large outlier reading is produced at a single station, moves which instantiate a corresponding (false) event would be rejected because of the absence of plausible detections at other sensors. More broadly, one of the main advantages of our MCMC approach is its consistent handling of the relative uncertainties in different information sources. By avoiding low-level thresholds, we expect to improve accuracy and robustness. At the conference, we will present results quantitatively validating our approach, using ground-truth associations and locations provided either by simulation or human analysts.

  4. Stably Levitated Large Bubbles in Vertically Vibrating Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hern, Timothy; Shelden, Bion; Romero, Louis; Torczynski, John

    2012-11-01

    Vertical vibration of a liquid can cause small gas bubbles to move downward against the buoyancy force. Downward bubble motion is caused by the oscillating bubble volume (induced by the oscillating pressure field) interacting with the bubble drag force. The volume-drag asymmetry and the oscillating pressure gradient produce net downward bubble motion analogous to that caused by the Bjerknes force in high-frequency vibrations. Low-frequency (below 300 Hz) experiments demonstrate downward bubble motion over a range of vibration conditions, liquid properties, and pressure in the air above the free surface. Small bubbles deep in a quasi-two-dimensional test cell usually coalesce to form a much larger bubble that is stably levitated well below the free surface. The size and position of this levitated bubble can be controlled by varying the vibration conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a liquid crystal external cavity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Beeckman, Jeroen; Panajotov, Krassimir; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2014-11-15

    A tuneable external cavity consisting of a thin layer of nematic liquid crystal (LC) and a dielectric reflector is placed on the top of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). By changing the voltage across the LC layer, the optical path length of the external cavity can be tuned. As a result, the emitting properties of the LC-VCSEL, including polarization state and emission wavelength, can be controlled by the voltage applied over the LC layer. Stable polarization switching with high contrast is obtained by voltage driving. This device can be integrated in applications which require electrically tuneable VCSEL emission. PMID:25490502

  6. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  7. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  8. Vertically Integrating Professional Skills throughout a Mathematics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziak, Clarice; Leventhal, Brian; Luttman, Aaron; Skufca, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In response to a university mandate to include "professional issues" as a component of every major, we have developed a vertically integrated approach to incorporating the study of professional skills and issues into the mathematics curriculum. Beginning in the first year of study, mathematics majors take an inquiry-based course in…

  9. Vertically Integrating Professional Skills throughout a Mathematics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziak, Clarice; Leventhal, Brian; Luttman, Aaron; Skufca, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In response to a university mandate to include "professional issues" as a component of every major, we have developed a vertically integrated approach to incorporating the study of professional skills and issues into the mathematics curriculum. Beginning in the first year of study, mathematics majors take an inquiry-based course in

  10. A vertically integrated Ka-band phased array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, R. R.; Lee, R. Q.; Martzaklis, K. S.; Shalkhauser, K. A.; Downey, A. N.; Simons, R.

    1992-01-01

    The design, development, and experimental demonstration of a small phased array antenna suitable for applications on communications satellites are discussed. Each of the vertical layers was optimized for performance, and MMICs on custom carriers were characterized prior to insertion. A vertical integration architecture is used which minimizes the size of the array with its associated beamforming network (BFN). The antenna features a four-element linear microstrip array that uses aperture coupling of the antenna elements to the BFN; a modified Wilkinson power divider BFN; and 32 Ghz, 4-bit MMIC phase shifters on customized alumina carriers. Performance data are presented for all components, and far-field antenna radiation patterns are given.

  11. STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  12. Oscillations of a liquid column trapping air in a vertical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, Patrick; Kliakhandler, Igor

    2002-11-01

    We expand on the work of Lorenceau, et al. (Phys. Fluids, 14, 1985, 2002), who studied the gravitational oscillations of a liquid column in a vertical tube, by including air trapped in the column. Assuming isothermal air compression and expansion, a pair or ODEs for the upward and downward variable mass lqiuid motion are obtained. This system admits two new parameters: α = (L-H)/H and β = P_/ρ g H, where L is the tube height, H is the immersion depth, and P_ is the ambient pressure above the liquid bath. Viscous effects are neglected, but the singular pressure losses incurred at the end of the imersed tube are retained. Numerical integration of the dynamical equations show the effect of trapped air height α and ambient pressure β on the amplitude and frequency of the damped oscillations. Experimental results from a laboratory facility now under construction may be available at the time of the meeting.

  13. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior.

  14. Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Integrated Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeonggeun; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing; Kim, Doyoung; So, Franky

    2016-04-27

    Direct integration of a vertical organic field-effect transistor (VOFET) and an optoelectronic device offers a single stacked, low power optoelectronic VOFET with high aperture ratios. However, a functional optoelectronic VOFET could not be realized because of the difficulty in fabricating transparent source and gate electrodes. Here, we report a VOFET with an on/off ratio up to 10(5) as well as output current saturation by fabricating a transparent gate capacitor consisting of a perforated indium tin oxide (ITO) source electrode, HfO2 gate dielectric, and ITO gate electrode. Effects of the pore size and the pore depth within the porous ITO electrodes on the on/off characteristic of a VOFET are systematically explained in this work. By combining a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with an optimized VOFET structure, a vertical organic light-emitting transistor with a luminance on/off ratio of 10(4) can be fabricated. PMID:27082815

  15. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.; Battles, James E.; Hull, John R.; Rote, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  16. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  17. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  18. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  19. Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to adequate resources, and appropriate integration into existing medical education curricula. As focused ultrasonography increasingly penetrates academic and community practices, access to ultrasound equipment and trained faculty is improving. However, there has remained the major challenge of determining at which level is integrating ultrasound training within the medical training paradigm most appropriate. Methods The Ohio State University College of Medicine has developed a novel vertical curriculum for focused ultrasonography which is concordant with the 4-year medical school curriculum. Given current evidenced-based practices, a curriculum was developed which provides medical students an exposure in focused ultrasonography. The curriculum utilizes focused ultrasonography as a teaching aid for students to gain a more thorough understanding of basic and clinical science within the medical school curriculum. The objectives of the course are to develop student understanding in indications for use, acquisition of images, interpretation of an ultrasound examination, and appropriate decision-making of ultrasound findings. Results Preliminary data indicate that a vertical ultrasound curriculum is a feasible and effective means of teaching focused ultrasonography. The foreseeable limitations include faculty skill level and training, initial cost of equipment, and incorporating additional information into an already saturated medical school curriculum. Conclusions Focused ultrasonography is an evolving concept in medicine. It has been shown to improve education and patient care. The indications for and implementation of focused ultrasound is rapidly expanding in all levels of medicine. The ideal method for teaching ultrasound has yet to be established. The vertical curriculum in ultrasound at The Ohio State University College of Medicine is a novel evidenced-based training regimen at the medical school level which integrates ultrasound training into medical education and serves as a model for future integrated ultrasound curricula. PMID:23819896

  20. Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

  1. Vertical III-V nanowire device integration on Si(100).

    PubMed

    Borg, Mattias; Schmid, Heinz; Moselund, Kirsten E; Signorello, Giorgio; Gignac, Lynne; Bruley, John; Breslin, Chris; Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Werner, Peter; Riel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    We report complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration of compound semiconductors on Si substrates. InAs and GaAs nanowires are selectively grown in vertical SiO2 nanotube templates fabricated on Si substrates of varying crystallographic orientations, including nanocrystalline Si. The nanowires investigated are epitaxially grown, single-crystalline, free from threading dislocations, and with an orientation and dimension directly given by the shape of the template. GaAs nanowires exhibit stable photoluminescence at room temperature, with a higher measured intensity when still surrounded by the template. Si-InAs heterojunction nanowire tunnel diodes were fabricated on Si(100) and are electrically characterized. The results indicate a high uniformity and scalability in the fabrication process. PMID:24628529

  2. Vertical optimization procedure for an integrated micropower signal preprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. R.

    1980-06-01

    The need for low power operation is characteristic of all electronic measurement systems that transmit physiological data across the intact skin. Custom integrated circuits and hybrid microcircuit assembly techniques leave battery volume (or power drain) as the limiting factor for implanted-system lifetime and animal model size. First generation totally implantable Doppler blood flowmeters, telemeter Doppler-shifted signals having a 40 kHz bandwidth. External electronics are then used to convert this information into a flow signal with a maximum bandwidth of approximately 100 Hz. A vertically optimized system circuit device procedure utilizes a digital data link for telemetry to reduce flowmeter transmitter power consumption. In this CW Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, a potential 400:1 reduction in FM transmitter power is possible through additional signal preprocessing in the implanted package. A 10:1 savings in transmitter power drain is realized by a novel preprocessor developed to encode and telemeter pulsed digital data rather than Doppler signals.

  3. Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, M.

    1997-10-01

    This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

  4. Surface Instability of Liquid Propellant under Vertical Oscillatory Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

    2011-01-01

    Fluid motion in a fuel tank produced during thrust oscillations can circulate sub-cooled hydrogen near the liquid-vapor interface resulting in increased condensation and ullage pressure collapse. The first objective of this study is to validate the capabilities of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, CFD-ACE+, in modeling the fundamental interface transition physics occurring at the propellant surface. The second objective is to use the tool to assess the effects of thrust oscillations on surface dynamics. Our technical approach is to first verify the CFD code against known theoretical solutions, and then validate against existing experiments for small scale tanks and a range of transition regimes. A 2D axisymmetric, multi-phase model of gases, liquids, and solids is used to verify that CFD-ACE+ is capable of modeling fluid-structure interaction and system resonance in a typical thrust oscillation environment. Then, the 3D mode is studied with an assumed oscillatory body force to simulate the thrust oscillating effect. The study showed that CFD modeling can capture all of the transition physics from solid body motion to standing surface wave and to droplet ejection from liquid-gas interface. Unlike the analytical solutions established during the 1960 s, CFD modeling is not limited to the small amplitude regime. It can extend solutions to the nonlinear regime to determine the amplitude of surface waves after the onset of instability. The present simulation also demonstrated consistent trends from numerical experiments through variation of physical properties from low viscous fluid to high viscous fluids, and through variation of geometry and input forcing functions. A comparison of surface wave patterns under various forcing frequencies and amplitudes showed good agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that thrust oscillations can cause droplet formation at the interface, which results in increased surface area and enhanced heat transfer between the liquid and gas phases as the ejected droplets travel well into the warmer gas region.

  5. Temporal interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    We consider onset and dynamics of interfacial instability in gas-liquid flows, using two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas as a model. Our methodology consists of linear stability theory together with DNS of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We study the influence of three main flow parameters (density contrast between liquid and gas, film thickness, pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream) on the interfacial dynamics. Energy budget analyses based on Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrast, resulting in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. DNS of this scenario shows that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. In comparison, although linear stability theory successfully determines the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times in a high-density-contrast case, short waves selected by linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic.

  6. A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; ,

    2011-11-01

    Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

  7. SIG-VISA: Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D.; Mayeda, K. M.; Myers, S. C.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional seismic monitoring systems rely on discrete detections produced by station processing software; however, while such detections may constitute a useful summary of station activity, they discard large amounts of information present in the original recorded signal. We present SIG-VISA (Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis), a system for seismic monitoring through Bayesian inference on seismic signals. By directly modeling the recorded signal, our approach incorporates additional information unavailable to detection-based methods, enabling higher sensitivity and more accurate localization using techniques such as waveform matching. SIG-VISA's Bayesian forward model of seismic signal envelopes includes physically-derived models of travel times and source characteristics as well as Gaussian process (kriging) statistical models of signal properties that combine interpolation of historical data with extrapolation of learned physical trends. Applying Bayesian inference, we evaluate the model on earthquakes as well as the 2009 DPRK test event, demonstrating a waveform matching effect as part of the probabilistic inference, along with results on event localization and sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrate increased sensitivity from signal-based modeling, in which the SIGVISA signal model finds statistical evidence for arrivals even at stations for which the IMS station processing failed to register any detection.

  8. Parametric instabilities of a liquid free surface in a flexible container under vertical periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, R. S.; Nigam, N. C.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric instabilities of the free surface of a liquid in a rectangular container with a flexible base under a vertical periodic excitation are investigated. Bolotin's method is used to determine the regions of dynamic instabilities, with use of the linearized equations of hydrodynamics. Primary and secondary instability regions are determined. It is found that, in general, the presence of a flexible base has the effect of reducing the regions of instability of the free surface of the liquid.

  9. Unsteady pressure response of a liquid in a cylindrical container subject to vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1988-05-01

    Experimental results on the pressure response, surface wave motion, and container wall response of liquid in a cylindrical container subject to high-frequency vertical oscillations are presented. The amplitude of pressure was found to increase exponentially with time when the excitation acceleration exceeded a threshold value. The pressure amplitude maximum decreased with increasing excitation acceleration. The present results can be explained by the wave velocity of the liquid-bubble-shell system approaching the resonant velocity as the void fraction increases.

  10. Retrieval of Vertical Profiles of Liquid Water and Ice Content in Mixed Clouds from Doppler Radar and Microwave Radiometer Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvageot, Henri

    1996-01-01

    A new method to retrieve vertical profiles of liquid water content Mw(z), ice water content Mi(z), and ice particle size distribution Ni(D, z), (where D is the ice particle size and z the vertical coordinate) in mixed nonprecipitating clouds using the observations of a zenith-viewing Doppler radar and of a microwave radiometer is proposed. In this method, the profile of the vertical air velocity deduced from Doppler radar measurements is used to describe the rate of production by the updrafts of water. vapor in excess of saturation with respect to ice. Using a Zi Mi power-law relation with an unknown linear parameter (let i, be this parameter) and initially assuming that Zw is negligible with respect to Zi, (where Zw and Zi are the radar reflectivity factors of liquid water and ice particles respectively), the measured radar reflectivity factor profile Zm ( Zi) is inverted to estimate Ni(D, z). From Ni(D, z), the profile of the rate of water vapor that can be consumed by pure deposition on ice particles is calculated. The difference between the rate of production of the exam water vapor and the rate of deposited water vapor is an expression of the rate of liquid water generation at each level. By writing that the integral of the liquid water along the profile has to be equal to the total liquid water deduced from the microwave radiometer measurement, an estimation of the i parameter is obtained. From i, an estimation of the profiles Mw(z), Mi(z), Zw(z), Zi(z) (=Zm Zw), and Ni(D, z) is calculated. If Zw is effectively negligible with respect to Zi, the computation of the retrieved profiles is ended. If not, Zi(z) is corrected and a new estimation of the profiles is computed. The results of the numerical simulation of the algorithm are presented.

  11. Liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid interfaces in Ising fluids: An integral equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelyan, I. P.; Folk, R.; Mryglod, I. M.; Fenz, W.

    2007-03-01

    The microscopic structure and thermodynamic properties of liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid interfaces in Ising fluids are studied using an integral equation approach. The calculations are performed in the absence and presence of an external magnetic field by solving the corresponding set of Lovett-Mou-Buff-Wertheim integrodifferential equations for the one-particle density distribution functions. The two-particle inhomogeneous direct correlation functions are consistently constructed by nonlinear interpolation between the bulk ones. The bulk correlation functions of the coexisting phases are obtained from the Ornstein-Zernike equations with a modified soft mean spherical approximation for the closure relation. As a result, the density and magnetization profiles at liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid interfaces as well as the surface tension and adsorption coefficients are evaluated in a wide temperature range including subcritical regions. The influence of an external magnetic field on the liquid-vapor interfaces is also considered.

  12. Density profiles at liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid interfaces: An integral equation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatsevitch, Stanislav; Forstmann, Frank

    1997-11-01

    The structure of liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid interfaces in Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids and mixtures is studied using integral equations. To obtain density distributions at interfaces between coexisting fluid phases we solve the Lovett-Mou-Buff-Wertheim equation. In this equation we approximate the direct correlation functions of the inhomogeneous fluid via interpolation between the direct correlation functions of the bulk phases. In the homogeneous bulk phases the system of the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the reference-hypernetted-chain closure is solved to obtain the direct correlation functions at coexisting densities. Density distributions and other interfacial properties are studied for a liquid-vapor interface in a pure LJ fluid, in an Ar-Kr mixture and for a liquid-liquid interface between two immiscible LJ fluids. The results are in good agreement with simulations and other theories. At low temperatures the liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid density profiles exhibit oscillating structures with periods near the diameters of the LJ spheres. Being quite weak at liquid-vapor interfaces these oscillations become very pronounced at a liquid-liquid interface between immiscible fluids.

  13. Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E.

    2007-07-15

    Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

  14. Design of a vertically coupled liquid-crystal long-range plasmonic optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2013-03-01

    An optical switch based on liquid-crystal (LC) tunable long-range metal stripe waveguides is proposed and theoretically investigated. A nematic liquid crystal layer placed between a vertical configuration consisting of two gold stripes is shown to allow for the extensive electro-optic tuning of the coupler's waveguiding characteristics. Rigorous liquid-crystal switching studies are coupled with the investigation of the optical properties of the proposed plasmonic structure, taking into account different excitation conditions and the impact of LC-scattering losses. A directional coupler optical switch is demonstrated, which combines low power consumption, low cross-talk, short coupling lengths, along with sufficiently reduced insertion losses.

  15. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Robert P.; Esherick, Peter; Jewell, Jack L.; Lear, Kevin L.; Olbright, Gregory R.

    1997-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

  16. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

    1997-04-29

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

  17. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  18. Experimental study on chaos of a liquid-filled tank under vertical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, K.; Watanabe, K.; Tani, J.

    1995-11-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental study on the chaos of a partially liquid-filled cylindrical tank under vertical excitation. The test cylinder made of polyester film was harmonically excited with constant displacement amplitude. It has been well known that the partially liquid-filled cylindrical tank under periodic vertical excitation gives rise to the parametoric resonance. As the excitation amplitude increases, the nonlinear response characteristics of soft and hard spring types as well as chaos were found to appear in this system. The occurrence of chaos was recognized by the time history, Poincare map, phase trajectory, and power spectrum. Furthermore, the sloshing and chaotic motion of the liquid surface were found to appear in the lower frequency range than the parametric resonance and chaotic motion of the cylindrical shell wall.

  19. Dynamic behavior of liquid free surface in a cylindrical container subject to vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Sudo, S.

    1984-05-01

    This paper reports a series of experimental studies on the dynamic behavior of the gas-liquid interface. These studies are concerned with the liquid sloshing phenomena induced by vertical vibration of a cylindrical container containing a liquid. The disappearance of the harmonic surface wave motion, the formation of 1/2-subharmonic motion, the mechanism of the surface disintegration and the behavior of spray-excited low frequency waves are investigated. The effect of the liquid height in the container on the surface disintegration was a decrease in the threshold excitation amplitude for the disintegration with an increase in liquid height. Spray-excited low frequency waves were observed over a wide range of excitation frequencies. It was also found that a violet surface agitation might occur due to a bubble cluster formed by the air injection, although the excitation acceleration was relatively low.

  20. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian; Ryan, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) on integrated power and propulsion for advanced human exploration. Specifically, it will present findings of the integrated design, testing, and operational challenges of a liquid oxygen / liquid methane (LOx/LCH4) propulsion brassboard and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. Human-Mars architectures point to an oxygen-methane economy utilizing common commodities, scavenged from the planetary atmosphere and soil via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and common commodities across sub-systems. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth) increasing commonality between spacecraft subsystems such as power and propulsion can result in tremendous launch mass and volume savings. Historically, propulsion and fuel cell power subsystems have had little interaction outside of the generation (fuel cell) and consumption (propulsion) of electrical power. This was largely due to a mismatch in preferred commodities (hypergolics for propulsion; oxygen & hydrogen for fuel cells). Although this stove-piped approach benefits from simplicity in the design process, it means each subsystem has its own tanks, pressurization system, fluid feed system, etc. increasing overall spacecraft mass and volume. A liquid oxygen / liquid methane commodities architecture across propulsion and power subsystems would enable the use of common tankage and associated pressurization and commodity delivery hardware for both. Furthermore, a spacecraft utilizing integrated power and propulsion could use propellant residuals - propellant which could not be expelled from the tank near depletion due to hydrodynamic considerations caused by large flow demands of a rocket engine - to generate power after all propulsive maneuvers are complete thus utilizing previously wasted mass. Such is the case for human and robotic planetary landers. Although many potential benefits through integrated power & propulsion exist, integrated operations have yet to be successfully demonstrated and many challenges have already been identified the most obvious of which is the large temperature gradient. SOFC chemistry is exothermic with operating temperatures in excess of 1,000 K; however, any shared commodities will be undoubtedly stored at cryogenic temperatures (90-112 K) for mass efficiency reasons. Spacecraft packaging will drive these two subsystems in close proximity thus heat leak into the commodity tankage must be minimized and/or mitigated. Furthermore, commodities must be gasified prior to consumption by the SOFC. Excess heat generated by the SOFC could be used to perform this phase change; however, this has yet to be demonstrated. A further identified challenge is the ability of the SOFC to handle the sudden power spikes created by the propulsion system. A power accumulator (battery) will likely be necessary to handle these sudden demands while the SOFC thermally adjusts. JSC's current SOFC test system consists of a 1 kW fuel cell designed by Delphi. The fuel cell is currently undergoing characterization testing at the NASA JSC Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) after which a Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) will be integrated and the combined system tested in closed-loop. The propulsion brassboard is approximately the size of what could be flown on a sounding rocket. It consists of one 100 lbf thrust "main" engine developed for NASA by Aerojet and two 10 lbf thrusters to simulate a reaction control system developed at NASA JSC. This system is also under development and initial testing at ESTA. After initial testing, combined testing will occur which will provide data on the fuel cell's ability to sufficiently handle the power spikes created by the propulsion system. These two systems will also be modeled using General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) software. Once anchored with test data, this model will be used to extrapolate onto other firing profiles and used to size the power accumulator.

  1. Strategic interaction among hospitals and nursing facilities: the efficiency effects of payment systems and vertical integration.

    PubMed

    Banks, D; Parker, E; Wendel, J

    2001-03-01

    Rising post-acute care expenditures for Medicare transfer patients and increasing vertical integration between hospitals and nursing facilities raise questions about the links between payment system structure, the incentive for vertical integration and the impact on efficiency. In the United States, policy-makers are responding to these concerns by initiating prospective payments to nursing facilities, and are exploring the bundling of payments to hospitals. This paper develops a static profit-maximization model of the strategic interaction between the transferring hospital and a receiving nursing facility. This model suggests that the post-1984 system of prospective payment for hospital care, coupled with nursing facility payments that reimburse for services performed, induces inefficient under-provision of hospital services and encourages vertical integration. It further indicates that the extension of prospective payment to nursing facilities will not eliminate the incentive to vertically integrate, and will not result in efficient production unless such integration takes place. Bundling prospective payments for hospitals and nursing facilities will neither remove the incentive for vertical integration nor induce production efficiency without such vertical integration. However, bundled payment will induce efficient production, with or without vertical integration, if nursing facilities are reimbursed for services performed. PMID:11252043

  2. Controlling liquid crystal pretilt angle with photocurable prepolymer and vertically aligned substrate.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Che-Ju; Chen, Bao-Long; Huang, Chi-Yen

    2016-01-25

    We demonstrate a new approach to control the pretilt angle of liquid crystals (LCs) with photocurable prepolymer in a cell fabricated with vertically aligned substrates. During UV exposure, prepolymer approaches and is polymerized on the substrate surfaces because of the vertical phase separation induced by differences in the surface tensions of the employed materials. After polymerization, the polymer structure formed on the substrate alters its surface polarity and changes the pretilt angle of the LC cell. The LC pretilt angle can be controlled from 87.3° to 2.5° when the prepolymer concentration ranges from 0 wt% to 2.5 wt%. PMID:26832526

  3. Flow and temperature field measurements of thermal convection in a small vertical gap using liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiland, Hans Georg; Wozniak, Günter; Wozniak, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Thermal convection in a small vertical gap is studied experimentally applying digital particle image velocimetry/thermometry. This optical method enables the simultaneous measurement of two-dimensional flow and temperature fields in a liquid. The principle is based on seeding the liquid flow medium with thermochromic liquid crystal particles. The temperature is measured by the crystal particles which change their reflected colour as function of temperature. The flow velocity is measured by using the same particles as flow tracers. The investigation shall contribute to the understanding of the fluid mechanical behaviour of biological liquids within micro reactor systems. However, the problem is also of fundamental interest as far as heat and mass transfer is concerned. Measured temperature and flow velocity fields are presented and discussed.

  4. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  5. Nonlinear Vibrations of Elastic Structures Containing a Cylindrical Liquid Tank under Vertical Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Murakami, Shin

    This study investigates the nonlinear vibrations of an elastic structure, with a liquid-filled cylindrical tank, which is subjected to a vertical sinusoidal excitation. This structure-tank system behaves as an autoparametric system. Modal equations governing the coupled motions of the structure and liquid sloshing are derived when the natural frequency of the structure is equal to twice the natural frequency of the first axisymmetric sloshing mode. Van der Pol's method is applied to the modal equations to determine the theoretical resonance curves. The theoretical results can be concluded as follows: (1) As the liquid level decreases, the resonance curve for the liquid sloshing changes from a soft spring type to a hard spring type. (2) The structure's resonance curve flattens out at small amplitude when the liquid level is appropriate. (3) Amplitude-modulated motions appear for the negative and positive values of the internal resonance ratio's deviation (the detuning parameter) in the high and low liquid levels, respectively. (4) Furthermore, the results of the bifurcation analysis, Poincaré maps and Lyapunov exponents reveal that amplitude-modulated motions and chaotic oscillations can occur in the system. In experiments, the theoretical resonance curves were quantitatively in agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Monolithically integrated self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical coupler for three-dimensional photonic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xin; Arbabi, Ehsan; Goddard, Lynford L.; Li, Xiuling; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-07-20

    We demonstrate a self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical photonic coupler monolithically integrated on top of a ridge waveguide to achieve three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration. The fabrication process is fully compatible with standard planar silicon processing technology. Strong light coupling between the vertical coupler and the ridge waveguide was observed experimentally, which may provide an alternative route for 3D heterogeneous photonic integration. The highest extinction ratio observed in the transmission spectrum passing through the ridge waveguide was 23 dB.

  7. Experimental investigation of the local heat transfer in a vertical gas-liquid slug unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Valery; Shemer, Lev; Barnea, Dvora

    2012-03-01

    Heat transfer mechanism in two-phase flows and particularly in vertical slug flow is of high interest both for basic hydrodynamic research and for industrial applications. Two-phase slug flow is highly complicated and only a limited number of heat transfer studies have been carried out. The flow field around a single Taylor bubble propagating in a vertical pipe can be subdivided into three distinct hydrodynamic regions: the gas bubble surrounded by a thin liquid film, a highly turbulent liquid wake in the vicinity of the bubble bottom, and the far wake region. Experimental and theoretical works were presented during the last decades investigating the hydrodynamic parameters in each region. Due to the complexity and intermittent nature of slug flow the existing data on the heat transfer in slug flow is limited to a narrow range of operational conditions. To improve the understanding of the heat transfer mechanism in slug flow a new experimental setup was constructed. A part of the vertical pipe wall was replaced by a thin metal foil heated by electrical current. An IR video camera was used to determine the temporal variation of the instantaneous temperature field along the foil at two locations: at the thermal entrance region and at the upper part of the foil where thermal boundary is thicker. The video camera was synchronized with a sensor that determined the instantaneous location of the Taylor bubble. The results of the instantaneous heat transfer measurements along the liquid film and in the wake of the Taylor bubble can be correlated with the detailed velocity measurements carried out in the same facility (Shemer et al. 2007)[1]. The effect of the local hydrodynamic parameters on the heat transfer coefficient in each region is examined.

  8. The stability of natural convection in a vertical layer of viscoelastic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Masaki

    1993-03-01

    Linear stability theory is applied to the problem of stability of natural convection that occurs in a layer of viscoelastic liquid (Oldroyd liquid B) between two parallel vertical plates maintained at constant and different temperatures. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation and the thermal disturbance equation are derived without making any approximation other than the Boussinesq one. The Chebyshev collocation method is used to obtain the eigenvalue equation, which is then solved numerically with the aid of the Muller method, and the stability conditions are obtained for wide ranges of various parameters. It is found that depending upon the values of various parameters, instability sets in as either stationary or travelling-wave mode, and that elasticity has both stabilizing and destabilizing effects on the flow.

  9. Vertical integration: hospital ownership of physician practices is associated with higher prices and spending.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians--ownership of physician practices--was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured. PMID:24799571

  10. Integrated shell approach to vertical position control on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.E.; Okabayashi, M.

    1995-03-01

    The PBX-M device produces highly shaped discharges that, because of the negative external magnetic field decay index required, are vertically unstable. Vertical positional stability in PBX-M has been achieved by directly controlling the n = 0 component of the eddy current in the passive shell instead of the commonly used function of magnetic flux signals. Because the active coil is controlled via currents in the passive shell we call this an ``integrated shell`` approach to vertical position control. We present results of these experiments and make comparisons between the two methods of control.

  11. COD measurement based on the integrated liquid drop sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zurong; Zhang, Guoxiong; Song, Qing; Xu, Jian

    2005-02-01

    A study on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measuring method is reported, in which the COD value is measured by an integrated liquid drop monitor sensor without any reagent and chemical treatment. The integrated drop sensor consists of a liquid head, an integrated fiber sensor and a capacitor sensor. The capacitor sensor is composed of a drop head and a ring electrode. As the part of the drop head, the outline of the drop will be changed during the drop forming, which result in the variation of the capacitance. The fiber sensor is composed of two fibers that are positioned into the liquid drop. The light signal goes into the liquid drop from one fiber and out from the other one. A unique fingerprint of the liquid drop can be got by the data processing. The matching between the COD value of a liquid and the codes of the fingerprints in the database are presented and discussed.

  12. Optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for monitoring the vertical structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Jian; Han, Houzeng

    2014-11-01

    The vertical structural dynamics is a crucial factor for structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil structures such as high-rise buildings, suspension bridges and towers. This paper presents an optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for an automated multi-sensor monitoring system. The closed loop feedback algorithm for integrating the vertical GPS and accelerometer measurements is proposed based on a 5 state extended KALMAN filter (EKF) and then the narrow moving window Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is applied to extract structural dynamics. A civil structural vibration is simulated and the analysed result shows the proposed algorithm can effectively integrate the online vertical measurements produced by GPS and accelerometer. Furthermore, the accelerometer bias and scale factor can also be estimated which is impossible with traditional integration algorithms. Further analysis shows the vibration frequencies detected in GPS or accelerometer are all included in the integrated vertical defection time series and the accelerometer can effectively compensate the short-term GPS outages with high quality. Finally, the data set collected with a time synchronised and integrated GPS/accelerometer monitoring system installed on the Nottingham Wilford Bridge when excited by 15 people jumping together at its mid-span are utilised to verify the effectiveness of this proposed algorithm. Its implementations are satisfactory and the detected vibration frequencies are 1.720 Hz, 1.870 Hz, 2.104 Hz, 2.905 Hz and also 10.050 Hz, which is not found in GPS or accelerometer only measurements.

  13. Organic vertical field effect transistors: Achieving high on-off ratio and vertical integration with OLEDs (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyukyun; Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Hyunsu; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2015-10-01

    Organic vertical field effect transistors (VFETs) have been explored to enhance the output current level and device operation speed due to the inherent low carrier mobility of organic semiconductors. However, most of VFETs reported to date involve a complex source electrode patterning process owing to their operation mechanism. Here, we investigate on VFETs based on C60 that do not require complex source electrode patterning process by insulting the top surface of a source electrode embedded in C60 layer [1]. In a VFET structure studied in this work, current flow is controlled by the electric field between a gate and a source electrode embedded within an active layer which is called bottom active layer. Based on its operation mechanism, several geometrical parameters such as (i) bottom active layer thickness; (ii) presence of a charge blocking layer and its thickness ensuring insulating properties; and (iii) the width of electrodes are identified as key factors influencing device performance. Through the device optimization with these parameters, the proposed organic VFETs exhibit a large on/off ratio of 6×10^5 and output current that is greater than that of a conventional C60 based OTFT with a similar device dimension. In order to show the benefit of VFETs, a single-pixel organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is integrated vertically with the VFETs under study.

  14. Liquid entrainment at an upward oriented vertical branch line from a horizontal pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, Kent Byron

    Under simulated accident conditions, tees in the primary coolant loop of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) can deviate from their original design purpose and become separators that effectively remove core heat sink capacity. This method of primary coolant removal is a phenomenological subset of phase separation known as liquid entrainment, whereby liquid is forced from its original path by the inertia of the gas. A comprehensive literature review revealed common deficiencies in previous studies. The Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design was chosen to assess the validity of entrainment models. Following a systematic scaling analysis of the prototypic design a model separate effects test was proposed and constructed at Oregon State University. Just under 100 tests were run to fill the deficiencies found in the literature review. New data from the Air-water Test Loop for Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Studies (ATLATS) could not be predicted by published correlations. A new theoretical model for predicting liquid entrainment onset and steady state entrainment was developed. Comparison with all available data shows a marked improvement for predicting the mass flow rate out the vertical branch.

  15. The effect of surfactant on counter-current gas-liquid flows in vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Counter-current gas-liquid flows in vertical tubes are often accompanied by flow reversal. This so-called ``flooding'' phenomenon could occur for at least a part of the liquid phase from a counter-current to a co-current state, against the action of gravity. This phenomenon is of central importance to the oil-and-gas and nuclear industries, and has received considerable attention experimentally. The large majority of the previous work in this area, however, has considered the case of pure fluids, in the absence of additives; the latter are used frequently in industry in an attempt to control the onset of various flow regimes with little understanding of the mechanisms underlying their influence on the interfacial dynamics. In this study, we address this issue by investigating the dynamics of flooding in the presence of surfactants in a 4 m long, 32.4 mm nominal bore polymethyl methacrylate test section using high-speed shadowgraphy, and axial-view imaging. The system parameters include the superficial gas and liquid velocities, and surfactant concentration. We show that the presence of surfactant can have a dramatic effect on the flow structures and the onset of flooding. The mechanisms responsible for these phenomena are analysed. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  16. Vertically integrated heat content: a new approach for ice stream and shelf thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2012-12-01

    Peculiarities of ice stream and shelf flow, (absence of vertical shear, and as a result, independence of their horizontal velocities on the depth) have a bearing on their thermodynamics. This thermodynamics is dominated by horizontal heat advection, in contrast to the slow-moving parts of an ice sheet, where the thermodynamics is dominated by vertical heat diffusion. The dominance of the horizontal heat advection allows for simplifications of the energy balance equations, that subsequently motivate expressions for the evolution of the vertically integrated heat content or vertically integrated ice temperature. Estimation of the magnitudes of the vertically integrated temperature and the effective temperature, a value of the ice temperature needed to specify the ice stiffness parameter in ice stream and ice shelf flow, show that the former is an excellent proxy for the latter. In studies focused on ice-shelf dynamics, it is possible to avoid calculating a three-dimensional temperature field by directly simulating evolution of the ice stiffness parameter.

  17. VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

  18. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  19. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  20. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  1. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  2. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  3. Mergers, networking, and vertical integration: managed care and investor-owned hospitals.

    PubMed

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    This article links the forces of managed care and investor-owned firms as major factors driving the industry toward consolidation into vertically integrated, merged firms, often financed with investor capital. This relentless pressure to build regional systems of health services has transformed the industry from a charitable, community orientation to one of business, market shares, and profits. PMID:8647688

  4. Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

    2011-01-01

    An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.…

  5. Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

    2011-01-01

    An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.

