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1

Energy integral method model for the nonlinear dynamics of an axisymmetric thin liquid film falling on a vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonlinear dynamics of an axisymmetric liquid film falling on the outer surface of a vertical cylinder is investigated in this paper. Using the energy integral method we derive a set of two coupled evolution equations which constitute a first-order approximation to the original hydrodynamic equations. We carry out the linear stability analysis of the axially uniform axisymmetric flow of

Elena Novbari; Alexander Oron

2009-01-01

2

Vertical tube liquid pollutant separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plurality of elongated hollow, circular, foraminous substantially vertical tubes contiguously stacked transversely to the direction flowing liquid such as waste water containing foreign matter, I.E., settable solids and free oil, in a coalescer-separator apparatus provide a filter body providing for significant surface area contact by the liquid on both inside and outside surfaces of the tubes to entrap the

1982-01-01

3

Analysis of time-dependent nonlinear dynamics of the axisymmetric liquid film on a vertical circular cylinder: Energy integral model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear dynamics of an axisymmetric liquid film falling on the outer surface of a vertical cylinder is investigated in the framework of the set of two coupled evolution equations derived recently using the energy integral method (EIM). This set of EIM evolution equations is solved numerically and its solutions are compared with the traveling wave solutions derived from it using AUTO. We find that traveling wave solutions of EIM equations can bifurcate either supercritically or subcritically from the base state. The type of bifurcation depends on the parameter set of the problem. The set of EIM equations studied here admits both traveling wave and nonstationary wave flows. We demonstrate that in the case of subcritical primary bifurcation the film dynamics is sensitive to the choice of the initial condition and coexistence of up to five different flows is possible for the same parameter set in the domain of a given periodicity. The case of supercritical primary bifurcation exhibits much lesser dependence on the initial condition, though coexistence of two different flows for the same parameter set is possible. The synergetic approach based on both direct numerical solution of the governing evolution equations and search of traveling wave solutions using AUTO facilitate a discovery of a large variety of flows and help to conclude about stability of the traveling wave flows found using AUTO.

Novbari, E.; Oron, A.

2011-01-01

4

Vertical Integration: Networks, and Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of supply relations varies across industries. This paper builds a theoretical framework to compare three alternative supply structures: vertical integration, networks, and markets. The analysis considers the relationship between uncertainty in demand for specific inputs, investment costs, and industrial structure. It shows that network structures are more likely when productive assets are expensive and firms experience large idiosyncratic

Rachel E. Kranton; Deborah F. Minehart

1999-01-01

5

Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2010-01-01

6

Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking.

Philippacopoulos, A.J.

1985-01-01

7

VERTICAL INTEGRATION IN AGRICULTURE AND CONTRACT FARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely argued recently that agriculture is undergoing a process of vertical integration with allied industries. One of the worldwide ways of vertical integration in agriculture is contract farming. Contract farming is a continually evolving process. Worldwide applications of contract farming have shown that the terms of contracts are shaped by their own conditions and varied from product

Erkan Rehber

1998-01-01

8

Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

Brennan, Timothy J.

9

Vertical integration in group learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is mainly concerned with the teaching of Computer Science to first year (freshman) students. The method outlined is an attempt to change their generally 'convergent' attitudes into a more 'divergent' way of tackling problems. One of the most wasteful features of modern education is the vertical separation of students, so that the collective wisdom acquired by one generation

R. D. Parslow

1980-01-01

10

Vertical Integration in the Japanese Movie Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines vertical integration in the Japanese movie industry. I estimate an admission price equation, and a moviegoing\\u000a demand equation derived from a discrete choice model of product differentiation. In order to overcome identification problems,\\u000a this study exploits a panel structure dataset. My results show that the price of vertically integrated theaters tends to be\\u000a higher than nonintegrated theaters,

Mitsuru Sunada

2010-01-01

11

Scalable approach for vertical device integration of epitaxial nanowires.  

PubMed

In this letter, we demonstrate the simultaneous vertical integration of self-contacting and highly oriented nanowires (NWs) into airbridge structures, which have been developed into surround gated metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). With the use of conventional photolithography, reactive ion etching (RIE), and low pressure chemical vapor deposition, a suspended vertical NW architecture is formed on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate where the nanodevice will later be fabricated on. The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si-NWs are contacted to prepatterned airbridges by a self-aligned process, and there is no need for postgrowth NW assembly or alignment. Such vertical NW architecture can be easily integrated into existing ICs processes opening the path to a new generation of nonconventional nano devices. To demonstrate the potential of this method, surround gated vertical MOSFETs have been fabricated with a highly simplified integration scheme combining top-down and bottom-up approaches, but in the same way, one can think about the realization of integrated nano sensors on the industrial scale. PMID:19323479

Lugstein, A; Steinmair, M; Henkel, C; Bertagnolli, E

2009-05-01

12

Advanced Planning in Vertically Integrated Supply Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the last few years most production-based businesses have been under enormous pressure to improve their top-line growth\\u000a and bottom-line savings. As a result, many companies are turning to systems and technologies that can help optimise their\\u000a supply chain activities and improving short- and long-term demand forecasting. Given the inherent complexities of planning\\u000a and scheduling in vertically integrated supply chains,

Maksud Ibrahimov; Arvind Mohais; Sven Schellenberg; Zbigniew Michalewicz

13

Evaluating the impact of vertical integration on health system peformance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical integration is grounded in economic theory as a corporate strategy for reducing cost and enhancing efficiency. There were three purposes for this dissertation. The first was to describe and understand vertical integration theory. The review of the economic theory established vertical integration as a corporate cost reduction strategy in response to environmental, structural and performance dimensions of the market.

Sandra Dismer Murdock

2001-01-01

14

Vertical Integration Versus Outsourcing: A Knowledge-Based Reconciliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vertical integration literature, controversy remains over how organizational cost changes after vertical integration and how technological uncertainty influences vertical integration decisions. To reach a reconciliation, I draw on knowledge-based view of the firm (Grant, 1996, 1998; Spender, 1996, 1998), and propose a contingency model that examines moderating effects of knowledge absorptive capacity. In the new competitive landscape featured by

Jun Lin

15

Vertical integration of thermally activated heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

Many thermally activated heat pump systems are being developed along technology lines, such as, engine-driven and absorption heat pumps. Their thermal performances are temperature dependent. Based on the temperature-dependent behavior of heat pump cycle performance and the energy cascading idea, the concept of vertically integrating various thermally activated heat pump technologies to maximize resources utilization is explored. Based on a preliminary analysis, it is found that integrating a desiccant dehumidification subsystem to an engine-driven heat pump could improve its cooling performance by 36% and integrating an ejector to it could improve its cooling performance by 20%. The added advantage of an ejector-coupled engine-driven heat pump is its system simplicity which should result in equipment cost savings.

Chen, F.C.