  6. Vertical and Horizontal Integration of Laboratory Curricula and Course Projects across the Electronic Engineering Technology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Wei; Goulart, Ana; Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the details of the curricular development effort with a focus on the vertical and horizontal integration of laboratory curricula and course projects within the Electronic Engineering Technology (EET) program at Texas A&M University. Both software and hardware aspects are addressed. A common set of software tools are…

  7. Wideband and wide-view circular polarizer for a transflective vertical alignment liquid crystal display.

    PubMed

    Moon, Je-Wook; Kang, Wan-Seok; Han, Hag yong; Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Seung Hee; Jang, Yong gyu; Lee, Chul Heon; Lee, Gi-Dong

    2010-07-10

    We propose an optical configuration for a transflective mode with a circular polarizer for the vertical alignment liquid crystal cell, which can show the wideband property of high contrast in oblique incidence. The proposed configuration consists of a biaxial film and two uniaxial films for satisfying both the transmissive and the reflective modes. Optimization of the optical configuration of the circular polarizer has been performed on the Poincaré sphere in the entire visible wavelength range using the Stokes vector and the Mueller matrix method. We also verify the excellent optical characteristics of the proposed configuration by comparing the viewing angle and contrast ratio in the oblique direction with a conventional optical configuration in calculation. PMID:20648160

  8. Microstructural and microspectral characterization of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display panel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chien-Chung; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Pei, Shan-Chuang; Chang, Chia-Kai; Chen, Ting-Hao; Cheng, Nai-Chia; Tsai, Meng-Ko; Lai, Chien-Chih; Li, Wang-Yang; Wei, Chung-Kuang; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2011-02-15

    The microstructural and microspectral characteristics of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display (VA-LCD) panel were obtained noninvasively for the first time. With 1 μm axial and 2 μm transversal resolutions, the cell gap profile beneath the patterned thin-film transistor of the VA-LCD panel can clearly be resolved. The thicknesses of the multiple thin-film layers and the embedded defects can also be unveiled. As far as spectral response is concerned, the light transmittance at the layer boundaries can be estimated from the measured reflectance, which is crucial information for the design of a highly transmissive panel. The color shift of the VA-LCD panel due to fabrication error was evaluated. PMID:21326458

  9. Gas absorption by wavy falling liquid film formed on inner surface of vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Akio; Yamamoto, Tomoki; Iemura, Toru; Shimada, Takashi

    2003-02-01

    An experimental study on gas absorption into falling liquid film formed on inner surface of vertical tubes has been carried out in order to clarify fundamental characteristics of the gas absorption and enhancement by surface waves. The water supplied into the test tubes is periodically disturbed by fluctuating a silicon tube before the test section with a speaker and the wavy films absorb the oxygen filled in the tubes. Imposing the periodic disturbance enhances the gas absorption and the enhancement has a maximum at around 20 30 Hz, where the gas absorption is 20 30% higher. Mass transfer coefficients obtained with five tubes agree well with those obtained with single tube. Two-dimensional numerical simulations have also been conducted for gas absorption by wavy film and the enhancement mechanism of the gas absorption is discussed.

  10. Development of a vertically integrated program of services for persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, T E; Hull, J W; Hedayat-Harris, A; Ryder, G; Berger, L J

    1999-07-01

    Economic pressures are changing the nature and quality of services available to individuals with chronic psychiatric disorders. Vertical integration of services has been proposed as a strategy for cost-effective merging of resources. This report describes the integration of inpatient, continuing day treatment, and ambulatory clinic services over an 18-month period into a service line for patients with schizophrenia. Key principles in implementing the integrated program included an open admission policy, continuity of care, use of criteria for level of care that were set by external review agencies, rapid transfers between services, and maintenance of the integrity of the treatment plan. Steps toward integration included evaluating and securing treatment resources, establishing core treatment approaches, fostering staff development, implementing outcomes assessment, and presenting the new program to clients, family members, and the community. The integrated program was 15 percent more productive than the combined services before integration, and inpatient length of stay dropped by 66 percent. Vertical integration of services is cost-effective and offers the potential for significant clinical benefits. PMID:10402614

  11. Advantages of a vertical integration process in the design of DNW MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the main features of a CMOS Deep N-well (DNW) monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) fabricated in a vertically integrated technology, where two 130 nm CMOS homogeneous tiers are processed to obtain a 3D integrated circuit (3D-IC). The 3D CMOS MAPS, which was designed in view of vertexing applications to experiments at high luminosity colliders, features a 20 ?m pitch for a point resolution of about 5 ?m and data sparsification capabilities for high data rate systems. Results from the characterization of different test structures, including single pixels, 33 and 88 matrices, are presented. In particular, measurements have been performed with an infrared laser source to evaluate the charge collection properties of the proposed vertically integrated sensors.

  12. Integration of diffractive lenses with addressable vertical-cavity laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.E.; Du, T.C.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Carson, R.F.; Lear, K.L.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Schneider, R.P.; Zolper, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    An optical interconnection system is being developed to provide vertical, digital data channels for stacked multichip modules. A key component of the system is an array of individually addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with diffractive lenses integrated into the substrate to control beam divergence and direction. The lenses were fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography and reactive ion beam etching into the GaAs substrate. Preliminary device performance data and the design and fabrication issues are discussed.

  13. Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with upbeat nystagmus from ischemic origin: evidence for the paramedian tract neurons as a vertical neural integrator?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhang-Ning; Li, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Gao-Ting; Zhu, Mei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Only a few cases with unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia have been reported presenting vertical nystagmus, and few of them provides convincing evidence for the paramedian tract neuron to be a vertical neural integrator. We report a patient who suffered from confined dorsal mid-upper pontine infarction showing unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with upbeat nystagmus in primary position. This case possibly provide evidence that paramedian tract neurons may act as a vertical neural integrator in human. PMID:26550407

  14. Integrated plant for treatment of liquid radwaste

    SciTech Connect

    Sen Gupta, S.K.

    1995-05-01

    In the early 1980`s, AECL Research, at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, built a Waste Treatment Centre for managing low-level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes. At present, two industrial liquid waste streams are being routinely treated. One stream originates from the central Decontamination Centre (DC), where reactor components, protective plastic clothing, and respirators are cleaned. The other Active Drain (AD) stream is produced from a large and diverse number of research laboratories and radioisotope production facilities. The two waste streams, totalling about 2500 m per year (0.66 million US gallons), are volume reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO), and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies; two thin-film evaporators (TFE) are employed for (i) the final volume reduction step, and (ii) the subsequent solidification of evaporator bottom with bitumen for containment of the radioactivity.

  15. Vertical integration and long term contracts in the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mulherin, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the organizational structure of the natural gas industry. Primary focus is on the vertical integration and long-term contracts that arose between the production and transmission sectors of the industry beginning in the 1930s. The study addresses the characteristics of natural gas and natural gas investments that induced these methods of organization. The central hypothesis is that the physical features of natural gas and the non-salvageable nature of the assets in the industry create potential contracting problems. These possible contracting problems imply that an exchange between a natural gas producer and a transmission pipeline could be impeded, or held-up, by one of the parties to the transaction. Organizational methods that improved incentives and enhanced the measurement of the performance of the parties to the exchange might lessen the likelihood of such hold-ups and thereby economize on the costs of the exchange prices in the industry. Thus the contractual hold-up hypothesis posits that the organizational change that has occurred in the natural gas industry is a response to the increased likelihood of hold-ups in the industry. A method that was used to mitigate such hold-ups during the 1930s was vertical integration. But the emergence of federal legislation led to a decrease in the integration in the industry. Complex, long-term contracts evolved in the industry to reduce the likelihood of hold-ups in a similar manner as vertical integration.

  16. Exploring the aqueous vertical ionization of organic molecules by molecular simulation and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tentscher, Peter R; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Guerard, Jennifer J; Arey, J Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of aqueous solvent on the electronic energy levels of dissolved organic molecules, we conducted liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements of the aqueous vertical ionization energies (VIEaq) of aniline (7.49 eV), veratrole alcohol (7.68 eV), and imidazole (8.51 eV). We also reanalyzed previously reported experimental PES data for phenol, phenolate, thymidine, and protonated imidazolium cation. We then simulated PE spectra by means of QM/MM molecular dynamics and EOM-IP-CCSD calculations with effective fragment potentials, used to describe the aqueous vertical ionization energies for six molecules, including aniline, phenol, veratrole alcohol, imidazole, methoxybenzene, and dimethylsulfide. Experimental and computational data enable us to decompose the VIEaq into elementary processes. For neutral compounds, the shift in VIE upon solvation, ΔVIEaq, was found to range from ≈-0.5 to -0.91 eV. The ΔVIEaq was further explained in terms of the influence of deforming the gas phase solute into its solution phase conformation, the influence of solute hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor interactions with proximate solvent molecules, and the polarization of about 3000 outerlying solvent molecules. Among the neutral compounds, variability in ΔVIEaq appeared largely controlled by differences in solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions. Detailed computational analysis of the flexible molecule veratrole alcohol reveals that the VIE is strongly dependent on molecular conformation in both gas and aqueous phases. Finally, aqueous reorganization energies of the oxidation half-cell ionization reaction were determined from experimental data or estimated from simulation for the six compounds aniline, phenol, phenolate, veratrole alcohol, dimethylsulfide, and methoxybenzene, revealing a surprising constancy of 2.06 to 2.35 eV. PMID:25516011

  17. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  18. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children. PMID:20478054

  19. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits

    PubMed Central

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (Vout) versus input (Vin) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of ≈45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. PMID:19940239

  20. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits.

    PubMed

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M

    2009-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (V(out)) versus input (V(in)) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately 45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. PMID:19940239

  1. Synthesis and crystal growth of Mg2Si by the liquid encapsulated vertical gradient freezing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Reo; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of Mg2Si bulk crystals was performed by the vertical gradient freezing method using a KCl-MgCl2 eutectic liquid encapsulant. Stoichiometric polycrystalline Mg2Si bulk crystals were successfully grown by changing the composition ratio of starting Mg and Si powders (Mg/Si) from 2.0 to 3.5. A chemical reaction between Mg2Si and the crucible materials was inhibited using encapsulant materials, and the contamination by K or Cl originating from the encapsulant materials was not detected in almost all the samples. However, Mg evaporation could not be prevented completely during the synthesis and crystal growth. The optical band-gap energy of Mg2Si bulk crystals became minimal (0.79 eV) at a Mg/Si ratio of 2.5, at which the maximum electron mobility of 202 cm2V-1s-1 was obtained. These results indicate that the composition ratio of Mg/Si = 2.5 for starting Mg and Si powders was optimal for synthesizing Mg2Si bulk crystals with high crystalline quality.

  2. Multi-domain vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystals for reduced off-axis gamma shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Park, Byung Wok; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

    2013-03-01

    Several liquid crystal (LC) modes, such as twisted nematic, vertical alignment (VA), and in-plane switching, have been in competition with each other in the LC display market. Among them, the VA mode has been widely used because of the high contrast ratio. Since the LC molecules are aligned perpendicular to the substrate in the initial state, an excellent dark state can be obtained at normal viewing direction. However, effective phase retardation of LC layer at oblique viewing direction differs greatly from that at normal viewing direction. Thus, gamma distortion phenomenon occurs at oblique view direction. To reduce the gamma shift in the VA mode at oblique viewing direction, multi-domain VA modes were proposed. Although gamma shifts of these modes are smaller than that of the single domain VA mode, the problems still remain. Recently, several technologies for 8-domain alignment have been proposed to decrease the gamma shift at off-axis. However, additional driving circuits are required to realize the eight-domain structure. In this paper we report technologies for the multi-domain VA mode with no additional driving circuits. By using the proposed technologies, we can obtain the dual threshold voltage in each sub-pixel to realize the multi-domain VA mode with no decrease of contrast ratio.

  3. Polymer stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal display: effect of monomer structures and their stabilizing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, You Ri; Choi, Young Eun; Wen, Pushen; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Kim, Jong Chan; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-04-01

    A polymer-stabilized vertical alignment (PS-VA) mode using a new type of photoreactive monomer for polymer stabilization of the liquid crystal (LC) director was developed. Conventional reactive mesogens having a higher molecular weight than those of the host LC tend to aggregate and form large-sized polymer grains when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, subsequently deteriorating the quality of the dark state. To address these problems, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) diacrylates were synthesized with four different linking groups as stabilizing monomers (SMs) which have molecular weights similar to that of the host LC. Their stabilizing characteristics with respect to the molecular size and polarity of SMs were evaluated by examining the electro-optic characteristics of LC cells after UV irradiation. The results showed that the SM containing a small linking group in size between biphenyls with high polarity was favored to achieve excellent polymer stabilization. The SM containing an ether linkage showed excellent electro-optic characteristics with no large-sized polymer grains even in the absence of a photo-initiator. Consequently, we anticipate that SMs, polar and smaller in size, can improve the electro-optic characteristics in PS-VA mode.

  4. Integral transformations of deflections of the vertical onto satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    With the advent of geodetic satellite missions mapping almost globally the Earth's gravitational field, new methods and theoretical approaches have been developed and investigated to fully exploit the potential of their new observables. Besides estimating values of numerical coefficients in harmonic series of the gravitational potential, new applications emerged such as data validation and combination. In this contribution, new integral transformations are presented which transform principal components of the terrestrial deflection of the vertical onto disturbing satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data at altitude. Using spherical approximation, necessary integral kernel functions are derived in both spectral and closed forms. The behaviour of isotropic kernel functions is studied and the new integral transformations are tested in a closed-loop simulation using synthetic terrestrial and satellite data synthesized from a global gravitational model. New integral transformations can be used for data validation and combination purposes.

  5. Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

  6. Optoelectronic integrated circuits utilising vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, S D; Fyodorov, V B; Tsvetkov, V V

    1999-09-30

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits with additional optical inputs/outputs, in which vertical-cavity surface-emitting (VCSE) lasers perform the data transfer functions, are considered. The mutual relationship and the 'affinity' between optical means for data transfer and processing, on the one hand, and the traditional electronic component base, on the other, are demonstrated in the case of implementation of three-dimensional interconnects with a high transmission capacity. Attention is drawn to the problems encountered when semiconductor injection lasers are used in communication lines. It is shown what role can be played by VCSE lasers in solving these problems. A detailed analysis is made of the topics relating to possible structural and technological solutions in the fabrication of single lasers and of their arrays, and also of the problems hindering integrating of lasers into emitter arrays. Considerable attention is given to integrated circuits with optoelectronic smart pixels. Various technological methods for vertical integration of GaAs VCSE lasers with the silicon substrate of a microcircuit (chip) are discussed. (review)

  7. REVIEW: Optoelectronic integrated circuits utilising vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, S. D.; Fyodorov, V. B.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    1999-09-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits with additional optical inputs/outputs, in which vertical-cavity surface-emitting (VCSE) lasers perform the data transfer functions, are considered. The mutual relationship and the 'affinity' between optical means for data transfer and processing, on the one hand, and the traditional electronic component base, on the other, are demonstrated in the case of implementation of three-dimensional interconnects with a high transmission capacity. Attention is drawn to the problems encountered when semiconductor injection lasers are used in communication lines. It is shown what role can be played by VCSE lasers in solving these problems. A detailed analysis is made of the topics relating to possible structural and technological solutions in the fabrication of single lasers and of their arrays, and also of the problems hindering integrating of lasers into emitter arrays. Considerable attention is given to integrated circuits with optoelectronic smart pixels. Various technological methods for vertical integration of GaAs VCSE lasers with the silicon substrate of a microcircuit (chip) are discussed.

  8. A formulation for vertically integrated groundwater flow in a stratified coastal aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, O. D. L.; Ausk, B. K.

    2015-08-01

    We present the comprehensive discharge potential for steady three-dimensional flow in horizontally stratified coastal aquifers with a horizontal base and a vertical coastline. The gradient of this comprehensive potential gives the vertically integrated discharge throughout the aquifer, i.e., the specific discharge vector as a function of three-dimensional space integrated over the saturated portion of the aquifer. The boundary values of the comprehensive potential along the coast can be computed precisely, given the geometry of the aquifer: the hydraulic conductivities of the strata, the elevations of the horizontal planes that separate the strata, and the elevation of the impermeable base of the aquifer relative to sea level. Boundary conditions of the comprehensive potential may either be given in terms of its gradient, or computed from given heads along the boundaries. The governing equation of the comprehensive potential is the Poisson equation in areas of infiltration and the Laplace equation elsewhere. The computation of interface elevations, piezometric heads, and the vertical distribution of flow requires that an assumption be made regarding the relation between the comprehensive potential and piezometric heads. We adopt the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation for this purpose and make use of the Ghyben-Herzberg equation. We present several applications of the approach and find that the stratification may have a significant effect on the boundary value of the comprehensive potential, and thus on the flow rates in the aquifer.

  9. Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission.

    PubMed

    Larrue, Alexandre; Wilhelm, Christophe; Vest, Gwenaelle; Combrié, Sylvain; de Rossi, Alfredo; Soci, Cesare

    2012-03-26

    A novel photonic structure formed by the monolithic integration of a vertical III-V nanowire on top of a L3 two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is proposed to enhance light emission from the nanowire. The impact on the nanowire spontaneous emission rate is evaluated by calculating the spontaneous emission factor β, and the material gain at threshold is used as a figure of merit of this vertical emitting nanolaser. An optimal design is identified for a GaAs nanowire geometry with r = 155 nm and L~1.1 μm, where minimum gain at threshold (gth~13×10³ cm⁻¹) and large spontaneous emission factor (β~0.3) are simultaneously achieved. Modification of the directivity of the L3 photonic crystal cavity via the band-folding principle is employed to further optimize the far-field radiation pattern and to increase the directivity of the device. These results lay the foundation for a new approach toward large-scale integration of vertical emitting nanolasers and may enable applications such as intra-chip optical interconnects. PMID:22453454

  10. Integrated numerical prediction of atomization process of liquid hydrogen jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Ohira, Katsuhide; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Chitose, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    The 3-D structure of the liquid atomization behavior of an LH jet flow through a pinhole nozzle is numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. The present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis focuses on the thermodynamic effect on the consecutive breakup of a cryogenic liquid column, the formation of a liquid film, and the generation of droplets in the outlet section of the pinhole nozzle. Utilizing the governing equations for a high-speed turbulent cryogenic jet flow through a pinhole nozzle based on the thermal nonequilibrium LES-VOF model in conjunction with the CSF model, an integrated parallel computation is performed to clarify the detailed atomization process of a high-speed LH2 jet flow through a pinhole nozzle and to acquire data, which is difficult to confirm by experiment, such as atomization length, liquid core shape, droplet-size distribution, spray angle, droplet velocity profiles, and thermal field surrounding the atomizing jet flow. According to the present computation, the cryogenic atomization rate and the LH2 droplets-gas two-phase flow characteristics are found to be controlled by the turbulence perturbation upstream of the pinhole nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface and shear stress between the liquid core and the periphery of the LH2 jet. Furthermore, calculation of the effect of cryogenic atomization on the jet thermal field shows that such atomization extensively enhances the thermal diffusion surrounding the LH2 jet flow.

  11. Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Xu, Liwei

    2010-07-06

    An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

  12. Interdisciplinary Social Science: An Example of Vertical and Horizontal Integrative Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durlabhji, Subhash

    2005-03-01

    A "Concept-Centered" strategy for Integrative Studies was proposed and implemented in the creation of the book Power in Focus: Perspectives from Multiple Disciplines. Essays on the ubiquitous concept of Power were solicited internationally and a final cut of ten essays from ten different disciplines, written specifically for this project, were included. This provides an example of what might be called Horizontal Integration, as it cut across multiple disciplines. One of the essays in the volume provides an example of Vertical Integration, as it applies a psychodynamic hypothesis concerning the development of Power relations among humans across hierarchical levels, from the child to the family to other groups and institutions in society, including finally entire nations and regions of the world.

  13. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Valerio

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors.

  14. Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

  15. Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the wave propagation is represented graphically in terms of a flow map based on the liquid and gas flow rates and the prediction carries over to the nonlinear regime with only a small deviation.

  16. An Integrated Liquid Cooling System Based on Galinstan Liquid Metal Droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiu Yang; Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2016-01-27

    The continued miniaturization of electronic components demands integrated liquid cooling systems with minimized external connections and fabrication costs that can be implanted very close to localized hot spots. This might be challenging for existing liquid cooling systems because most of them rely on external pumps, connecting tubes, and microfabricated heat sinks. Here, we demonstrate an integrated liquid cooling system by utilizing a small droplet of liquid metal Galinstan, which is placed over the hot spot. Energizing the liquid metal droplet with a square wave signal creates a surface tension gradient across the droplet, which induces Marangoni flow over the surface of droplet. This produces a high flow rate of coolant medium through the cooling channel, enabling a "soft" pump. At the same time, the high thermal conductivity of liquid metal extends the heat transfer surface and facilitates the dissipation of heat, enabling a "soft" heat sink. This facilitates the rapid cooling of localized hot spots, as demonstrated in our experiments. Our technology facilitates customized liquid cooling systems with simple fabrication and assembling processes, with no moving parts that can achieve high flow rates with low power consumption. PMID:26716607

  17. Experimental investigation of inclined liquid water jet flow onto vertically located superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibar, Ali; Karabay, Hasan; Yiğit, K. Süleyman; Ucar, Ikrime O.; Erbil, H. Yıldırım

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the behaviour of an inclined water jet, which is impinged onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, has been investigated experimentally. Water jet was impinged with different inclination angles (15°-45°) onto five different hydrophobic surfaces made of rough polymer, which were held vertically. The water contact angles on these surfaces were measured as 102°, 112°, 123°, 145° and 167° showing that the last surface was superhydrophobic. Two different nozzles with 1.75 and 4 mm in diameters were used to create the water jet. Water jet velocity was within the range of 0.5-5 m/s, thus the Weber number varied from 5 to 650 and Reynolds number from 500 to 8,000 during the experiments. Hydrophobic surfaces reflected the liquid jet depending on the surface contact angle, jet inclination angle and the Weber number. The variation of the reflection angle with the Weber number showed a maximum value for a constant jet angle. The maximum value of the reflection angle was nearly equal to half of the jet angle. It was determined that the viscous drag decreases as the contact angle of the hydrophobic surface increases. The drag force on the wall is reduced dramatically with superhydrophobic surfaces. The amount of reduction of the average shear stress on the wall was about 40%, when the contact angle of the surface was increased from 145° to 167°. The area of the spreading water layer decreased as the contact angle of the surface increased and as the jet inclination angle, Weber number and Reynolds number decreased.

  18. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beimforde, M.; Andricek, L.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    2010-12-01

    The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm-2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

  19. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  20. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  1. Novel Vertical Interconnects With 180 Degree Phase Shift for Amplifiers, Filters, and Integrated Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, novel low loss, wide-band coplanar stripline technology for RF/microwave integrated circuits is demonstrated on high resistivity silicon wafer. In particular, the fabrication process for the deposition of spin-on-glass (SOG) as a dielectric layer, the etching of microvias for the vertical interconnects, the design methodology for the multiport circuits and their measured/simulated characteristics are graphically illustrated. The study shows that circuits with very low loss, large bandwidth and compact size are feasible using this technology. This multilayer planar technology has potential to significantly enhance RF/microwave IC performance when combined with semiconductor devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  2. Performance and Transient Behavior of Vertically Integrated Thin-film Silicon Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wyrsch, Nicolas; Choong, Gregory; Miazza, Clément; Ballif, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Vertical integration of amorphous hydrogenated silicon diodes on CMOS readout chips offers several advantages compared to standard CMOS imagers in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range and dark current while at the same time introducing some undesired transient effects leading to image lag. Performance of such sensors is here reported and their transient behaviour is analysed and compared to the one of corresponding amorphous silicon test diodes deposited on glass. The measurements are further compared to simulations for a deeper investigation. The long time constant observed in dark or photocurrent decay is found to be rather independent of the density of defects present in the intrinsic layer of the amorphous silicon diode.

  3. Liquid-crystal tunable waveguides for integrated plasmonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zografopoulos, D. C.; Beccherelli, R.; Tasolamprou, A. C.; Kriezis, E. E.

    2013-02-01

    A broad range of liquid-crystal tunable plasmonic waveguides, based on long-range, dielectric-loaded, and channel surface plasmon polaritons, are theoretically designed and investigated. Liquid-crystal switching is rigorously modeled by solving for the coupled elastic/electrostatic problem, whereas the optical studies are conducted via the finite-element method. Extensive tunability of key optical properties, such as modal index, propagation losses, and modal confinement is demonstrated for waveguides of different optical confinement scale. These highly functional waveguiding structures are proposed as building blocks for the design of functional components, e.g. optical attenuators, directional couplers and switches, in integrated plasmonic chips.

  4. Stability of a vertical liquid film with consideration of the marangoni effect and heat exchange with the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrova, O. A.

    2014-05-01

    The stability of a free vertical liquid film under the combined action of gravity and thermocapillary forces has been studied. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes and thermal conductivity equations is obtained for the case of plane steady flow with constant film thickness. It is shown that if the free surfaces of the film are perfectly heat insulated, the liquid flow rate through the cross section of the layer is zero. It is found that to close the model with consideration of the heat exchange with the environment, it is necessary to specify the liquid flow rate and the derivative of the temperature with respect to the longitudinal coordinate or the flow rate and the film thickness. The stability of the solution with constant film thickness at small wave numbers is studied. A solution of the spectral problem for perturbations in the form of damped oscillations is obtained.

  5. An Evaluation Process of Polymeric Adhesive Wafer Bonding for Vertical System Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yongchai; Seok, Jongwon

    2005-06-01

    Bonding of wafers using dielectric polymer thin films as bonding adhesives is one of key approaches to monolithic vertical system integration. As the first step for the integration, properties of the polymer desired for baseline adhesive material are studied, followed by the evaluations on bonding results obtained from wafer pairs bonded between a silicon and a glass wafers. Four sequential evaluation procedures are performed after bonding; (1) optical inspection is made to measure the fraction of bonded area, (2) a razor blade test is taken to separate the bonded wafers, (3) a four-point bending method is used to measure bonding strength quantitatively, (4) FTIR is applied to analyze changes in chemical structure. Bonding integrity is evaluated how the intentionally created debond areas of the bonded wafers are changed after the subsequent thinning processes. To date, benzocyclobutene (BCB), FlareTM, and methylsilsesquioxane (MSSQ) and Parylene-N have been considered as bonding adhesives. Among these polymer materials, BCB and FlareTM are selected as initial adhesive materials after a screening process through optical inspection. Wafer pairs bonded using FlareTM have higher bond strength than those using BCB. However, the bond strength of wafer pairs bonded using BCB is still higher than that at the interface between Cu and porous low-k inter-level dielectrics (ILD) (a back end interconnect structure), indicating almost 100% of bonded area reproducibly. In the light of such evaluation results, BCB has been eventually selected as a baseline adhesive material for the wafer bonding prcess for vertical system integration.

  6. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-17

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking, in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  7. Development of a proximity sensor with vertically monolithic integrated inductive and capacitive sensing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Pei-Hsuan; Tseng, Shih-Hsiung; Yeh, Jen-Hao; Fang, Weileun

    2013-03-01

    This study designs and implements a proximity sensor consisting of inductive and capacitive sensing units. These two sensing units are vertically monolithic integrated on a single chip using the micro-fabrication processes. In addition, low-temperature fabricated nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) is employed as the dielectric layer to enhance the performance of capacitive sensing. The characteristics of the presented vertically monolithic integrated inductive and capacitive proximity sensor are as follows: (1) enlarged sensing distance of conductive objectives: capacitive sensing unit for short distance detection and inductive sensing unit for long distance detection, (2) non-conductive object can be detected by the capacitive sensing unit, (3) fringe effect capacitive sensing is enhanced by the spiral coil electrode and (4) np-AAO has good dielectric properties (the dielectric constant is 11.9 in this study) for capacitive sensing. In application, various materials (including metal, plastic and a human finger) have been successfully detected by the presented sensor. Preliminary results demonstrate that the typical fabricated proximity sensor has a sensing range of 0.5-5 mm for the metal rod. In comparison, the inductive and capacitive sensing units have the sensing ranges of 1.5-5 and 0.5-3 mm, respectively. Moreover, the non-conductive plastic rod can be detected by the capacitive sensing unit.

  8. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-01

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking; in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  9. Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy via thermodynamic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2014-07-28

    A novel thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme is presented to compute the crystal-liquid interfacial free energy (γ{sub cl}) from molecular dynamics simulation. The scheme is applied to a Lennard-Jones system. By using extremely short-ranged and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls to confine the liquid and crystal phases, we overcome hysteresis problems of previous TI schemes that stem from the translational movement of the crystal-liquid interface. Our technique is applied to compute γ{sub cl} for the (100), (110), and (111) orientation of the crystalline phase at three temperatures under coexistence conditions. For one case, namely, the (100) interface at the temperature T = 1.0 (in reduced units), we demonstrate that finite-size scaling in the framework of capillary wave theory can be used to estimate γ{sub cl} in the thermodynamic limit. Thereby, we show that our TI scheme is not associated with the suppression of capillary wave fluctuations.

  10. Integration of liquid surface PFCs into DEMO or FNSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygren, Richard E.

    2016-02-01

    Many ideas for liquid surface PFCs are for divertors. First walls are likely to be more challenging technologically because long flow paths are necessary for fast flowing systems and the first wall must be an integral structure with the blanket. Maximum tolerable heat loads are a critical concern. This paper describes several processes at work in walls with fast-flowing or slow-flowing liquid plasma-facing surfaces, and the considerations imposed by heat transfer and the power balance for the PFC as well as the structure needed for an integrated first wall and blanket, and uses thermal modeling of a generic PFC structure to illustrate the issues and support the conclusions.

  11. Use of Vertically Integrated Ice in WRF-Based Forecasts of Lightning Threat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., jr.; Goodman, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously reported methods of forecasting lightning threat using fields of graupel flux from WRF simulations are extended to include the simulated field of vertically integrated ice within storms. Although the ice integral shows less temporal variability than graupel flux, it provides more areal coverage, and can thus be used to create a lightning forecast that better matches the areal coverage of the lightning threat found in observations of flash extent density. A blended lightning forecast threat can be constructed that retains much of the desirable temporal sensitivity of the graupel flux method, while also incorporating the coverage benefits of the ice integral method. The graupel flux and ice integral fields contributing to the blended forecast are calibrated against observed lightning flash origin density data, based on Lightning Mapping Array observations from a series of case studies chosen to cover a wide range of flash rate conditions. Linear curve fits that pass through the origin are found to be statistically robust for the calibration procedures.

  12. The effect of junction modes between backbones and side chains of polyimides on the stability of liquid crystal vertical alignment.

    PubMed

    Che, Xinyuan; Gong, Shiming; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Bin; Wang, Yinghan

    2016-01-27

    Polyimides (PI-N9 and PI-N12) were synthesized from two kinds of functional diamines, whose junction modes between backbones and side chains were different. Side chains of PI-N9 were linked to the backbones with an ether bond spacer; and side chains of PI-N12 were directly linked to the backbones without any spacer. The PI alignment layer surfaces were investigated by atomic force microscopy, surface free energy measurements, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and polarized attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. It was found that PI-N9 lost the vertical alignment capability after high-strength rubbing, while PI-N12 could still induce liquid crystals (LCs) to align vertically under the same condition. The mechanism of the macroscopic molecular orientation of the PI surface is proposed. During the high-strength rubbing process, the side chain could rotate around the flexible ether bond which existed between the side chain and the main chain of PI-N9 and then fell over. Therefore, PI-N9 could not induce the vertical alignment of LCs anymore. But PI-N12 could keep LCs aligning vertically all the time, which proved that the stability of LC alignment induced by PI-N12 was better. PMID:26766667

  13. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  14. From puddling to heaping to cracking - ordered and disordered reliefs in vertically vibrated liquid-saturated granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleier-Smith, J. M.; Stone, H. A.

    1999-11-01

    Vertical vibrations are known to induce patterning instabilities in various fluid and fluid-like systems. Well known examples include the Faraday instability in viscous and nonviscous fluids and the patterned relief observed in dry granular systems. We study the instabilities of flat layers of granular material saturated with interstitial liquid and bounded above by an air interface. Increasing acceleration amplitude leads first to the accumulation of puddles of liquid on the surface as the grains compact, followed by a transition to a convection-driven heaping relief. This heaping phenomenon bears similarity to that observed in a granular system in a completely aqueous environment.^1 However, our system is quite different due to the air interface and because we study relatively thin layers of granular material, 20-50 diameters high, rather than hundreds of diameters in thickness. While the heaping relief we observe is generally disordered, under some conditions heaps arrange themselves into a robust and regular pattern. Heaps break up at higher drive accelerations, and the hilly relief gives way to cracking and violent breakup. We report on the phase portrait in critical acceleration versus frequency for the transitions to heaping and to cracking. ^1 V.G. Kozlov, A.A. Ivanova, and P. Evesque. Sand behavior in a cavity with incompressible liquid under vertical vibrations. Europhysics Lett. 42, 413-418 (1998).

  15. Vertical and horizontal transmission of salmonella within integrated broiler production system.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Liljebjelke KA; Hofacre CL; Liu T; White DG; Ayers S; Young S; Maurer JJ

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the leading causes of food-borne illness in the United States, and many key questions regarding the introduction and persistence in animal production systems still remain. In order to understand the ecology of Salmonella within an integrated commercial broiler production system, 289 Salmonella enterica were recovered from two integrated poultry farms during the production and processing of seven consecutive flocks. The variety and prevalence of Salmonella serotypes differed between farms. Overall, 15 serotypes were identified, with the most common being Typhimurium (55%), Montevideo (7.9%), Kentucky (9%), and Enteritidis (9.7%). Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis isolates recovered from processed carcasses from Farm One were further characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and were shown to be indistinguishable from isolates recovered from the poultry house environment and mice trapped on this farm. Additionally, the same broiler S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis strains, identified by PFGE, were also isolated from samples taken at a company breeder farm, suggesting vertical transmission of these Salmonella serotypes in this poultry production system. Results indicate that management practices at the breeder level may have a profound effect on the transmission and persistence of salmonellae within an integrated production system, as well as on the potential contamination of poultry-derived products.

  16. Vertical and horizontal transmission of salmonella within integrated broiler production system.

    PubMed

    Liljebjelke, Karen A; Hofacre, Charles L; Liu, Tongrui; White, David G; Ayers, Sherry; Young, Suzanne; Maurer, John J

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the leading causes of food-borne illness in the United States, and many key questions regarding the introduction and persistence in animal production systems still remain. In order to understand the ecology of Salmonella within an integrated commercial broiler production system, 289 Salmonella enterica were recovered from two integrated poultry farms during the production and processing of seven consecutive flocks. The variety and prevalence of Salmonella serotypes differed between farms. Overall, 15 serotypes were identified, with the most common being Typhimurium (55%), Montevideo (7.9%), Kentucky (9%), and Enteritidis (9.7%). Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis isolates recovered from processed carcasses from Farm One were further characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and were shown to be indistinguishable from isolates recovered from the poultry house environment and mice trapped on this farm. Additionally, the same broiler S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis strains, identified by PFGE, were also isolated from samples taken at a company breeder farm, suggesting vertical transmission of these Salmonella serotypes in this poultry production system. Results indicate that management practices at the breeder level may have a profound effect on the transmission and persistence of salmonellae within an integrated production system, as well as on the potential contamination of poultry-derived products. PMID:15992303

  17. Vertically integrated ZnO-Based 1D1R structure for resistive switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Duan, Ziqing; Li, Rui; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Reyes, Pavel I.; Ashrafi, Almamun; Zhong, Jian; Lu, Yicheng

    2013-04-01

    We report a ZnO-based 1D1R structure, which is formed by a vertical integration of a FeZnO/MgO switching resistor (1R) and an Ag/MgZnO Schottky diode (1D). The multifunctional ZnO and its compounds are grown through MOCVD with in situ doping. For the R element, the current ratio of the high-resistance state (HRS) over the low-resistance state (LRS) at 1 V is 2.4 × 106. The conduction mechanisms of the HRS and LRS are Poole-Frenkel emission and resistive conduction, respectively. The D element shows the forward/reverse current ratio at ±1 V to be 2.4 × 107. This 1D1R structure exhibits high RHRS/RLRS ratio, excellent rectifying characteristics and robust retention.

  18. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  19. Light-control of liquid crystal alignment from vertical to planar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata Alla, Rasha; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

    2013-06-01

    Continuous or discontinuous transition from vertical to planar alignment was found in nematic cells, containing polyimide alignment layer exposed to linear polarized UV light, depending on whether the alignment layer was mechanically rubbed or not prior the illumination. The polyimide material is designed originally to promote vertical alignment when deposited onto the inner cell substrates' surface. The mechanism behind these observations is complicated. It includes inclination of the alkyl side chains of the polyimide alignment layer towards the rubbing direction and the bond breaking process due to UV illumination which are considered as the key factors for occurrence of such alignment transition.

  20. Absolute and convective instability of a viscous liquid jet surrounded by a viscous gas in a vertical pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. P.; Lian, Z. W.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute and convective instability of a viscous liquid jet emanating into a viscous gas in a vertical pipe is analyzed in a parameter space spanned by the Reynolds number, the Froude number, the Weber number, the viscosity ratio, the density ratio, and the diameter ratio. The numerical results of the analysis are used to demonstrate that reduction in gravity tends to enhance the Rayleigh mode of convective instability which leads to the breakup of a liquid jet into drops of diameters comparable with the jet diameter. On the contrary, the Taylor mode of convective instability that leads to atomization is retarded at reduced gravity. The Rayleigh mode becomes absolutely unstable when the Reynolds number exceeds a critical value for a given set of the rest of the relevant parameters. The domain of absolute instability is significantly enlarged when the effect of gas viscosity is not neglected.