1985-01-01

16

The choice of organizational form: Vertical financial ownership versus other methods of vertical integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical integration is a fundamental corporate strategy of interest to the fields of strategic management and organizational economics. This paper synthesizes theoretical arguments and empirical findings from this literature to identify the underlying advantages and disadvantages of choosing vertical financial ownership relative to vertical contracts. It then suggests that in the absence of agency and transaction costs, vertical financial ownership

Joseph T. Mahoney

1992-01-01

17

Interlayer cooling potential in vertically integrated packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-removal capability of area-interconnect-compatible interlayer cooling in vertically integrated, high-performance\\u000a chip stacks was characterized with de-ionized water as coolant. Correlation-based predictions and computational fluid dynamic\\u000a modeling of cross-flow heat-removal structures show that the coolant temperature increase due to sensible heat absorption\\u000a limits the cooling performance at hydraulic diameters ?200 ?m. An experimental investigation with uniform and double-side\\u000a heat flux at

T. Brunschwiler; B. Michel; H. Rothuizen; U. Kloter; B. Wunderle; H. Oppermann; H. Reichl

2009-01-01

18

Vertical Integration of High-Silica Channel Waveguides on Si.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The density of optical functions available on the same substrate and the complexity of the integrated optical circuits conceivable would benefit from the extension of the optical interaction to a third dimension. Recently, vertical integration of Si plana...

G. Barbarossa P. J. Laybourn

1992-01-01

19

Cost Structure and Vertical Integration between Farming and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several food-producing sectors, we observe vertical integration between the farming and processing stages. The salmon industry, which has motivated this paper, has seen a rise in large vertically integrated companies over the last decade, with direct ownership of production activities including hatcheries, fish processing and exporting. Both the farming and processing stages have become more capital intensive, which has

Ola Kvaløy; Ragnar Tveterås

2008-01-01

20

Liquid-metal buoyant convection in a vertical cylinder with a strong vertical magnetic field and with a nonaxisymmetric temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the buoyant convection of a liquid metal in a circular cylinder with a vertical axis and with electrically insulating walls is treated. There is an externally applied, uniform, vertical magnetic field. A nonaxisymmetric heat flux at the vertical wall of the cylinder produces a nonaxisymmetric temperature, which drives a nonaxisymmetric liquid motion. The magnetic field is sufficiently

Nancy Ma; John S. Walker

1995-01-01

21

High sensitivity vertical Hall sensor integrated with SOI CMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and performance of the gated vertical Hall sensor integrated with silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. We demonstrated almost a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over the comparable vertical Hall sensor integrated on bulk CMOS i.e. constant voltage and constant current sensitivity of 1200 V\\/V*T versus 130 V\\/V*T and 200mV\\/A*T

A. Peczalski; D. Berndt; D. Sandquist

2003-01-01

22

Stability of liquid films on a porous vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of liquid films flowing down a vertical porous cylinder is investigated in this paper. Fluids in the porous medium are assumed to be governed by Darcy's law. The Beaver-Joseph conditions on the liquid-porous surface are applied, and the influence of the porous medium reduces as a slip condition on the cylinder, which leads to the one-sided model. A

Zijing Ding; Qiusheng Liu

2011-01-01

23

Vertical Integration and Internet Strategies in the Apparel Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the relationship between vertical scope and the ability to respond to a significant economic shock by studying how firms in the apparel industry have adapted to the Internet. We find that vertically integrated specialty retailers, e.g., The Gap, tended to start on-line sales sooner than non-integrated vendors, e.g., Nautica, and department stores. We also find that the products

Robert H Gertner; Robert S Stillman

2001-01-01

24

Measurements of air entrainment by vertical plunging liquid jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issue of the air-entrainment process by a vertical plunging liquid jet. A non-dimensional physical\\u000a analysis, inspired by the literature on the stability of free jets submitted to an aerodynamic interaction, was developed\\u000a and yielded two correlation equations for the laminar and the turbulent plunging jets. These correlation equations allow the\\u000a volumetric flow rate of the air

M. El Hammoumi; J. L. Achard; L. Davoust

2002-01-01

25

Integrated micro-liquid dosing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated micro-liquid dosing system consisting of a micropump and a microliquid flow sensor is demonstrated. The dosing system allows accurate dosing of liquid in the microliter regime and can easily be integrated with components such as mixers and detectors in micro-liquid handling systems. The liquid pump is of the reciprocating type with a thermopneumatic actuator. The microliquid flow sensor

T. S. J. Lammerink; Miko Elwenspoek; Jan H. J. Fluitman

1993-01-01

26

Asset specificity and vertical integration in franchising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically tests transaction cost hypotheses with the use of data on publicly-owned franchised firms. We employ measures of the proportion of company-owned outlets for the degree of integration and brand name capital for the degree of asset specificity. The results suggest that for the sampled firms the degree of asset specificity is positively related to the degree of

Alanson P. Minkler; Timothy A. Park

1994-01-01

27

Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-voltage (< 10 V), high-transmittance (> 80%), submillisecond-response, and hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) device with vertical field switching (VFS) and oblique incident light are demonstrated experimentally. Unlike the commonly employed in-plane switching in which the electric field is primarily in lateral direction and not uniform spatially, the VFS mode has uniform longitudinal field. As a result, the operating voltage is reduced by ~ 3.2 × which in turn helps to eliminate hysteresis. The VFS mode is a promising candidate for the emerging BPLC display and photonic devices.

Cheng, Hui-Chuan; Yan, Jin; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Wu, Shin-Tson

2011-06-01

28

INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

29

The behavior of vertically integrated boundary-layer winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research provides a study of the behavior of vertically integrated boundary-layer winds (IBLWs). This information should be helpful for both theoretical and practical applications, e.g., boundary-layer parameterization in general circulation models, air pollution models, and low-level parachuting operations. The study concerned itself with winds integrated up to a height of 300 m in the United States. The only data

René V. Cormier

1975-01-01

30

On the electrical SOA of integrated vertical DMOS transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependency of the electrical safe operating area (SOA) of an integrated vertical DMOS transistor on the layout as well as on the residual epitaxial thickness of the drift region, is experimentally investigated using transmission line pulsing experiments. Guidelines for optimizing the SOA without compromising the other device parameters are given.

P. Moens; K. Reynders

2005-01-01

31

BENEFITS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF LIGNITE MINES AND POWER PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Overview Benefits of vertical integration of mine-mouth power plants and nearby coal mines or at least from very close their relationships through long-term contracts has been already described from the point of view of transaction costs economics by Wiliamson (1985), Joskow (1987) and Kerkvliet (1991). Although mentioned authors described situation on electric energy market over 20 years their observed

Leszek JURDZIAK

32

The movement toward vertically integrated regional health systems.  