  1. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer inside a vertical channel in evaporating a heated falling glycols liquid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nait Alla, Abderrahman; Feddaoui, M'barek; Meftah, Hicham

    2015-12-01

    The interactive effects of heat and mass transfer in the evaporation of ethylene and propylene glycol flowing as falling films on vertical channel was investigated. The liquid film falls along a left plate which is externally subjected to a uniform heat flux while the right plate is the dry wall and is kept thermally insulated. The model solves the coupled governing equations in both phases together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. The systems of equations obtained by using an implicit finite difference method are solved by Tridiagonal Matrix Algorithm. The influence of the inlet liquid flow, Reynolds number in the gas flow and the wall heat flux on the intensity of heat and mass transfers are examined. A comparison between the results obtained for studied glycols and water in the same conditions is made. The results indicate that water evaporates in more intense way in comparison to glycols and the increase of gas flow rate tends to improve slightly the evaporation.

  2. Numerical investigation on boiling flow of liquid nitrogen in a vertical tube using bubble number density approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xuefeng; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Rongshun

    2016-04-01

    An average bubble number density (ABND) model was formulated and numerically resolved for the subcooled flow boiling of liquid nitrogen. The effects of bubble coalescence and breakup were taken into account. Some new closure correlations describing bubble nucleation and departure on the heating surface were selected as well. For the purpose of comparison, flow boiling of liquid nitrogen was also numerically simulated using a modified two-fluid model. The results show that the simulations performed by using the ABND model achieve encouraging improvement in accuracy in predicting heat flux and wall temperature of a vertical tube. Moreover, the influence of the bubble coalescence and breakup is shown to be great on predicting overall pressure beyond the transition point.

  3. Numerical investigation on boiling flow of liquid nitrogen in a vertical tube using bubble number density approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xuefeng; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Rongshun

    2015-06-01

    An average bubble number density (ABND) model was formulated and numerically resolved for the subcooled flow boiling of liquid nitrogen. The effects of bubble coalescence and breakup were taken into account. Some new closure correlations describing bubble nucleation and departure on the heating surface were selected as well. For the purpose of comparison, flow boiling of liquid nitrogen was also numerically simulated using a modified two-fluid model. The results show that the simulations performed by using the ABND model achieve encouraging improvement in accuracy in predicting heat flux and wall temperature of a vertical tube. Moreover, the influence of the bubble coalescence and breakup is shown to be great on predicting overall pressure beyond the transition point.

  4. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  5. Positioning for capitation in long-term care: a profile of vertical integration strategies in health and social service organizations.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A M

    1998-01-01

    During the next decade, the population over age 65 is expected to increase by 11% while the population over age 85 is expected to increase by 42%. These projections suggest that many organizations which currently provide services to the aged will be required to design a range of new products and services for this diverse population. Vertically integrated services provide a viable opportunity to competitively position an organization to respond to the diverse needs of an aged market. Since vertical integration will be essential in negotiating capitate contracts for the aged in the future, this study examined the extent of vertical integration in 116 health and social service organizations in an urban market with an expanding geriatric population. PMID:10180253

  6. Vertical flow in the Thermoelectric Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Structures (TELS) facility at Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Fiflis, P.; Szott, M.; Kalathiparambil, K.; Jung, S.; Christenson, M.; Haehnlein, I.; Kapat, A.; Andruczyk, D.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    Flowing liquid metal PFCs may offer a solution to the issues faced by solid divertor materials in tokamak plasmas. The Liquid-Metal Infused Trenches (LiMIT) concept of Illinois Ruzic et al. (2011) is a liquid metal plasma facing structure which employs thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) effects to self-propel lithium through a series of trenches. The combination of an incident heat flux and a magnetic field provide the driving mechanism. Tests have yielded experimental lithium velocities under different magnetic fields, which agree well with theoretical predictions Xu et al. (2013). The thermoelectric force is expected to overcome gravity and be able to drive lithium flow along an arbitrary direction and the strong surface tension of liquid lithium is believed to maintain the surface when Li flows in open trenches. This paper discusses the behavior of the LiMIT structure when inclined to an arbitrary angle with respect to the horizontal.

  7. A numerical study of the effects of the vertical baffle on liquid sloshing in two-dimensional rectangular tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyildiz, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The liquid sloshing in a moving partially filled rectangular tank with a vertical baffle is investigated. A numerical algorithm based on the volume of fluid (VOF) technique is used to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid sloshing. The numerical model solves the complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables by using of finite difference approximations with the moving coordinate system. The ratio of baffle height to the initial liquid depth has been changed in the range of 0≤ hB/ h≤1.2. The critical baffle height to reach the roof of the tank and the baffle height beyond the liquid does not get over the baffle anymore have been investigated. The vortex originated by the flow separation from the baffle tip became weaker with increasing the baffle height. In order to assess the accuracy of the method used, some results with baffle height are compared with the experimental results. Comparisons show good agreement for slosh loads in the cases investigated. The free surface elevation and the time variations of pressures have been also presented.

  8. Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Surdo, S; Merlo, S; Carpignano, F; Strambini, L M; Trono, C; Giannetti, A; Baldini, F; Barillaro, G

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we report all-silicon, integrated optofluidic microsystems (OFMs) fabricated by electrochemical micromachining (ECM) technology, in which high aspect-ratio (HAR) photonic crystal (PhC) devices (i.e. micromirrors, optical cavities) are integrated by one-etching-step, together with microfluidic reservoirs/channels, for the infiltration of liquids in the PhC air gaps, and with fiber grooves for alignment/positioning of readout optical fibers in front of the PhC, on the same silicon die. This has not previously been reported in the literature, and opens up new ground in, though not limited to, the optofluidics field, due to the low-cost and high-flexibility of the ECM technology that allows optofluidic microsystem fabrication to be performed in any lab. Optofluidic characterization of PhC-OFMs by both capillary-action and pressure-driven operations is carried out through the measurement of the reflectivity spectra of HAR-PhCs upon injection of liquids featuring different refractive index values in the HAR-PhC air gaps, by using readout optical fibers positioned in the on-chip fiber grooves. High sensitivity and good limit of detection of PhC-OFMs are obtained for both capillary-action and pressure-driven operations. A best sensitivity value of 670 nm/RIU and a worst-case limit of detection of the order of 10(-3) RIU are measured, the former being comparable to state-of-the-art integrated refractive index sensors and the latter being limited by constraints of the experimental setup. The proof of concept about the biosensing potential of PhC-OFMs is given by successfully carrying out a sandwich assay based on antigen-antibody interactions for the detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP) at a concentration value of 10 mg L(-1), which represents the boundary level between physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:22930245

  9. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

  10. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the executive summary of the five volume series.

  11. Integrated vapor-liquid-solid silicon mass sensors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, Brian A.; Gorman, Jason J.; Keylyuk, Sergiy; Davydov, Albert

    2015-08-01

    We present the results and progress of research to create a multiplex chemical sensor based on Au catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) silicon nanowires deployed as resonant mass sensors. Each element of this sensor has a single VLS wire grown in close proximity to a Si photodiode. Together they create a Fabry-Prot interferometer that allows for the sensitive detection of the beam's resonant motion. Small changes in mass on the cantilever that occur as a result of chemical absorption on the functionalized Au surface shift the resonant frequency. Our integrated approach will allow large reductions in system complexity for this sensor class.

  12. Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

  13. Integration of diffractive optical elements with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.E.; Du, T.C.; Wendt, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are very desirable sources for a variety of optical system applications. In particular, the inherent planarity of arrays of VCSELs makes them ideal for compact 3-dimensional optical interconnect systems. Despite smaller beam divergence than edge emitting lasers, spreading of the beam emerging perpendicular to the surface of the VCSEL limits the range of free space transmission, reduces the device density in an array and can introduce cross-talk. Although an external optical system using a separate lens array is a possible solution, the idea may be impractical or expensive due to constraints such as space limitations or the additional need for an optomechanical system to position the lenses. An alternative approach is the integration of high efficiency diffractive optics and VCSELs on a single transparent substrate. Such a compact source is also very attractive for miniature optical instrumentation applications. Integrating diffractive optical elements with substrate-emitting VCSELs provides a method for manipulating the propagation properties of the exiting beams. With diffractive structures, a broad range of optical elements can be easily designed and fabricated and high diffraction efficiencies can be achieved with current processing technologies.

  14. Heterogeneously integrated III-V laser on thin SOI with compact optical vertical interconnect access.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jing; Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris Keh Ting; Krishnamurthy, Vivek; Lee, Chee Wei; Tang, Kun; Seng Kay, Anthony Yew; Loh, Ter Hoe; Wang, Qian

    2015-04-01

    A new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure is reported in this report that consists of a III-V ridge waveguide gain section on silicon, III-V/Si optical vertical interconnect accesses (VIAs), and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonic waveguide sections. The III-V semiconductor layers are introduced on top of the 300-nm-thick SOI layer through low temperature, plasma-assisted direct wafer-bonding and etched to form a III-V ridge waveguide on silicon as the gain section. The optical VIA is formed by tapering the III-V and the beneath SOI in the same direction with a length of 50 μm for efficient coupling of light down to the 600 nm wide silicon nanophotonic waveguide or vice versa. Fabrication details and specification characterizations of this heterogeneous III-V/Si Fabry-Perot (FP) laser are given. The fabricated FP laser shows a continuous-wave lasing with a threshold current of 65 mA at room temperature, and the slope efficiency from single facet is 144  mW/A. The maximal single facet emitting power is about 4.5 mW at a current of 100 mA, and the side-mode suppression ratio is ∼30  dB. This new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure demonstrated enables more complex laser configuration with a sub-system on-chip for various applications. PMID:25831337

  15. Vertically Integrated Models for CO2 Storage with Coupled Thermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Gray, W. G.; Dahle, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    CO2 storage involves coupled processes that affect the migration and ultimate fate of injected CO2 over multiple length and time scales. Coupled thermal and mechanical processes may have implications for storage security, including thermally induced fracturing and loss of caprock integrity near the wellbore. This may occur when CO2 is injected at a different temperature from reservoir conditions, e.g. Snøhvit injection, potentially leading to large temperature, density and volume changes over space and time. In addition, thermally induced density changes impact plume buoyancy that may affect large-scale migration patterns in gravity-driven systems, e.g. Sleipner injection. This interaction becomes particularly important near the critical point. Therefore, thermal processes should be considered in order to correctly capture plume migration within the reservoir. A practical modeling approach for CO2 storage at the field scale is the vertical-equilibrium (VE) model, which solves partially integrated conservation equations for flow in two lateral dimensions. This class of models is well suited for strongly segregated flows. We extend the classical VE model to nonisothermal systems by integrating the heat transport equations, focusing on thermal processes that most impact the CO2 plume. The model allows for heating/cooling of the CO2 plume through heat exchange with the surrounding environment. The upscaling procedure assumes vertically constant temperature across the plume thickness for relatively thin plumes. Conduction across the plume boundaries, into the caprock above and brine below, is modeled by an analytical heat transfer function. As a starting point, we investigate the validity of the simplifying assumptions and heat transfer boundary conditions for relatively simple systems. We find that the upscaled model compares well for systems where heat advection in the plume is the dominant heat transport mechanism. For high CO2 flux, improvements to the model can be made with more complex heat transfer functions. For lower CO2 flux, conduction within the surroundings becomes an important process that requires additional consideration. The results of this work demonstrate the potential for reduced models to advance our understanding of the impact of thermal processes in realistic storage systems.

  16. Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

    The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of α-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

  17. Observing Nitrogen Bubbles in Liquid Zinc in a Vertical Hele-Shaw Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaasen, Bart; Verhaeghe, Frederik; Blanpain, Bart; Fransaer, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Observations of gas bubbles in liquid metal are strongly hindered by the opacity of metals. To circumvent this limitation, the authors recently proposed to study such systems under quasi-2D flow conditions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The current paper presents a successful application of this approach for nitrogen bubbles in liquid zinc at 973 K (700 °C) in a fused quartz cell with a thickness of 1.5 mm. At low oxygen levels, the cell walls are not wetted by the liquid zinc, and bubbles can be observed directly through the transparent cell walls. Furthermore, using a moving high-speed camera that travels upwards with the bubbles, their properties are quantified in detail along the entire trajectory. In the range of equivalent diameters between 5.9 and 9.0 mm, this reveals a single periodic flow regime in which bubbles follow a sinusoidal path with a characteristic frequency of 3.31 Hz. In addition, systematic intermediate accelerations are observed of which the origin remains unexplained. Considering the unprecedented resolution of such observations for bubbles in liquid metals, especially at high temperatures, it is expected that this approach will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern gas injection in pyrometallurgy.

  18. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of integrated thruster/PMS tests demonstrate operation of the feed system in the relevant environment.

  19. Evaluation of NSF's Program of Grants and Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the National Science Foundation (NSF) launched a program of Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE). These grants were designed for institutions with PhD-granting departments in the mathematical sciences, for the purpose of developing high-quality education programs, at all levels,

  20. Evaluation of NSF's Program of Grants and Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the National Science Foundation (NSF) launched a program of Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE). These grants were designed for institutions with PhD-granting departments in the mathematical sciences, for the purpose of developing high-quality education programs, at all levels,…

  1. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Gadea, G; Morata, A; Santos, J D; Dávila, D; Calaza, C; Salleras, M; Fonseca, L; Tarancón, A

    2015-05-15

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of 〈111〉 aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications. PMID:25902702

  2. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadea, G.; Morata, A.; Santos, J. D.; Dávila, D.; Calaza, C.; Salleras, M.; Fonseca, L.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-05-01

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of <111> aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications.

  3. Gas-liquid pressure drop in vertical internally wavy 90 bend

    SciTech Connect

    Benbella, Shannak; Al-Shannag, Mohammad; Al-Anber, Zaid A.

    2009-01-15

    Experiments of air water two-phase flow pressure drop in vertical internally wavy 90 bend have been carried out. The tested bends are flexible and made of stainless steel with inner diameter of 50 mm and various curvature radiuses of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mm. The experiments were performed under the following conditions of two-phase parameters; mass flux from 350 to 750 kg/m{sup 2} s. Gas quality from 1% to 50% and system pressure from 4 to 7.5 bar. The results demonstrate that the effect of the above-mentioned parameters is very significant at high ranges of mass flow quality. Due to the increasing of two-phase flow resistance, energy dissipations, friction losses and interaction of the two-phases in the vertical internally wavy 90 bend the total pressure drops are perceptible about 2-5 times grater than that in smooth bends. Based on the mass and energy balance as well as the presented experimental results, new empirical correlation has been developed to calculate the two-phase pressure drop and hence the two-phase friction factor of the tested bends. The correlation includes the relevant primary parameter, fit the data well, and is sufficiency accurate for engineering purposes. (author)

  4. Single cavity Fabry-Perot modulator enhancements and integrated vertically coupled cavity light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daxin

    Fabry-Perot modulators with Multi-Quantum Wells (MQWs) cavities have been studied with great interest during recent years. Usually operating as intensity modulators, these devices have very high modulation contrast ratios, can be operated at very high speed, can be easily made into two dimensional arrays and can be integrated with silicon ICs. They are thus very promising for optical interconnects, optical switching and image processing applications. But before these modulators are to be used in real applications, there are several issues that need to be solved, including the parasitic phase modulation, the bandwidth of such modulators and the alignment of modulator operation wavelength with the wavelength of lasers or light emitting diodes. In this work, the phase properties of Fabry-Perot reflection modulators will be discussed first and an experimental method using a modified Michelson interferometer to characterize the exact phase change will be demonstrated. It is demonstrated that the phase of the reflection light beam from a Fabry-Perot modulator is determined not only by the refractive index change inside the cavity but also by the absorption change inside the cavity. With the purpose of expanding the limited bandwidth of such modulator, devices with short passive cavities are designed and fabricated, the results are described and trade-offs between modulation depth and bandwidth will be discussed. In order to solve the problem of alignment and expand the functionality of Fabry-Perot modulators further, vertically coupled cavity devices with each cavity being electrically controlled independently have been developed. Both a coupled cavity modulator and an integrated light emitting diode with a transmission Fabry-Perot modulator are demonstrated; the first device enhances the modulation bandwidth while the second device has the potential of combining the advantage of high speed operation of MQWs modulators with the long lifetime and low cost of light emitting diodes.

  5. Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

  6. InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated and vertically coupled with silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Qiu, Chao; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V materials with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuitry by an adhesive die-to-wafer bonding process has been proposed as a solution to Si-based lasers and photodetectors. Here, we present the design and optimization of an InGaAs PIN photodetector vertically coupled with the underlying SOI waveguide, which could be readily fabricated using this bonding process. With the help of grating couplers, a thick bonding layer of 2.5 μm is applied, which inherently avoids the risk of low-bonding yield suffering in the evanescent coupling counterpart. An anti-reflection layer is also introduced between the bonding layer and the III-V layer stack to relieve the accuracy requirement for the bonding layer thickness. Besides, by optimizing the structure parameters, a high-absorption efficiency of 82% and a wide optical 1dB-bandwidth of 220nm are obtained. The analysis shows that the detection bandwidth of the present surface-illuminated photodetector is generally limited by transit-time in the i-InGaAs layer. The relationship of the detection bandwidth and the absorption efficiency versus the i-InGaAs layer thickness is presented for the ease of choosing proper structure parameters for specific applications. With the results presented here, the device can be readily fabricated.

  7. An integrated model of substrate clogging in vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hua, G F; Li, L; Zhao, Y Q; Zhu, W; Shen, J Q

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents an integrated model of substrate clogging in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW). The model simulates the reduction of pore space in the wetland substrate due to combined influences of various physical, biogeochemical and plant-related processes. A series of experiments based on laboratory-scale VFCWs were conducted to examine and measure key parameters related to clogging of the wetland substrate during operation under different conditions. The model was then validated using data collected from the experiments. The results showed that the model was able to replicate the clogging phenomenon as observed in the experiments, in particular, the characteristic clogging time. The model also predicted well individual contributions to clogging by accumulated inert suspended solids, microbial biomass and plant root materials during the wetland operation. Although the validation was based on the laboratory data, the results indicated that the model describes well the processes underlying the clogging and has the potential to become a tool for assessing the performance of prototype CWs in relation to clogging at both the design and operation stages. PMID:23454415

  8. VISTA (Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications) user interface software study

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, G.

    1990-04-01

    The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) project is an initiative to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective application of basic research results by end users. Developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, VISTA's purpose is to develop and deploy information systems (software or software/hardware products) to broad segments of various markets. Inherent in these products would be mechanisms for accessing PNL-resident information about the problem. A goal of VISTA is to incorporate existing, commercially available user interface technology into the VISTA UIMS. Commercial systems are generally more complete, reliable, and cost-effective than software developed in-house. The objective of this report is to examine the current state of commercial user interface software and discuss the implications of selections thereof. This report begins by describing the functionality of the user interface as it applies to users and application developers. Next, a reference model is presented defining the various operational software layers of a graphical user interface. The main body follows which examines current user interface technology by sampling a number of commercial systems. Both the window system and user interface toolkit markets are surveyed. A summary of the current technology concludes this report. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Microbial nitrogen removal pathways in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; He, Feng; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-05-01

    Microbial nitrogen (N) removal pathways in planted (Canna indica L.) and unplanted integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems (IVCWs) were investigated. Results of, molecular biological and isotope pairing experiments showed that nitrifying, anammox, and denitrifying bacteria were distributed in both down-flow and up-flow columns of the IVCWs. Further, the N transforming bacteria in the planted IVCWs were significantly higher than that in the unplanted ones (p<0.05). Moreover, the potential nitrification, anammox, and denitrification rates were highest (18.90, 11.75, and 7.84nmolNg(-1)h(-1), respectively) in the down-flow column of the planted IVCWs. Significant correlations between these potential rates and the absolute abundance of N transformation genes further confirmed the existence of simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification (SNAD) processes in the IVCWs. The anammox process was the major N removal pathway (55.6-60.0%) in the IVCWs. The results will further our understanding of the microbial N removal mechanisms in IVCWs. PMID:26897412

  10. Vertical integration of cosmid and YAC resources for interval mapping on the X-chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.; Coffey, A.J.; Giannelli, F.; Bentley, D.R. )

    1993-02-01

    The vertical integration of cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) resources is of particular importance in the development of high-resolution maps of selected regions of the human genome. A resource of approximately 95,000 cosmids constructed using DNA from primary fibroblasts of karyotype 49,XXXXX was validated by detailed characterization of a 200-kb cosmid contig spanning exons 8-20 of the dystrophin gene. This resource was used to construct contigs in 0.65 Mb of Xq26 by hybridization of gel-purified YAC DNA to high-density gridded arrays of the cosmid library; positive cosmids were overlapped by fingerprinting. Contigs were oriented and ordered relative to existing YACs in the region using cross-hybridization. The overlaps between a representative set of cosmids define 54 intervals of 5-20 kb and were used to construct a high-resolution cosmid interval map of the region, locating markers, dinucleotide repeats, and candidate CpG islands. This approach can be applied rapidly to large regions of the genome and without recourse to subcloning of individual YACs. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Flow pattern changes influenced by variation of viscosities of a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture flow in a vertical channel

    SciTech Connect

    Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard

    2011-02-15

    In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)

  12. Forced convection heat transfer from a wire inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe to liquid hydrogen flowing upward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Forced convection heat transfer from a PtCo wire with a length of 120 mm and a diameter of 1.2 mm that was inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe with a diameter of 8.0 mm to liquid hydrogen flowing upward was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate under saturated conditions. The pressures were varied from 0.4 MPa to 1.1 MPa. The non-boiling heat transfer characteristic agrees with that predicted by Dittus-Boelter correlation. The critical heat fluxes are higher for higher flow rates and lower pressures. Effect of Weber number on the CHF was clarified and a CHF correlation that can describe the experimental data is derived based on our correlation for a pipe.

  13. Transient Heat Transfer from a Wire Inserted into a Vertically Mounted Pipe to Forced Flow Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The transient heat transfer from a Pt-Co wire heater inserted into a vertically mounted pipe, through which forced flow subcooled liquid hydrogen was passed, is measured by increasing the exponential heat input with various time periods at a pressure of 0.7 MPa and an inlet temperature of 21 K. The flow velocities range from 0.8 to 5.5 m/s. For shorter periods, the non-boiling heat transfer becomes higher than that given by the Dittus-Boelter equation due to the transient conductive heat transfer contribution. In addition, the transient critical heat flux (CHF) becomes higher than the steady-state CHF. The effect of the flow velocity and period on the transient CHF heat flux is also clarified.

  14. Arrayed optical switches based on integrated liquid crystal microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Fan, Di; Zhang, Bo; Tong, Qing; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-10-01

    Based on our previous work in liquid-crystal microlens arrays (LCMAs), a new kind of arrayed optical switches (AOSs) based on LCMAs with a key dual-mode function including beam convergence and divergence, is proposed and simulated in this paper. Different with our previous LCMAs, the developed LCMAs leading to AOSs have two layers of control electrodes deposited directly over the surface of the top glass substrate. One is the patterned electrode, which is designed into basic circular holes with suitable diameter, and the other is the planar electrode. Both layered electrodes are effectively separated by a thin SiO2 film with a typical thickness of about several micrometers, and then driven by electrical signals with different root mean square (rms) voltage amplitude. The experiment results show that the AOSs can work well through applying proper voltage signals over the device. Compared with other AOS structures, our AOSs have a greater integration level and lower cost.

  15. Towards monolithic integration of mode-locked vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaz, Rafael I.

    2007-12-01

    The speed and performance of today's high end computing and communications systems have placed difficult but still feasible demands on off-chip electrical interconnects. However, future interconnect systems may need aggregate bandwidths well into the terahertz range thereby making electrical bandwidth, density, and power targets impossible to meet. Optical interconnects, and specifically compact semiconductor mode-locked lasers, could alleviate this problem by providing short pulses in time at 10s of GHz repetition rates for Optical Time Division Multiplexing (OTDM) and clock distribution applications. Furthermore, the characteristic spectral comb of frequencies of these lasers could also serve as a multi-wavelength source for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) applications. A fully integrated mode-locked Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is proposed as a low-cost high-speed source for these applications. The fundamental laser platform for such a device has been developed and a continuous-wave version of these lasers has been fabricated and demonstrated excellent results. Output powers close to 60mW have been obtained with very high beam quality factor of M2 < 1.07. The mode-locked laser utilizes a passive mode-locking region provided by a semiconductor saturable absorber integrated together with the gain region. Such an aggressive integration forces the resonant beam in the cavity to have the same area on the gain and absorber sections, placing high demands on the saturation fluence and absorption coefficient for the saturable absorber. Quantum Wells (QWs), excitons in QWs and Quantum Dots (QDs) have been investigated as possible saturable absorbers for the proposed device. QDs have been found to have the lowest saturation fluence and total absorption, necessary to meet the mode-locking requirements for this configuration. The need to further understand QDs as saturable absorbers has led to the development of a theoretical model on the dynamics of this quantum system. The model agrees very well with the experimental data obtained and predicts the design of unassisted ultrafast QD saturable absorbers, without the need to incorporate high concentrations of non radiative recombination centers by either ion-implantation or low temperature growth.

  16. Lateral integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and slow light Bragg reflector waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toshikazu; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-03-20

    We present the modeling and the experiment on the lateral integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and slow light Bragg reflector waveguide devices. The modeling shows an efficient direct-lateral coupling from a VCSEL to an integrated slow light waveguide. The calculated result shows a possibility of 13 dB chip gain and an extinction ratio over 5 dB for a compact slow light semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and electroabsorption modulator integrated with a VCSEL, respectively. We demonstrate an SOA-integrated VCSEL, exhibiting the maximum output power over 6 mW. Also, we fabricate a sub-50-μm long electroabsorption modulator laterally integrated with a VCSEL. An extinction ratio of over 15 dB for a voltage swing of 2.0 V is obtained without noticeable change of threshold. In addition, we demonstrate an on-chip electrothermal beam deflector integrated with a VCSEL. PMID:24663452

  17. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon‐to‐liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub‐bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal‐Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat‐camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger‐scale process demonstration studies of the CHI process in combination with CCU to generate synthetic jet and diesel fuels from algae and algae fertilized crops. Site assessment and project prefeasibility studies are planned with a major EPC firm to determine the overall viability of ICTL technology commercialization with Crow coal resources in south central Montana.

  18. [Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition].

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2011-03-01

    Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system. PMID:21634169

  19. Remote measurements of ozone, water vapor and liquid water content, and vertical profiles of temperature in the lower troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.; Gary, B. L.; Shumate, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several advanced atmospheric remote sensing systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were demonstrated under various field conditions to determine how useful they would be for general use by the California Air Resources Board and local air quality districts. One of the instruments reported on is the Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS). It has a pair of carbon dioxide lasers with a transmitter and receiver and can be flown in an aircraft to measure the column abundance of such gases as ozone. From an aircraft, it can be used to rapidly survey a large region. The LAS is usually operated from an aircraft, although it can also be used at a fixed location on the ground. Some tests were performed with the LAS to measure ozone over a 2-km horizontal path. Another system reported on is the Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing System (MARS). It is tuned to microwave emissions from water vapor, liquid water, and oxygen molecules (for atmospheric temperature). It can measure water vapor and liquid water in the line-of-sight, and can measure the vertical temperature profile.

  20. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

  1. Fabrication of thin vertical mirrors through plasma etch and KOH:IPA polishing for integration into MEMS electrostatic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, M. Q.; Amin, T. M. F.; Ning, Y.; McKinnon, G.; Tulip, J.; Jäger, W.

    2013-03-01

    We developed a process for the fabrication of thin vertical mirrors as integrated structures of MEMS electrostatic actuators. The mirrors can be implemented as a vertical extension of the actuator sidewall, or can be positioned at any movable part of the actuator. The process involves the fabrication of a mesa structure on the handle layer of a silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafer through deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The etch/passivation cycles of the DRIE process were optimized to achieve vertical etch profiles with a depth of up to 200 μm with an aspect ratio of 10:1. The DRIE process introduced typical etch scallops with peak-to-valley and rms roughnesses on the order of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A mask layer was used to pattern a 2.1 μm sacrificial oxide layer for the mesa structure. A second mask layer allowed us to define a large etch cavity for handle layer back-etch. The DRIE etched mesa structure was then etched with diluted potassium hydroxide (KOH) in isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Temperature and etch concentration were optimized for the removal of etch scallops without the formation of <111> etch facets. The etch scallops were almost completely removed and mirror quality surfaces were achieved. The developed mesa structures are suitable for integration into actuators that are patterned in the device layer. A third masking layer, aligned through infrared camera, was used to position the thin vertical mirror at the actuator sidewall. The process provides design flexibility in integrating vertical mirrors of adjustable dimensions to movable elements of MEMS structures.

  2. Vertically integrated logic circuits constructed using ZnO-nanowire-based field-effect transistors on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeongmin; Moon, Taeho; Jeon, Youngin; Kim, Hoyoung; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    ZnO-nanowire-based logic circuits were constructed by the vertical integration of multilayered field-effect transistors (FETs) on plastic substrates. ZnO nanowires with an average diameter of -100 nm were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition for use as the channel material in FETs. The ZnO-based FETs exhibited a high I(ON)/I(OFF) of > 10(6), with the characteristic of n-type depletion modes. For vertically integrated logic circuits, three multilayer FETs were sequentially prepared. The stacked FETs were connected in series via electrodes, and C-PVPs were used for the layer-isolation material. The NOT and NAND gates exhibited large logic-swing values of -93%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of three dimensional flexible logic circuits. PMID:23858894

  3. Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels

    SciTech Connect

    Nilpueng, Kitti; Wongwises, Somchai

    2006-06-15

    Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} are investigated. The flow phenomena, which are bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and dispersed bubbly flow are observed and recorded by high-speed camera. When the phase shifts are increased, the onset of the transition from the bubbly flow to the churn flow shifts to a higher value of superficial air velocity, and the regions of the slug flow and the churn flow are smaller. In other words, the regions of the bubbly flow and the dispersed bubbly flow are larger as the phase shift increases. The slug flow pattern is only found in the test sections with phase shifts of 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Recirculating gas bubbles are always found in the troughs of the corrugations. The recirculating is higher when the phase shifts are larger. The relationship between the two-phase multipliers calculated from the measured pressure drops, and the Martinelli parameter is compared with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. The correlation in the case of turbulent-turbulent condition is shown to fit the data very well for the phase shift of 0{sup o} but shows greater deviation when the phase shifts are higher. (author)

  4. Vertically integrated shared learning models in general practice: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The numbers of learners seeking placements in general practice is rapidly increasing as an ageing workforce impacts on General Practitioner availability. The traditional master apprentice model that involves one-to-one teaching is therefore leading to supervision capacity constraints. Vertically integrated (VI) models may provide a solution. Shared learning, in which multiple levels of learners are taught together in the same session, is one such model. This study explored stakeholders’ perceptions of shared learning in general practices in northern NSW, Australia. Methods A qualitative research method, involving individual semi-structured interviews with GP supervisors, GP registrars, Prevocational General Practice Placements Program trainees, medical students and practice managers situated in nine teaching practices, was used to investigate perceptions of shared learning practices. A thematic analysis was conducted on 33 transcripts by three researchers. Results Participants perceived many benefits to shared learning including improved collegiality, morale, financial rewards, and better sharing of resources, knowledge and experience. Additional benefits included reduced social and professional isolation, and workload. Perceived risks of shared learning included failure to meet the individual needs of all learners. Shared learning models were considered unsuitable when learners need to: receive remediation, address a specific deficit or immediate learning needs, learn communication or procedural skills, be given personalised feedback or be observed by their supervisor during consultations. Learners’ acceptance of shared learning appeared partially dependent on their supervisors’ small group teaching and facilitation skills. Conclusions Shared learning models may partly address supervision capacity constraints in general practice, and bring multiple benefits to the teaching environment that are lacking in the one-to-one model. However, the risks need to be managed appropriately, to ensure learning needs are met for all levels of learners. Supervisors also need to consider that one-to-one teaching may be more suitable in some instances. Policy makers, medical educators and GP training providers need to ensure that quality learning outcomes are achieved for all levels of learners. A mixture of one-to-one and shared learning would address the benefits and downsides of each model thereby maximising learners’ learning outcomes and experiences. PMID:24079420

  5. Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Pól, Jaroslav; Kolari, Kai; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-03-10

    A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC-MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL(-1)), linearity (r>0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD=2.6-4.0%) and retention time (RSD=0.3-0.5%) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section. PMID:20171315

  6. Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

  7. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

  8. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Yusuke; OH, Jae Min; Kuwahara, Renpei

    2009-01-01

    Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy)-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs). PMID:20087476

  9. Transient heat transfer from a wire to a forced flow of subcooled liquid hydrogen passing through a vertically- mounted pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Inatani, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Transient heat transfers from Pt-Co wire heaters inserted into vertically-mounted pipes, through which forced flow subcooled liquid hydrogen was passed, were measured by increasing the exponential heat input with various time periods at a pressure of 0.7 MPa and inlet temperature of 21 K. The flow velocities ranged from 0.3 to 7 m/s. The Pt-Co wire heaters had a diameter of 1.2 mm and lengths of 60 mm, 120 mm and 200 mm and were inserted into the pipes with diameters of 5.7mm, 8.0 mm, and 5.0 mm, respectively, which were made of Fiber reinforced plastic due to thermal insulation. With increase in the heat flux to the onset of nucleate boiling, surface temperature increased along the curve predicted by the Dittus-Boelter correlation for longer period, where it can be almost regarded as steady-state. For shorter period, the heat transfer became higher than the Dittus-Boelter correlation. In nucleate boiling regime, the heat flux steeply increased to the transient CHF (critical heat flux) heat flux, which became higher for shorter period. Effect of flow velocity, period, and heated geometry on the transient CHF heat flux was clarified.

  10. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  11. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action

  12. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  13. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  14. Vertically integrated simulation tools for self-consistent tracking and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, E.; Nishimura, H.

    1989-03-01

    A modeling, simulation and analysis code complex, the Gemini Package, was developed for the study of single-particle dynamics in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now being built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the philosophy behind the package, with special emphasis on our vertical approach. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Optical AND/OR gates based on monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woon-Kyung; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Do-Gyun; Choi, Young-Wan; Choquette, Kent D; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok-Ha

    2006-11-27

    Latching optical switches and optical logic gates with AND and OR functionality are demonstrated for the first time by the monolithic integration of a vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor structure. The thyristors have a low threshold current of 0.65 mA and a high on/off contrast ratio of more than 50 dB. By simply changing a reference switching voltage, this single device operates as two logic functions, optical logic AND and OR. The thyristor laser fabricated by using the oxidation process and has achieved high optical output power efficiency and a high sensitivity to the optical input light. PMID:19529606

  16. Cloud vertical structure and the impact of MODIS liquid water path retrieval assumptions: Developing a theoretical framework and evaluating retrievals using large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Ackerman, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical structure of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds plays an important role in satellite retrievals of cloud microphysical properties such as droplet size (re) , liquid water path (LWP), and droplet number concentration (CDNC). Passive optical retrievals of LWP such as those performed by MODIS rely on cloud vertical structure assumptions to relate cloud optical thickness (τ) and re retrievals to a corresponding LWP. Typically these passive remote sensing techniques assume that clouds are vertically homogenous [Platnick et al., 2003]. However, it has been suggested that an adiabatic cloud model could potentially introduce more realistic assumptions for some MBL cloud regimes [Wood and Hartmann, 2005; Bennartz, 2007]. In reality, cloud vertical structure is often more complicated than either of these assumptions because structure can be altered by both precipitation and mixing processes. This work examines the impact of varied and realistic cloud vertical structures on retrievals requiring fixed homogeneous or adiabatic structure assumptions. To address this we use the DHARMA cloud large-eddy simulation (LES) model [Ackerman et al. 2004] and a MODIS-like satellite retrieval simulator [Zhang et al. 2012]. The LES and retrieval simulator allow for the direct comparison of retrievals to the in-situ microphysical structure of the LES cloud field. Physical properties from the LES cloud field such as the degree of adiabaticity and droplet growth lapse rate are examined and linked to the impact of retrieval biases. The retrieval comparison led to the development of a predictive theoretical framework for determining which of the LES pixels satisfied either homogeneous or adiabatic vertical structure assumptions. The theoretical model was also utilized to extend a single-layer adiabatic cloud model to an arbitrary two-layer model capable of characterizing the impact of entrainment features on cloud retrievals performed on the LES. Our results overwhelmingly demonstrate that the impact of realistic cloud vertical structure on retrievals is more complicated than either of the vertical structure assumptions currently being implemented by the remote sensing community.