PubMed

Due to existing internal forces, a movement toward vertically integrated regional health systems is imperative in order to ensure the future viability of our health care system. However, in order for these systems to be successful, they must first overcome several imposing barriers. PMID:1399594

Ackerman, F K

1992-01-01

33

Outsourcing, vertical integration, and price vs. quantity competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that standard conclusions about duopoly competition can be reversed when the production of key inputs is outsourced to a vertically integrated retail competitor with upstream market power. Under such outsourcing, Bertrand competition can produce higher prices, higher industry profit, lower consumer surplus, and lower total surplus than Cournot competition. In addition to limiting the intensity of retail competition,

Anil Arya; Brian Mittendorf; David E. M. Sappington

2008-01-01

34

Vertical Integration: A Confederacy of Alignment, Bonding, and Materials Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical or 3D integration is taking hold in both the CMOS IC industry and the MEMS industry. The need for smaller devices, lower power, increased functionality, and lower cost are driving the market toward chip and wafer level stacking. Equipment suppliers have been faced with numerous challenges to meet the demands of these emerging bonding applications. This paper will discuss

Shari Farrens

35

Liquid core integrated ring resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design and the fabrication of an integrated optofluidic ring resonator based on liquid core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) operating around ?=635nm with a water filled core (nc=1.33). This waveguide permits a strong coupling between light and analyte as the same microchannel can be used for delivering sample and for confining light. A rectangular-shaped ring resonator has been realized by using four 90-bent waveguides and an multimode interference coupler is used for coupling light from the input bus waveguide to the resonator. The resulting device is very compact, with a total length of 2.5 mm and a required liquid volume of about 0.11nl. The device has been simulated with a two dimensional finite-difference time-domain method for different refractive index core nc=1.32 (methanol) and nc=1.43 (dimethylformamide). Moreover, we carried out optical measurements by measuring the transmitted spectrum from the output bus waveguide in both cases. The experimental results confirm that ring with a good quality factor (Q~800) can be achieved in good agreement with the numerical results.

Testa, Genni; Huang, Yujian; Zeni, Luigi; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Bernini, Romeo

2011-02-01

36

Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-amplifiers.

Wright, E.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

1993-11-01

37

Liquid-cooled engine of the vertical shaft type  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-cooled engine is described of the vertical shaft type including a radiator and a row of left and right side cylinders arranged in the V-shape as viewed from the above. A cooling water jacket of each of the left and right side cylinders are connected to each other at the highest end of cooling water jackets at the sides of cylinder heads of each of the cylinders through a communicating passage. A thermostat chamber is provided at the highest end of one of the cooling water jackets in the cylinder heads which is located lower than the other cylinder head. The communicating passage is at its one end connected to the thermostat chamber.

Tamba, S.; Hitomi, M.; Noboru, F.; Kobe, M.

1987-07-21

38

Measurements of air entrainment by vertical plunging liquid jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the issue of the air-entrainment process by a vertical plunging liquid jet. A non-dimensional physical analysis, inspired by the literature on the stability of free jets submitted to an aerodynamic interaction, was developed and yielded two correlation equations for the laminar and the turbulent plunging jets. These correlation equations allow the volumetric flow rate of the air carryunder represented by the Weber number of entrainment Wen to be predicted. The plunging jets under consideration issued from circular tubes long enough to achieve a fully developed flow at the outlet. A sensitive technique based on a rising soap meniscus was developed to measure directly the volumetric flow rate of the air carryunder. Our data are compared with other experimental data available in the literature; they also stand as a possible database for future theoretical modelling.

El Hammoumi, M.; Achard, J. L.; Davoust, L.

39

Flow Visualization and Pattern Formation in Vertically Falling Liquid Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical results of a low-dimensional two equation h-q model and results of a direct numerical simulation of the transient two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations are presented for vertically falling liquid films along a solid wall. The numerical study aims at the elucidation of the hydrodynamics of the falling film. The analytical study aims at the calculation of the parameter space where pattern formation occurs for this flow. It has been found that when the wave amplitude exceeds a certain magnitude, flow reversal occurs in the film underneath the minimum of the waves [1]. The instantaneous vortical structures possess two hyperbolic points on the vertical wall and an elliptic point in the film. As the wave amplitude increases further, the elliptic point reaches the free surface of the film and two more hyperbolic points are formed in the free surface that replace the elliptic point. Between the two hyperbolic points on the free surface, the streamwise component of velocity is negative and the film is divided into asymmetric patterns of up and down flows. Depending on the value of the Kapitza number, these patterns are either stationary or oscillatory. Physical reasons for the influence of the Kapitza number on pattern formation are given. Movies are shown where the pattern formation is demonstrated. [1] N.A.Malamataris and V.Balakotaiah (2008), AIChE J., 54(7), p. 1725-1740

Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Malamataris, Nikolaos

2008-11-01

40

Vertical Integration and Profitability in Poultry Industry in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines economics of vertical integration in poultry industry in Ogun and Oyo States. The study examines the production systems and analyses costs and returns to non- integrated and vertically integrated poultry farms. Primary data were generated using structured questionnaires in a field survey of 100 non-integrated poultry farms, 70 partially integrated poultry farms and 40 fully integrated poultry

Olasunkanmi M. Bamiro; S. Momoh; D. O. A. Phillip

41

The shift from vertical to networked integration, Part 1.  

PubMed

Lessons, dangers, and difficulties for health care integrators from the world of mergers, acquisitions, and alliances. The authors examine why there needs to be a shift from vertical integration, with its command and control hierarchical structure, to the more fluid and flexible networked enterprise in health care. By sharing the integration experiences of other industries, the authors make a compelling case for rethinking the integrated delivery system that so many have embraced and explain why the emergence of the extended health care enterprise will be the next stage in the progression. Making the journey into networked enterprises--how to start, what to do, and case studies from St. Vincent's, Cascade Healthcare Alliance, and Mullikin Medical Centers--will be presented in the second article in the June 1996 issue of Physician Executive. PMID:10157860

Lynch, R P; Somerville, I

1996-05-01

42

High density vertical interconnects for 3-D integration of silicon integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a technology platform being developed for three-dimensional (3-D) integration of thin stacked silicon integrated circuits (ICs). 3-D integration technology promises to dramatically enhance on-chip signal processing capabilities of a variety of sensor and actuator array devices hybridized with silicon read-out electronics. Currently, advanced 3-D integrated infrared focal plane array detectors are being developed within the DARPA vertically

C. A. Bower; D. Malta; D. Temple; J. E. Robinson; P. R. Coffinan; M. R. Skokan; T. B. Welch

2006-01-01

43

Vertical integration, escalating commitment and technological performance: evidence from firms in the US computer industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We set out in this study to analyse the impact on the technological performance of firms arising from their vertical integration, along with their escalating commitment to capital investment. Our findings reveal a positive relationship between vertical integration and the technological performance of such firms. A positive correlation is also found to exist between vertical integration and escalating commitment to

Hsiu-Ling Li; Ming-Je Tang

2011-01-01

44

STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

45

Vertical Integration and Technical Efficiency in Poultry (Egg) Industry in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at analyzing economics of vertical integration in poultry industry in Ogun and Oyo States. The study examines the production systems and analyses costs and returns to non-integrated and vertically integrated poultry farms. Primary data were generated using structured questionnaires in a field survey of 100 non-integrated poultry farms, 70 partially integrated poultry farms and 40 fully poultry

2006-01-01

46

Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior.

Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

1985-01-01

47

Community assessment in a vertically integrated health care system.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: In this report, the authors present a representative case of the implementation of community assessment and the subsequent application of findings by a large, vertically integrated health care system. METHODS: Geographic information systems technology was used to access and analyze secondary data for a geographically defined community. Primary data included a community survey and asset maps. RESULTS: In this case presentation, information has been collected on demographics, prevalent health problems, access to health care, citizens' perceptions, and community assets. The assessment has been used to plan services for a new health center and to engage community members in health promotion interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Geographically focused assessments help target specific community needs and promote community participation. This project provides a practical application for integrating aspects of medicine and public health.

Plescia, M; Koontz, S; Laurent, S

2001-01-01

48

Design and fabrication of vertically-integrated CMOS image sensors.  

PubMed

Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

2011-04-27

49

Metrics of hurricane-ocean interaction: vertically-integrated or vertically-averaged ocean temperature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed upper Ocean Heat Content (OHC), the vertical integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a vertical average of temperature. In the simplest version, dubbed T100, the averaging is from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of vertical mixing by a category 3 hurricane. OHC and T100 are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, ?75 kJ cm-2. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ?50 kJ cm-2, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean regions, ?26°C. OHC and T100 can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T100 will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative. In so far as the ocean thermal field alone is concerned, these warm, shallow continental shelves would appear to be as favorable for hurricane intensification as are warm, deep ocean regions.

Price, J. F.

2009-09-01

50

Metrics of hurricane-ocean interaction: vertically-integrated or vertically-averaged ocean temperature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed the upper Ocean Heat Content (OHC), the vertical integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a vertical average of temperature, in one version from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of vertical mixing by a mature hurricane. OHC and the depth-averaged temperature, dubbed T100, are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, OHC?75 kJ cm-2. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ?50 kJ cm-2, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean temperatures ?26°C. OHC and T100 can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T100 will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative, since there will be little cool water that could be mixed into the surface layer. Some limited evidence is that continental shelves may be regions of comparatively small sea surface cooling during a hurricane passage, but more research is clearly required on this important issue.

Price, J. F.

2009-05-01

51

Vertical optimization procedure for an integrated micropower signal preprocessor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for low power operation is characteristic of all electronic measurement systems that transmit physiological data across the intact skin. Custom integrated circuits and hybrid microcircuit assembly techniques leave battery volume (or power drain) as the limiting factor for implanted-system lifetime and animal model size. First generation totally implantable Doppler blood flowmeters, telemeter Doppler-shifted signals having a 40 kHz bandwidth. External electronics are then used to convert this information into a flow signal with a maximum bandwidth of approximately 100 Hz. A vertically optimized system circuit device procedure utilizes a digital data link for telemetry to reduce flowmeter transmitter power consumption. In this CW Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, a potential 400:1 reduction in FM transmitter power is possible through additional signal preprocessing in the implanted package. A 10:1 savings in transmitter power drain is realized by a novel preprocessor developed to encode and telemeter pulsed digital data rather than Doppler signals.

Harrison, T. R.

1980-06-01

52

Melting heat transfer of liquid ice in a rectangular cavity with a heated vertical wall  

SciTech Connect

The melting characteristics of liquid ice in a rectangular cavity were studied experimentally. The liquid ice, mixture of ice particles and ethylene-glycol aqueous solution, was heated from one of the vertical walls of the cavity. The shape of the mush-liquid interface, melting rate, and local/mean heat-transfer coefficient at the heated vertical wall were observed and measured under a variety of conditions of heat flux and initial concentration of the aqueous binary solution. It was found that the formation of double-diffusive layers based on the thermal and solutal buoyancy forces exerted a great influence on the melting process of the liquid ice.

Fukusako, Shoichiro; Yamada, Masahiko; Kim, Myounghwan (Hokkaido Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-12-01

53

Moving closer to the customers: effects of vertical integration in the Swedish commercial printing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study regarding how vertical integration is used to increase customer relations in the printing industry and illustrates the competitive consequences with vertical integration towards customers. Results show that since direct customers are perceived as more loyal and profitable than advertising agencies and\\/or print brokers, integration of content creation is common to increase relations with direct

Thomas Mejtoft

2010-01-01

54

Vertical cavity surface emitting laser with nematic and chiral liquid crystals overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technological platform for a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with tunable polarization is presented. It is realized by integrating an 850nm VCSEL chip in a liquid crystal (LC) cell that uses photo-alignment (PA) to orient the LC. Two kinds of LC are filled in and form a thin layer over the emitter of the VCSEL: nematic LC or chiral nematic LC (cLC). The VCSEL and the nematic LC layer can be electrically driven with separate electrodes. The polarization state of the laser emission can be controlled by applying an appropriate voltage over the nematic LC layer. The chiral nematic LC has a reflection band that contains the VCSEL emission wavelength, so that one circular polarized mode of the laser emission is reflected as a feedback into the VCSEL. We found that the emission from the VCSEL with cLC overlay is circularly polarized.

Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Woestenborghs, W.; Panajotov, K.; Neyts, K.

2013-03-01

55

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1990-12-04

56

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1988-06-17

57

Reduced equations of motion of the interface of dielectric liquids in vertical electric and gravitational fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the interface between two dielectric fluids in the presence of vertical electric and gravitational fields is studied theoretically. It is shown that, in the particular case where the rate of change of the electric field is proportional to the effective gravitational acceleration, a special flow regime can be realized for which the velocity and electric potentials are linearly dependent functions. This means that there exists a frame of reference in which liquids move along the electric field lines. We derive and analyze the corresponding reduced equations of motion of a liquid-liquid interface. For small density ratio, they turn into the equations describing the Laplacian growth. In the case of two spatial dimensions, we show that these equations determine the asymptotic behavior of the system. For arbitrary density ratios, the Laplacian growth equations adequately describe the initial (weakly nonlinear) stage of the interface instability development. The integrability of these equations makes it possible to investigate the evolution of nonlinear waves at the boundary and, in particular, to demonstrate the tendency to the formation of singularities (cusps).

Kochurin, Evgeny A.; Zubarev, Nikolay M.

2012-07-01

58

Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

Olson, M.

1997-10-01

59

An integrated liquid mixer\\/valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an integrated liquid mixer\\/valve to be used for sample preparation for bioscience analysis systems. The mixer\\/valve is a glass-silicon bonded structure with a wafer-bonded cantilever-plate flapper valve and deep reactive-ion etched ports. It is passively pressure actuated and is distinguished by the fact that it can perform both a mixing and valving function simultaneously to mix two liquids

Joel Voldman; Martha L. Gray; Martin A. Schmidt

2000-01-01

60

Mass transfer during gas absorption in a vertical gas-liquid slug flow with small bubbles in liquid plugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed for the analysis of mass transfer during isothermal absorption in a vertical gas-liquid slug flow at\\u000a large Reynolds numbers with liquid plugs containing small bubbles. Simple formulas for mass flux from the N-th unit cell of gas-liquid slug flow and for total mass flux from N unit cells are derived. In the limiting case the derived

T. Elperin; A. Fominykh

1998-01-01

61

VERTICAL INTEGRATION AND THE RESTRUCTURING OF THE U.S. ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates on restructuring of the U.S. electricity industry are often about the degree to which market relationships should replace transactions that formerly took place within regulated, vertically integrated utilities. Markets for the purchase of energy by vertically unintegrated distribution utilities are clearly feasible, but vertical deintegration of existing systems may entail foregoing some operational and reliability benefits that are important