  17. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal through ion beam exposure on oxygen-doped SiC films deposited at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Phil Kook; Park, Jeung Hun; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Rho, Soon Joon; Jeon, Back Kyun; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jang Sub; Lim, Soon Kwon

    2007-09-03

    The authors report the vertical alignment of liquid crystal (LC) through the ion beam exposure on amorphous oxygen-doped SiC (SiOC) film surfaces deposited at room temperature. The optical transmittance of these films was similar to that of polyimide layers, but much higher than that of SiO{sub x} films. The light leakage of a LC cell aligned vertically on SiOC films was much lower than those of a LC cell aligned on polyimide layers or other inorganic films. They found that LC molecules align vertically on ion beam treated SiOC film when the roughness of the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) data is high on the SiOC film surface, while they align homogeneously when the roughness of the EFM data is low.

  18. A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal mode to obtain a higher transmittance and lower driving voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hun; Hur, Sung-Taek; Park, Chang-Sub; Park, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Suk-Won; Kang, Shin-Won; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate a vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) mode for solving low transmittance and high driving voltage problems in conventional in-plane-switching (IPS) PS-BPLC modes. By controlling the ray directions of incident beams by means of two prism sheets attached to the top and bottom substrates, continuous grayscale properties can be achieved with a vertical field, where the transmittance of the proposed structure can be increased to become twice as high as that of a IPS PS-BPLC cell, and its driving voltage can also be lowered by about 20 V. With the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC mode, the hysteresis problem of the IPS PS-BPLC mode can also be solved due to a reduction of the electric field required to achieve sufficient field-induced retardation.

  19. Experimental natural convection on vertical surfaces for building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fossa, M.; Menezo, C.; Leonardi, E.

    2008-02-15

    An experimental study on natural convection in an open channel is carried out in order to investigate the effect of the geometrical configuration of heat sources on the heat transfer behaviour. To this aim, a series of vertical heaters are cooled by natural convection of air flowing between two parallel walls. The objective of the work is to investigate the physical mechanisms which influence the thermal behaviour of a double-skin photovoltaic (PV) facade. This results in a better understanding of the related phenomena and infers useful engineering information for controlling the energy transfers from the environment to the PV surfaces and from the PV surfaces to the building. Furthermore increasing the heat transfer rate from the PV surfaces increases the conversion efficiency of the PV modules since they operate better as their temperature is lower. The test section consists in a double vertical wall, 2 m high, and each wall is constituted by 10 different heating modules 0.2 m high. The heater arrangement simulates, at a reduced scale, the presence of a series of vertical PV modules. The heat flux at the wall ranges from 75 to 200 W/m{sup 2}. In this study, the heated section is 1.6 m in height, preceded by an adiabatic of 0.4 m in height. Different heating configurations are analyzed, including the uniform heating mode and two different configurations of non uniform, alternate heating. The experimental procedure allows the wall surface temperature, local heat transfer coefficient and local and average Nusselt numbers to be inferred. The experimental evidences show that the proper selection of the separating distance and heating configuration can noticeably decrease the surface temperatures and hence enhance the conversion efficiency of PV modules. (author)

  20. An integrated view of the 1987 Australian monsoon and its mesoscale convective systems. II - Vertical structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mapes, Brian; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The vertical structure of monsoon thermal forcing by precipitating convection is diagnosed in terms of horizontal divergence. Airborne Doppler-radar divergence profiles from nine diverse mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are presented. The MCSs consisted of multicellular convective elements which in time gave rise to areas of stratiform precipitation. Each of the three basic building blocks of the MCSs - convective, intermediary, and stratiform precipitation areas - has a consistent, characteristic divergence profile. Convective areas have low-level convergence, with its peak at 2-4 km altitude, and divergence above 6 km. Intermediary areas have convergence aloft, peaked near 10 km, feeding into mean ascent high in the upper troposphere. Stratiform areas have mid-level convergence, indicating a mesoscale downdraught below the melting level, and a mesoscale updraught aloft. Rawinsonde composite divergence profiles agree with the Doppler data in at least one important respect: the lower-tropospheric convergence into the MCSs peaks 2-4-km above the surface. Rawinsonde vorticity profiles show that monsoonal tropical cyclones spin-up at these elevated levels first, then later descend to the surface. Rawinsonde observations on a larger, continental scale demonstrate that at large horizontal scales only the 'gravest vertical mode' of MCS heating is felt, while the effects of shallower components of the heating (or divergence) profiles are trapped near the heating, as predicted by geostrophic adjustment theory.

  1. A high performance P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator with self-connected and vertically integrated fibers by patterned EHD pulling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; An, Ningli; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectricity based energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations has attracted extensive attention for its potential application in powering wireless mobile electronics recently. Here, a patterned electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pulling technology was proposed to fabricate a new self-connected, piezoelectric fiber array vertically integrated P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator, with a molecular poling orientation fully aligned to the principal excitation for maximized conversion and a well-bridged electrode pair for efficient charge collection. The nanogenerator is fabricated in a novel way by applying a voltage across an electrode pair sandwiching an air gap and an array of shallow micropillars, during which the EHD force tends to pull the micropillars upward, generating a microfiber array finally in robust contact with the upper electrode. Such a thermoplastic and EHD deformation of the microfibers, featured simultaneously by an electric field and by a microfiber elongation dominantly vertical to the electrode, leads to a poling orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) well coincident with the principal strain for the generator excited by a force normal to the electrodes. The as-prepared piezoelectric device exhibits an enhanced output voltage up to 4.0 V and a current of 2.6 μA, therefore the piezoelectric voltage was enhanced to 5.4 times that from the bulk film. Under periodic mechanical impact, electric signals are repeatedly generated from the device and used to power a seven-segment indicator, RBGY colored light-emitting diodes, and a large-scale liquid crystal display screen. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but offer a new type of self-connected nanogenerator for the next generation of self-powered electronics.Piezoelectricity based energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations has attracted extensive attention for its potential application in powering wireless mobile electronics recently. Here, a patterned electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pulling technology was proposed to fabricate a new self-connected, piezoelectric fiber array vertically integrated P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator, with a molecular poling orientation fully aligned to the principal excitation for maximized conversion and a well-bridged electrode pair for efficient charge collection. The nanogenerator is fabricated in a novel way by applying a voltage across an electrode pair sandwiching an air gap and an array of shallow micropillars, during which the EHD force tends to pull the micropillars upward, generating a microfiber array finally in robust contact with the upper electrode. Such a thermoplastic and EHD deformation of the microfibers, featured simultaneously by an electric field and by a microfiber elongation dominantly vertical to the electrode, leads to a poling orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) well coincident with the principal strain for the generator excited by a force normal to the electrodes. The as-prepared piezoelectric device exhibits an enhanced output voltage up to 4.0 V and a current of 2.6 μA, therefore the piezoelectric voltage was enhanced to 5.4 times that from the bulk film. Under periodic mechanical impact, electric signals are repeatedly generated from the device and used to power a seven-segment indicator, RBGY colored light-emitting diodes, and a large-scale liquid crystal display screen. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but offer a new type of self-connected nanogenerator for the next generation of self-powered electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01746g

  2. A high performance P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator with self-connected and vertically integrated fibers by patterned EHD pulling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; An, Ningli; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-07-21

    Piezoelectricity based energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations has attracted extensive attention for its potential application in powering wireless mobile electronics recently. Here, a patterned electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pulling technology was proposed to fabricate a new self-connected, piezoelectric fiber array vertically integrated P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator, with a molecular poling orientation fully aligned to the principal excitation for maximized conversion and a well-bridged electrode pair for efficient charge collection. The nanogenerator is fabricated in a novel way by applying a voltage across an electrode pair sandwiching an air gap and an array of shallow micropillars, during which the EHD force tends to pull the micropillars upward, generating a microfiber array finally in robust contact with the upper electrode. Such a thermoplastic and EHD deformation of the microfibers, featured simultaneously by an electric field and by a microfiber elongation dominantly vertical to the electrode, leads to a poling orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) well coincident with the principal strain for the generator excited by a force normal to the electrodes. The as-prepared piezoelectric device exhibits an enhanced output voltage up to 4.0 V and a current of 2.6 μA, therefore the piezoelectric voltage was enhanced to 5.4 times that from the bulk film. Under periodic mechanical impact, electric signals are repeatedly generated from the device and used to power a seven-segment indicator, RBGY colored light-emitting diodes, and a large-scale liquid crystal display screen. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but offer a new type of self-connected nanogenerator for the next generation of self-powered electronics. PMID:25981294

  3. Implementing Vertical and Horizontal Engineering Students' Integration and Assessment of Consequence Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to…

  4. Implementing Vertical and Horizontal Engineering Students' Integration and Assessment of Consequence Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to

  5. Vertically integrated models for coupled two-phase flow and geomechanics in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnarâ, Tore I.; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Park, Joonsang

    2016-02-01

    Models of reduced dimensionality have been found to be particularly attractive in simulating the fate of injected CO2 in supercritical state in the context of carbon capture and storage. This is motivated by the confluence of three aspects: the strong buoyant segregation of the lighter CO2 phase above water, the relatively long time scales associated with storage, and finally the large aspect ratios that characterize the geometry of typical storage aquifers. However, to date, these models have been confined to considering only the flow problem, as the coupling between reduced dimensionality models for flow and models for geomechanical response has previously not been developed. Herein, we develop a fully coupled, reduced dimension, model for multiphase flow and geomechanics. It is characterized by the aquifer(s) being of lower dimension(s), while the surrounding overburden and underburden being of full dimension. The model allows for general constitutive functions for fluid flow (relative permeability and capillary pressure) and uses the standard Biot coupling between the flow and mechanical equations. The coupled model retains all the simplicities of reduced-dimensional models for flow, including less stiff nonlinear systems of equations (since the upscaled constitutive functions are closer to linear), longer time steps (since the high grid resolution in the vertical direction can be avoided), and less degrees of freedom. We illustrate the applicability of the new coupled model through both a validation study and a practical computational example.

  6. Integration of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with gratings on SOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Cui, Beibei; Zhang, Meiling; Zhou, Wenqian; Chen, Hongda; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Yu; Tang, Chunxiao; Li, Enbang

    2014-12-01

    We designed a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which comprises a cladding, multiple quantum well (QW) active area, oxide restrict layer, substrate, and high reflectivity distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The VCSEL cavity consists of the cladding, multiple QW active area, and limiting layer. AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb has been used for the DBR mirror system to achieve lattice matching. The QW/barrier comprises GaInAsN/AlGaInAs. By epitaxial growth, the DBR is banded with the active layer at the cavity antinode of the standing wave field, and the cavity length is set to 1.0λ. A double-oxide layer, which is more beneficial than a single-oxide layer, has been adopted in the laser. Discrete Fourier transform is performed on the captured signal to extract the spectral content of the measured signal. By the FDTD method and the PML boundary condition, we achieve a 35% relative light intensity by introducing a TE mode from the cavity to the in-plane grating.

  7. Investigation on silicon oxynitride optical waveguides and optical devices integrated with liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ailing

    This thesis describes a detailed study of the step-index optical channel waveguides fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and a novel waveguide based integrated liquid crystal (LC) optical switch utilizing total internal reflection (TIR) and the large birefringence of liquid crystal. The major contributions presented in this thesis are summarized below. One of the contributions from the research work presented in this thesis is the design and fabrication of step-index channel optical waveguides and characterization of their propagation properties. From the characteristic equations of step-index slab waveguide, the requirements for single mode propagation in step-index channel waveguides are obtained by the effective index method. Starting from the deposition of silicon oxynitride films, two cases of single mode step-index optical channel waveguides are designed and fabricated. Their propagation parameters such as propagation loss, polarization dependent loss and modal birefringence are characterized and analyzed. In addition, the waveguides parameters affected by annealing are also measured and analyzed. At the same time, bending losses of the curved waveguides are also investigated. Results show that the fabricated channel waveguides have acceptable quality and are suitable to be applied in the investigation on integrated liquid crystal optical switches. Integrated liquid crystal optical switches are another major contribution made in this research study. A novel integrated LC optical switch is proposed, which is predicted to have high integration density compared with the semiconductor TIR optical switch and to have high stability compared with the bubble TIR optical switch. The working principle is described and the simulation results show that integrated liquid crystal optical switches do really work. Then, the optical waveguide structures of the integrated liquid crystal optical switches with different incident angles are fabricated and investigated. The factors affecting the reflection of the optical switch structures are analyzed and compared with experimental results. Lastly, the optical switch structure chips are integrated with liquid crystal. The switching performance of the optical switches are measured and analyzed. The optical switches do demonstrate the switch function even though the switch performance is not very good. Comparing with simulation result, the poor performance of the optical switches can be explained by the insufficient refractive index change in liquid crystal. The optical switch performance can be improved by choosing a liquid crystal with large birefringence and by adjusting correctly the liquid crystal molecular orientation direction in the etched groove of the switch structure.

  8. Realization of integral 3-dimensional image using fabricated tunable liquid lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheol Joong; Lee, Jin Su; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting has been widely studied for various optical applications such as optical switch, sensor, prism, and display. In this study, vari-focal liquid lens array is developed using electrowetting principle to construct integral 3-dimensional imaging. The electrowetting principle that changes the surface tension by applying voltage has several advantages to realize active optical device such as fast response time, low electrical consumption, and no mechanical moving parts. Two immiscible liquids that are water and oil are used for forming lens. By applying a voltage to the water, the focal length of the lens could be tuned as changing contact angle of water. The fabricated electrowetting vari-focal liquid lens array has 1mm diameter spherical lens shape that has 1.6mm distance between each lens. The number of lenses on the panel is 23x23 and the focal length of the lens array is simultaneously tuned from -125 to 110 diopters depending on the applied voltage. The fabricated lens array is implemented to integral 3-dimensional imaging. A 3D object is reconstructed by fabricated liquid lens array with 23x23 elemental images that are generated by 3D max tools. When liquid lens array is tuned as convex state. From vari-focal liquid lens array implemented integral imaging system, we expect that depth enhanced integral imaging can be realized in the near future.

  9. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Debbie M.; Krug, Marie K.; Allen, Ariel Z.; Braver, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  10. Faddeev-Jackiw canonical path integral quantization for a general scenario, its proper vertices and generating functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Chang; Liao, Leng; Lee, Xie-Guo

    2009-04-01

    We generalize the Faddeev-Jackiw canonical path integral quantization for the scenario of a Jacobian with J=1 to that for the general scenario of non-unit Jacobian, give the representation of the quantum transition amplitude with symplectic variables and obtain the generating functionals of the Green function and connected Green function. We deduce the unified expression of the symplectic field variable functions in terms of the Green function or the connected Green function with external sources. Furthermore, we generally get generating functionals of the general proper vertices of any n-points cases under the conditions of considering and not considering Grassmann variables, respectively; they are regular and are the simplest forms relative to the usual field theory.

  11. Integrated monolithic 3D MEMS scanner for switchable real time vertical/horizontal cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiyu; Qiu, Zhen; Zhou, Quan; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oldham, Kenn R; Wang, Thomas D

    2016-02-01

    We present an integrated monolithic, electrostatic 3D MEMS scanner with a compact chip size of 3.2 × 2.9 mm2. Use of parametric excitation near resonance frequencies produced large optical deflection angles up to ± 27° and ± 28.5° in the X- and Y-axes and displacements up to 510 μm in the Z-axis with low drive voltages at atmospheric pressure. When packaged in a dual axes confocal endomicroscope, horizontal and vertical cross-sectional images can be collected seamlessly in tissue with a large field-of-view of >1 × 1 mm2 and 1 × 0.41 mm2, respectively, at 5 frames/sec. PMID:26906790

  12. Purifying capability, enzyme activity, and nitrification potentials in December in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland with earthworms and different substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Gu, Jiaru; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yu; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The response of purifying capability, enzyme activity, nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in the rhizosphere in December to wetland plants, substrates, and earthworms was investigated in integrated vertical flow constructed wetlands (IVFCW). The removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN), NH4-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phosphorus (TP) was increased when earthworms were added into IVFCW. A significantly average removal efficiency of N in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate and in IVFCW that employed a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate was not found. However, the average removal efficiency of P was higher in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW with river sand as substrate. Invertase activity in December was higher in IVFCW that used a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW which used only river sand as substrate. However, urease activity, nitrification potential, and total number of bacteria in December was higher in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate than in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate. The addition of earthworms into the integrated vertical flow constructed wetland increased the above-ground biomass, enzyme activity (catalase, urease, and invertase), nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in December. The above-ground biomass of wetland plants was significantly positively correlated with urease and nitrification potentials (p < 0.01). The addition of earthworms into IVFCW increased enzyme activity and nitrification potentials in December, which resulted in improving purifying capability. PMID:26573309

  13. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-11-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 ×1015neq /cm2. We will also report on the R&D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

  14. A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

  15. An integrated nematic liquid crystal in-fiber modulator derivates from capillary optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaohui; Yang, Xinghua; Li, Song; Liu, Zhihai; Hu, Minggang; Qu, Bin; Yuan, Libo

    2016-05-01

    A novel liquid crystal integrated modulation-depth-adjustable in-fiber modulator is proposed. The liquid crystal is encapsulated in a specially designed capillary optical fiber with tubular structure. The experimental results show that the liquid crystal under the electric field can influence the light intensity in the tubular core of the fiber. The light at 632.8 nm in the circular waveguide can be modulated by only 2.71×10-2 nL of the liquid crystals under electric field. The wide range of modulation-depth from 23% to 50% can be obtained by adjusting the strength of the external electric field. In addition, the modulator shows good stability and repeatability. This work has great potentials in integrated in-fiber optical devices such as tunable modulators, optical switches and electric field sensors.

  16. Integrated model development for liquid fueled rocket propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-01-01

    As detailed in the original statement of work, the objective of phase two of this research effort was to develop a general framework for rocket engine performance prediction that integrates physical principles, a rigorous mathematical formalism, component level test data, system level test data, and theory-observation reconciliation. Specific phase two development tasks are defined.

  17. Integrated model development for liquid fueled rocket propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-06-01

    As detailed in the original statement of work, the objective of phase two of this research effort was to develop a general framework for rocket engine performance prediction that integrates physical principles, a rigorous mathematical formalism, component level test data, system level test data, and theory-observation reconciliation. Specific phase two development tasks are defined.

  18. Wavelength-division multiplexed optical integrated circuit with vertical diffraction grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Forouhar, Siamak (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A semiconductor optical integrated circuit for wave division multiplexing has a semiconductor waveguide layer, a succession of diffraction grating points in the waveguide layer along a predetermined diffraction grating contour, a semiconductor diode array in the waveguide layer having plural optical ports facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a first direction, respective semiconductor diodes in the array corresponding to respective ones of a predetermined succession of wavelengths, an optical fiber having one end thereof terminated at the waveguide layer, the one end of the optical fiber facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a second direction, wherein the diffraction grating points are spatially distributed along the predetermined contour in such a manner that the succession of diffraction grating points diffracts light of respective ones of the succession of wavelengths between the one end of the optical fiber and corresponding ones of the optical ports.

  19. Exploratory study for estimating atmospheric low level particle pollution based on vertical integrated optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahi, Houda; Santer, Richard; Weill, Alain; Crepon, Michel; Thiria, Sylvie

    2011-07-01

    We present a method for retrieving atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) from sun-sky photometer measurements (AOT). As PM10 is a "surface parameter" and AOT is an "integrated parameters", we first determined whether a "functional relationship" linking these two quantities exists. Since these two parameters strongly depend on atmospheric structures and meteorological variables, we classified the meteorological situations in terms of weather types by using a neuronal classifier (Self organizing Map). For each weather type, we found that a relationship between AOT and PM10 can be established. We applied this approach to the Lille region (France) for the summer 2007 and then extended to a five summer period (summers of the years 2003-2007) in order to increase the statistical confidence of the PM10 retrieval from AOT measurements. The good performances of the method led us to envisage the possibility of deriving the PM10 from satellite observations.

  20. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino County study phases 1-A, 1-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    User needs, data types, data automation, and preliminary applications are described for an effort to assemble a single data base for San Bernardino County from data bases which exist at several administrative levels. Each of the data bases used was registered and converted to a grid-based data file at a resolution of 4 acres and used to create a multivariable data base for the entire study area. To this data base were added classified LANDSAT data from 1976 and 1979. The resulting data base thus integrated in a uniform format all of the separately automated data within the study area. Several possible interactions between existing geocoded data bases and LANDSAT data were tested. The use of LANDSAT to update existing data base is to be tested.

  1. Micro-optical design of a three-dimensional microlens scanner for vertically integrated micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Maciej; Bargiel, Sylwester; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Jia, Chenping; Frömel, Jörg; Wiemer, Maik

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the optical design of a miniature 3D scanning system, which is fully compatible with the vertical integration technology of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The constraints related to this integration strategy are considered, resulting in a simple three-element micro-optical setup based on an afocal scanning microlens doublet and a focusing microlens, which is tolerant to axial position inaccuracy. The 3D scanning is achieved by axial and lateral displacement of microlenses of the scanning doublet, realized by micro-electro-mechanical systems microactuators (the transmission scanning approach). Optical scanning performance of the system is determined analytically by use of the extended ray transfer matrix method, leading to two different optical configurations, relying either on a ball lens or plano-convex microlenses. The presented system is aimed to be a core component of miniature MOEMS-based optical devices, which require a 3D optical scanning function, e.g., miniature imaging systems (confocal or optical coherence microscopes) or optical tweezers. PMID:26368111

  2. Microfluidic integration of parallel solid-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huft, Jens; Haynes, Charles A; Hansen, Carl L

    2013-03-01

    We report the development of a fully integrated microfluidic chromatography system based on a recently developed column geometry that allows for robust packing of high-performance separation columns in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices having integrated valves made by multilayer soft lithography (MSL). The combination of parallel high-performance separation columns and on-chip plumbing was used to achieve a fully integrated system for on-chip chromatography, including all steps of automated sample loading, programmable gradient generation, separation, fluorescent detection, and sample recovery. We demonstrate this system in the separation of fluorescently labeled DNA and parallel purification of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplified variable regions of mouse immunoglobulin genes using a strong anion exchange (AEX) resin. Parallel sample recovery in an immiscible oil stream offers the advantage of low sample dilution and high recovery rates. The ability to perform nucleic acid size selection and recovery on subnanogram samples of DNA holds promise for on-chip genomics applications including sequencing library preparation, cloning, and sample fractionation for diagnostics. PMID:23384109

  3. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 4: Reviews and presentation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Liquid rocket booster integration study is presented. Volume 4 contains materials presented at the MSFC/JSC/KSC Integrated Reviews and Working Group Sessions, and the Progress Reviews presented to the KSC Study Manager. The following subject areas are covered: initial impact assessment; conflicts with the on-going STS mission; access to the LRB at the PAD; the activation schedule; transition requirements; cost methodology; cost modelling approach; and initial life cycle cost.

  4. Quantum-Classical Path Integral Simulation of Ferrocene-Ferrocenium Charge Transfer in Liquid Hexane.

    PubMed

    Walters, Peter L; Makri, Nancy

    2015-12-17

    We employ the quantum-classical path integral methodology to simulate the outer sphere charge-transfer process of the ferrocene-ferrocenium pair in liquid hexane with unprecedented accuracy. Comparison of the simulation results to those obtained by mapping the solvent on an effective harmonic bath demonstrates the accuracy of linear response theory in this system. PMID:26673195

  5. Comparison of the prevalence and genomic characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolated from various production groups in a vertically integrated swine operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006. Isolation of C. difficile was performed utilizing an enrichment technique and restrictive media. Prelim...

  6. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires: Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    Growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1-xGex alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350 °C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silane provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a "two-step" growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. With increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1-xGex alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.

  7. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires. Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-07

    The growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1- x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350°C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silanemore » provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a “two-step” growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. Furthermore, increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1- x Ge x alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.« less

  8. Integrated liquid-crystal switch for both TE and TM modes: proposal and design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Farrell, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    An integrated optical switch is proposed and designed based on a weak-anchoring liquid-crystal (LC) cell with a substrate integrating planar lightwave circuits. It consists of a polarization splitter, two switchable polarization converters and a polarization combiner. The polarization splitter/combiner is a directional coupler with an etched slot and filled-in LC covering layer. The switchable polarization converters are straight waveguides with a designed length and covering LC. The proposed configuration is superior to the existing integrated LC switches, as it works for both the TE and TM modes. PMID:17912324

  9. Vertically Integrated MEMS SOI Composite Porous Silicon-Crystalline Silicon Cantilever-Array Sensors: Concept for Continuous Sensing of Explosives and Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolyarova, Sara; Shemesh, Ariel; Aharon, Oren; Cohen, Omer; Gal, Lior; Eichen, Yoav; Nemirovsky, Yael

    This study focuses on arrays of cantilevers made of crystalline silicon (c-Si), using SOI wafers as the starting material and using bulk micromachining. The arrays are subsequently transformed into composite porous silicon-crystalline silicon cantilevers, using a unique vapor phase process tailored for providing a thin surface layer of porous silicon on one side only. This results in asymmetric cantilever arrays, with one side providing nano-structured porous large surface, which can be further coated with polymers, thus providing additional sensing capabilities and enhanced sensing. The c-Si cantilevers are vertically integrated with a bottom silicon die with electrodes allowing electrostatic actuation. Flip Chip bonding is used for the vertical integration. The readout is provided by a sensitive Capacitance to Digital Converter. The fabrication, processing and characterization results are reported. The reported study is aimed towards achieving miniature cantilever chips with integrated readout for sensing explosives and chemical warfare agents in the field.

  10. Mixed convection in non-Newtonian fluids along a vertical plate in a liquid-saturated porous medium with melting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdy, A.

    2013-09-01

    A boundary-layer analysis is presented for the problem of mixed convection in a flow of a non-Newtonian fluid from a vertical plate in a liquid-saturated porous medium in the presence of the melting effect. Aiding and opposing external flows are considered. The power-law model for non-Newtonian fluids is used. After a suitable coordinate transformation, the governing boundary-layer equations are reduced to nonlinear coupled differential ones which are solved numerically by employing an implicit finite difference scheme. A discussion of the effect of the viscosity index and melting parameter on the surface heat transfer rate, as well as on the temperature and velocity distributions, is presented. It is shown that melting decreases the local Nusselt number. A comparison with previous published results at various values of the governing parameters for a Newtonian fluid reveals an excellent agreement.

  11. Evaluation of Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystals by measuring off-axis retardation in vertical electric field cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pao-Ju; Chen, Huang-Ming Philip

    2011-09-20

    Because of the nonuniform electric field of the in-plane-switching cell in the thickness direction, an accurate and efficient way for evaluating the Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) needs to be developed. This study demonstrates a method for evaluating the Kerr constant by measuring the off-axis-induced retardation (R(th)) change in normal vertical field cells using a commercial polarimeter. The angle-dependent behavior of the R(th) change is observed as an electric-tunable positive C retarder. In this paper, a sigmoid fitting model has been chosen for calculating the Kerr constant for considering the very small intrinsic birefringence of the BPLC. PMID:21947049

  12. All-optical and polarization-independent spatial filter based on a vertically-aligned polymer-stabilized liquid crystal film with a photoconductive layer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Yi; Ma, Jia-Ming; Mo, Tin-Shan; Lo, Kuo-Ching; Lo, Kuang-Yao; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2009-12-01

    An all-optical and polarization-independent spatial filter was developed in a vertically-aligned (VA) polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) film with a photoconductive (PC) layer. This spatial filter is based on the effect of light on the conductivity of PC layer: high (low)-intensity light makes the conductivity of the PC layer high (low), resulting in a low (high) threshold voltage of the PC-coated VA PSLC cell. Experimental results indicate that this spatial filter is a high-pass filter with low optical-power consumption (about 1.11 mW/cm(2)) in an optical Fourier transform system. The high-pass characteristic was confirmed by simulation. Accordingly, the all-optical and polarization-independent spatial filter can be used to enhance the edges of images. PMID:20052162

  13. Decadal vertical deformation of the Netherlands via the geodetic integration of gravimetry, GNSS, leveling and SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanssen, R. F.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Klees, R.; van der Marel, H.

    2012-12-01

    Surface motion is important for coastal regions such as the Netherlands, situated in the Rhine-Meuse delta. As major parts of the country are very flat and below the high-water levels of the North sea and rivers, land subsidence or uplift should be regarded equally important as absolute sea level variation. Surface motion in the Netherlands covers a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, and is due to tectonics, isostatic adjustment and loading, extraction or injection of hydrocarbons, salt and water, compaction and oxidation of Holocene layers, and surface water level adjustments [Roland: is it really called surface water or do you refer to groundwater?). These scale differences necessitate observation techniques able to capture these signals adequately. Moreover, different geodetic techniques observe different parameters, different physical signals, use different reference systems, and are seldom spatially or temporally collocated. Here we report on the integration of four geodetic techniques: leveling, GNSS, absolute gravimetry and satellite radar (SAR) interferometry. Until recently, individual techniques have mainly been used to validate other techniques. This presentation is about the combination of the various data types covering a period of about two decades, their proper weighting, referencing, and mathematical modeling . The mathematical framework involves a least squares estimation approach that combines the four sets of observables to estimate absolute vertical rates. The framework includes the estimation of full variance covariance matrices and addresses the limitations of the individual techniques in both stochastic and functional models. Furthermore, since millions of observations are employed, in particular for InSAR, data reduction is applied and tuned to the main signal of interest. The framework is applied to the full territory of the Netherlands, producing the first nation-wide decadal land motion map, which combines all available and necessary geodetic data. We disentangle the estimated deformation signal into a part caused by Holocene processes (e.g. peat compaction) and a part originating from deeper deformation sources (e.g., hydrocarbon extraction or Isostatic Adjustment).

  14. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2011-03-01

    In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission. PMID:21348530

  15. Comparative study of microbial community structure in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic and nitrified wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun-Jun; Wu, Su-Qing; Liang, Kang; Wu, Zhenbin; Liang, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial processes play a vital important role in the removal of contaminants in constructed wetland (CW). However, the microbial physiology and community structure can be influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, four pilot-scale integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) were employed to treat domestic and nitrified wastewaters. The microbial properties, along with their response to wastewater quality characteristics and seasonal variation, were determined. The results showed higher Shannon-Weiner diversity (H) and evenness (E) index of fatty acids (FAs), and relative abundances of signature FAs in down-flow cells and in the systems fed with domestic wastewater (DW). The relative abundances of fungi and gram-negative and aerobic bacteria were greater in up-flow cells. The dominant anaerobic bacteria found in most cells might be accounted for the prevailing anaerobic environment within the wetland beds, which could mean that the system fed with nitrified wastewater (NW) should perform better in nitrogen removal. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that pollutant concentrations, especially organic matter, influence the FA compositions greatly, and the most significant difference of microbial community structures was detected in down-flow cells fed with DW and up-flow ones with NW. The branched FAs, which could be used to represent anaerobic bacteria, were observed in down-flow cells treating DW and had a significant positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, probably suggesting the important role of anaerobic bacteria in organic matter degradation in the IVCWs. Seasonal variation, however, did not greatly influence the microbial community structure in the IVCWs. PMID:25245259

  16. The forms and bioavailability of phosphorus in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland with earthworms and different substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wang, Lin; Li, Huili; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui

    2015-09-01

    A sequential extraction method was utilized to analyze seven forms of P in an integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVFCW) containing earthworms and different substrates. The aluminum-bound P (Al-P) content was found to be lower, and the occluded P (Oc-P) content was higher in the IVFCW. The addition of earthworms into the influent chamber of IVFCW increased the exchange P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), calcium bound P (Ca-P), Oc-P, detritus-bound (De-P) and organic P (Org-P) content in the influent chamber, and also enhanced P content uptake by wetland plants. A significantly positive correlation between P content of above-ground wetland plants and the Ex-P, Fe-P, Oc-P and Org-P content in the rhizosphere was found (P<0.05), which indicated that the Ex-P, Fe-P, Oc-P and Org-P could be bio-available P. The Ex-P, Fe-P, De-P, Oc-P and Ca-P content of the influent chamber was higher where the substrate contained a mixture of Qing sand and river sand rather than only river sand. Also the IVFCW with earthworms and both Qing sand and river sand had a higher removal efficiency of P, which was related to higher P content uptake by wetland plants and P retained in IVFCW. These findings suggest that addition of earthworms in IVFCW increases the bioavailable P content, resulting in enhanced P content uptake by wetland plants. PMID:26025066

  17. Pretilt Angles of Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) with the Application of Copolymers Possessing Chalconyl and Cholesteryl Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Seo, Dae-Shik; Son, Jong Ho; Suh, Dong Hack

    2000-11-01

    We performed the synthesis of a new copoly (M4Ch-ChMA), copoly ((4-methacryloyloxy) chalcone-cholestery methacrylate), with chalconyl and cholesteryl moiety characteristics for photoalignment materials. Good thermal stabilities of the synthesized copolymers are confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement. The pretilt angles of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) are reduced as UV exposure time is increased on the copolymer surfaces. A pretilt angle of 81° in NLC was observed with UV exposure of 3 min on the copolymer-3 surface. The NLCs pretilt angle is attributed to increased chalcone with increasing the UV exposure time.

  18. Optical monitoring of anchoring change in vertically aligned thin liquid crystal film for chemical and biological sensor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Namkung, Jun; Lin, Yongbin; Lindquist, Robert

    2010-04-01

    A significant advance in sensitivity of liquid-crystal (LC)-based chemical and biological sensors can be achieved by actively monitoring anchoring energy change. We simulate the deformation of a LC director with different anchoring energies using the finite element method and the optical properties of the LC film using the finite-difference time-domain method. Polarizing micrographs are collected and compared with simulated textures. Measurement of optical transmission is used to monitor the anchoring change. Experimental and simulation results both demonstrate the optical method can effectively monitor the surface anchoring change due to the presence of targeted analytes. PMID:20357871

  19. Integration of liquid crystal elements for creating an infrared Lyot filter.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Keisuke

    2013-05-20

    An infrared Lyot filter was fabricated by integrating a polarization beam splitter and two retarders into a single device. A liquid crystal layer was constructed between two silicon pentaprisms that were designed suitably so that light was incident on this layer at 28°. At this angle, the liquid crystal transmitted p-polarized light (Brewster's angle) and reflected s-polarized light (total internal reflection). The p- or s-polarized light was directed to another liquid crystal layer (retarder) between the prism and a mirror, which induced a wavelength-dependent retardation in the reflection process. Consequently, the light that returned to the beam splitter was transmitted or reflected depending on wavelength. PMID:23736420

  20. An eight-month sample of marine stratocumulus cloud fraction, albedo, and integrated liquid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J. E.; Snider, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Surface-meteorology and shortwave/longwave irradiance measurements taken on the northwest tip of San Nicolas Island off the coast of Southern California from March through October 1987 are analyzed. Experimental details are summarized, and shortwave cloud-radiation parameterization is outlined with emphasis on a shortwave algorithm. Frequency distributions indicate the stratocumulus clouds at the island have a cloud base on the order of 400 m, an integrated liquid water content of 75 g/sq m, and an albedo of 0.55 with substantial diurnal variations. The longwave parameterization for cloud fraction is also considered, and it is noted that using these models for downward longwave and shortwave irradiances, cloud fraction, integrated liquid water content, and albedo are deduced from the data.

  1. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-03-15

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945μL acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66μgL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500μgL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids. PMID:25660716

  2. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-03-07

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.

  3. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations. PMID:25747091

  4. Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byoungho

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an integral imaging with variable image planes using PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) films. Parallel layered PDLC films and a projector are adopted as a display system and enable to vary the location of image plane. We can control the transparency of PDLC films electrically and make each film diffuse the projected light successively with different depth from lens array. The explanation of the proposed system is provided and the experimental results are also presented.

  5. Reliability study of Au-in solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding for GaN-based vertical LED packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ho-Kun; Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2015-12-01

    An In-rich Au-In bonding system has been developed to transfer vertical light-emitting diodes (VLEDs) from a sapphire to a graphite substrate and enable them to survive under n-ohmic contact treatment at 350 °C. The bonding temperature is 210 °C, and three intermetallic compounds are detected: AuIn, AuIn2, and γ phase. As a result, the remelting temperature increases beyond the theoretical value of 450 °C according to the Au-In binary phase diagram. In fact, reliability testing showed that joints obtained by rapid thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 min survived whereas those obtained at 500 °C for 1 min failed. Finally, a GaN-based blue VLED was transferred to the graphite substrate by means of the proposed bonding method, and its average light output power was measured to be 386.6 mW (@350 mA) after n-ohmic contact treatment. This wafer-level bonding technique also shows excellent potential for high-temperature packing applications.

  6. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  7. An Integrated Study of Geoelectric Vertical Sounding and Hydrogeochemistry in the Riverside Alluvium around Buyeo Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, S.; Park, Y.; Yun, S.

    2005-12-01

    The water quality of alluvial aquifers in agricultural areas is sensitive to the behaviour of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and lime) and, also, to the geologic conditions. It is important to know the characteristics of the aquifers (e.g., depth, spatial distribution, and soil types) and the relationship between subsurface geology and the groundwater contamination for its effective use and management in the future. In order to provide the subsurface information of the lithology and the groundwater zone for hydrogeologic interpretations, an integrated study using twenty vertical electric soundings (VES), direct observation of lithology from two boreholes and hydrochemical data from irrigation well has been conducted in the riverside alluvium near Buyeo area, Korea. Main results of this study are as follows. The depth of main groundwater table is getting slightly deeper toward the river. The boundary between surface sandy and silty soils extends to the subsurface at depth of groundwater table. The vestige of an ancient river channel, such as an oxbow lake, can be identified by a lateral continuation of perched aquifer parallel to the river on the resistivity profiles. This perched aquifer materials are composed of clay-rich silt soils, which prohibit the infiltration of oxygen and nitrate from the land surface. Therefore, the groundwater of the main aquifer below the oxbow lake shows the very low NO3 level and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. Surface resistivity contour map indicates that the resistivity varies with a NW-SE trending zonal distribution and increases toward the river. This result shows an agreement with the spatial distribution of surface soils, implying that the variation of surface resistivity is mainly controlled by surface lithology or soil type. On the other hand, the distribution of water resistivities is correlated with that of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, while the earth resistivity of aquifer shows a different spatial distribution from those of water resistivity and TDS. It is interpreted that the earth resistivity of aquifer might represent the variations of soil type rather than water chemistry in the study area. The present study shows that the geoelectric sounding survey with the complement of borehole lithology and hydrochemical data can provide an inexpensive and useful method for delineating the subsurface hydrogeology in the riverside alluvial aquifer.

  8. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-01-28

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.

  9. Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

  10. Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

  11. Enrichment of Integral Membrane Proteins for Proteomic Analysis Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Blonder, Josip; Goshe, Michael B.; Moore, Ronald J.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Masselon, Christophe D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2002-04-01

    Currently, most proteomic studies rely on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect and identify constituent peptides of enzymatically digested proteins obtained from various organisms and cell types. However, sample preparation methods for isolating membrane proteins typically involve the use of detergents, chaotropes, or reducing reagents that often interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI). To increase the identification of integral membrane proteins by LC-ESI-MS/MS, a sample preparation method combining carbonate extraction and surfactant-free organics solvent-assisted solubilization and proteolysis was developed and used to target the membrane subproteome of Deinococcus radiodurans. Out of 503 proteins identified, 135 were recognized as hydrophobic based on their positive grand average of hydropathicity values that covers 15% of the theoretical hydrophobic proteome. Using the PSORT algorithm, 268 identified proteins were recognized as integral membrane proteins covering 21% and 43% of the predicted integral cytoplasmic and outer membrane proteins, respectively. Of the integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins containing four or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs), 65% were identified by detecting at least one peptide spanning a TMD using LC-MS/MS. The extensive identification of highly hydrophobic proteins containing multiple TMDs confirms the efficacy of the described sample preparation protocol to isolate and solubilize integral membrane proteins and validates the method for large-scale analysis of bacterial membrane subproteomes using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

  12. Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antelius, Mikael; Fischer, Andreas C.; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10-10 mbarL s-1, in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

  13. Dynamic integral imaging display with electrically moving array lenslet technique using liquid crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Jen, Tai-Hsiang; Shen, Xin; Yao, Gang; Huang, Yi-Pai; Shieh, Han-Ping D; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-07-13

    Integral imaging (InIm) has been widely investigated for three-dimensional (3-D) display applications. Aliasing due to the lenslet arrays is one of the limitations of InIm displays. In this paper, we propose a dynamic InIm display using electrically movable liquid crystal (LC) lens array to implement the moving array lenslet technique (MALT) and to eliminate the multifacet the 3-D images. The improvement of the viewing quality of dynamic InIm display is experimentally verified. PMID:26191899

  14. Normally-ON and Normally-OFF Carbon Nanotube-based Ionic-Liquid Supercapacitor-Gated Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Jonathan; Cook, Alexander; Bykova, Julia; Srivastav, Vidisha; Micheli, Joseph; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2014-03-01

    We report on novel implementations of the vertical organic field effect transistor (VOFET). Instead of a typical capacitor below the organic diode, a carbon nanotube (CNT) based ionic-liquid supercapacitor (or ionic gate) is on top. The present work has been motivated by the discovery that the conductivity and work function of carbon nanotubes can be strongly modified by electric double layer charging (EDLC) in an electrolyte as much as +/-0.7eV. The conductivity of EDLC CNT is enhanced by a factor of two. By coupling the ionic gate with an organic diode, charge injection into the diode can be controlled via modulation of the workfunction of the CNT electrode, resulting in transistor-like behavior. Additionally, the high capacitance of the supercapacitor will enable the VOFET to be operated at low voltages. The entire device is processed under ambient conditions with no vacuum equipment used. We have tested VOFETs with two different materials, p-type P3HT and n-type PC70BM. The polarity of the charge transported in the material determines the charge injection rate and whether the device is a normally-ON or a normally-OFF transistor. Both devices have high current transport, excellent output characteristics, good on-off ratios and low operation voltages. We believe that these novel VOFETs will have exciting potential for various future electronic applications.

  15. An integrated control panel utilizing a programmable varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitton, I. J.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the conflicting demands of modern aircraft for increased systems/sensors and the decrease in cockpit panel size, weight, volume, and power, conventional discrete/dedicated methods of display and control are fast becoming obsolete. A means is sought to integrate the control and display into multifunctional programmable devices, thus giving the ability to increase system functions and yet conserve panel space. A potential solution to the control portion of the problem has come to be known as the Integrated Control Panel (ICP) approach. Flat panel display technology and controls using programmable flat panel displays with transparent capacitive touch control overlays offer the largest potential advantages. The flat panel display made of varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal (LCD) developed by GE in recent years appears to offer the ideal monochrome solution.

  16. First-order energy-integral model for thin Newtonian liquids falling along sinusoidal furrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan Sadiq, I. Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    An average modeling methodology under the lubrication approach is used to formulate a set of three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations based on the Nusselt scales. This system, known as the energy-integral method in literature, simplifies the Navier-Stokes equation at the first order and analyzes the dynamics of a thin sheet of fluid flowing over a topography with sinusoidally varying longitudinal furrows. Limiting cases of the linear stability results are mathematically discussed and the complete linear system is numerically handled by means of finite differences to approximate the eigenfunctions and their derivatives in a periodic domain. In a geometry which resembles a vertical shift of a topography, with the amplitude being equal to the shift length, it is found that such a geometry stabilizes the flow compared to its counterpart with no shift, such that the wave characteristics get affected. To confirm the stability results, a numerical investigation is performed.

  17. First-order energy-integral model for thin Newtonian liquids falling along sinusoidal furrows.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, I Mohammed Rizwan

    2012-03-01

    An average modeling methodology under the lubrication approach is used to formulate a set of three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations based on the Nusselt scales. This system, known as the energy-integral method in literature, simplifies the Navier-Stokes equation at the first order and analyzes the dynamics of a thin sheet of fluid flowing over a topography with sinusoidally varying longitudinal furrows. Limiting cases of the linear stability results are mathematically discussed and the complete linear system is numerically handled by means of finite differences to approximate the eigenfunctions and their derivatives in a periodic domain. In a geometry which resembles a vertical shift of a topography, with the amplitude being equal to the shift length, it is found that such a geometry stabilizes the flow compared to its counterpart with no shift, such that the wave characteristics get affected. To confirm the stability results, a numerical investigation is performed. PMID:22587182

  18. Integrated ionic liquid-based electrofluidic circuits for pressure sensing within polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chueh-Yu; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2011-05-21

    This paper reports a novel pressure sensor with an electrical readout based on electrofluidic circuits constructed by ionic liquid (IL)-filled microfluidic channels. The developed pressure sensor can be seamlessly fabricated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic systems using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography (MSL) technique without additional assembly or sophisticated cleanroom microfabrication processes. Therefore, the device can be easily scaled up and is fully disposable. The pressure sensing is achieved by measuring the pressure-induced electrical resistance variation of the constructed electrofluidic resistor. In addition, an electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuit is designed for accurate and stable resistance measurements. The pressure sensor is characterized using pressurized nitrogen gas and various liquids which flow into the microfluidic channels. The experimental results demonstrate the great long-term stability (more than a week), temperature stability (up to 100 °C), and linear characteristics of the developed pressure sensing scheme. Consequently, the integrated microfluidic pressure sensor developed in this paper is promising for better monitoring and for characterizing the flow conditions and liquid properties inside the PDMS microfluidic systems in an easier manner for various lab on a chip applications. PMID:21451820

  19. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  20. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  1. Integration of microfluidic and cantilever technology for biosensing application in liquid environment.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Carlo; Canavese, Giancarlo; Castagna, Riccardo; Ferrante, Ivan; Ricci, Alessandro; Marasso, Simone Luigi; Napione, Lucia; Bussolino, Federico

    2010-12-15

    Microcantilever based oscillators have shown the possibility of highly sensitive label-free detection by allowing the transduction of a target mass into a resonant frequency shift. Most of such measurements were performed in air or vacuum environment, since immersion in liquid dramatically deteriorates the mechanical response of the sensor. Besides, the integration of microcantilever detection in a microfluidic platform appears a highly performing technological solution to exploit real time monitoring of biomolecular interactions, while limiting sample handling and promoting portability and automation of routine diagnostic tests (Point-Of-Care devices). In the present paper, we report on the realization and optimization of a microcantilever-based Lab-on-Chip, showing that microplates rather than microbeams exhibit largest mass sensitivity in liquid, while pirex rather than polymers represents the best choice for microfluidic channels. Maximum Q factor achieved was 140 (for fifth resonance mode of Pirex prototype), as our knowledge the highest value reported in literature for cantilever biosensors resonating in liquid environment without electronic feedback. Then, we proved the successfully detection of Angiopoietin-1 (a putative marker in tumor progression), showing that the related frequency shifts coming from non-specific interactions (negative controls) are roughly one order of magnitude lower than typical variations due to specific protein binding. Furthermore, we monitored the formation of antibody-antigen complex on MC surface in real-time. The proposed tool could be extremely useful for the comprehension of complex biological systems such as angiogenic machinery and cancer progression. PMID:20843676

  2. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies.

  3. Highly Stable Liquid Metal-Based Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30–1000 s−1. The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability. PMID:26007732

  4. Highly stable liquid metal-based pressure sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30-1000 s(-1). The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability. PMID:26007732

  5. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser chip bonding by surface-tension-driven self-assembly for optoelectronic heterogeneous integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuka; Fukushima, Takafumi; Kino, Hisashi; Lee, Kang-Wook; Choki, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2015-03-01

    Twelve-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (12-ch VCSEL) chips are heterogeneously self-assembled on Si and glass wafers using water surface tension as a driving force. The VCSEL chips have a high length-to-width aspect ratio, that is, 3 mm long and 0.35 mm wide. The VCSEL chips are precisely self-assembled with alignment accuracies within 2 µm even when they are manually placed on liquid droplets provided on the host substrate. After the self-assembly of the VCSEL chips and the subsequent thermal compression, the chips successfully emit 850 nm light and exhibit no degradation of their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  6. Integrated Pressure-Fed Liquid Oxygen / Methane Propulsion Systems - Morpheus Experience, MARE, and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Morehead, Robert; Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    An integrated liquid oxygen (LOx) and methane propulsion system where common propellants are fed to the reaction control system and main engines offers advantages in performance, simplicity, reliability, and reusability. LOx/Methane provides new capabilities to use propellants that are manufactured on the Mars surface for ascent return and to integrate with power and life support systems. The clean burning, non-toxic, high vapor pressure propellants provide significant advantages for reliable ignition in a space vacuum, and for reliable safing or purging of a space-based vehicle. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Morpheus lander demonstrated many of these key attributes as it completed over 65 tests including 15 flights through 2014. Morpheus is a prototype of LOx/Methane propellant lander vehicle with a fully integrated propulsion system. The Morpheus lander flight demonstrations led to the proposal to use LOx/Methane for a Discovery class mission, named Moon Aging Regolith Experiment (MARE) to land an in-situ science payload for Southwest Research Institute on the Lunar surface. Lox/Methane is extensible to human spacecraft for many transportation elements of a Mars architecture. This paper discusses LOx/Methane propulsion systems in regards to trade studies, the Morpheus project experience, the MARE NAVIS (NASA Autonomous Vehicle for In-situ Science) lander, and future possible applications. The paper also discusses technology research and development needs for Lox/Methane propulsion systems.

  7. Liquid-vapor interfaces in XY -spin fluids: An inhomogeneous anisotropic integral-equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelyan, I. P.; Folk, R.; Kovalenko, A.; Fenz, W.; Mryglod, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    An integral-equation approach is developed to study interfacial properties of anisotropic fluids with planar spins in the presence of an external magnetic field. The approach is based on the coupled set of the Lovett-Mou-Buff-Wertheim integro-differential equation for the inhomogeneous anisotropic one-particle density and the Ornstein-Zernike equation for the orientationally dependent two-particle correlation functions. Using the proposed inhomogeneous angle-harmonics expansion formalism we show that these integral equations can be reduced to a much simpler form similar to that inherent for a system of isotropic fluids. The interfacial orientationally dependent direct correlation function can be consistently constructed by means of a nonlinear interpolation via its values obtained in the coexisting anisotropic bulk phases. A soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the closure relation. This has allowed us to solve the complicated integral equations in the situation when both spatial inhomogeneity and orientational anisotropy are present simultaneously. The approach introduced is applied to an XY fluid model with ferromagnetic spin interactions. As a result, the density-orientation and magnetization profiles at the liquid-vapor interfaces are calculated in a wide range of temperatures up to subcritical regions. The influence of the external field on the microscopic structure of the interfaces and the surface tension is also analyzed in detail.

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Light-current characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with external optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhang; Yongqiang, Ning; Yanfang, Sun; Yan, Zhang; Guangyu, Liu; Hangyu, Peng; Zaijin, Li; Li, Qin; Yun, Liu; Lijun, Wang

    2010-03-01

    The influence of external optical feedback (OFB) on the light-current characteristics of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was investigated theoretically and experimentally. By calculating the OFB sensitivity parameter, the OFB sensibility of the VCSELs was compared with the edge emitting lasers. Based on the compound cavity theory, the light-current characteristic parameters of the VCSELs with external OFB, such as the threshold current and the slope efficiency, were calculated. The experimental results indicated that the threshold current of the VCSELs with different DBR reflectivities decreased to different degrees, accompanied with a decrease of slope efficiency when under 10% feedback ratio of the external OFB, which is in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

  9. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

  10. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar; Russek, Steven Lee; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  11. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

  12. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  13. Study of Thermodynamic Vent and Screen Baffle Integration for Orbital Storage and Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to determine the feasibility of integrating an internal thermodynamic vent system and a full wall-screen liner for the orbital storage and transfer of liquid hydrogen (LH2). Ten screens were selected from a comprehensive screen survey. The experimental study determined the screen bubble point, flow-through pressure loss, and pressure loss along rectangular channels lined with screen on one side, for the 10 screens using LH2 saturated at 34.5 N/cm2 (50 psia). The correlated experimental data were used in an analysis to determine the optimum system characteristics in terms of minimum weight for 6 tanks ranging from 141.6 m3 (5,000 ft3) to 1.416 m3 (50 ft3) for orbital storage times of 30 and 300 days.

  14. A reverse Monte Carlo and RISM integral equation study of liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radnai, Tams; Bak, Imre; Jedlovszky, Pl; Plinks, Gbor

    The orientational correlations between molecules of liquid nitrogen are studied on the basis of a series expansion of the pair correlation function as a sum of spherical harmonics. The molecular pair correlation function is calculated using the reference interaction site model theory, and the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is applied to derive a set of molecular configurations consistent with the results of the integral equation theory. The results of this new application of the RMC method are discussed in detail. The orientational correlation functions are in good agreement with the results of M. A. Howe (1990, Molec. Phys., 69, 161), who used experimental functions for the RMC fitting procedure. Examination of the uniqueness of the RMC method revealed that the physical reliability of the configurations produced by RMC modelling cannot be decided solely on the basis of the results of the fitting procedure.

  15. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Fatimah, Hayyiratul E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Wilfred, Cecilia E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  16. Hybrid two-chain simulation and integral equation theory : application to polyethylene liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Huimin Li, David T. Wu; Curro, John G.; McCoy, John Dwane

    2006-02-01

    We present results from a hybrid simulation and integral equation approach to the calculation of polymer melt properties. The simulation consists of explicit Monte Carlo (MC) sampling of two polymer molecules, where the effect of the surrounding chains is accounted for by an HNC solvation potential. The solvation potential is determined from the Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) as a functional of the pair correlation function from simulation. This hybrid two-chain MC-PRISM approach was carried out on liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 CH{sub 2} units. The results are compared with MD simulation and self-consistent PRISM-PY theory under the same conditions, revealing that the two-chain calculation is close to MD, and able to overcome the defects of the PRISM-PY closure and predict more accurate structures of the liquid at both short and long range. The direct correlation function, for instance, has a tail at longer range which is consistent with MD simulation and avoids the short-range assumptions in PRISM-PY theory. As a result, the self-consistent two-chain MC-PRISM calculation predicts an isothermal compressibility closer to the MD results.

  17. Acoustic activation of targeted liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles does not compromise endothelial integrity.

    PubMed

    Soman, Neelesh R; Marsh, Jon N; Hughes, Michael S; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2006-06-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles consisting essentially of liquid perfluoro-octyl bromide (PFOB) core surrounded by a lipid monolayer can serve as highly specific site-targeted contrast and therapeutic agents after binding to cellular biomarkers. Based on previous findings that ultrasound applied at 2 MHz and 1.9 mechanical index (MI) for a 5-min duration dramatically enhances the cellular interaction of targeted PFOB nanoparticles with melanoma cells in vitro without inducing apoptosis or other harmful effects to cells that are targeted, we sought to define mechanisms of interaction and the safety profile of ultrasound used in conjunction with liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, as compared with conventional microbubble ultrasound contrast agents under identical insonification conditions. Cell-culture inserts were used to grow a confluent monolayer of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Definity in conjunction with continuous wave ultrasound (2.25 MHz for 1 and 5 min) increased the permeability of monolayer by four to six times above the normal, decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (a sign of reduced membrane integrity), and decreased cell viability by approximately 50%. Histological evaluation demonstrated extensive disruptions of cell monolayers. Nanoparticles (both nontargeted and targeted) elicited no changes in these different measures under similar insonification conditions and did not disrupt cell monolayers. We hypothesize that ultrasound facilitates drug transport from the perfluorocarbon nanoparticles not by cavitation-induced effects on cell membrane but rather by direct interaction with the nanoparticles that stimulate lipid exchange and drug delivery. PMID:16805101

  18. Vertical Distribution of Denitrification in an Estuarine Sediment: Integrating Sediment Flowthrough Reactor Experiments and Microprofiling via Reactive Transport Modeling▿

    PubMed Central

    Laverman, Anniet M.; Meile, Christof; Van Cappellen, Philippe; Wieringa, Elze B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Denitrifying activity in a sediment from the freshwater part of a polluted estuary in northwest Europe was quantified using two independent approaches. High-resolution N2O microprofiles were recorded in sediment cores to which acetylene was added to the overlying water and injected laterally into the sediment. The vertical distribution of the rate of denitrification supported by nitrate uptake from the overlying water was then derived from the time series N2O concentration profiles. The rates obtained for the core incubations were compared to the rates predicted by a forward reactive transport model, which included rate expression for denitrification calibrated with potential rate measurements obtained in flowthrough reactors containing undisturbed, 1-cm-thick sediment slices. The two approaches yielded comparable rate profiles, with a near-surface, 2- to 3-mm narrow zone of denitrification and maximum in situ rates on the order of 200 to 300 nmol cm−3 h−1. The maximum in situ rates were about twofold lower than the maximum potential rate for the 0- to 1-cm depth interval of the sediment, indicating that in situ denitrification was nitrate limited. The experimentally and model-derived rates of denitrification implied that there was nitrate uptake by the sediment at a rate that was on the order of 50 (± 10) nmol cm−2 h−1, which agreed well with direct nitrate flux measurements for core incubations. Reactive transport model calculations showed that benthic uptake of nitrate at the site is particularly sensitive to the nitrate concentration in the overlying water and the maximum potential rate of denitrification in the sediment. PMID:17071796

  19. A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/sea for climate models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital change experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for sea ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged climate model. It is found that, in response to a change between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital change dominates over the opposite summer change for sea ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital change is shown to dominate.

  20. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of a Rigid Rotating Shaft Supported by the Magnetic Bearing (Influence of the Integral Feedback in the PID Control of the Vertical Shaft)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) becomes to be widely used in various kinds of rotating machinery. However, as the magnetic force is nonlinear, nonlinear phenomena may occur when the rotational speed becomes higher and the delay of control force relatively increases. In this paper, the magnetic force is modeled by considering both the second order delay of the electric current and the first order delay of the magnetic flux. The AMB force is represented by a power series function of the electric current and shaft displacement. The nonlinear theoretical analysis of the vertical rigid rotor supported by the AMB with the PID control theory is demonstrated. The effects of the gain of the integral feedback on the nonlinear phenomena are clarified theoretically and experimentally.

  1. Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, C A; Sun, Z; Wittwer, V J; Popa, D; Milana, S; Kulmala, T S; Sundaram, R S; Mangold, M; Sieber, O D; Golling, M; Lee, Y; Ahn, J H; Ferrari, A C; Keller, U

    2013-12-16

    We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ∼0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors. PMID:24514728

  2. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices.

    PubMed

    Kerckhoven, Vivien Van; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-10

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide. PMID:27138863

  3. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kerckhoven, Vivien; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide.

  4. Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

  5. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  6. Integration of pre-aligned liquid metal electrodes for neural stimulation within a user-friendly microfluidic platform

    PubMed Central

    Hallfors, Nicholas; Khan, Asif; Dickey, Michael D.; Taylor, Anne Marion

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nervous tissue is used clinically for the treatment of multiple neurological disorders and experimentally for basic research. With the increase of optical probes to record neuronal activity, simple and user-friendly methods are desired to stimulate neurons and their subcellular compartments for biological experimentation. Here we describe the novel integration of liquid metal electrodes with microfluidic culture platforms to accomplish this goal. We integrated electrode and cell channels into a single poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip, eliminating entirely the need to align electrodes with microchannels. We designed the electrode channels such that the metal can be injected by hand and when the device is non-covalently bound to glass. We demonstrated the biocompatibility of the electrodes for long-term cultures (12 days) using hippocampal neurons. We demonstrated the use of these electrodes to depolarize neurons and recorded neuronal activity using the calcium indicator dye, Fluo-4. We established optimal stimulation parameters that induce neuronal spiking without inducing damage. We showed that the liquid metal electrode evoked larger calcium responses in somata than bath electrodes using the same stimulus parameters. Lastly we demonstrated the use of these liquid metal electrodes to target and depolarize axons. In summary, the integration of liquid metal electrodes with neuronal culture platforms provides a user-friendly and targeted method to stimulate neurons and their subcellular compartments, thus providing a novel tool for future biological investigations. PMID:23232866

  7. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    SciTech Connect

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Gillett, James E.

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  8. Vertical stratification of matrix production is essential for physical integrity and architecture of macrocolony biofilms of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Serra, Diego O; Klauck, Gisela; Hengge, Regine

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial macrocolony biofilms grow into intricate three-dimensional structures that depend on self-produced extracellular polymers conferring protection, cohesion and elasticity to the biofilm. In Escherichia coli, synthesis of this matrix - consisting of amyloid curli fibres and cellulose - requires CsgD, a transcription factor regulated by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS, and occurs in the nutrient-deprived cells of the upper layer of macrocolonies. Is this asymmetric matrix distribution functionally important or is it just a fortuitous by-product of an unavoidable nutrient gradient? In order to address this question, the RpoS-dependent csgD promoter was replaced by a vegetative promoter. This re-wiring of csgD led to CsgD and matrix production in both strata of macrocolonies, with the lower layer transforming into a rigid 'base plate' of growing yet curli-connected cells. As a result, the two strata broke apart followed by desiccation and exfoliation of the top layer. By contrast, matrix-free cells at the bottom of wild-type macrocolonies maintain colony contact with the humid agar support by flexibly filling the space that opens up under buckling areas of the macrocolony. Precisely regulated stratification in matrix-free and matrix-producing cell layers is thus essential for the physical integrity and architecture of E. coli macrocolony biofilms. PMID:26234179

  9. Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

  10. Integrated catalytic conversion of gamma-valerolactone to liquid alkenes for transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jesse Q; Alonso, David Martin; Wang, Dong; West, Ryan M; Dumesic, James A

    2010-02-26

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels remains a challenging and important line of research. We report a strategy by which aqueous solutions of gamma-valerolactone (GVL), produced from biomass-derived carbohydrates, can be converted to liquid alkenes in the molecular weight range appropriate for transportation fuels by an integrated catalytic system that does not require an external source of hydrogen. The GVL feed undergoes decarboxylation at elevated pressures (e.g., 36 bar) over a silica/alumina catalyst to produce a gas stream composed of equimolar amounts of butene and carbon dioxide. This stream is fed directly to an oligomerization reactor containing an acid catalyst (e.g., H ZSM-5, Amberlyst-70), which couples butene monomers to form condensable alkenes with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline and/or jet fuel applications. The effluent gaseous stream of CO2 at elevated pressure can potentially be captured and then treated or sequestered to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the process. PMID:20185721

  11. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  12. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities. PMID:16896380

  13. Integral Circulation Experiment: Thermal-hydraulic simulator of a heavy liquid metal reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantino, M.; Agostini, P.; Benamati, G.; Coccoluto, G.; Gaggini, P.; Labanti, V.; Venturi, G.; Class, A.; Liftin, K.; Forgione, N.; Moreau, V.

    2011-08-01

    In the frame of the IP-EUROTRANS (6th Framework Program EU), domain DEMETRA, ENEA was involved in the Work Package 4.5 " Large Scale Integral Test", devoted to characterize a relevant portion of a sub-critical ADS reactor block (core, internals, heat exchanger, cladding for fuel elements) in steady state, transient and accidental conditions. More in details ENEA assumed the commitment to perform an integral experiment aiming to reproduce the primary flow path of the " European Transmutation Demonstrator (ETD)" pool-type nuclear reactor, cooled by Lead Bismuth Eutectics (LBE). This experimental activity, called " Integral Circulation Experiment (ICE)", has been implemented merging the efforts of several research institutes, among which, besides ENEA, FZK, CRS4 and University of Pisa, allowing to design an appropriate test section to be installed in the CIRCE facility. The goal of the experiments is therefore to demonstrate the technological feasibility of a heavy liquid metal (HLM) nuclear system pool-type in a relevant scale (1 MW), investigating the related thermal-hydraulic behaviour (heat source and heat exchanger coupling, primary system and downcomer coupling, gas trapping into the main stream, thermal stratification in the pool, forced and mixed convection in rod bundle) under both steady state and transient conditions. Moreover the preliminary as well as the planned experiments aims to address performance and reliability tests of some prototypical components, such as heat source, heat exchanger, chemistry control system. The paper reports a detailed description of the experiment, the design performed for the test section and its main components as well as the preliminary experimental results carried out in the first experimental campaign run on the CIRCE pool, which consists of a full power steady state test. The preliminary experimental results carried out have demonstrate the proper design of the test section trough the experiment goals as well as the HLM primary system technological viability. Moreover the results depicted into the paper are the first experimental data made available, especially for what concern the HLM pool thermal-hydraulic in a large scale system.

  14. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

  15. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

  16. Remote sensing of integrated cloud liquid water: Development of algorithms and quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GRard, Lisabeth; Eymard, Laurence

    1998-03-01

    Algorithms are developed to infer integrated cloud liquid water path (LWP) over the oceans from spaceborne and ground-based passive microwave measurements. These algorithms are built from simulated observations, which are calculated with a radiative transfer model applied to a set of about 10,000 atmospheric profiles obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecast model. In this model the liquid water content is computed from a prognostic cloud scheme. A multilinear regression is applied to functions of simulated brightness temperatures (log linear form) and LWP to derive the algorithm coefficients. The retrieval accuracy based on the regression analysis including instrumental noise is 0.0257 and 0.0345 kg m-2 for the DMSP special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) and the ERSl along-track scanning radiometer/microwave (ATSR/M), respectively, and 0.0308 kg m-2 for the ground-based radiometer. It is shown that the log linear form is adequate to transform the nonlinear problem into a quasi-linear problem for LWP below 0.8 kg m-2. The coherence of the global approach is verified through the validation of total precipitable water (TPW) algorithms developed in a way similar to LWP algorithms. The LWP retrievals from the algorithm for the ground-based radiometer are in good agreement with retrievals from airborne measurements performed in the vicinity of the radiometer. A coherence test is performed for ATSR/M, benefiting from the coincident infrared images obtained from an infrared radiometer (ATSR/IR) aboard the same platform to select clear-air areas. Regardless of the slight mean bias of the inferred LWP due to inaccurate calibration, there is no anomalous dependency upon latitude, i.e., upon high water vapor contents in the tropics and strong winds in the high latitudes. The results of the algorithm for SSM/I are compared with a Meteosat cloud classification. When the classification detects the ocean surface, the algorithm systematically retrieves contents close to zero. The retrievals for other classes (i.e., low stratiform clouds, medium clouds) are consistent with the Meteosat data; retrievals in the presence of low stratiform clouds appear more realistic than values provided by some already published algorithms. It is also shown that up to 0.8 kg m-2 the log linear regression approach has a quality of the same order as a variational method, which requires much more computation time.

  17. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Liebson, Lindsay

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

  18. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

    2012-04-01

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to δ2H and δ18O measurement errors (Δδ2H and Δδ18O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, mBB, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, mNB. These metrics are used to correct for Δδ2H and Δδ18O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and Δδ18O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while Δδ2H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with mNB. Using the isotope error versus mNB and mBB curves, Δδ2H and Δδ18O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 ‰ and 0.25 ‰ respectively, while Δδ2H and Δδ18O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 ‰ and 0.22 ‰. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

  19. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes.

    PubMed

    Brian Leen, J; Berman, Elena S F; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

    2012-04-01

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to ?(2)H and ?(18)O measurement errors (??(2)H and ??(18)O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m(BB), and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m(NB). These metrics are used to correct for ??(2)H and ??(18)O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and ??(18)O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while ??(2)H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m(NB). Using the isotope error versus m(NB) and m(BB) curves, ??(2)H and ??(18)O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 [per thousand] and 0.25 [per thousand] respectively, while ??(2)H and ??(18)O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 [per thousand] and 0.22 [per thousand]. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors. PMID:22559556

  20. Investigation of the liquid/vapor composition of compressed liquid CO2 with N2 and O2 in integrated pollutant removal systems for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Penner, Larry R.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the processes in Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) using compression and condensation of coal combustion products requires an understanding of the liquid/vapor ternary CO2/O2/N2 system. At conditions close to the critical point of CO2 the existing equations of state deviate from the sparse measured results available in the literature. Building on existing data and procedures, the USDOE/Albany Research Center has designed an apparatus for examining compositions in this region. The design of the apparatus and planned initial experiments are presented.

  1. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  2. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production. PMID:25808519

  3. An eight-month climatology of marine stratocumulus cloud fraction, albedo, and integrated liquid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J. E.; Snider, Jack B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the FIRE/Extended Time Observations (ETO) program, extended time observations were made at San Nicolas Island (SNI) from March to October, 1987. Hourly averages of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance, and downward longwave irradiance were recorded. The radiation sensors were standard Eppley pyranometers (shortwave) and pyrgeometers (longwave). The SNI data were processed in several ways to deduce properties of the stratocumulus covered marine boundary layer (MBL). For example, from the temperature and humidity the lifting condensation level, which is an estimate of the height of the cloud bottom, can be computed. A combination of longwave irradiance statistics can be used to estimate fractional cloud cover. An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated cloud liquid water content (W) and the cloud albedo from the measured solar irradiance is also described. In this approach, the cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the same hour on a cloudless day. From the transmittance and the zenith angle, values of cloud albedo and W are computed using the radiative transfer parameterizations of Stephens (1978). These analysis algorithms were evaluated with 17 days of simultaneous and colocated mm-wave (20.6 and 31.65 GHz) radiometer measurements of W and lidar ceilometer measurements of cloud fraction and cloudbase height made during the FIRE IFO. The algorithms are then applied to the entire data set to produce a climatology of these cloud properties for the eight month period.

  4. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho

    2007-06-20

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented. PMID:17538673

  5. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho

    2007-06-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented.

  6. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications--Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy).

    PubMed

    Achille, Cristiana; Adami, Andrea; Chiarini, Silvia; Cremonesi, Stefano; Fassi, Francesco; Fregonese, Luigi; Taffurelli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results. PMID:26134108

  7. Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Sanggi

    2014-04-15

    We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter shows a VπLπ of ∼0.6  V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of ∼50  GHz at -2  V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50  Gb/s operation under 2.5  Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88  dB/100  μm, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration. PMID:24978980

  8. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others. PMID:25901854

  9. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalir, Hamed; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  10. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications—Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Achille, Cristiana; Adami, Andrea; Chiarini, Silvia; Cremonesi, Stefano; Fassi, Francesco; Fregonese, Luigi; Taffurelli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results. PMID:26134108

  11. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires. Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-07

    The growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1- x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350°C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silane provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a “two-step” growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. Furthermore, increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1- x Ge x alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.

  12. Advances in numerical solutions to integral equations in liquid state theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Jesse J.

    Solvent effects play a vital role in the accurate description of the free energy profile for solution phase chemical and structural processes. The inclusion of solvent effects in any meaningful theoretical model however, has proven to be a formidable task. Generally, methods involving Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are used, but they either fail to accurately describe the solvent effects or require an exhaustive computation effort to overcome sampling problems. An alternative to these methods are the integral equations (IEs) of liquid state theory which have become more widely applicable due to recent advancements in the theory of interaction site fluids and the numerical methods to solve the equations. In this work a new numerical method is developed based on a Newton-type scheme coupled with Picard/MDIIS routines. To extend the range of these numerical methods to large-scale data systems, the size of the Jacobian is reduced using basis functions, and the Newton steps are calculated using a GMRes solver. The method is then applied to calculate solutions to the 3D reference interaction site model (RISM) IEs of statistical mechanics, which are derived from first principles, for a solute model of a pair of parallel graphene plates at various separations in pure water. The 3D IEs are then extended to electrostatic models using an exact treatment of the long-range Coulomb interactions for negatively charged walls and DNA duplexes in aqueous electrolyte solutions to calculate the density profiles and solution thermodynamics. It is found that the 3D-IEs provide a qualitative description of the density distributions of the solvent species when compared to MD results, but at a much reduced computational effort in comparison to MD simulations. The thermodynamics of the solvated systems are also qualitatively reproduced by the IE results. The findings of this work show the IEs to be a valuable tool for the study and prediction of solution phase phenomena and that such a theory can be effectively used to study complicated processes such as protein folding or protein-ligand binding strengths which depend on solvation effects.