ROBERT J. MICHAELS

2006-01-01

62

Numerical Simulation of Heat Conduction to Liquids from a Thin Vertical Cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents numerical simulations of heat conduction around a circular vertical cylinder immersed in liquids. A finite volume formulation is used, and the numerical analysis is performed in unsteady state with an explicit scheme. The numerical predictions are compared with experiments performed on liquids to find the temperature inside the cylinder, where a thermocouple is located, and at the

F. Gori; M. G. Serranò

2003-01-01

63

Light scattering by surface waves on a vertical layer of liquid toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that light scattering from surface waves on a vertical liquid layer can be used for the determination of surface tension and kinematic viscosity of the liquid under investigation. In contrast to usual approaches of surface light scattering, a setup is described that enables measurements with the same setup as that with experiments for the determination of other

Andreas P. Fröba; Stefan Will; Alfred Leipertz

1997-01-01

64

A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory  

SciTech Connect

Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

2011-11-01

65

Bubble and liquid turbulence characteristics of bubbly flow in a large diameter vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bubble and liquid turbulence characteristics of air–water bubbly flow in a 200mm diameter vertical pipe was experimentally investigated. The bubble characteristics were measured using a dual optical probe, while the liquid-phase turbulence was measured using hot-film anemometry. Measurements were performed at six liquid superficial velocities in the range of 0.2–0.68m\\/s and gas superficial velocity from 0.005 to 0.18m\\/s, corresponding

M. E. Shawkat; C. Y. Ching; M. Shoukri

2008-01-01

66

PRICE AND VERTICAL CONTROL POLICIES FOR A VERTICALLY INTEGRATED UPSTREAM MONOPOLIST WHEN SABOTAGE IS COSTLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies welfare-optimal input pricing and vertical control policies for industries character- ized by an upstream monopolist selling to a downstream oligopoly in which the monopolist has a retail affiliate. Of particular concern is the possibility that the monopolist might favor its affiliate via nonprice discrimination. The degree of vertical control is formally introduced as a policy tool, and

David M. Mandy

67

High-performance germanium-seeded laterally crystallized TFTs for vertical device integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing chip complexity and area has resulted in interconnect delay becoming a significant fraction of overall chip delay. Continued scaling of design rules will further aggravate this problem. Vertical integration of devices will enable a substantial reduction in chip size and thus in interconnect delay. We present a novel technique to achieve vertical integration of CMOS devices. Germanium is used

Vivek Subramanian; Krishna C. Saraswat

1998-01-01

68

On project-based learning through the vertically-integrated projects program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech's Colleges of Engineering and Computing initiated the Vertically-Integrated Projects (VIP) program in January 2009. Undergraduate students that join VIP teams earn academic credit for participating in design efforts that assist faculty and graduate students with research and development issues in their technical areas. The teams are: multidisciplinary — drawing students from around the university; vertically-integrated — maintaining a

Meredith Baxter; Byungki Byun; Edward J. Coyle; Tuan Dang; Thomas Dwyer; Ilseo Kim; Chin-Hui Lee; Ross Llewallyn; Nashlie Sephus

2011-01-01

69

Channel Structure, Cross Sales, and Vertical Integration in a Multichannel Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider two manufacturers, each producing a single substitutable product. In any geographical area, there are two retail outlets through which the products are sold to the end consumers. Each of the two retail outlets could be privately owned (i.e. a franchised outlet) or owned by the manufacturer (i.e. a vertically integrated company store). Each manufacturer makes vertical integration decision in

Chongqi Wu; Suman Mallik

2005-01-01

70

Diversification, Vertical Integration, and the Regional Pattern of Dairy Farm Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy farm size differs considerably across the United States. We analyze patterns of dairy farm size to determine how differences in vertical integration and diversification relate to farm size. We find that diversification accounts for little size variation. For vertical integration, the partial correlation with dairy herd size is strongly negative. Dairy value-added size measures vary less across regions than

Daniel A. Summer; Christopher A. Wolf

2002-01-01

71

Airing Your Dirty Laundry: Vertical Integration, Reputational Capital, and Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between an ethnic-based social network and vertical integration decisions in the laundry services industry. We find that stores in the social network are significantly less likely to vertically integrate than nonmember stores. This has three primary implications. First, the social network may be lowering the costs of using the market more than facilitating in-house production.

Ricard Gil; Wesley R. Hartmann

2009-01-01

72

Analysis on Information System Construction about Vertical Integrated Marketing Channel for Agricultural Products in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper obtains from discussion about the vertical integrated agricultural product marketing channel pattern to point out that sharing channel information essentiality and the corresponding technical support. The selective analysis the insufficiency of vertical integrated marketing channel for agricultural product in our present country and theory countermeasure as follows: firstly the series construction aspects must set up unified awareness of

Wang Chunya

2010-01-01

73

Liquid Metal Integrated Test System (LIMITS).  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the liquid metal integrated test system (LIMITS) at Sandia National Laboratories. This system was designed to study the flow of molten metals and salts in a vacuum as a preliminary study for flowing liquid surfaces inside of magnetic fusion reactors. The system consists of a heated furnace with attached centrifugal pump, a vacuum chamber, and a transfer chamber for storage and addition of fresh material. Diagnostics include an electromagnetic flow meter, a high temperature pressure transducer, and an electronic level meter. Many ports in the vacuum chamber allow testing the thermal behavior of the flowing liquids heated with an electron beam or study of the effect of a magnetic field on motion of the liquid. Some preliminary tests have been performed to determine the effect of a static magnetic field on stream flow from a nozzle.

McDonald, James Maurice; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Bauer, Frederick J.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew; Tanaka, Tina Joan

2003-08-01

74

Are Horizontal Mergers and Vertical Integration a Problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines market power in rail markets in Europe arising from horizontal and vertical mergers in the sector, and is intended to provide a high-level basis for discussion at the round table itself. It presents factual information on horizontal and vertical merger cases involving rail freight operators, highlighting the processes used by competition authorities to determine the circumstances in

Simon Pilsbury; Andrew Meaney

2009-01-01

75

Organizational Assimilation of Vertical Standards: An Integrative Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical standards are complex networked technologies whose assimilation is subject to extensive interorganizational dependence and network effects. Classical theories of diffusion of technological innovation cannot sufficiently explain their assimilation without taking community-level effects into account. This paper introduces a two-level model of organizational assimilation of vertical standards which extends diffusion of innovations theory by including network effects. It combines the

Rubén A. Mendoza; T. Ravichandran

2007-01-01

76

Viscous liquid films on a porous vertical cylinder: Dynamics and stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, liquid films flowing down a porous vertical cylinder were investigated by an integral boundary layer model. Linear stability and nonlinear evolution were studied. Linear stability results of the integral boundary layer model were in good agreement with the linearized Navier-Stokes equations which indicated that the permeability of the porous medium enhanced the instability of the flow system. The growth rate and cut-off wave number increased with increasing the permeability and the Reynolds number. Linear stability analysis showed that the system was more unstable for a larger Reynolds number Re. Nonlinear studies showed that, for a very small Re, the film evolved with time while a saturated state was not observed. In addition, it was observed that the film ruptured when the permeability parameter ? > 0, and the rupture time decreased with increasing ?. However, for a moderate Reynolds number, a small finite harmonic disturbance evolved to a saturated traveling wave. Further investigation was conducted on the droplet-like wave solution. Results showed that the wave speed increased as the permeability parameter increased.