  13. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2013-09-01

    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further. PMID:23988927

  14. Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

  15. A novel liquid plasma AOP device integrating microwaves and ultrasounds and its evaluation in defluorinating perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Susumu; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2011-09-01

    A simplified and energy-saving integrated device consisting of a microwave applicator and an ultrasonic homogenizer has been fabricated to generate liquid plasma in a medium possessing high dielectric factors, for example water. The microwave waveguide and the ultrasonic transducer were interconnected through a tungsten/titanium alloy stick acting both as the microwave antenna and as the horn of the ultrasonic homogenizer. Both microwaves and ultrasonic waves are simultaneously transmitted to the aqueous media through the tungsten tip of the antenna. The microwave discharge liquid plasma was easily generated in solution during ultrasonic cavitation. The simple device was evaluated by carrying out the degradation of the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a system highly recalcitrant to degradation by conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). PFOA is 59% degraded in an aqueous medium after only 90 s of irradiation by the plasma. Intermediates were identified by electrospray mass spectral techniques in the negative ion mode. PMID:21317014

  16. Slow light based on stimulated Raman scattering in an integrated liquid-core optical fiber filled with CS2.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Oscar D; Schneebeli, L; Kieu, K; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-based slow light system using a carbon disulfide (CS2)) filled integrated liquid-core optical fiber (i-LCOF). Using 1 meter of i-LCOF we were able to delay 18ps pulses up to 34ps; a delay of 188% of the pulse width. This experimental setup serves as a foundation for slow-light experiments in other nonlinear liquids. Numerical simulations of pulse-propagation equations confirmed the observed delay and a simplified method is presented that can be applied to calculate induced delay for non-cw Stokes pulses. The system is all-fiber and compact with delays greater than a pulse width, indicating potential application as an ultrafast controllable delay line for time division multiplexing in multiGb/s telecommunication systems. PMID:23571972

  17. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement. PMID:26342354

  18. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  19. Solvation thermodynamics of alkali and halide ions in ionic liquids through integral equations.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Samantha; Malvaldi, Marco; Chiappe, Cinzia

    2008-08-21

    In this work, we study the solvation thermodynamics and other solvation properties of small ions in two room-temperature ionic liquids, dimethyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [mmim] [pf6] and dimethyl imidazolium chloride [mmim][cl] with the reference interaction site model (RISM). The nature of the charge affects several aspects of solvation, from electrostriction to the mutual disposition of cations around the solute; nevertheless, the long-range screening behavior of the liquid appears to be insensitive to both charge and dimensions of the solute. The ion solvation is energy driven, as expected for the nature of the solvent, and displays a marked asymmetry between cation and anion solvation chemical potential. Such asymmetry is dependent, even qualitatively, on the ionic liquid chosen as solvent. Partial molar volumes of ions in solution are found to follow the nature of ion-solvent interaction. PMID:19044785

  20. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  1. Proposal for a simple integrated optical ion-exchange waveguide polarizer with a liquid crystal overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Semenova, Yuliya; Zheng, Jie; Wu, Qiang; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Farrell, Gerald

    2011-02-01

    A simple, compact electro-optic polarizer based on an ion-exchanged glass channel waveguide covered with a nematic liquid crystal (LC) is proposed. A full-vectorial beam propagation method is employed to simulate this device for the first time. For the cases of zero and strong LC surface anchoring, the performance of the proposed polarizer under different applied voltages is analyzed numerically. Analysis indicates that surface anchoring of the liquid crystal is a key issue influencing the performance for the proposed optical polarizer device.

  2. Improved vertical scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasaki, Akiko

    2000-11-01

    Vertical scanning interferometers are routinely used for the measurement of optical fiber connectors. There are increasing needs for measurements of such items as machined surfaces, contact lenses, paint texture, cell structure, and integrated circuit devices, to name a few. These structures have too much depth, or are too rough, to measure with standard interferometry methods. Phase- measurement interferometry methods are limited to surfaces that do not have any discontinuities larger than one quarter of the operating wavelength. On the other hand, vertical scanning interferometers can be very effective, even though they have low height resolution compared to that of phase-measurement interferometers. Improving the height resolution of vertical scanning interferometers from the point of hardware improvement and signal processing has been one of the major research interests in the surface metrology area. This work provides a new algorithm, which called here ``PSI on the Fly'' technique, as a solution for improving height resolution of vertical scanning interferometers. This dissertation begins with a review of white-light interference microscopes. The height and lateral resolutions are derived based on scalar diffraction theory. Next, various well-established. algorithms for finding a topographic map of the small object surface are discussed. The work proceeds with a discussion of the phase change upon reflection and its influence on the coherence envelope. Then phase measurement interferometry methods are reviewed. The emphasis is in errors in phase measurement resulting from using a white light source instead of a monochromatic light source as in the usual case. The following chapter describes and examines an often- observed artifact of vertical-scanning interferometry when applied to step heights. The artifact is called ``bat wings'' because of its appearance. The physical cause of the ``bat wings'' artifact is discussed through a diffraction model. The next chapter proposes an improved vertical-scanning interferometry algorithm. The method, called here ``PSI on the Fly'' technique, has been developed by combining regular vertical-scanning interferometry and a monochromatic phase-shifting interferometry technique. The PSI on the Fly technique improves the surface height resolution of vertical scanning interferometry to that of a phase-shifting interferometry measurement. In addition to the resolution improvement, the algorithm also successfully removes the ``bat wings'' artifact.

  3. Monolithic Integration of Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography-Capillary Electrophoresis and Electrospray Ionization on a Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Mellors, J. Scott; Henley, W. Hampton; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic device capable of two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography-capillary electrophoresis with integrated electrospray ionization (LC-CE-ESI) for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic applications is described. Traditional instrumentation was used for the LC sample injection and delivery of the LC mobile phase. The glass microfabricated device incorporated a sample-trapping region and an LC channel packed with reversed-phase particles. Rapid electrokinetic injections of the LC effluent into the CE dimension were performed at a cross channel intersection. The CE separation channel terminated at a corner of the square device, which functioned as an integrated electrospray tip. In addition to LC-CE-ESI, this device was used for LC-ESI without any instrumental modifications. To evaluate the system, LC-MS and LC-CE-MS analysis of protein digests were performed and compared. PMID:21214194

  4. Electronic structure effects from hydrogen bonding in the liquid phase and in chemisorption: an integrated theory and experimental effort.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, L G; Nilsson, A; Myneni, S; Luo, Y; Nyberg, M; Cavalleri, M; Ojamäe, L; Näslund, L A; Ogasawara, H; Odelius, M; Pelmenschikov, A

    2001-03-01

    A closely integrated theoretical and experimental effort to understand chemical bonding using X-ray spectroscopic probes is presented. Theoretical techniques to simulate XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy), XES (X-ray emission spectroscopy), RIXS (resonant inelastic X-ray scattering) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) spectra have been developed and implemented within a density functional theory (DFT) framework. In combination with new experimental techniques, such as high-resolution XAS on liquid water under ambient conditions and XES on complicated surface adsorbates, new insight into e.g. hydrogen-bonded systems is obtained. For the (3x2) overlayer structure of glycine/Cu(110), earlier work has been extended to include adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. Structures are optimized for large cluster models and for periodic boundary conditions. It is found that specific features in the spectra arise from hydrogen-bonding interactions, which thus have important effects at the molecular-orbital level. XAS on liquid water shows a pronounced pre-edge feature with significant intensity, while the spectrum of ice shows only little intensity in this region. Theoretical spectrum calculations, based on instantaneous structures obtained from molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations, show that the pre-edge feature in the liquid is caused by water molecules with unsaturated hydrogen bonding. Some aspects of the theoretical simulations will be briefly discussed. PMID:11512711

  5. Natural convection immersion cooling of an array of vertically oriented heated protrusions in an enclosure filled with a dielectric liquid: Effects of enclosure width, Prandtl number and component orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Scott T.

    1991-12-01

    The natural convection heat transfer characteristics of a 3 x 3 array of vertically oriented heated protrusions, immersed in a dielectric liquid, were investigated. Aluminum blocks, 24 x 8 x 6 mm, were used to simulate 20 pin dual in-line packages. Surface temperature measurements of the components were made by imbedding copper-constantan thermocouples below the surface of each component face. A constant heat flux was provided to each component using an Inconel foil heating element. Power supplied to each component varied from 0.115 to 2.90 W. The aluminum blocks were mounted on a plexiglass substrate to form a 3 x 3 array of simulated electronic components. The circuit board containing the components was placed in a rectangular, plexiglass enclosure with inner dimensions: L = 203.2 mm H = 152.0 mm W = 82.6 mm, and a wall thickness of 25.4 mm. The upper boundary was maintained at 10 C, while all other exterior surfaces were insulated. The chamber width, measured from the surface of the circuit board to the opposite, inner wall of the enclosure, was varied from 42 to 7 mm by inserting plexiglass spacers into the enclosure. Two dielectric liquids, FC-75 and FC-43, were used as working fluids. Nondimensional data from this study was combined with the data obtained for a horizontal component orientation, to develop an empirical correlation which predicts the Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, component orientation, and chamber width.

  6. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Sciamanna, S.F.; Lynn, S.

    1988-03-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separating natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley, Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons and water are absorbed simultaneously by a pol(glycol ether) solvent containing a homogenous liquid-phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high-quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid cytotoxicity probed by an integrated experimental and computational approach.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Jones, Stuart E; Lamberti, Gary A; Zhu, Yingxi; Shah, Jindal K; Maginn, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called "green solvents" because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in the microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane. PMID:26831599

  8. Molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid cytotoxicity probed by an integrated experimental and computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Jones, Stuart E.; Lamberti, Gary A.; Zhu, Yingxi; Shah, Jindal K.; Maginn, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called “green solvents” because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in the microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane. PMID:26831599

  9. Molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid cytotoxicity probed by an integrated experimental and computational approach

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Jones, Stuart E.; Lamberti, Gary A.; Zhu, Yingxi; Shah, Jindal K.; Maginn, Edward J.

    2016-02-02

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called “green solvents” because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in themore » microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Lastly, cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane.« less

  10. CO2-binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Zheng, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 °C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

  11. Vertically aligned silicon microwire arrays of various lengths by repeated selective vapor-liquid-solid growth of n-type silicon/n-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikedo, Akihito; Kawashima, Takahiro; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto

    2009-07-01

    Repeated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with Au and PH3-Si2H6 mixture gas as the growth catalyst and silicon source, respectively, was used to construct n-type silicon/n-type silicon wire arrays of various lengths. Silicon wires of various lengths within an array could be grown by employing second growth over the first VLS grown wire. Additionally, the junction at the interface between the first and the second wires were examined. Current-voltage measurements of the wires exhibited linear behavior with a resistance of 850 Ω, confirming nonelectrical barriers at the junction, while bending tests indicated that the mechanical properties of the wire did not change.

  12. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-09

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  13. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  14. Polymer-embedded colloidal lead-sulfide nanocrystals integrated to vertically slotted silicon-based ring resonators for telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Markus; Guider, Romain; Hackl, Florian; Fromherz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The main drawback of the rapidly evolving field of silicon photonics lies in the absence of efficient monolithically integrated radiation sources as a consequence of the indirect bandgap of Si and Ge. Relevant alternatives based on the hybrid combination of Si with optically active materials have to be technologically simple, temporally stable, and provide efficient coupling to the Si waveguides. Lead-sulfide nanocrystals (NCs) were blended into a polymer resist suitable for deep-UV- and electron-beam lithography and integrated into Si-based vertically slotted waveguides and ring resonators. The polymer both stabilizes the NC's photoluminescence emission against degradation under ambient conditions and allows lithographic patterning of this compound material. After integration into the optoelectronic structures and upon optical pumping, intense photoluminescence emission from ring resonators was recorded at the output of bus-waveguides. The resonator quality factors were investigated for polymer-NC compounds with NC concentrations in the range between 0.1 and 8 vol%. The spontaneous emission rate enhancement for vertically slotted resonators was estimated to be a factor of two higher as compared to unslotted ones. The stable integration of colloidal NCs as well as the improved light coupling to silicon circuits is an important step in the development of silicon-based hybrid photonics.

  15. INTEGRATION OF FILTRATION AND ADVANCED OXIDATION: DEVELOPMENT OF A MEMBRANE LIQUID-PHASE PLASMA REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tiered approach will be undertaken to achieve the overall project goal of demonstrating the integrated membrane/plasma process as an innovative, affordable, sustainable and effective treatment technology for small treatment systems. The team will first use a regimented ap...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of liquid integrity monitoring methods for gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tanks, which contain a supernatant over a layer of radioactive sludge, are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best way to remove the sludge and remediate the tanks. As part of this study, a preliminary assessment of liquid integrity (or ``tightness``) monitoring methods for the Gunite tanks has been conducted. Both an external and an internal liquid integrity monitoring method were evaluated, and a preliminary assessment of the liquid integrity of eight Gunite tanks was made with the internal method. The work presented in this report shows that six of the eight GAAT considered here are liquid tight and that, in the case of the other two, data quality was too poor to allow a conclusive decision. The analysis indicates that when the release detection approach described in this report is used during the upcoming treatability study, it will function as a sensitive and robust integrity monitoring system. Integrity assessments based on both the internal and external methods can be used as a means of documenting the integrity of the tanks before the initiation of in-tank operations. Assessments based on the external method can be used during these operations as a means of providing a nearly immediate indication of a release, should one occur. The external method of release detection measures the electrical conductivity of the water found in the dry wells associated with each of the tanks. This method is based on the fact that the conductivity of the liquid in the GAAT is very high, while the conductivity of the groundwater in the dry wells and the underdrain system for the GAAT is very low.

  17. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2–3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam. PMID:26435557

  18. Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface for High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and the control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are n0t va lid during all stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid now equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

  19. High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions Using an Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Dr. Paul; Roth, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and th e control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are not valid during aU stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid flow equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

  20. Integration of Electrochemistry with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yi; Zheng, Qiuling; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Loo, Joseph A.; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) combined with electrochemistry (EC) for the first time and its application for the structural analysis of disulfide bond-containing proteins/peptides. In our approach, a protein/peptide mixture sample undergoes fast UPLC separation and subsequent electrochemical reduction in an electrochemical flow cell followed by online MS and MS/MS analyses. The electrochemical cell is coupled to MS using our recently developed desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface. Using this UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method, disulfide bond-containing peptides can be differentiated from those without disulfide bonds as the former are electroactive and reducible. Tandem MS analysis of the disulfide-reduced peptide ions provides increased sequence and disulfide linkage pattern information. In a reactive DESI-MS detection experiment in which a supercharging reagent was used to dope the DESI spray solvent, increased charging was obtained for the UPLC-separated proteins. Strikingly, upon online electrolytic reduction, supercharged proteins (e.g., α-lactalbumin) showed even higher charging, which would be useful in top-down protein structure analysis as increased charges are known to promote protein ion dissociation. Also, the separation speed and sensitivity are enhanced by approximately 1~2 orders of magnitude by using UPLC for the LC/EC/MS platform, in comparison to the previously used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method combines the power of fast UPLC separation, fast electrochemical conversion and online MS structural analysis for a potentially valuable tool for proteomics research and bioanalysis. PMID:26307715

  1. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation

    PubMed Central

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  2. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation.

    PubMed

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-12-28

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  3. Impact of Cloud Vertical and Horizontal Inhomogeneity on Multi-Spectral Retrieval of Liquid Water Cloud Properties: A Study for the GCOM-C/SGLI Cloud Product by Using A-Train and Landsat-8 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, T. M.; Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud droplet effective radius (re) and optical thickness (τc) of liquid water cloud retrieved from multi-spectral measurement of satellite-borne sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are important parameters for understanding of cloud microphysics and droplet growth process. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is scheduling to launch a new earth observation satellite, the Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), in Japan fiscal year 2016. The GCOC-C consists the Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) instrument, which is a radiometer providing near-ultraviolet-to-thermal-infrared multi-spectral measurements at 250m-1km resolution with 1150-1400km swath. Motivated by the importance of re and τc retrievals, the GCOM-C/SGLI cloud product also provides them. However, it is pointed out by previous studies that multi-spectral-retrieved re and τc are impacted by cloud vertical and horizontal inhomogeneity. This study investigates the impacts by using A-Train and Landsat-8 data. First, we interpret three re retrievals from 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7µm-band measurements (re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7) in terms of cloud vertical inhomogeneity by using synergistic measurements from the CloudSat/CPR and Aqua/MODIS. For this interpretation, we use an approach called Contoured Frequency by Optical Depth Diagram (CFODD), which is a joint frequency diagram of CloudSat/CPR radar reflectivity profile as a function of in-cloud optical depth profile as classified according to retrieved re (Nakajima et al., 2010; Suzuki et al., 2010). The CFODD approach visualizes the linkage of re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7 to cloud droplet vertical profile. Second, we simulate the biases in re and τc retrievals at 1km resolution from the MODIS and SGLI induced by cloud horizontal inhomogeneity by using high-spatial resolution measurements of Landsat-8. And then we suggest two inversion models which estimate the biases in re and τc retrievals by using co-variance matrices of multi-spectral radiances: one model explains the bias due to clear-region-contamination based on a classical mixed pixel model which is parameterized by cloud fraction. The other explains the bias due to horizontal inhomogeneity of re and τc at subpixel scale in no clear-region-contamination case.

  4. Refractive index-based detection of gradient elution liquid chromatography using chip-integrated microring resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as nondestructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution, a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and, in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviates extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well-characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of postcolumn (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also make it an attractive potential detection technology that could be integrated within lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic separation devices. PMID:24328221

  5. Integration of atazanavir into an existing liquid chromatography UV method for protease inhibitors: validation and application.

    PubMed

    Keil, Kim; Hochreitter, Jill; DiFrancesco, Robin; Zingman, Barry S; Reichman, Richard C; Fischl, Margaret A; Gripshover, Barbara; Morse, Gene D

    2007-02-01

    Atazanavir (ATV) is a widely used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease inhibitor (PI) that, like other approved PIs, has been considered as a candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). To provide ATV assay results that can be applied to patient management through TDM, the assay would need to perform in a manner consistent with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) standards. To quantitate ATV concentrations in human plasma, the authors added ATV to a previously published reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method from their laboratory. Detection was effected with use of a photodiode-array detector (PDA) collecting spectra at 248 nm. This method allows for detection of ATV to a lower limit of quantitation of 0.05 microg/mL, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV%) of 8.9% or less over 5 days of testing and an interassay CV% ranging from 1.4 to 6.4%. The assay has met passing requirements for interlaboratory proficiency testing for 2 years nationally and internationally, with accuracy within +/-15% over all test samples. During 2 years, more than 100 batches of analyses have been performed and have proved the method is rugged, specific, and accurate. This assay method is currently used in the authors' clinical research program in TDM. PMID:17304157

  6. Nickel oxide nanowires: vapor liquid solid synthesis and integration into a gas sensing device.

    PubMed

    Kaur, N; Comini, E; Zappa, D; Poli, N; Sberveglieri, G

    2016-05-20

    In the field of advanced sensor technology, metal oxide nanostructures are promising materials due to their high charge carrier mobility, easy fabrication and excellent stability. Among all the metal oxide semiconductors, nickel oxide (NiO) is a p-type semiconductor with a wide band gap and excellent optical, electrical and magnetic properties, which has not been much investigated. Herein, we report the growth of NiO nanowires by using the vapor liquid solid (VLS) technique for gas sensing applications. Platinum, palladium and gold have been used as a catalyst for the growth of NiO nanowires. The surface morphology of the nanowires was investigated through scanning electron microscopy to find out which catalyst and growth conditions are best for the growth of nanowires. GI-XRD and Raman spectroscopies were used to confirm the crystalline structure of the material. Different batches of sensors have been prepared, and their sensing performances towards different gas species such as carbon monoxide, ethanol, acetone and hydrogen have been explored. NiO nanowire sensors show interesting and promising performances towards hydrogen. PMID:27053627

  7. Nickel oxide nanowires: vapor liquid solid synthesis and integration into a gas sensing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, N.; Comini, E.; Zappa, D.; Poli, N.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the field of advanced sensor technology, metal oxide nanostructures are promising materials due to their high charge carrier mobility, easy fabrication and excellent stability. Among all the metal oxide semiconductors, nickel oxide (NiO) is a p-type semiconductor with a wide band gap and excellent optical, electrical and magnetic properties, which has not been much investigated. Herein, we report the growth of NiO nanowires by using the vapor liquid solid (VLS) technique for gas sensing applications. Platinum, palladium and gold have been used as a catalyst for the growth of NiO nanowires. The surface morphology of the nanowires was investigated through scanning electron microscopy to find out which catalyst and growth conditions are best for the growth of nanowires. GI-XRD and Raman spectroscopies were used to confirm the crystalline structure of the material. Different batches of sensors have been prepared, and their sensing performances towards different gas species such as carbon monoxide, ethanol, acetone and hydrogen have been explored. NiO nanowire sensors show interesting and promising performances towards hydrogen.

  8. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Gastrectomy - sleeve; Gastrectomy - greater curvature; Gastrectomy - parietal; Gastric reduction; Vertical gastroplasty ... been able to lose weight through diet and exercise. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is not a quick fix ...

  9. Comparison of different liquid hydrogen tank integration concepts for the ELAC-1 research configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albus, J.; Oery, H.

    1993-04-01

    One of the main problems associated with the structural design of a hypersonic aircraft is the conception of the cryogenic tank. Therefore two essential questions, in consideration of structural weight, volumetric efficiency and the aspects as well of inspection, maintenance and repair, as of exchangeability in case of leakage (leak before burst) and safety in operation, have to be answered. These questions concern the choice of the tank integration concept and the tank cross section. To get an idea how much the take-off weight depends on the tank integration concept, at the Institut fuer Leichtbau of the RWTH Aachen a program for weight estimation of hypersonic aircraft has been developed. Herewith the goal was to define well suited substitute models which allow the performance of parametric studies within a wide range of parameters in a tolerable amount of time. In the following the mass model and calculation methods used will be shortly introduced and finally the results achieved will be presented and discussed. On this occasion also comments on structural efficiency of different tank cross sections will be given.

  10. Integrating sphere-based photoacoustic setup for simultaneous absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements of biomedical liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2015-03-01

    A method for simultaneously measuring the absorption coefficient μa and Grüneisen parameter Γ of biological absorbers in photoacoustics is designed and implemented using a coupled-integrating sphere system. A soft transparent tube with inner diameter of 0.58mm is used to mount the liquid absorbing sample horizontally through the cavity of two similar and adjacent integrating spheres. One sphere is used for measuring the sample's μa using a continuous halogen light source and a spectrometer fiber coupled to the input and output ports, respectively. The other sphere is used for simultaneous photoacoustic measurement of the sample's Γ using an incident pulsed light with wavelength of 750nm and a flat transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. Absolute optical energy and pressure measurements are not necessary. However, the derived equations for determining the sample's μa and Γ require calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions. Initial measurements are done with biological samples relevant to biomedical imaging such as human whole blood, joint and cyst fluids. Absorption of joint and cyst fluids is enhanced using a contrast agent like aqueous indocyanine green dye solution. For blood sample, measured values of μa = 0.580 +/- 0.016 mm-1 and Γ = 0.166 +/- 0.006 are within the range of values reported in literature. Measurements with the absorbing joint and cyst fluid samples give Γ values close to 0.12, which is similar to that of water and plasma.

  11. Polymer Microchips Integrating Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Using Reversed-Phase Polymethacrylate Monoliths

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jikun; Chen, C. F.; Tsao, C. W.; Chang, C. C.; Chu, C. C.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer microfluidic chips employing in situ photopolymerized polymethacrylate monoliths for high performance liquid chromatography separations of peptides is described. The integrated chip design employs a 15 cm long separation column containing a reversed-phase polymethacrylate monolith as a stationary phase, with its front end seamlessly coupled to a 5 mm long methacrylate monolith which functions as a solid phase extraction (SPE) element for sample cleanup and enrichment, serving to increase both detection sensitivity and separation performance. In addition to sample concentration and separation, solvent splitting is also performed on-chip, allowing the use of a conventional LC pump for the generation of on-chip nano-flow solvent gradients. The integrated platform takes advantage of solvent bonding and a novel high-pressure needle interface which together enable the polymer chips to withstand internal pressures above 20 MPa (~2,900 psi) for efficient pressure-driven HPLC separations. Gradient reversed-phase separation of fluorescein-labeled model peptides and BSA tryptic digest are demonstrated using the microchip HPLC system. On-line removal of free fluorescein and enrichment of labeled proteins are simultaneously achieved using the on-chip SPE column, resulting in a 150-fold improvement in sensitivity and a 10-fold reduction in peak width in the following microchip gradient LC separation. PMID:19267447

  12. Test Results of the RS-44 Integrated Component Evaluator Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

  13. Efficient solution of liquid state integral equations using the Newton-GMRES algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Michael J.; Schlijper, A. G.; Scales, L. E.; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1999-06-01

    We present examples of the accurate, robust and efficient solution of Ornstein-Zernike type integral equations which describe the structure of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous fluids. In this work we use the Newton-GMRES algorithm as implemented in the public-domain nonlinear Krylov solvers NKSOL [ P. Brown, Y. Saad, SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. 11 (1990) 450] and NITSOL [ M. Pernice, H.F. Walker, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 19 (1998) 302]. We compare and contrast this method with more traditional approaches in the literature, using Picard iteration (successive-substitution) and hybrid Newton-Raphson and Picard methods, and a recent vector extrapolation method [ H.H.H. Homeier, S. Rast, H. Krienke, Comput. Phys. Commun. 92 (1995) 188]. We find that both the performance and ease of implementation of these nonlinear solvers recommend them for the solution of this class of problem.

  14. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  15. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  16. Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Di; Yan, Yingbai; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Fan, Shoushan

    2005-03-01

    A conventional LCD backlight system is composed of light sources, a light-guide plate (LGP) and optical sheets, such as reflection sheets, diffusion sheets and prism sheets, etc. In order to make the backlight system thinner and brighter, we propose a novel integrated LGP based on micro-prism structures by using traditional transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only one LGP and to require no other optical sheets. By using the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, the light scattering phenomenon inside the LGP is analysed. The illumination angle with forward directivity and sufficient intensity uniformity are optimized with the simulation program. Design results reveal that our LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +40° to -20°, without using any optical sheets. Design examples, including 1.8 inch LGPs and 14.1 inch LGPs, are also performed.

  17. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (p<0.05). In addition, acrosomal membrane damage was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (p<0.05). And mitochondrial membrane damage with all sperm was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that highly magnetized semen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen. PMID:25592860

  18. Molecular structure and elastic properties of thermotropic liquid crystals: Integrated molecular dynamics—Statistical mechanical theory vs molecular field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, M. Ilk; Nar, A.; Ferrarini, A.; Frezza, E.; Greco, C.; Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The connection between the molecular structure of liquid crystals and their elastic properties, which control the director deformations relevant for electro-optic applications, remains a challenging objective for theories and computations. Here, we compare two methods that have been proposed to this purpose, both characterized by a detailed molecular level description. One is an integrated molecular dynamics-statistical mechanical approach, where the bulk elastic constants of nematics are calculated from the direct correlation function (DCFs) and the single molecule orientational distribution function [D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1973)]. The latter is obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, together with the radial distribution function, from which the DCF is then determined by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation. The other approach is based on a molecular field theory, where the potential of mean torque experienced by a mesogen in the liquid crystal phase is parameterized according to its molecular surface. In this case, the calculation of elastic constants is combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of single molecule conformations. Using these different approaches, but the same description, at the level of molecular geometry and torsional potentials, we have investigated the elastic properties of the nematic phase of two typical mesogens, 4'-n-pentyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl and 4'-n-heptyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl. Both methods yield K3(bend) >K1 (splay) >K2 (twist), although there are some discrepancies in the average elastic constants and in their anisotropy. These are interpreted in terms of the different approximations and the different ways of accounting for the structural properties of molecules in the two approaches. In general, the results point to the role of the molecular shape, which is modulated by the conformational freedom and cannot be fully accounted for by a single descriptor such as the aspect ratio.

  19. Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Integration of structure and property measurements in a Paris-Edinburgh cell (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Shen, G.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the structure and physical properties of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures is important in understanding dynamics and evolution of the Earth and other planets. However, understanding the physics of liquid materials remains a challenge, especially under high pressure and high temperature conditions. We have recently developed an integrated setup for multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, ultrasonic measurement, and falling sphere viscometer using a Paris-Edinburgh press at sector 16-BM-B, HPCAT, at the APS, for comprehensively studying structures and physical properties of liquids and amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures. The sector 16-BM-B is capable of amorphous and liquid structure measurements by using multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction technique at high pressure and high temperature conditions in a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell (e.g., Yamada et al., 2011). The PE cell is capable of compressing large volume samples (typically >1 mm3) up to 7 GPa at temperatures exceed 2000 °C. In addition to the liquid and amorphous structure measurement capability, we have developed ultrasonic elastic wave velocity and falling sphere viscosity techniques in the PE cell. The elastic wave velocity is measured by ultrasonic pulse echo overlap method in conjunction with white x-ray radiography measurement for determining the wave travel distance (Kono et al., 2012). The falling sphere viscosity measurements are made with high-speed white x-ray radiography (>1000 frame/second) (Kono et al., 2013). The integration of liquid structure measurement with elastic wave velocity measurement and viscosity measurement in the PE cell provides a unique opportunity to investigate in situ correlation between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties of liquids and amorphous solids. Knowledge of the correlation will provide valuable constraints for modeling liquid properties at high pressures and high temperatures, and thus improving our understanding the nature of magmas at depths and the dynamics of the Earth's interior.

  20. How to (or Not to) Integrate Vertical Programmes for the Control of Major Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Malecela, Mwele; Lado, Mounir; Zaramba, Sam; Amiel, Olga; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Combining the delivery of multiple health interventions has the potential to minimize costs and expand intervention coverage. Integration of mass drug administration is therefore being encouraged for delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PCT) to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and trachoma in sub-Saharan Africa, as there is considerable geographical overlap of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). With only a handful of countries having embarked on integrated NTD control, experience on how to develop and implement an efficient integrated programme is limited. Historically, national and global programmes were focused on the control of only one disease, usually through a comprehensive approach that involved several interventions including PCT. Overcoming the resulting disease-specific structures and thinking, and ensuring that the integrated programme is embedded within the existing health structures, pose considerable challenges to policy makers and implementers wishing to embark on integrated NTD control. By sharing experiences from Uganda, Tanzania, Southern Sudan, and Mozambique, this symposium article aims to outlines key challenges and solutions to assist countries in establishing efficient integrated NTD programmes. PMID:20614017

  1. An investigation of the liquid to glass transition using integral equations for the pair structure of coupled replicae

    SciTech Connect

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Pastore, Giorgio

    2014-11-07

    Extensive numerical solutions of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations are presented for the pair structure of a system of two coupled replicae (1 and 2) of a “soft-sphere” fluid of atoms interacting via an inverse-12 pair potential. In the limit of vanishing inter-replica coupling ε{sub 12}, both integral equations predict the existence of three branches of solutions: (1) A high temperature liquid branch (L), which extends to a supercooled regime upon cooling when the two replicae are kept at ε{sub 12} = 0 throughout; upon separating the configurational and vibrational contributions to the free energy and entropy of the L branch, the Kauzmann temperature is located where the configurational entropy vanishes. (2) Starting with an initial finite coupling ε{sub 12}, two “glass” branches G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} are found below some critical temperature, which are characterized by a strong remnant spatial inter-replica correlation upon taking the limit ε{sub 12} → 0. Branch G{sub 2} is characterized by an increasing overlap order parameter upon cooling, and may hence be identified with the hypothetical “ideal glass” phase. Branch G{sub 1} exhibits the opposite trend of increasing order parameter upon heating; its free energy lies consistently below that of the L branch and above that of the G{sub 2} branch. The free energies of the L and G{sub 2} branches are found to intersect at an alleged “random first-order transition” (RFOT) characterized by weak discontinuities of the volume and entropy. The Kauzmann and RFOT temperatures predicted by RY differ significantly from their HNC counterparts.

  2. Refractive Index-Based Detection of Gradient Elution Liquid Chromatography using Chip-Integrated Microring Resonator Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wade, James H.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as non-destructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with HPLC. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution – a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviating extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of post-column (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also makes it an attractive potential detection technology that could be integrated within lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic separation devices. PMID:24328221

  3. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting. PMID:26439164

  4. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting.

  5. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l'Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting. PMID:26439164

  6. Integrated approach to sustain biogas production in anaerobic digestion of chicken manure under recycled utilization of liquid digestate: Dynamics of ammonium accumulation and mitigation control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Ni, Ping; Li, Jiaxi; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Luo, Hongzhen; Dach, Jacek; Dong, Renjie

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of ammonium accumulation and mitigation control in anaerobic digestion of chicken manure under the recycled utilization of liquid digested slurry were investigated by using an integrated approach in two laboratory-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactors. In the reactor with direct recycled utilization of the anaerobic digested liquid slurry, total volatilized fatty acids (in CH3COOH) and NH4(+)-N increased from 1600mg/L to 8000mg/L and from 2600mg/L to 5000mg/L, respectively. The daily volumetric biogas production decreased from 1.4±0.1L/(L·d) to 0.8±0.1L/(L·d) with a reduction efficiency of 43±4%. Air stripping was integrated for ammonium mitigation of recycled liquid digested slurry and was shown to effectively reduce the ammonium to 3000mg/L. Correspondingly, the biogas production was recovered back to 1.4±0.1L/(L·d). This indicated the potential of the integration of air stripping for ammonium mitigation in an anaerobic digestion process with liquid digested slurry recirculation. PMID:26812140

  7. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  8. Integrated lab-in-syringe platform incorporating a membraneless gas-liquid separator for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Miró, Manuel; Anthemidis, Aristidis

    2013-10-01

    This manuscript reports the proof-of-concept of a novel integrated lab-in-syringe/gas-liquid separation (LIS/GLS) batch-flow system based on a programmable flow for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric assays. Homogeneous mixing of metered volumes of sample and reagent solutions drawn up in a sandwich-type mode along with in situ vapor generation are accomplished inside the microsyringe in a closed manner, while the separation of vapor species is achieved via the membraneless GLS located at the top of the syringe's valve in the upright position. The potentials of the proposed manifold were demonstrated for trace inorganic mercury determination in drinking waters and seawater. For a 3.0 mL sample, the limit of detection and repeatability (RSD) were found to be 0.03 μg L(-1) Hg(II) and 3.1% (at the 2.0 μg L(-1) concentration level), respectively, with a dynamic range extending up to 10.0 μg L(-1). The proposed system fulfills the requirements of US-EPA, WHO, and EU Council Directives for measurements of the maximum allowed concentrations of inorganic mercury in drinking water. PMID:23977837

  9. Fast and General Method To Predict the Physicochemical Properties of Druglike Molecules Using the Integral Equation Theory of Molecular Liquids.

    PubMed

    Palmer, David S; Mišin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V; Llinas, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    We report a method to predict physicochemical properties of druglike molecules using a classical statistical mechanics based solvent model combined with machine learning. The RISM-MOL-INF method introduced here provides an accurate technique to characterize solvation and desolvation processes based on solute-solvent correlation functions computed by the 1D reference interaction site model of the integral equation theory of molecular liquids. These functions can be obtained in a matter of minutes for most small organic and druglike molecules using existing software (RISM-MOL) (Sergiievskyi, V. P.; Hackbusch, W.; Fedorov, M. V. J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 1982-1992). Predictions of caco-2 cell permeability and hydration free energy obtained using the RISM-MOL-INF method are shown to be more accurate than the state-of-the-art tools for benchmark data sets. Due to the importance of solvation and desolvation effects in biological systems, it is anticipated that the RISM-MOL-INF approach will find many applications in biophysical and biomedical property prediction. PMID:26212723

  10. Treatment of dairy wastewater using a vertical bed with passive aeration.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Gidron, E; Beliavski, M; Lahav, O; Tarre, S

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of treating liquid dairy wastes by a vertical bed equipped with an innovative passive aeration system. The vertical bed (32 liter) was operated by recirculating consecutive batches of liquid waste in the column. Batches of liquid waste were applied at two different rates: 1) each batch was recirculated for 72 hours, and 2) each batch was recirculated for 24 hours. Settled liquid dairy wastes (5000 mg l(-1) COD, 2000 mg l(-1) BOD and 2500 mg l(-1) TSS) were used in the experiments. When the reactor operated with each batch recirculating for 72 hours, the BOD and COD reduction were 66% and 40%, respectively. The vertical bed operated successfully without the need for an additional rest period. The main removal was observed to take place during the first 20 hours. No biomass or solids accumulation was observed indicating that the remaining 52 hours of recirculation were actually used for bed regeneration, i.e. integrated rest period. When the reactor operated with each batch recirculating for 24 hours, the system clogged after 21 days. An additional 24 day rest period was needed in order to free 94% of the initial void space. In this mode, the BOD and COD reduction were 67% and 47%, respectively. The overall COD removal in a complete operational cycle (feeding period followed by a rest period) was 467 g COD m(-3) d(-1) (996 g COD m(-2) d(-1)). This value is 1.4 higher than the COD removal obtained in the 72 hour per batch mode and shows the advantage of conventional vertical bed operation of intensive feeding followed by rest period rather than a rest period integrated into the feeding cycle. PMID:15551826

  11. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Per

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5-3D. A set of numerical models were developed in parallel to the experimental work. RELAP5-3D models were developed for the salt-cooled PB-AHTR, and for the simulat fluid CIET natural circulation experimental loop. These models are to be validated by the data collected from CIET. COMSOL finite element models were used to predict the temperature and fluid flow distribution in the annular pebble bed core; they were instrumental for design of SETs, and they can be used for code-to-code comparisons with RELAP5-3D. A number of other small SETs, and numerical models were constructed, as needed, in support of this work. The experiments were designed, constructed and performed to meet CAES quality assurance requirements for test planning, implementation, and documentation; equipment calibration and documentation, procurement document control; training and personnel qualification; analysis/modeling software verification and validation; data acquisition/collection and analysis; and peer review.