Ding, Zijing; Wong, Teck Neng; Liu, Rong; Liu, Qiusheng

2013-06-01

77

Damped oscillation of liquid column in vertical U-tube for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damped oscillation of Newtonian liquid in a vertical U-tube is one of the well known phenomena and the solution of this liquid motion for the laminar flow regime in the circular pipe was solved, however, generally speaking, even if the period of the oscillational motion by this solution is nearly coincided with that of the experimental result, the estimation of the damped oscillational process with lapse of time by the solved equation is not in agreement with that of the experimental result. Therefore basing upon the experimental results of the velocity distributions of the oscillational motion in the circular U-tube for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids, the velocity distribution of the Bingham plastic flow is assumed. The solutions of the damped oscillation and also of the vertical falling and rising velocities of the free surface in the vertical U-tube of the diameters D=10mm, 20mm and 40mm are compared with water and water-glycerine solution for the Newtonian liquids and the acrylic co-polymer solutions for the non-Newtonian liquid. The comparisons of these solved equations by the new flow model are shown in good agreement with the experimental results. The above stated results are described in detail.

Ogawa, Akira; Tokiwa, Suguru; Mutou, Masatoshi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Sugawara, Tonau; Watanabe, Masahide; Satou, Kouhei; Kikawada, Toshikazu; Shishido, Keitarou; Matumoto, Naoya

2007-11-01

78

Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium and sodium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3-D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Nygren, R E; Cowgill, D F; Ulrickson, M A; Nelson, B E; Fogarty, P J; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Hassanein, A; Smolentsev, S S; Kotschenreuther, M

2003-11-13

79

Design integration of liquid surface divertors.  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Rensink, M. E. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Smolentsev, S. S. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Rognlien, T. D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Kotschenreuther, M. (University of Texas, Austin, TX); Ulrickson, Michael Andrew; Cowgill, Donald F.; Nelson, B. E. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Hassanein, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Nygren, Richard Einar; Fogarty, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

2003-09-01

80

A Systems Study of Policy Formulation in a Vertically-Integrated Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertically-integrated companies often provide unusual opportunities for conflicts among organizational performance measures, especially as the vertical interdependency of product flow interacts with organisational separation of profit objectives. The resulting problems and their potential resolution by policy reformulation are discussed in this paper for the case of a large manufacturer-retailer of perishable food products. The methods of Industrial Dynamics constitute the

Edward B. Roberts; Dan I. Abrams; Henry B. Weil

1968-01-01

81

Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E. [School of Aeronautical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15

82

Vertical Integration, Market Foreclosure, and Consumer Welfare in the Cable Television Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the effects of vertical integration between programming and distribution in the cable television industry. I assess the effects of ownership structure on program offerings, prices, and subscriptions, and I compare consumer welfare across integrated and unintegrated markets. The results of this analysis suggest two general conclusions. First, integrated operators tend to exclude rival program services, suggesting that certain

Tasneem Chipty

2001-01-01

83

Vertically-Vibrated Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Surface Deformation and Breakup  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his pioneering work of 1831, Faraday demonstrated that a vertically\\u000avibrated gas-liquid interface exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation from a\\u000aflat state to a wavy configuration at certain frequencies or amplitudes.\\u000aTypical experiments performed using thin layers of water produce \\

T. J. O'Hern; E. F. Romero; C. F. Brooks; B. Shelden; J. R. Torczynski; A. M. Kraynik; L. A. Romero; G. L. Benavides

2010-01-01

84

Vertically-Vibrated Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Surface Deformation and Breakup  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his pioneering work of 1831, Faraday demonstrated that a vertically vibrated gas-liquid interface exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation from a flat state to a wavy configuration at certain frequencies or amplitudes. Typical experiments performed using thin layers of water produce \\

T. J. O'Hern; E. F. Romero; C. F. Brooks; B. Shelden; J. R. Torczynski; A. M. Kraynik; L. A. Romero; G. L. Benavides

2010-01-01

85

Integrating vertical and horizontal partitioning into automated physical database design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to indexes and materialized views, horizontal and vertical partitioning are important aspects of physical design in a relational database system that significantly impact performance. Horizontal partitioning also provides manageability; database administrators often require indexes and their underlying tables partitioned identically so as to make common operations such as backup\\/restore easier. While partitioning is important, incorporating partitioning makes the

Sanjay Agrawal; Vivek R. Narasayya; Beverly Yang

2004-01-01

86

Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR (liquid metal reactor) nuclear reactor units  

SciTech Connect

Seismic isolation has been shown to be able to reduce transmitted seismic force and lower response accelerations of a structure. When applied to nuclear reactors, it will minimize seismic influence on the reactor design and provide a design which is less site dependent. In liquid metal reactors where components are virtually at atmospheric pressure but under severe thermal conditions, thin-walled structures are generally used for primary systems. Thin-walled structures, however, have little inherent seismic resistance. The concept of seismic isolation therefore offers a viable and effective approach that permits the reactor structures to better withstand thermal and seismic loadings simultaneously. The majority of published work on seismic isolation deals with use of horizontal isolation system only. In this investigation, however, local vertical isolation is also provided for the primary system. Such local vertical isolation is found to result in significant benefits for major massive components, such as the reactor cover, designed to withstand vertical motions and loadings. Preliminary estimations on commodity savings of the primary system show that, with additional local vertical isolation, the savings could be twice that estimated for horizontal isolation only. The degree of effectiveness of vertical isolation depends on the diameter of the reactor vessel. As the reactor vessel diameter increases, the vertical seismic effects become more pronounced and vertical isolation can make a significant contribution.

Wu, Ting-shu; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

1988-01-01

87

Vertically integrated organisational marketing systems: a partnership approach for retailing organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper sets out to explain how vertically integrated organisational marketing systems can integrate the marketing decision-making process of suppliers, manufacturers, and marketing channel members and also to make clear why it is necessary for marketers to use marketing intelligence and why they need to pay attention to security issues. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The work is based on a

Peter R. J. Trim; Yang-Im Lee

2006-01-01

88

Fast In-Plane Switching of a Liquid Crystal Cell Triggered by a Vertical Electric Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a fast two-step switching method of a homogeneous-aligned liquid crystal (LC) cell, where a trigger pulse is applied to align LCs vertically for a moment before they are in-plane switched to show a bright state. Because LCs aligned vertically by a trigger pulse are in a transient state rather than the stable state, the turn-on becomes faster. The turn-off also becomes faster because the pulse forcibly aligns the LC vertically to show the dark state. Experimental results show that significant acceleration of the grey-to-grey response as well as on-off switching can be achieved by the proposed switching method.

Baek, Jong-In; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Woo, Hwa Sung; Shin, Sung Tae; Souk, Jun Hyung

2009-10-01

89

High-definition vertically aligned liquid crystal microdisplays using a circularly polarized light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-definition vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) microdisplay exhibits a excellent contrast ratio, but its fringing field effect splits the bright state unevenly and leads to a very slow response time. By utilizing a circularly polarized light instead of conventional linearly polarized light, we have overcome the long-standing problems of poor sharpness, low brightness, and slow response time. Confirming computer simulations agree with the experimental results well. This approach can be applied to both reflective and transmissive LC microdisplays.

Fan-Chiang, Kuan-Hsu; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Wu, Shin-Tson

2005-07-01

90

Vertical RF Transition with Mechanical Fit for Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, simulation and measurement of a vertical interconnect with mechanical fit for three-dimensional heterogeneous integration. The mechanical fit is a strategy employing interlocking SU-8 structures to transition between flip-chip style stacked chips through vertical CPW transmission lines. The mechanical fit is introduced in this paper to reduce flip-chip alignment difficulty and increase the reliability of the

Lihan Chen; Joe Wood; Sanjay Raman; N. Scott Barker

2008-01-01

91

Vertical market integration and competition: the meat sector in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents price transmission models explaining the farm-to-retail price spread and degree of competition in the meat marketing chains during the period of economic transition in Slovenia. The meat marketing chains in Slovenia are characterised by relatively large processing and marketing margins, which are expected to decline with market deregulation and integration into the international markets. As results of

Štefan Bojnec; Günter Peter

2005-01-01

92

Vertical optimization procedure for an integrated micropower signal preprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for low power operation is characteristic of all electronic measurement systems that transmit physiological data across the intact skin. Custom integrated circuits and hybrid microcircuit assembly techniques leave battery volume (or power drain) as the limiting factor for implanted-system lifetime and animal model size. First generation totally implantable Doppler blood flowmeters, telemeter Doppler-shifted signals having a 40 kHz

T. R. Harrison

1980-01-01

93

Unifying Laboratory Content of a Digital Systems and Computer Architecture Curriculum through Horizon and Vertical Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the application of horizontal and vertical integration to unify the digital systems and computer architecture curriculum for the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University Calumet. An enhanced set of twelve laboratory assignments and five design projects resulted from performing the integration. Horizontal integration was achieved by providing a consistent presentation of concepts across two computer architecture laboratory courses while simultaneously providing students the necessary skill-set for developing a successful career as a computer engineer. Vertical integration was achieved by interweaving common technical theories and skills to establish interdependence among all digital system and computer architecture laboratory coursework. The restructured laboratory sequence provides a cohesive educational experience and significant exposure to concepts, design methodologies, and software tools ubiquitous in the semiconductor and computer industry.

2011-05-17

94

Impact of the capillary fringe in vertically integrated models for CO2 storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates vertically integrated equilibrium models for CO2 storage. We pay particular attention to the importance of including the effect of fine-scale capillary forces in the integrated equations. This aspect has been neglected in previous work, where the fluids are segregated by a sharp interface. Our results show that the fine-scale capillary forces lead to qualitative and quantitative alterations

J. M. Nordbotten; H. K. Dahle

2011-01-01

95

The impact of vertical integration of design teams on the chemical engineering program  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last five years, the Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Akron has implemented a vertically integrated team design project (VITDP) involving our department's entire undergraduate student population. Teams, consisting of freshman through seniors, work together with an industrial or faculty mentor to solve an open-ended design problem over a five-seven week period during the fall semester.

Sandra Spickard-Prettyman; Helen Qammar; Francis Broadway; H Micheal Cheung; Edward Evans

2004-01-01

96

Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.…

Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

2011-01-01

97

VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

98

Optical functional device by vertical and direct integration of heterojunction phototransistor and laser diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical device with various functions is actualized by integrating vertically and directly heterojunction phototransistors and a laser diode and by adjusting the internal optical feedback. The optical amplification with a good linearity between input and output lights is realized by suppressing the internal optical feedback. The large gain of over 100 is achieved in the wide wavelength range from

Susumu Noda; Toru Takayama; Kimitaka Shibata; Akio Sasaki

1992-01-01

99

Value Chain Envy: Explaining New Entry and Vertical Integration in Popular Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? The concepts of value creation, value capture, and value protection are employed to explain new entry and vertical integration. It is posited that if, at one stage of the value system, the share of value captured is disproportionally higher than the share of value created, value chain envy will ensue. This value chain envy will result in new entry

Joeri M. Mol; Nachoem M. Wijnberg; Charles Carroll

2005-01-01

100

Vertical integration and technological innovation. [Correlation between v. i. and research expenditures  

SciTech Connect

The authors find that a significant relationship exists between vertical integration and expenditures for basic and applied research for the US petroleum industry, 1954-1975. They advance several hypotheses consistent with this finding, and conclude that organizational structure influences expenditures on research in the modern business enterprise.

Armour, H.O.; Teece, D.J.

1980-08-01

101

Impaired vertical postural control and proprioceptive integration deficits in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate how the orientation and stabilization components of postural control may be affected as the result of the impaired proprioceptive integration possibly occurring in Parkinson’s disease.To determine the proprioceptive contribution to postural control, parkinsonian patients and control subjects were asked to maintain vertical stance while very slow sinusoidal oscillations were being applied

M. Vaugoyeau; S. Viel; C. Assaiante; B. Amblard; J. P. Azulay

2007-01-01

102

The Politics of Vertical Integration in Extractive Industries: Business History and Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of vertical integration by multinational corporations in the extractive sector of poor countries is not only an economic process, but also a political one affected by the host country's social and political dynamics, the relationship between host country and home country, and the relationship between the multinational and the home country. This essay argues that some of these

Marcelo Bucheli

2007-01-01

103

Vertical Integration, Exclusivity and Game Sales Performance in the U.S. Video Game Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the relation between vertical integration and video game performance in the U.S. video game industry. For this purpose, we use a widely used data set from NPD on video game montly sales from October 2000 to October 2007. We complement these data with handly collected information on video game developers for all games in the sample

Ricard Gil; Frederic Warzynski

2009-01-01

104

Vertical Integration, Exclusivity and Game Sales Performance in the US Video Game Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the relation between vertical integration and video game performance in the US video game industry. For this purpose, we use a widely used data set from NPD on video game monthly sales from October 2000 to October 2007. We complement these data with handly collected information on video game developers for all games in the sample

Ricard Gil; Frédèric Warzynski

2010-01-01

105

Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement. Recruitment presentations increased GIS awareness at all levels. The intensive teacher training combined with GIS class-development through institutional

Jaehyung Yu; Niem Tu Huynh; Thomas Lee McGehee

2011-01-01

106

BILATERAL MARKET POWER AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION IN THE SPANISH ELECTRICITY SPOT MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spanish electricity spot market is highly concentrated both on the seller and the buyer side. Furthermore, unlike electricity spot markets in other deregulated electricity systems, large buyers and sellers are typically vertically integrated. This allows both large net sellers and large net buyers to strategically influence the spot market price. We develop a supply function model of this market

Kai-Uwe Kühn; Matilde Pinto Machado

2004-01-01

107

An Assessment of Vertically Integrated Contract Poultry Farming: A Case Study in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to identify incentives for poultry farmers to participate in contract farming system in Bangladesh. This paper explores the causes why the farmer entering into contract farming system and evaluates the performance of vertically integrated contract poultry farming system on farmer's income by analyzing the cost and returns and labor utilization. Poultry meat is the most

2005-01-01

108

Vertical integration and long term contracts in the natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the organizational structure of the natural gas industry. Primary focus is on the vertical integration and long-term contracts that arose between the production and transmission sectors of the industry beginning in the 1930s. The study addresses the characteristics of natural gas and natural gas investments that induced these methods of organization. The central hypothesis is that the

Mulherin

1984-01-01

109

Wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked monolithic laser with an integrated vertical coupler filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.6 mm long vertical coupler filter (VCF) laser has been mode locked at 15.8 GHz, generating 10-12 ps optical pulses. Wavelength tunability in 1544.4-1564.7 nm is obtained through electrical tuning of integrated VCF. Application to optical time division and wavelength division multiplexing is indicated.