  12. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  13. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  14. High-performance vertically stacked bottom-gate and top-gate polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors for three-dimensional integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-Che; Tsai, Tsung-Che; Tsai, Chun-Chien; Yang, Po-Yu; Wang, Chao-Lung; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2012-11-01

    The three-dimensional CMOS inverter with top-gate (TG) poly-Si thin film transistors (TFTs) vertically stacked on the bottom-gate (BG) poly-Si TFTs have been proposed to achieve high-performance characteristics via excimer laser crystallization (ELC) for the first time. Under an appropriate laser irradiation energy density, the silicon grain growth could be controlled from the sidewalls of the bottom-gate structure and thus the high-quality laterally grown poly-Si film with single perpendicular grain boundary in the channel would be formed for the BG TFTs. In addition, a simple ELC method was also utilized to the top-layered poly-Si film for TG TFTs as compared with solid-state-crystallized (SPC) ones. As a result, the field-effect mobilities of the proposed n-type BG and p-type TG TFTs could be significantly increased to be 390 and 131 cm2/V s, respectively, in contrast to 32.3 and 14.7 cm2/V s for the SPC ones, accordingly. Furthermore, such three-dimensional (3-D) TFT have also been employed to demonstrate the inverter devices and is suitable for future 3-D ICs as well as system-on-panel applications.

  15. Timing of HAART defines the integrity of memory B cells and the longevity of humoral responses in HIV-1 vertically-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Pensieroso, Simone; Cagigi, Alberto; Palma, Paolo; Nilsson, Anna; Capponi, Claudia; Freda, Elio; Bernardi, Stefania; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Chiodi, Francesca; Rossi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 infection induces a progressive disruption of the B cell compartment impairing long-term immune responses to routine immunizations. Depletion of specific memory B cell pools occurs during the 1st stages of the infection and cannot be reestablished by antiretroviral treatment. We reasoned that an early control of viral replication through treatment could preserve the normal development of the memory B cell compartment and responses to routine childhood vaccines. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of different highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) schedules in 70 HIV-1 vertically-infected pediatric subjects by B cell phenotypic analyses, antigen-specific B cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) and ELISA for common vaccination and HIV-1 antigens. Initiation of HAART within the 1st year of life permits the normal development and maintenance of the memory B cell compartment. On the contrary, memory B cells from patients treated later in time are remarkably reduced and their function is compromised regardless of viral control. A cause for concern is that both late-treated HIV-1 controllers and noncontrollers loose protective antibody titers against common vaccination antigens. Timing of HAART initiation is the major factor predicting the longevity of B cell responses in vaccinated HIV-1-infected children. PMID:19416836

  16. Integration of Gravitational Torques in Cerebellar Pathways Allows for the Dynamic Inverse Computation of Vertical Pointing Movements of a Robot Arm

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Ebadzadeh, Mehdi; Eskiizmirliler, Selim; Ouanezar, Sofiane; Darlot, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Several authors suggested that gravitational forces are centrally represented in the brain for planning, control and sensorimotor predictions of movements. Furthermore, some studies proposed that the cerebellum computes the inverse dynamics (internal inverse model) whereas others suggested that it computes sensorimotor predictions (internal forward model). Methodology/Principal Findings This study proposes a model of cerebellar pathways deduced from both biological and physical constraints. The model learns the dynamic inverse computation of the effect of gravitational torques from its sensorimotor predictions without calculating an explicit inverse computation. By using supervised learning, this model learns to control an anthropomorphic robot arm actuated by two antagonists McKibben artificial muscles. This was achieved by using internal parallel feedback loops containing neural networks which anticipate the sensorimotor consequences of the neural commands. The artificial neural networks architecture was similar to the large-scale connectivity of the cerebellar cortex. Movements in the sagittal plane were performed during three sessions combining different initial positions, amplitudes and directions of movements to vary the effects of the gravitational torques applied to the robotic arm. The results show that this model acquired an internal representation of the gravitational effects during vertical arm pointing movements. Conclusions/Significance This is consistent with the proposal that the cerebellar cortex contains an internal representation of gravitational torques which is encoded through a learning process. Furthermore, this model suggests that the cerebellum performs the inverse dynamics computation based on sensorimotor predictions. This highlights the importance of sensorimotor predictions of gravitational torques acting on upper limb movements performed in the gravitational field. PMID:19384420

  17. Integrated SDS removal and peptide separation by strong-cation exchange liquid chromatography for SDS-assisted shotgun proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Difei; Wang, Nan; Li, Liang

    2012-02-01

    We report an improved shotgun method for analyzing proteomic samples containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This method is based on the use of strong-cation exchange (SCX) liquid chromatography (LC) for SDS removal that can be integrated with peptide separation as the first dimension of the two-dimensional LC tandem mass spectrometry workflow. To optimize the performance of SDS removal, various experimental conditions, including the concentrations of chemical reagents and salts in the sample, the SDS concentration, and the SCX mobile phase composition, were investigated. It was found that a peptide recovery rate of about 90% could be achieved while removing SDS efficiently. One key finding was that, by increasing the SDS concentration to a certain level (0.5%) in the digested peptide sample, the sample recovery rate could be increased. The peptide recovery rate of BSA digests was found to be 90.6 ± 1.0% (n = 3), and SDS in the SCX fractions collected was not detectable by pyrolysis GC-MS, i.e., below the detection limit of 0.00006% for the undesalted SCX fractions. The peptide recovery rates were found to be 90.9% ± 2.7 (n = 3) and 89.5% ± 0.5% (n = 3) for the digests of the membrane-protein-enriched fractions of E. coli cell lysates and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, respectively. Compared to the methods that use acid-labile surfactants, such as RapiGest and PPS, for the MCF-7 membrane fraction sample, the SDS method identified, on average (n = 3), more peptides (∼5%) and proteins (∼16%) than the RapiGest method, while the RapiGest method identified more peptides (∼21%) and proteins (∼7%) from the E. coli membrane fraction than the SDS method. In both cases, the two methods identified more peptides and proteins than the PPS method. Since SCX is widely used as the first dimension of 2D-LC MS/MS, integration of SDS removal with peptide separation in SCX does not add any extra steps to the sample handling process. We demonstrated the application of this method for 2D-LC MS/MS profiling of the MCF-7 membrane protein fraction and identified 6889 unique peptides, corresponding to 2258 unique proteins or protein groups from two replicate experiments with a false peptide discovery rate of ∼0.8%, compared to 5172 unique peptides and 1847 unique proteins identified by the RapiGest method. PMID:22214374

  18. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  19. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  20. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.

    1981-01-27

    Wind turbines are largely divided into vertical axis wind turbines and propeller (Horizontal axis) wind turbines. The present invention discloses a vertical axis high speed wind turbine provided with a starting and braking control system. This vertical axis wind turbine is formed by having blades of a proper airfoil fitted to respective supporting arms provided radially from a vertical rotary axis by keeping the blade span-wise direction in parallel with the axis and being provided with a low speed control windmill in which the radial position of each operating piece varies with a centrifugal force produced by the rotation of the vertical rotary axis.

  1. Determination of liquid water altitudes using combined remote sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Politovich, M.K.

    1995-09-01

    Methods by which altitude ranges of supercooled cloud liquid water in the atmosphere may be estimated are explored using measurements from a combination of ground-based remote sensors. The tests were conducted as part of the Winter Icing and Storms Project that took place in eastern Colorado during the winters of 1990, 1991, and 1993. The basic method augments microwave radiometer measurements of path-integrated liquid water with observations from additional remote sensors to establish height limits for the supercooled liquid. One variation uses a simple adiabatic parcel lifting model initiated at a cloud-base height determined from a ceilometer, temperature and pressure from a radio acoustic sounding system or rawinsonde, and combines these with the radiometer`s total liquid measurement to obtain an estimate of the liquid cloud-top height. Since it does not account for liquid loss by entrainment or ice-liquid interaction processes, this method tends to underestimate the true liquid cloud top; for two cases examined in detail, 54% of icing pilot reports in the area were from above this estimated height. Some error is introduced due to differences in sampling locations and from horizontal variability in liquid water content. Vertical cloud boundaries from a K{sub a}-band radar were also used in the study; these often indicated thicker clouds than the liquid-layer depths observed from research aircraft, possibly due to the ambiguity of the ice-liquid phase distinction. Comparisons of liquid vertical profiles are presented, using normalized profile shapes based on uniform, adiabatic, and aircraft-derived composite assumptions. The adiabatic and climatological profile shapes generally agreed well with measurements from a research aircraft and were more realistic than the uniform profile. Suggestions for applications of these results toward a real-time aviation hazard identification system are presented. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  3. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Ellenburg, M.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2013-12-01

    This R&D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 μm or 150 μm, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 μm thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×1015 neq/cm2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3 μm×10 μm, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.

  4. Evidence for Late Devonian vertical movements and extensional deformation in northern Africa and Arabia: Integration in the geodynamics of the Devonian world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Tavakoli-Shirazi, Saeid; Leturmy, Pascale; Averbuch, Olivier; Mouchot, Nicolas; Raulin, Camille; Leparmentier, FrançOis; Blanpied, Christian; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-01

    The Upper Paleozoic geodynamic evolution is discussed at the scale of a wide part of Gondwana from North Africa to Arabia. With the aim of giving an integrated tectonic scenario for the study domain, we revisit six key areas, namely, the Anti-Atlas Belt (Morocco), the Bechar Basin (west Algeria), the Hassi R'Mel High (central Algeria), the Talemezane Arch (south Tunisia), the Western Desert (Egypt), and, finally, the High Zagros Belt (Iran). Below the so-called "Hercynian unconformity," which is in reality a highly composite discontinuity, surface and subsurface data display a well-known arch-and-basin geometry, with basement highs and intervening Paleozoic basins. We show that this major feature results mainly from a Late Devonian event and can no longer be interpreted as a far effect of the Variscan Orogeny. This event is characterized by a more or less diffuse extensional deformation and accompanied either by subsidence, in the western part of the system, or by an important uplift of probable thermal origin followed by erosion and peneplanation. By the end of the Devonian, the whole region suffered a general subsidence governed by the progressive cooling of the lithosphere. Such a primary configuration is preserved in Arabia with typical sag geometry of the Carboniferous and Permian deposits but strongly disturbed elsewhere by the conjugated effects of the Variscan Orogeny during the Carboniferous and/or by subsequent uplifts linked to the central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys rifting episodes. In conclusion, we try to integrate this new understanding in the geodynamics of the Late Devonian, which at world scale is characterized by the onset of the Variscan Orogeny on the one hand and by magmatism, rifting, and basement uplift on the other hand.

  5. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  6. Observations and Modeling of the Near Surface Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere in the Southern Appalachians during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) Extended Observing Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. M.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high resolution observations of precipitation accumulations and intensity in regions of complex terrain are largely unavailable, due to a lack of existing in situ observations and obstacles to remote sensing (radar and satellite observations) such as beam blockage and ground clutter. For the past six years, a high-elevation, high-density rain gauge network has been recording precipitation observations along ridgelines in the Pigeon River Basin in the Southern Appalachians. These longer term observations complement the 4-D database of observations, which are being collected in support of the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) during the first field campaign after the launch of the GPM satellite, the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx). The observations focused on here are those at the near surface, within 2 kilometers of the ground level. The IPHEx extended observation period lasts until the end of 2014. This presentation will focus on ground-based measurements made by MicroRain Radars, disdrometers, radiometers, rain gauges, fog collectors and aerosol spectrometers among others during the spring, summer and fall of 2014. These measurements will be analyzed to provide information on the diurnal cycle of microphysical and dynamical processes and properties in the region, with an emphasis on describing the characteristics of local cloud and fog. These observations will be discussed in the context of previous findings based on observations and model results (stochastic column model and the Advanced Research Weather and Forecasting Model (WRF)). Specifically, this presentation will address whether the IPHEx observations support the hypothesis, validated for specific case studies in previous work, that Bergeron processes govern the enhancement of light rainfall in the Southern Appalachians through increased coalescence efficiency in stratiform rainfall due to the interactions with low level clouds and topography modulated fog. WRF simulations for IPHEx cases will also be discussed.

  7. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  8. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.

    1981-01-27

    Wind turbines are largely divided into vertical axis wind turbines and propeller (Horizontal axis) wind turbines. The present invention discloses a vertical axis high speed wind turbine provided with rotational speed control systems. This vertical axis wind turbine is formed by having blades of a proper airfoil fitted to respective supporting arms provided radially from a vertical rotating shaft by keeping the blade span-wise direction in parallel with the shaft and being provided with aerodynamic control elements operating manually or automatically to control the rotational speed of the turbine.

  9. Dual-mode photosensitive arrays based on the integration of liquid crystal microlenses and CMOS sensors for obtaining the intensity images and wavefronts of objects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Xin, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of dual-mode photosensitive arrays (DMPAs) constructed by hybrid integration a liquid crystal microlens array (LCMLA) driven electrically and a CMOS sensor array, which can be used to measure both the conventional intensity images and corresponding wavefronts of objects. We utilize liquid crystal materials to shape the microlens array with the electrically tunable focal length. Through switching the voltage signal on and off, the wavefronts and the intensity images can be acquired through the DMPAs, sequentially. We use white light to obtain the object's wavefronts for avoiding losing important wavefront information. We separate the white light wavefronts with a large number of spectral components and then experimentally compare them with single spectral wavefronts of typical red, green and blue lasers, respectively. Then we mix the red, green and blue wavefronts to a composite wavefront containing more optical information of the object. PMID:26906768

  10. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  11. Geysering inhibitor for vertical cryogenic transfer piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. S.

    1973-01-01

    Geysering (i.e., the expulsion of boiling liquid and its vapor from a vertical tube) has been a problem for the missile industry in long vertical cryogenic propellant feed lines connecting the launch vehicle propellant tank with the rocket engines. A proposed novel method of inhibiting geysering and the associated pressure gradients provides a self-starting self-regulating action that is not dependent on other active systems or components. The inhibiting action is attained by incorporating a concentric tube within the main transfer tube to prevent constriction of natural convective flow.

  12. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  13. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  14. Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis I : Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S.; Arora, N. S.; Jordan, M. I.; Sudderth, E.

    2009-12-01

    As part of its CTBT verification efforts, the International Data Centre (IDC) analyzes seismic and other signals collected from hundreds of stations around the world. Current processing at the IDC proceeds in a series of pipelined stages. From station processing to network processing, each decision is made on the basis of local information. This has the advantage of efficiency, and simplifies the structure of software implementations. However, this approach may reduce accuracy in the detection and phase classification of arrivals, association of detections to hypothesized events, and localization of small-magnitude events.In our work, we approach such detection and association problems as ones of probabilistic inference. In simple terms, let X be a random variable ranging over all possible collections of events, with each event defined by time, location, magnitude, and type (natural or man-made). Let Y range over all possible waveform signal recordings at all detection stations. Then Pθ(X) describes a parameterized generative prior over events, and P[|#30#|]φ(Y | X) describes how the signal is propagated and measured (including travel time, selective absorption and scattering, noise, artifacts, sensor bias, sensor failures, etc.). Given observed recordings Y = y, we are interested in the posterior P(X | Y = y), and perhaps in the value of X that maximizes it—i.e., the most likely explanation for all the sensor readings. As detailed below, an additional focus of our work is to robustly learn appropriate model parameters θ and φ from historical data. The primary advantage we expect is that decisions about arrivals, phase classifications, and associations are made with the benefit of all available evidence, not just the local signal or predefined recipes. Important phenomena—such as the successful detection of sub-threshold signals, correction of phase classifications using arrival information at other stations, and removal of false events based on the absence of signals—should all fall out of our probabilistic framework without the need for special processing rules. In our baseline model, natural events occur according to a spatially inhomogeneous Poisson process. Complex events (swarms and aftershocks) may then be captured via temporally inhomogeneous extensions. Man-made events have a uniform probability of occurring anywhere on the earth, with a tendency to occur closer to the surface. Phases are modelled via their amplitude, frequency distribution, and origin. In the simplest case, transmission times are characterized via the one-dimensional IASPEI-91 model, accounting for model errors with Gaussian uncertainty. Such homogeneous, approximate physical models can be further refined via historical data and previously developed corrections. Signal measurements are captured by station-specific models, based on sensor types and geometries, local frequency absorption characteristics, and time-varying noise models. At the conference, we expect to be able to quantitatively demonstrate the advantages of our approach, at least for simulated data. When reporting their findings, such systems can easily flag low-confidence events, unexplained arrivals, and ambiguous classifications to focus the efforts of expert analysts.

  15. Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of…

  16. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  17. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.P.; Sommargren, G.E.; McConaghy, C.F.; Krulevitch, P.A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion, micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  18. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  19. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, Ashraf A; Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The simulations show that the helium gas is trapped inside the grooves. The predicted time-averaged gas coverage is in good qualitative agreement with the measured gas coverage.

  20. A measurement of the e/{pi} ratio difference between short (250 ns) and long (2.2 {mu}s) integration times with the D0 uranium-liquid argon central calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, B.

    1992-12-31

    The difference of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses(e/{pi}) in the DO Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the DO calorimeter trigger readout (short integration time: 250 ns) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2 {mu}s). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/{pi} ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

  1. a Measurement of the Electron/pion Ratio Difference Between Short (250 Nanoseconds) and Long (2.2 Microseconds) Integration Times with the d0 Uranium-Liquid Argon Central Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Bo.

    1992-01-01

    The differences of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses (e/pi) in the D0 Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the D0 calorimeter trigger readout (short integration time: 250 ns) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2 mus). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/pi ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

  2. An Integrated Approach Using Liquid Culture System Can it Make an Impact for Clinical Diagnosis of Genitourinary Tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vp; Chakradhar, V; Munim, F; Mukhopadhyay, C

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in India. Genitourinary TB (GUTB) comprises 20% of all extrapulmonary TB, and is the most common extrapulmonary site to be affected by this disease. The spectrum of varied pathological changes occur in GUTB, hence a thorough knowledge is required to prevent complications related to GUTB. Diagnostic dilemma is a common problem faced as culture and polymerase chain reaction results vary in their sensitivity and specificity. A thorough knowledge of epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, and spectrum of the disease and importance of including liquid culture system for the diagnosis of this disease are presented in three cases. PMID:25184082

  3. A wafer-level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb-level nitric oxide gas sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatty, Hithesh K.; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2015-10-01

    A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb-1 with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

  4. Liquid level detector

    SciTech Connect

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  5. Vertical flowline connector

    SciTech Connect

    Saliger, K. C.

    1985-10-01

    Several embodiments are disclosed of a vertical type of flowline connector for providing a fluid connection between a horizontal flowline and an additional subsea facility. The upper and lower portions of the connector can be properly positioned relative to each other by simply lowering an upper female portion of the connector onto a lower male portion thereof. The lower portion of the connector at the subsea facility is provided with at least two vertically positioned, upwardly facing male mandrel connectors. The upper portion of the connector assembly includes at least two vertically positioned, downwardly facing corresponding female connectors designed to be lowered onto the corresponding male mandrel connectors. At least one of the female connectors is mounted on the connector assembly by a free floating mounting. The free floating mounting allows for slight misalignments of the female connectors relative to the corresponding male connectors as the upper connector assembly is lowered onto, and passively positioned relative to, the lower connector assembly.

  6. The structure of poly(ethylene oxide) liquids : comparison of integral equation theory with molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scaling.

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, John G.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile

    2005-01-01

    Polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on poly(ethylene oxide) liquids using a force field of Smith, Jaffe, and Yoon. The intermolecular pair correlation functions and radius of gyration from theory were in very good agreement with MD simulations when the partial charges were turned off. When the charges were turned on, considerably more structure was seen in the intermolecular correlations obtained from MD simulation. Moreover, the radius of gyration increased by 38% due to electrostatic repulsions along the chain backbone. Because the partial charges greatly affect the structure, significant differences were seen between the PRISM calculations (without charges) and the wide angle neutron scattering measurements of Annis and coworkers for the total structure factor, and the hydrogen/hydrogen intermolecular correlation function. This is in contrast to previous PRISM calculations on poly (dimethyl siloxane).

  7. Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

    2012-11-01

    A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Pr<0.0001) proved that the model matched the experimental data, and had a high predictive ability. The optimal technological parameters were: 81.5°C reaction temperature, 51.7cm fill height of catalyst KF/CaO and 105.98kPa system pressure. Under these conditions, the average yield of triplicate experiments was 93.7%, indicating the continuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. PMID:22940350

  8. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.

    1992-08-01

    The first step in the integrated, mufti-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal is the production of ultra low-ash coal. Subsequent steps convert low-ash coal to high-value, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  9. Estimating the Gibbs energy of hydration from molecular dynamics trajectories obtained by integral equations of the theory of liquids in the RISM approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, D. A.; Sobolev, E. V.

    2011-04-01

    A method of integral equations of the theory of liquids in the reference interaction site model (RISM) approximation is used to estimate the Gibbs energy averaged over equilibrium trajectories computed by molecular mechanics. Peptide oxytocin is selected as the object of interest. The Gibbs energy is calculated using all chemical potential formulas introduced in the RISM approach for the excess chemical potential of solvation and is compared with estimates by the generalized Born model. Some formulas are shown to give the wrong sign of Gibbs energy changes when peptide passes from the gas phase into water environment; the other formulas give overestimated Gibbs energy changes with the right sign. Note that allowance for the repulsive correction in the approximate analytical expressions for the Gibbs energy derived by thermodynamic perturbation theory is not a remedy.

  10. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  11. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

    2003-04-01

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  12. Integration of Satellite-Derived Cloud Phase, Cloud Top Height, and Liquid Water Path into an Operational Aircraft Icing Nowcasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Julie; McDonough, Frank; Black, Jennifer; Landott, Scott; Wolff, Cory; Mueller, Steven; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Operational products used by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to alert pilots of hazardous icing provide nowcast and short-term forecast estimates of the potential for the presence of supercooled liquid water and supercooled large droplets. The Current Icing Product (CIP) system employs basic satellite-derived information, including a cloud mask and cloud top temperature estimates, together with multiple other data sources to produce a gridded, three-dimensional, hourly depiction of icing probability and severity. Advanced satellite-derived cloud products developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provide a more detailed description of cloud properties (primarily at cloud top) compared to the basic satellite-derived information used currently in CIP. Cloud hydrometeor phase, liquid water path, cloud effective temperature, and cloud top height as estimated by the LaRC algorithms are into the CIP fuzzy logic scheme and a confidence value is determined. Examples of CIP products before and after the integration of the LaRC satellite-derived products will be presented at the conference.

  13. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  14. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  15. Liquid rising near walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2016-03-01

    The rise of a liquid in a region confined with walls is studied. This is done for the case of a liquid between two vertical parallel walls, as well as a liquid rising inside or outside a cylinder of circular cross section. Limiting cases of small distances between the walls, or tubes of small cross sections, as well as large distances between the walls, or tubes of large cross sections, are also investigated. For the limiting cases, tubes of arbitrary (but uniform) cross sections are also studied.

  16. Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase

    DOEpatents

    Blair, Dianna S.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Butler, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

  17. Novel industrial wastewater treatment integrated with recovery of water and salt under a zero liquid discharge concept.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sengodagounder

    2016-03-01

    Conventional industrial effluent treatment systems are designed to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) but not total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly contributed by chlorides. In addition to the removal of TDS, it is necessary to recover water for reuse to meet the challenges of shortage of quality water. To recover water, the wastewater needs to be further treated by adopting treatment systems including microfilters, low pressure membrane units such as ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactors (MBR), etc., for the application of reverse osmosis (RO) systems. By adopting the RO system, 75%-80% of quality water with <500 mg/L of TDS is recovered from treated effluent. The management of 20%-25% of the saline water rejected from the RO system with high TDS concentration is being addressed by methods such as forced evaporation systems. The recovery of water from domestic and industrial waste for reuse has become a reality. The membrane system has been used for different applications. It has become mandatory to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in many states in India and other countries such as Spain, China, etc., and resulted in development of new treatment technologies to suit the local conditions. PMID:26982606

  18. Integrity of chromatin and replicating DNA in nuclei released from fission yeast by semi-automated grinding in liquid nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei. Findings Here we present a useful method for nuclear isolation from the important model organism, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To preserve in vivo molecular configurations, we flash-froze the yeast cells in liquid nitrogen. Then we broke their tough cell walls, without damaging their nuclei, by grinding in a precision-controlled motorized mortar-and-pestle apparatus. The cryo-ground cells were resuspended and thawed in a buffer designed to preserve nuclear morphology, and the nuclei were enriched by differential centrifugation. The washed nuclei were free from contaminating nucleases and have proven well-suited as starting material for genome-wide chromatin analysis and for preparation of fragile DNA replication intermediates. Conclusions We have developed a simple, reproducible, economical procedure for large-scale preparation of endogenous-nuclease-free, morphologically intact nuclei from fission yeast. With appropriate modifications, this procedure may well prove useful for isolation of nuclei from other organisms with, or without, tough cell walls. PMID:22088094

  19. Development of a one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction and cleanup method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkyu; Kim, Ye-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2014-05-01

    A rapid and accurate one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and cleanup method was developed and validated for 34 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments, giving an extract that could be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without further cleanup. Marine sediment (5 g) was loaded into the stainless-steel extraction cell above activated copper (5 g) and activated silica gel (5 g). An extraction temperature of 100°C and two 5 min extraction cycles using a 4:1 (v/v) hexane-dichloromethane mixture gave a good extraction efficiency. The integrated method gave extracts that were as clean as those obtained using PLE, followed by separate activated copper and silica gel cleanups. The method was validated, in terms of its accuracy, precision, and application using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1944), marine sediments spiked at low and high concentrations, and contaminated harbor sediments. The mean recoveries were 92% and 94% for the low and high spike concentrations, respectively, and the accuracy was good (giving a mean of 86% of the certified reference material concentrations). The method developed gave a precision and accuracy equal to or better than the precision and accuracy found using PLE with separate cleanups. The method developed gives a shorter sample preparation time and uses much less solvent than PLE and separate cleanups. PMID:24671040

  20. Integrated, nontargeted ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry platform for the identification and relative quantification of the small-molecule complement of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anne M; DeHaven, Corey D; Barrett, Tom; Mitchell, Matt; Milgram, Eric

    2009-08-15

    To address the challenges associated with metabolomics analyses, such as identification of chemical structures and elimination of experimental artifacts, we developed a platform that integrated the chemical analysis, including identification and relative quantification, data reduction, and quality assurance components of the process. The analytical platform incorporated two separate ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS(2)) injections; one injection was optimized for basic species, and the other was optimized for acidic species. This approach permitted the detection of 339 small molecules, a total instrument analysis time of 24 min (two injections at 12 min each), while maintaining a median process variability of 9%. The resulting MS/MS(2) data were searched against an in-house generated authentic standard library that included retention time, molecular weight (m/z), preferred adducts, and in-source fragments as well as their associated MS/MS spectra for all molecules in the library. The library allowed the rapid and high-confidence identification of the experimentally detected molecules based on a multiparameter match without need for additional analyses. This integrated platform enabled the high-throughput collection and relative quantitative analysis of analytical data and identified a large number and broad spectrum of molecules with a high degree of confidence. PMID:19624122

  1. Countercurrent flooding in vertical-to-inclined pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaji, M.; Thomson, L.A. ); Krishnan, V.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on countercurrent flooding data obtained using air and water for vertical-to- downwardly inclined pipes containing elbows of varying angles. Experiments were performed with six different test sections, all having an inner diameter of 51 mm and a 1-m- long vertical tube connected to an inclined or horizontal tube. The flooding data for 112.5{degrees} and 135{degrees} elbow angles were almost identical and showed that these geometries required the largest gas flow rates for flooding among all the geometries tested. The flooding gas velocities for the 157.5{degrees} elbow were slightly less than those of the 112.5{degrees} and 135{degrees} elbows but greater than those of the vertical pipe without any elbow and vertical-to- horizontal pipes at low to moderate liquid flow rates. In all vertical-to-inclined pipes, flooding was initiated in the inclined section at about 15 to 50 cm downstream of the elbow. Due to the countercurrent flow of gas, the liquid stream just downstream of the elbow became highly agitated and a frothy mixture was carried upstream by gas at flooding. At moderate to high liquid flow rates, the liquid was deflected off at the elbow to form a turbulent, jetlike stream that partially broke up into droplets. These droplets were, at the onset of flooding, entrained and carried over by the gas stream.

  2. Vertical organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  3. Hilly Surroundings (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was taken on the rover's 189th sol on Mars (July 15, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as Site 72, which is at the base of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.'' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  4. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  5. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  6. Versatile Particle-Based Route to Engineer Vertically Aligned Silicon Nanowire Arrays and Nanoscale Pores.

    PubMed

    Elnathan, Roey; Isa, Lucio; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Nelson, Adrienne; Harding, Frances J; Delalat, Bahman; Kraus, Tobias; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-10-28

    Control over particle self-assembly is a prerequisite for the colloidal templating of lithographical etching masks to define nanostructures. This work integrates and combines for the first time bottom-up and top-down approaches, namely, particle self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces and metal-assisted chemical etching, to generate vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) arrays and, alternatively, arrays of nanoscale pores in a silicon wafer. Of particular importance, and in contrast to current techniques, including conventional colloidal lithography, this approach provides excellent control over the nanowire or pore etching site locations and decouples nanowire or pore diameter and spacing. The spacing between pores or nanowires is tuned by adjusting the specific area of the particles at the liquid-liquid interface before deposition. Hence, the process enables fast and low-cost fabrication of ordered nanostructures in silicon and can be easily scaled up. We demonstrate that the fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can be used as in vitro transfection platforms for transfecting human primary cells. PMID:26428032

  7. Spatial Mapping of Protein Abundances in the Mouse Brain by Voxelation Integrated with High-Throughput Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A; Qian, Weijun; Chin, Mark H; Wang, Haixing H; Livesay, Eric A; Monroe, Matthew E; Adkins, Joshua N; Jaitly, Navdeep; Anderson, David J; Camp, David G; Smith, Desmond J; Smith, Richard D

    2007-01-25

    Temporally and spatially resolved mapping of protein abundance patterns within the mammalian brain is of significant interest for understanding brain function and molecular etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases; however, such imaging efforts have been greatly challenged by complexity of the proteome, throughput and sensitivity of applied analytical methodologies, and accurate quantitation of protein abundances across the brain. Here, we describe a methodology for comprehensive spatial proteome mapping that addresses these challenges by employing voxelation integrated with automated microscale sample processing, high-throughput LC system coupled with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer and a “universal” stable isotope labeled reference sample approach for robust quantitation. We applied this methodology as a proof-of-concept trial for the analysis of protein distribution within a single coronal slice of a C57BL/6J mouse brain. For relative quantitation of the protein abundances across the slice, an 18O-isotopically labeled reference sample, derived from a whole control coronal slice from another mouse, was spiked into each voxel sample and stable isotopic intensity ratios were used to obtain measures of relative protein abundances. In total, we generated maps of protein abundance patterns for 1,028 proteins. The significant agreement of the protein distributions with previously reported data supports the validity of this methodology, which opens new opportunities for studying the spatial brain proteome and its dynamics during the course of disease progression and other important biological and associated health aspects in a discovery-driven fashion.

  8. Large-scale qualitative and quantitative characterization of components in Shenfu injection by integrating hydrophilic interaction chromatography, reversed phase liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Zhang, Na; Shi, Shepo; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-08-14

    It is of great importance to clarify in depth the chemical composition, including qualitative and quantitative aspects, of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection that contains a great number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients to guarantee its safe medication in clinic. Column-switching hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-RPLC-MS/MS) has been revealed to be advantageous at simultaneous measurement of compounds covering a broad polarity range. Previous studies have profiled the hydrophobic components, mainly aconite alkaloids and ginsenosides, in Shenfu Injection (SFI); however, the hydrophilic substances haven't been taken into account. In the present study, we aim to holistically characterize the hydrophilic constituents and to simultaneously quantitate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in SFI. A strategy integrating predefined multiple reaction monitoring, step-wise multiple ion monitoring, and enhanced product ion scans was proposed to universally screen the hydrophilic substances using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Structural identification was carried out by comparing with authentic compounds, analyzing MS(2) spectra, and referring to accessible databases (e.g., MassBank, METLIN and HMDB). A total of 157 hydrophilic compounds were detected from SFI, and 154 ones were identified as amino acids, nucleosides, organic acid, carbohydrates, etc. A column-switching HILIC-RPLC-MS/MS system was developed and validated for simultaneously quantitative analysis of 40 primary hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients in SFI, including eleven amino acids, nine nucleosides, nine aconite alkaloids, and eleven ginsenosides. Taken together, the findings obtained could provide meaningful information for comprehensively understanding the chemical composition and offer a reliable approach for the quality control of SFI. PMID:26143607

  9. Time-Series Integrated “Omic” Analyses to Elucidate Short-Term Stress-Induced Responses in Plant Liquid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, John; Klapa, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    The research that aims at furthering our understanding of plant primary metabolism has intensified during the last decade. The presented study validated a systems biology methodological framework for the analysis of stress-induced molecular interaction networks in the context of plant primary metabolism, as these are expressed during the first hours of the stress treatment. The framework involves the application of time-series integrated full-genome transcriptomic and polar metabolomic analyses on plant liquid cultures. The latter were selected as the model system for this type of analysis, because they provide a well-controlled growth environment, ensuring that the observed plant response is due only to the applied perturbation. An enhanced gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC– MS) metabolomic data correction strategy and a new algorithm for the significance analysis of time-series “omic” data are used to extract information about the plant's transcriptional and metabolic response to the applied stress from the acquired datasets; in this article, it is the first time that these are applied for the analysis of a large biological dataset from a complex eukaryotic system. The case-study involved Arabidopsis thaliana liquid cultures subjected for 30 h to elevated (1%) CO2 stress. The advantages and validity of the methodological framework are discussed in the context of the known A. thaliana or plant, in general, physiology under the particular stress. Of note, the ability of the methodology to capture dynamic aspects of the observed molecular response allowed for 9 and 24 h of treatment to be indicated as corresponding to shifts in both the transcriptional and metabolic activity; analysis of the pathways through which these activity changes are manifested provides insight to regulatory processes. PMID:18958862

  10. Instability of Rotating Vertical Viscous Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil; Badr, Sarah; Morris, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    We have studied experimentally and theoretically the instability of a jet of viscous fluid (corn syrup) ejected downward from a nozzle that rotates about a vertical axis with an angular velocity Ω. For small values of Ω, the jet behaves in a way similar to that of normal (Ω = 0) liquid rope coiling. Above a critical value of Ω, however, a bifurcation occurs to a whirling spiral state in which the jet is strongly deflected from the vertical almost immediately after its exit from the nozzle. Experiments conducted for Ω increasing and decreasing show that the transition between the undeflected and spiral states is hysteretic. We will report results of a linear stability analysis of the undeflected state as a function of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the system, and will compare the results with our experimental measurements.

  11. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  12. Vertically grown Ge nanowire Schottky diodes on Si and Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Nishant; Tracy, Clarence J.; Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Picraux, S. T.; Hathwar, Raghuraj; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2015-07-01

    The processing and performance of Schottky diodes formed from arrays of vertical Ge nanowires (NWs) grown on Ge and Si substrates are reported. The goal of this work is to investigate CMOS compatible processes for integrating NWs as components of vertically scaled integrated circuits, and elucidate transport in vertical Schottky NWs. Vertical phosphorus (P) doped Ge NWs were grown using vapor-liquid-solid epitaxy, and nickel (Ni)-Ge Schottky contacts were made to the tops of the NWs. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured for variable ranges of NW diameters and numbers of nanowires in the arrays, and the I-V characteristics were fit using modified thermionic emission theory to extract the barrier height and ideality factor. As grown NWs did not show rectifying behavior due to the presence of heavy P side-wall doping during growth, resulting in a tunnel contact. After sidewall etching using a dilute peroxide solution, rectifying behavior was obtained. Schottky barrier heights of 0.3-0.4 V and ideality factors close to 2 were extracted using thermionic emission theory, although the model does not give an accurate fit across the whole bias range. Attempts to account for enhanced side-wall conduction due to non-uniform P doping profile during growth through a simple shunt resistance improve the fit, but are still insufficient to provide a good fit. Full three-dimensional numerical modeling using Silvaco Atlas indicates that at least part of this effect is due to the presence of fixed charge and acceptor like traps on the NW surface, which leads to effectively high ideality factors.

  13. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

  14. High pressure liquid chormatography determination of the concentration and integrity of L-thyroxine in free T4 stock solution.

    PubMed

    Puig-Hernández, Jaime F; Jiménez-Velez, Braulio D

    2005-06-01

    Characterization studies were designed to evaluate the concentration and integrity of the L-thyroxine (T4) molecule (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine) in the free T4 stock solution (FT4SS) (code 99544). The determination of the concentration of T4 in FT4SS is critical to ensure that the free T4 calibrators and controls are manufactured with the least number of adjustments possible. The most significant conclusions drawn from these characterization studies are the following: (1) An accurate and sensitive HPLC method has been developed to measure the T4 concentration in FT4SS. The root cause of the failure of FT4SS to pass retest/ review is the presence of an unknown T4 degradation product with significantly higher molar extinction coefficient at 230 nm than T4 itself. The L-thyroxine concentration reference comparison spectrophotometric test with the current 43 to 58 ug/ml specification range (as per scp.99544, ed. 13A) is adequate to monitor the generation of the unknown T4 degradation product. The characterized T4 degradation product is not 3,5,3'-triiodo-thyronine (T3) and it is suspected that the identity of the degradation product is reverse T3 (3,3',5'-triiodothyronine). The use of sodium l-thyroxine pentahydrate (Na- T4-5H2O) as the equivalent of T4 (free base) is adequate provided that an excess of 15% over the desired amount of T4 is weighed. PMID:16116934

  15. Effect of glycerol concentration, Equex STM supplementation and liquid storage prior to freezing on the motility and acrosome integrity of frozen-thawed epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-07-15

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of glycerol concentration and Equex STM paste on the post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of epididymal alpaca sperm. In Experiment 1, epididymal sperm were harvested from male alpacas, diluted, and cooled to 4 degrees C in a Lactose cooling extender, and pellet-frozen in a Lactose cryodiluent containing final glycerol concentrations of 2, 3, or 4%. In Experiment 2, epididymal sperm were diluted in Biladyl, cooled to 4 degrees C, stored at that temperature for 18-24 h, and further diluted with Biladyl without or with Equex STM paste (final concentration 1% v:v) before pellet freezing. In Experiment 1, sperm motility was not affected by glycerol concentration immediately (2%: 16.1 +/- 4.6%; 3%: 20.5 +/- 5.9% and 4%: 18.5 +/- 6.6%; P > 0.05) or 3h post thaw (< 5% for all groups; P > 0.05). Post-thaw acrosome integrity was similar for sperm frozen in 2% (83.6 +/- 1.6%), 3% (81.3 +/- 2.0%) and 4% glycerol (84.8 +/- 2.0%; P > 0.05) but was higher 3h post-thaw for sperm frozen in 3% (75.7 +/- 3.8%) and 4% (77.2 +/- 4.1%) than 2% glycerol (66.9 +/- 2.7%; P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, sperm motility was higher immediately after thawing for sperm frozen in the presence of Equex STM (Equex: 21.5 +/- 3.5%; control: 14.4 +/- 2.1%; P < 0.05) but was similar at 3h post-thaw (P > 0.05). Acrosome integrity was similar for sperm frozen with or without Equex STM paste immediately (control: 89.6 +/- 1.2%; Equex: 91.1 +/- 1.4%; P > 0.05) and 3 h post-thaw (control: 69.3 +/- 3.7%; Equex: 59.9 +/- 5.8%; P > 0.05). Sperm cryopreserved in medium containing 3-4% glycerol and 1% Equex STM retained the best motility and acrosome integrity, even after liquid storage for 18-24 h at 4 degrees C prior to cryopreservation. PMID:20416935

  16. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual spin of an airplane. Satisfactory air flow has been attained with a velocity that is uniform over the jet to within 0.5 per cent. The turbulence present in the tunnel has been compared with that of several other tunnels by means of the results of sphere drag tests and was found to average well with the values of those tunnels. Included also in the report are comparisons of results of stable autorotation and of rolling-moment tests obtained both in the vertical tunnel and in the old horizontal 5-foot atmospheric tunnel.' The design of a vertical tunnel having a 5-foot diameter jet was accordingly started by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928. Actual construction of the new tunnel was completed in 1930, and the calibration tests were then made.'

  17. The vertical motion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosein, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Today's flight simulators, such as NASA's multimillion dollar Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), recreate an authentic aircraft environment, and reproduce the sensations of flight by mechanically generating true physical events. In addition to their application as a training tool for pilots, simulators have become essential in the design, construction, and testing of new aircraft. Simulators allow engineers to study an aircraft's flight performance and characteristics without the cost or risk of an actual test flight. Because of their practicality, simulators will become more and more important in the development and design of new, safer aircraft.

  18. 'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  19. Spatial mapping of protein abundances in the mouse brain by voxelation integrated with high-throughput liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Chin, Mark H.; Wang, Haixing; Livesay, Eric A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Anderson, David J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Desmond J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved mapping of protein abundance patterns within the mammalian brain is of significant interest for understanding brain function and molecular etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases; however, such imaging efforts have been greatly challenged by complexity of the proteome, throughput and sensitivity of applied analytical methodologies, and accurate quantitation of protein abundances across the brain. Here, we describe a methodology for comprehensive spatial proteome mapping that addresses these challenges by employing voxelation integrated with automated microscale sample processing, high-throughput liquid chromatography (LC) system coupled with high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer, and a “universal” stable isotope labeled reference sample approach for robust quantitation. We applied this methodology as a proof-of-concept trial for the analysis of protein distribution within a single coronal slice of a C57BL/6J mouse brain. For relative quantitation of the protein abundances across the slice, an 18O-isotopically labeled reference sample, derived from a whole control coronal slice from another mouse, was spiked into each voxel sample, and stable isotopic intensity ratios were used to obtain measures of relative protein abundances. In total, we generated maps of protein abundance patterns for 1028 proteins. The significant agreement of the protein distributions with previously reported data supports the validity of this methodology, which opens new opportunities for studying the spatial brain proteome and its dynamics during the course of disease progression and other important biological and associated health aspects in a discovery-driven fashion. PMID:17255552

  20. Integration of out-of-plane silicon dioxide microtubes, silicon microprobes and on-chip NMOSFETs by selective vapor liquid solid growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Kuniharu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Kawano, Takeshi; Takao, Hidekuni; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    Three-dimensional microtubes and microprobes with MOSFET circuits are integrated for use in chemical and electrical neural interface applications with microelectronics. We propose a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method to realize both the microtubes and microprobes, which are 2 µm and 3.6 µm in diameter, respectively, and can be fabricated after the on-chip MOSFET processes. The on-chip NMOSFET shows electrical characteristics with a threshold voltage of 1.2 V and a subthreshold swing of 145 mV decade-1, confirming that subsequent fabrications of the tube and probe are compatible with the inclusion of the on-chip circuits. The prototype oxide tube, which has 2.7 µm inner diameter and 29 µm height, has a flow rate of 550 nl min-1 with an external pump pressure of 33.5 kPa. The impedance of the on-chip Si probe, which has 2 µm diameter and 30 µm height, measured at 1 kHz in a saline environment is 2 MΩ. Insertion into a gelatin membrane confirms that both the tube and the probe show sufficient penetration capabilities.

  1. Vertical organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. PMID:26466388

  2. Overview of STOVL aircraft propulsion research offtakes and vertical lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Mcardle, Jack G.; Esker, Barbara S.

    1993-01-01

    The overall Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) Aircraft Propulsion Research program includes key technologies involving offtake systems, vertical lift systems, hot gas ingestion, STOVL augmentors, and integrated flight propulsion controls. A part of the NASA Lewis work involving STOVL aircraft propulsion systems is presented with the emphasis on component-level experiments and analysis related to offtakes and vertical lift systems.

  3. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. VI: A report on the utility of liquid tracer methods for evaluating the microbial barrier properties of pharmaceutical packaging.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, L E

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between a liquid tracer package leak test (Mg ion ingress) and microbial immersion challenge test was demonstrated by direct and indirect correlation techniques. Rubber-stoppered glass vials with micropipette leaks were evaluated by a helium leak rate method, filled with broth, sterilized, and immersed in a bath containing microorganisms (E. coli/B. diminuta) and liquid tracer (Mg ions). After exposure and incubation, each unit was evaluated for liquid tracer ingress by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and for microbial ingress by visual inspection and blood agar streaking. Two hundred and eighty sterile broth-filled test units were challenged with microorganisms and liquid tracer. One hundred and fourteen units showed neither liquid tracer nor microbial ingress. One hundred and eight units were positive for both microbial and liquid tracer ingress. No test units were positive for microbial ingress but not for liquid tracer ingress. Fifty-eight units were positive for liquid tracer ingress but failed to show microbial ingress. Logistical regression was used to demonstrate that the probability of liquid tracer ingress was greater than microbial ingress at all leak sizes. The results indicate that the liquid tracer method studied herein was a useful indicator of the microbial barrier properties of pharmaceutical packaging. Additionally, the results support the contention that liquid penetration of a leak is required for microbial ingress. PMID:10969527

  4. Vertical ramisection for prognathism.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, T R; Woolf, R M

    1977-11-01

    Forty-four patients with Class III malocclusion, who were operated on for prognathism, have been reviewed. In spite of the associated problems of pain, nausea, fear, relapse, additional orthodontia, lip numbness, lip weakness, and 8 weeks with their teeth wired together, only one patient of the 44 said he (or she) would decline this surgery if it were to be considered anew. The surgeon must make a strong effort to keep the vertical cut in the bony ramus posterior to the lingula, to avoid postoperative lip numbness. He should also keep traction on the soft tissues minimal, to avoid postoperative weakness of the lower lip. A significant relapse was uncommon in this series, and the facial symmetry was greatly enhanced. Most of these 44 patients (66 percent) said the improvement in their self-image and personal appearance was far more important to them than the improvement in their bite. PMID:918178

  5. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  6. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  7. Vertical root fractures and their management

    PubMed Central

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  8. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  9. Liquid crystal optofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-01

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  10. Measurement of ultralow vertical emittance using a calibrated vertical undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Rassool, R. P.

    2014-11-01

    Very few experimental techniques are useful for the direct observation of ultralow vertical emittance in electron storage rings. In this work, quantitative measurements of ultralow (pm rad) electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator are presented. An undulator radiation model was developed using the measured magnetic field of the APPLE-II type undulator. Using calibrated experimental apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of ɛy=0.9 ±0.3 pm rad has been observed. These measurements could also inform modeling of the angular distribution of undulator radiation at high harmonics, for proposed diffraction-limited storage ring light sources.

  11. Rising motion of a bubble layer near a vertical wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, Sadegh; Bhuvankar, Pramod

    2015-11-01

    Bubbly flows in vertical pipes and channels form a wall-peak distribution of bubbles under certain conditions. The dynamics of the bubbles near the wall is different than in an unbounded liquid. Here we report the rising motion of bubbles in a liquid near a vertical wall. In a simulation of a bubbly flow in a periodic domain with a vertical wall on one side, an average pressure gradient is applied to the domain that balances the weight of the liquid phase. The upward flow is created by the rising motion of the bubbles. The bubbles are kept near the wall by the lateral lift force acting on them as a result of rising in a shear flow which is in turn generated by rising motion of bubbles. The rise velocity of the bubbles on the wall and the average rise velocity of the liquid depend on three dimensionless parameters, Archimedes number, Eotvos number, and the average volume fraction of bubbles near the wall. In the limit of small Eo, bubbles are nearly spherical and the dependency on Eo becomes negligible. In this limit, the scaling of the liquid Reynolds number with Archimedes number and the void fraction is presented.

  12. The effects of soil vertical discretization, soil thermal properties, and soil heat convection by liquid water transfer on the water and energy cycles in a coupled land-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuxing; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Chéruy, Frédérique; Ducharne, Agnès

    2015-04-01

    The soil heat transfer is an important component in general circulation model (GCM), and accurate representation of subsurface thermodynamics is essential for earth system modeling. The accuracy of the soil thermodynamics simulation is affected by many factors: (1) the bottom boundary layer position used in numerical scheme; (2) the soil thermal property (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) parameterization; as well as (3) the physical processes considered in the model. However, the impact of their correct representation on the quality of the simulated climate is poorly documented, and the way state-of-the art land surface model (LSM) used for climate simulations account for them is highly variable. For instance bottom boundary layer position varies from 2 m to 10 m or even more (100 m), the parameterizations of the soil thermal properties not always account for the soil texture effects, and the soil heat convection process is neglected in most soil thermodynamics models. In this work, we revisited the soil thermodynamics model included in the ORCHIDEE LSM in order (1) to determine the soil bottom layer depth which allows for simulating the annual cycle of temperature; (2) to improve the parameterization of the soil thermal properties (thermal conductivity and heat capacity) by accounting for both soil moisture and soil texture effects on the soil thermal properties; (3) to take into account the heat generated by liquid water movement in soil thermodynamics. The developpement of the parameterizations has been done in a 1-D framework where the results of the Finite Difference Method have been compared to the analytical solution. Sensitivity experiments with the LMDZ-ORCHIDEE coupled model (atmosphere-land component of IPSL-CM model) have been then designed to evaluate the impact of the soil thermal properties and soil heat convection on the water and energy cycles of the land-atmosphere. Main results are: (1) the 8 meter soil depth is proposed as a minimum requirement for simulating the annual cycle of soil temperature; (2) the surface water and energy cycles are sensitive to the soil thermal property parameterization. A lower (higher) thermal inertia leads to smaller (larger) amplitude of surface soil heat flux. The soil temperature decreases (increases) with the decreasing (increasing) of soil heat diffusivity. The net radiation is also affected by soil thermal properties due to the variation of upward long-wave radiation (caused by surface temperature). The changing of net radiation is mainly compensated by the sensible heat flux. During the night, the air temperature is more affected by the soil thermal properties than that during the day. (3) The rain temperature is lower than the land surface temperature in most regions, which means that the rainfall cools the land surface. In daily or shorter (e.g., 3-Houly) time scales, the soil temperature (turbulent heat flux) varies about 0.05 K (+/- 6 W/m2) with the rainfall (its heat flux) equal 0-5mm/d (0-4 W/m2). The soil heat convection effects on surface turbulent heat fluxes are small (+/- 1 W/m2) on monthly scale.

  13. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  14. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-16

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

  15. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  16. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  17. Liquid-crystal tunable plasmonic stripe directional coupler switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zografopoulos, D. C.; Beccherelli, R.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we design and theoretically investigate optical switches based on long-range plasmonic directional couplers, which are controlled via the electro-optic effect of nematic liquid crystal layers. Employed numerical tools include a fully-anisotropic finite-element-method, the eigenmode-expansion method, and a rigorous finite-element based calculation of the liquid-crystal molecular reorientation. Both horizontal and vertical configurations are assessed, providing a comparison in terms of key-performance characteristics, such as coupling length, switching voltage, insertion losses, and crosstalk. These tunable plasmonic devices are envisaged as ultra-low power consumption switching elements in integrated platforms for optical inter-chip interconnects.

  18. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  19. An integrated QCM-based narcotics sensing microsystem.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Thomas; Sandström, Niklas; Eng, Lars; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Månsson, Per; Stemme, Göran

    2008-10-01

    We present the design, fabrication and successful testing of a 14x14x4 mm3 integrated electronic narcotics sensing system which consists of only four parts. The microsystem absorbs airborne narcotics molecules and performs a liquid assay using an integrated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A vertically conductive double-sided adhesive foil (VCAF) was used and studied as a novel material for LOC and MEMS applications and provides easy assembly, electrical contacting and liquid containment. The system was tested for measuring cocaine and ecstasy, with successful detection of amounts as small as 100 ng and 200 ng, respectively. These levels are of interest in security activities in customs, prisons and by the police. PMID:18813386

  20. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  1. Evaluation of a vertical continuous centrifuge for clarification of HTGR dissolver slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Olguin, L.J.

    1980-03-01

    A series of statistically designed centrifuge performance tests was conducted to evaluate the solid-liquid separation efficiency of a vertical continuous centrifuge. Test results show that 100% of the particles greater than 4 microns in diameter were removed from simulated HTGR fuel reprocessing dissolver solutions. Centrifugal force and liquid density are the principal variables affecting separation efficiency.

  2. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  3. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Szydlowski, Donald F.; Kuzminskas, Vaidotas; Bittner, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  4. Visualize Vertical Connectedness (Middle Ground).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Allen, Lanny

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of vertical connectedness in K-12 education through references to journal articles and the author's own reflections. Suggests that middle school teachers may be leaders in a movement toward eliminating redundancy and gaps between grade levels. (TB)

  5. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  6. Vertical transmission in chikungunya infection.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, M P; Senanayake, S M; Vidanage, K K; Gunasena, S; Lamabadusuriya, S P

    2009-06-01

    We report the pregnancy outcome and clinical and laboratory findings in infants born to women with chikungunya infection during pregnancy. There was evidence of vertical transmission and poor pregnancy outcome in some cases. PMID:19670548

  7. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, G. A.; Gartman, M. L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R. L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A. S.

    1992-10-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radial×7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels.

  8. New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; Rijk, G. de; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.; Hanzelka, P.

    2014-01-29

    In the framework of the R and D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m{sup 3} helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

  9. New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; de Rijk, G.; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Hanzelka, P.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the R&D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m3 helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

  10. The Temporal Structure of Vertical Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration profiles is consistent with the premise that the CNS optimises motor commands with respect to both gravitational and inertial constraints. PMID:21765935

  11. Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

  12. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  13. PARAMETRIC METHODOLOGIES OF CLOUD VERTICAL TRANSPORT FOR ACID DEPOSITION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A CUmulus VENTing (CUVENT) cloud module has been developed that calculates the vertical flux of mass from the boundary layer to the cloud layer by an ensemble of nonprecipitating subgrid-scale air mass clouds. This model will be integrated into the Regional Acid Deposition Model ...

  14. Reusable EGaIn-Injected Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide Resonator for Wireless Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Memon, Muhammad Usman; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    The proposed structure in this research is constructed on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology and has a mechanism that produces 16 different and distinct resonant frequencies between 2.45 and 3.05 GHz by perturbing a fundamental TE10 mode. It is a unique method for producing multiple resonances in a radio frequency planar structure without any extra circuitry or passive elements is developed. The proposed SIW structure has four vertical fluidic holes (channels); injecting eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), also known commonly as liquid metal (LM), into these vertical channels produces different resonant frequencies. Either a channel is empty, or it is filled with LM. In total, the combination of different frequencies produced from four vertical channels is 16. PMID:26569257

  15. Reusable EGaIn-Injected Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide Resonator for Wireless Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Muhammad Usman; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    The proposed structure in this research is constructed on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology and has a mechanism that produces 16 different and distinct resonant frequencies between 2.45 and 3.05 GHz by perturbing a fundamental TE10 mode. It is a unique method for producing multiple resonances in a radio frequency planar structure without any extra circuitry or passive elements is developed. The proposed SIW structure has four vertical fluidic holes (channels); injecting eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), also known commonly as liquid metal (LM), into these vertical channels produces different resonant frequencies. Either a channel is empty, or it is filled with LM. In total, the combination of different frequencies produced from four vertical channels is 16. PMID:26569257

  16. Drop motion induced by vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Paolo; Quagliati, Damiano; Varagnolo, Silvia; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Magaletti, Francesco; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the motion of liquid drops on an inclined plate subject to vertical vibrations. The liquids comprised distilled water and different aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethanol and isopropanol spanning the range 1-39 mm2 s-1 in kinematic viscosities and 40-72 mN m-1 in surface tension. At sufficiently low oscillating amplitudes, the drops are always pinned to the surface. Vibrating the plate above a certain amplitude yields sliding of the drop. Further increasing the oscillating amplitude drives the drop upward against gravity. In the case of the most hydrophilic aqueous solutions, this motion is not observed and the drop only slides downward. Images taken with a fast camera show that the drop profile evolves in a different way during sliding and climbing. In particular, the climbing drop experiences a much bigger variation in its profile during an oscillating period. Complementary numerical simulations of 2D drops based on a diffuse interface approach confirm the experimental findings. The overall qualitative behavior is reproduced suggesting that the contact line pinning due to contact angle hysteresis is not necessary to explain the drop climbing.

  17. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  18. RHIC VERTICAL AC DIPOLE COMMISSIONING.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; DELONG,J.; HOFF,L.; PAI,C.; PEGGS,S.; PIACENTINO,J.; OERTER,B.; ODDO,P.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC vertical ac dipole was installed in the summer of 2001. The magnet is located in the interaction region between sector 3 and sector 4 common to both beams. The resonant frequency of the ac dipole was first configured to be around half of the beam revolution frequency to act as a spin flipper. At the end of the RHIC 2002 run, the ac dipole frequency was reconfigured for linear optics studies. A 0.35 mm driven betatron oscillation was excited with the vertical ac dipole and the vertical betatron functions and phase advances at each beam position monitor (BPM) around the RHIC yellow ring were measured using the excited coherence. We also recorded horizontal turn-by-turn beam positions at each BPM location to investigate coupling effects. Analysis algorithms and measurement results are presented.

  19. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  20. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  1. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  2. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed.

  3. Nonperturbative vertices in supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. L.; Burden, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    We derive the complete set of supersymmetric Ward identities involving only two- and three-point proper vertices in supersymmetric QED. We also present the most general form of the proper vertices consistent with both the supersymmetric and U(1) gauge Ward identities. These vertices are the supersymmetric equivalent of the nonsupersymmetric Ball-Chiu vertices.

  4. Plasma/Liquid-Metal Interactions During Tokamak Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Allain, J.P.; Insepov, Z.; Konkashbaev, I.

    2005-04-15

    One of the critical technological challenges of future tokamak fusion devices is the ability for plasma-facing components to handle both normal and abnormal plasma/surface interaction events that compromise their lifetime and operation of the machine. Under normal operation plasma/surface interactions that are important include: sputtering, particle implantation and recycling, He pumping and ELM (edge localized modes)-induced erosion. In abnormal or off-normal operation: disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are important. To extend PFC lifetime under these conditions, liquid-metals have been considered as candidate PFCs (Plasma-Facing Components), including: liquid lithium, tin-lithium, gallium and tin.Liquid lithium has been measured to have nonlinear increase of physical sputtering with rise in temperature. Such increase can be a result of exposure to ELM-level particle fluxes. The significant increase in particle flux to the divertor and nearby PFCs can enhance sputtering erosion by an order of magnitude or more. In addition from the standpoint of hydrogen recycling and helium pumping liquid lithium appears to be a good candidate plasma-facing material (PFM). Advanced designs of first wall and divertor systems propose the application of liquid-metals as an alternate PFC to contend with high-heat flux constraints of large-scale tokamak devices. Additional issues include PFC operation under disruptions and long temporal instabilities such as VDEs. A comprehensive two-fluid model is developed to integrate core and SOL (scrape-off layer) parameters during ELMs with PFC surface evolution using the HEIGHTS package. Special emphasis is made on the application of lithium as a candidate plasma-facing liquid-metal.

  5. Plasma/liquid metal interactions during tokamak operation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Allain, J. P.; Insepov, Z.; Konkashbaev, I.; Energy Technology

    2005-04-01

    One of the critical technological challenges of future tokamak fusion devices is the ability for plasma-facing components to handle both normal and abnormal plasma/surface interaction events that compromise their lifetime and operation of the machine. Under normal operation plasma/surface interactions that are important include: sputtering, particle implantation and recycling, He pumping and ELM (edge localized modes)-induced erosion. In abnormal or off-normal operation: disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are important. To extend PFC lifetime under these conditions, liquid-metals have been considered as candidate PFCs (Plasma-Facing Components), including: liquid lithium, tin-lithium, gallium and tin. Liquid lithium has been measured to have nonlinear increase of physical sputtering with rise in temperature. Such increase can be a result of exposure to ELM-level particle fluxes. The significant increase in particle flux to the divertor and nearby PFCs can enhance sputtering erosion by an order of magnitude or more. In addition from the standpoint of hydrogen recycling and helium pumping liquid lithium appears to be a good candidate plasma-facing material (PFM). Advanced designs of first wall and divertor systems propose the application of liquid-metals as an alternate PFC to contend with high-heat flux constraints of large-scale tokamak devices. Additional issues include PFC operation under disruptions and long temporal instabilities such as VDEs. A comprehensive two-fluid model is developed to integrate core and SOL (scrape-off layer) parameters during ELMs with PFC surface evolution using the HEIGHTS package. Special emphasis is made on the application of lithium as a candidate plasma-facing liquid-metal.

  6. Ionic liquid functionalized graphene based immunosensor for sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 integrated with Cd(2+)-functionalized nanoporous TiO2 as labels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lifang; Wei, Qin; Wu, Hua; Dou, Jinke; Li, He

    2014-09-15

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) based on dual signal amplification strategy of ionic liquid functionalized graphene and Cd(2+)-functionalized nanoporous TiO2 (f-TiO2-Cd(2+)) has been developed. Ionic liquid functionalized graphene was used to anchor primary CA15-3 antibody (Ab1). f-TiO2-Cd(2+) was employed to immobilize secondary cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) antibody (Ab2) and the resulting nanocomposite (Ab2-f-TiO2-Cd(2+)) was used as trace tag for signal amplification. The fabricated immumosensor displayed a wide range of linear response (0.02-60 U/mL), ultra-low detection limit (0.008 U/mL), good reproducibility, selectivity and stability towards CA15-3. The good performance of the immunosensor can be attributed to (1) high surface-to-volume ratio of graphene which allows high-level immobilization of Ab1, (2) excellent biocompatibility and electron transfer rate originating from ionic liquid functionalized graphene, (3) a highly specific surface area of nanoporous TiO2 that facilitates the adsorption of high amount of Cd(2+) for signal amplification. PMID:24690564

  7. Polymer wedge for perfectly vertical light coupling to silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrauwen, J.; Scheerlinck, S.; Van Thourhout, D.; Baets, R.

    2009-02-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a refractive polymer wedge that allows perfectly vertical coupling of light into a silicon waveguide, which is of interest for flip-chip bonding of vertical cavity emitting light sources on a silicon integrated circuit. The structure includes a conventional diffractive grating coupler that requires off-normal incidence to avoid second order Bragg reflections. The polymer wedge is thus used to refract vertically impinging light into an off-normal wave that couples into the underlying grating. The fabrication involves two steps: mold fabrication and imprint replication. Firstly negative wedge-shaped craters are etched into a quartz mold by Focused-ion-beam milling. Secondly the mold is used to imprint a UV-curable polymer onto a silicon chip containing waveguides and grating couplers, and so replicating the wedges. The characterization setup consisted of a fiber-to-fiber transmission measurement of a silicon waveguide equipped with a pair of grating couplers and polymer wedges. The obtained fiber coupling efficiency was equal to the efficiency of regular grating couplers and fiber positioned at an off-normal angle. The proposed fabrication method enables low cost integration of vertical cavity emitting light sources on silicon integrated photonic circuits.

  8. Highly Scalable Vertical Channel Phase Change Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Jongho; Cho, Il Hwan

    2011-05-01

    A novel vertical channel phase change random access memory (PCRAM) for application in high-density PCRAM technology with high scalability and small unselected cell current is proposed. The channel of the select transistor and the phase change material are integrated in a vertical structure. A side wall process for the self-aligned phase change material is suggested and memory operation is verified by three-dimensional (3D) device simulation. In addition, memory characteristics are compared for different types of select metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET).

  9. Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

  10. Horizontal and vertical concentrations in the evolution of hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Starkweather, D B; Carman, J M

    1987-01-01

    Summing across the three phases, the pattern of evolution was as follows: (1) the emergence of a market orientation by hospitals as the industry moved away from regulation; (2) steady expansion of what the hospitals considered to be their business, to include nonacute and wellness services, with vertical integration and diversification the vehicle for accomplishing this; (3) remarkable change with respect to who was competing with whom, stemming from restructuring of the market toward horizontal concentration and domination by a few rather than continuing open competition among many; (4) a shift in the market from one of competitive consumer choices among physicians and hospitals toward one of competitive choice among health plans; and (5) the beginnings of price dynamics within the context of oligopoly, due primarily to heightened power of corporate and other purchasers. A striking feature of this evolution was the role of concentration as both a response to increased competition and a vector of change in restructuring the market. Another notable feature was the relationship of vertical and horizontal integrations to each other: Stage I corporate reorganization and limited vertical integration provided the vehicle for horizontal integration in Stage II; then horizontal integration achieved a new critical mass and market dominance, yielding more vertical integration in Stage III. Finally, we note that of the numerous reasons advanced for mergers in industrial sectors and among hospitals in particular, a singular motivation was pursued in Community A: in an era of increasing competition, the stronger hospitals moved with determination to reduce competition and establish domination. The fundamental motive was market control. PMID:10291980

  11. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  12. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  13. Vertical Discretization of Hydrostatic Primitive Equations with Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tae-Hyeong; Park, Ja-Rin

    2014-05-01

    A vertical finite element (VFE) discretization of hydrostatic primitive equations is developed for the dynamical core of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) system at KIAPS, which is horizontally discretized by a spectral element on a cubed-sphere grid. The governing equations are discretized on a hybrid pressure-based vertical coordinate [1]. Compared with a vertical finite difference (VFD) discretization, which is only first order accurate for non-uniform grids, the VFE has many advantages such that it gives more accurate results, all variables are defined in the same full level, the level of vertical noise might be reduced [2], and it is easily coupled with existing physics packages, developed for a Lorentz staggering grid system. Due to these reasons, we adopted the VFE scheme presented by Untch [2] for the vertical discretization. Instead of using semi-Lagrangian and semi-implicit schemes of ECMWF, we use the Eulerian equations and second-order Runge-Kutta scheme as the first step in implementing the VFE for the dynamical core of the KIAPS's NWP model. Since the Eulerian hydrostatic equations are used in this study, both integral and derivative operators are required to implement the VFE using the Galerkin method with b-splines as basis functions. To compare the accuracy of the VFE with the VFD, the two-dimensional test case of mountain waves is used where physical configuration and initial conditions are the same as that of Durran [3]. In this case, the horizontal and vertical velocities obtained by the analytical solution, VFD, VFE-linear and VFE-cubic are compared to understand their numerical features and the vertical flux of horizontal momentum is also presented as the measurement of solution accuracy since it is sensitive to errors in a solution [3]. It is shown that the VFE with a cubic b-spline function is more accurate than the VFD and VFE with a linear b-spline function as the vertical flux is closer to unity, which will be presented in the conference. Reference Simmons, A. J., Burridge, D. M., 1981: An energy and angular momentum conserving vertical finite difference scheme and hybrid vertical coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 758-766. Untch, A., Hortal, M., 2004: A finite-element schemes for the vertical discretization of the semi-Lagrangian version of the ECMWF forecast model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1505-1530. Durran, D. R., Klemp, J. B., 1983: A compressible model for the simulation of moist mountain waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 2341-2361.

  14. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafard, S.; York, M. C. A.; Proulx, F.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ˜1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  15. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference.

    PubMed

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N

    2012-06-27

    The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference (LMC8) was held at the Universität Wien from 6-10 September 2011. Initiated in 1990, the conferences of this series cover a broad range of highly interdisciplinary topics, ranging from simple liquids to soft matter and biophysical systems. The vast spectrum of scientific subjects presented and discussed at the LMC8 is reflected in the themes of the ten symposia: Ionic and quantum liquids, liquid metals Water, solutions and reaction dynamics Liquid crystals Polymers, polyelectrolytes, biopolymers Colloids Films, foams, surfactants, emulsions, aerosols Confined fluids, interfacial phenomena Supercooled liquids, glasses, gels Non-equilibrium systems, rheology, nanofluids Biofluids, active matter This special issue contains scientific papers, authored by participants of the LMC8, which provide a cross-section of the scientific activities in current liquid matter science, as discussed at the conference, and demonstrate the scientific as well as methodological progress made in this field over the past couple of years. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference contents The Eighth Liquid Matter ConferenceChristoph Dellago, Gerhard Kahl and Christos N Likos Comparing light-induced colloidal quasicrystals with different rotational symmetriesMichael Schmiedeberg and Holger Stark Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperatureS Sarti, D Truzzolillo and F Bordi Equilibrium concentration profiles and sedimentation kinetics of colloidal gels under gravitational stressS Buzzaccaro, E Secchi, G Brambilla, R Piazza and L Cipelletti The capillary interaction between two vertical cylindersHimantha Cooray, Pietro Cicuta and Dominic Vella Hydrodynamic and viscoelastic effects in polymer diffusionJ Farago, H Meyer, J Baschnagel and A N Semenov A density-functional theory study of microphase formation in binary Gaussian mixturesM Carta, D Pini, A Parola and L Reatto Microcanonical determination of the interface tension of flat and curved interfaces from Monte Carlo simulationsA Tröster and K Binder Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctionsJ M Tavares and P I C Teixeira The unbearable heaviness of colloids: facts, surprises, and puzzles in sedimentationRoberto Piazza, Stefano Buzzaccaro and Eleonora Secchi Exploring water and other liquids at negative pressureFrédéric Caupin, Arnaud Arvengas, Kristina Davitt, Mouna El Mekki Azouzi, Kirill I Shmulovich, Claire Ramboz, David A Sessoms and Abraham D Stroock The configurational space of colloidal patchy polymers with heterogeneous sequencesIvan Coluzza and Christoph Dellago Repeated sorption of water in SBA-15 investigated by means of in situ small-angle x-ray scatteringM Erko, D Wallacher, G H Findenegg and O Paris Transition of the hydration state of a surfactant accompanying structural transitions of self-assembled aggregatesM Hishida and K Tanaka The effects of topology on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of network-forming materialsMark Wilson Surface tension of an electrolyte-air interface: a Monte Carlo studyAlexandre Diehl, Alexandre P dos Santos and Yan Levin Water and other tetrahedral liquids: order, anomalies and solvationB Shadrack Jabes, Divya Nayar, Debdas Dhabal, Valeria Molinero and Charusita Chakravarty Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water modelsSami Tazi, Alexandru Boţan, Mathieu Salanne, Virginie Marry, Pierre Turq and Benjamin Rotenberg Phase behaviour of colloidal assemblies on 2D corrugated substratesSamir El Shawish, Emmanuel Trizac and Jure Dobnikar Structural properties of dendrimer-colloid mixturesDominic A Lenz, Ronald Blaak and Christos N Likos Fluid-fluid demixing of off-critical colloid-polymer systems confined between parallel platesE A G Jamie, R P A Dullens and D G A L Aarts Simulations of nematic homopolymer melts using particle-based models with interactions expressed through collective variablesKostas Ch Daoulas, Victor Rühle and Kurt Kremer Smectic shellsTeresa Lopez-Leon, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Maurizio Nobili and Christophe Blanc Intrinsic profiles and the structure of liquid surfacesP Tarazona, E Chacón and F Bresme Competing ordered structures formed by particles with a regular tetrahedral patch decorationGünther Doppelbauer, Eva G Noya, Emanuela Bianchi and Gerhard Kahl Heterogeneous crystallization in colloids and complex plasmas: the role of binary mobilitiesH Löwen, E Allahyarov, A Ivlev and G E Morfill Isotope effects in water as investigated by neutron diffraction and path integral molecular dynamicsAnita Zeidler, Philip S Salmon, Henry E Fischer, Jörg C Neuefeind, J Mike Simonson and Thomas E Markland Confined cubic blue phases under shearO Henrich, K Stratford, D Marenduzzo, P V Coveney and M E Cates Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particlesS Belli, M Dijkstra and R van Roij Active Brownian motion tunable by lightIvo Buttinoni, Giovanni Volpe, Felix Kümmel, Giorgio Volpe and Clemens Bechinger Structure and stability of charged clustersMark A Miller, David A Bonhommeau, Christopher J Heard, Yuyoung Shin, Riccardo Spezia and Marie-Pierre Gaigeot Non-equilibrium relaxation and tumbling times of polymers in semidilute solutionChien-Cheng Huang, Gerhard Gompper and Roland G Winkler Thermophoresis of colloids by mesoscale simulationsDaniel Lüsebrink, Mingcheng Yang and Marisol Ripoll Computing the local pressure in molecular dynamics simulationsThomas W Lion and Rosalind J Allen Gradient-driven fluctuations in microgravityA Vailati, R Cerbino, S Mazzoni, M Giglio, C J Takacs and D S Cannell. PMID:22740596

  16. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, Edward G.; Winefordner, James D.; Jurgensen, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

  17. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  18. Voltammetric and reference microelectrodes with integrated microchannels for flow through microvoltammetry. 2. Coupling the microcell to a supported liquid membrane preconcentration technique

    PubMed

    Keller; Buffle

    2000-03-01

    The paper describes the assembly and functioning of the microvoltammetric cell described in Part 1, with a hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM), for trace metal analysis. Membrane stability, working-electrode behavior, mercury-film lifetime inside the HFSLM, hydrodynamic conditions, as well as transport kinetics of the metal through the SLM have been studied in detail. System calibrations have been performed in the range 5-120 nM Pb(II). The reproducibility and sensitivity of the whole microsystem is discussed as well as limitations and possible improvements. PMID:10739196

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  20. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Mattione

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.