Raybon, G.; Hansen, P. B.; Alferness, R. C.; Buhl, L. L.; Koren, U.; Miller, B. J.; Young, M. J.; Koch, T. L.; Verdiell, J. M.; Burrus, C. A.

1993-08-01

110

Performance and Transient Behavior of Vertically Integrated Thin-film Silicon Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical integration of amorphous hydrogenated sil icon diodes on CMOS readout chips offers several advantages compared to standard CMOS imagers in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range and dark current while a t the same time introducing some undesired transient effects leading to image lag. P erformance of such sensors is here reported and their transient behaviour is analysed and compared

Nicolas Wyrsch; Gregory Choong; Clément Miazza; Christophe Ballif

2008-01-01

111

Path Dependence in Personal Selling : A Meso-Analysis of Vertical Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine an unusual form of path dependence, in which suppliers that take different decision paths end up in the same position: excessive vertical integration of the personal selling function. We argue that this is the case even though outsourcing is more seriously considered than ever, and economic arguments for outsourcing the sales function are compelling. We develop an institutional

DALSACE Frédéric; ANDERSON Erin; ROSS William T. Jr.

2003-01-01

112

Do the paramedian tract neurons in pons take a role as a vertical neural integrator in humans?  

PubMed

Impairment of gaze holding mechanism and gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) in the vertical plane due to a focal brain lesion is usually caused by a failure of the vertical neural integrator, which is known to be localized in the interstitial nucleus of the Cajal in the upper midbrain. We report a patient with hemorrhagic stroke involving the paramedian pontine tegmentum who presented with vertical GEN due to a failure of vertical gaze holding mechanism and unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The possible structure taking a role as a vertical neural integrator in this patient might be the paramedian tract (PMT) neuron. PMID:22857989

Lee, Hyung; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Kim, Hyun-Ah

2012-08-02

113

Solid-liquid-vapor metal-catalyzed etching of lateral and vertical nanopores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etching is an essential tool for the creation of nanostructures, where patterned metal structures can be used as masks. Here, we investigate HCl gas etching of InP substrates decorated with Au nanoparticles, and find that the etch rate is strongly increased at the Au-InP interfaces. The {111}A facets of the InP are preferentially etched. The metal nanoparticles follow in the etch direction, thereby creating nanopores. The size and position of the pores is controlled by the Au nanoparticles, and we measure nanopores as thin as 20 nm with an aspect ratio of 25:1. The direction of the nanopores is influenced by the temperature and the substrate orientation, which we use to demonstrate lateral, vertical and inclined nanopores. We explain the process by a solid-liquid-vapor model, in which the liquid metal particle catalyzes the dissolution of the solid InP.

Wallentin, Jesper; Deppert, Knut; Borgström, Magnus T.

2013-10-01

114

Solid-liquid-vapor metal-catalyzed etching of lateral and vertical nanopores.  

PubMed

Etching is an essential tool for the creation of nanostructures, where patterned metal structures can be used as masks. Here, we investigate HCl gas etching of InP substrates decorated with Au nanoparticles, and find that the etch rate is strongly increased at the Au-InP interfaces. The {111}A facets of the InP are preferentially etched. The metal nanoparticles follow in the etch direction, thereby creating nanopores. The size and position of the pores is controlled by the Au nanoparticles, and we measure nanopores as thin as 20 nm with an aspect ratio of 25:1. The direction of the nanopores is influenced by the temperature and the substrate orientation, which we use to demonstrate lateral, vertical and inclined nanopores. We explain the process by a solid-liquid-vapor model, in which the liquid metal particle catalyzes the dissolution of the solid InP. PMID:24060650

Wallentin, Jesper; Deppert, Knut; Borgström, Magnus T

2013-09-24

115

Vertical integration of corporate management in international firms: implementation of HRM and the asset specificities of firms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the development requirements of an international firm in terms of the application of firm-specific assets and human resource management needed for the implementation of vertical integration decisions. The empirical investigation reported in this paper is based upon a sample of international joint venture (IJV) hotel firms in China. The evidence highlights how the vertical integration of corporate

Yanni Yan; John Child; Chan Yan Chong

2007-01-01

116

Environmental uncertainty and vertical integration in a small business network : The case of Natural Valley Farms Inc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper intends to identify and explain key managerial principles for vertical integration in the cattle industry during a key period of environment uncertainty. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Following Yin's advice on using case studies for exploratory theory development, this study builds on existing theories of vertical integration through a case study that explores potential prospects for cattle producers in

Sylvain Charlebois; Ronald D. Camp II

2007-01-01

117

Integral equation study of liquid hydrogen fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid hydrogen fluoride is a well-known hydrogen bonded substance, in many aspects related to liquid water, and for which a wide variety of interaction models have recently been proposed. We have studied two of these models by means of a reference hypernetted chain equation in order to assess the ability of this latter approach to describe the properties of this

C. Mart?´n; M. Lombardero; J. A. Anta; E. Lomba

2001-01-01

118

Vertical integration and long term contracts in the natural gas industry  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the organizational structure of the natural gas industry. Primary focus is on the vertical integration and long-term contracts that arose between the production and transmission sectors of the industry beginning in the 1930s. The study addresses the characteristics of natural gas and natural gas investments that induced these methods of organization. The central hypothesis is that the physical features of natural gas and the non-salvageable nature of the assets in the industry create potential contracting problems. These possible contracting problems imply that an exchange between a natural gas producer and a transmission pipeline could be impeded, or held-up, by one of the parties to the transaction. Organizational methods that improved incentives and enhanced the measurement of the performance of the parties to the exchange might lessen the likelihood of such hold-ups and thereby economize on the costs of the exchange prices in the industry. Thus the contractual hold-up hypothesis posits that the organizational change that has occurred in the natural gas industry is a response to the increased likelihood of hold-ups in the industry. A method that was used to mitigate such hold-ups during the 1930s was vertical integration. But the emergence of federal legislation led to a decrease in the integration in the industry. Complex, long-term contracts evolved in the industry to reduce the likelihood of hold-ups in a similar manner as vertical integration.

Mulherin, J.G.

1984-01-01

119

Highly-efficient fully resonant vertical couplers for InP active-passive monolithic integration using vertically phase matched waveguides.  

PubMed

A new active-passive monolithic integration approach for photonic components based on vertical evanescent coupling is presented. Two vertically stacked waveguides are used in order to provide full resonant power transfer between them and avoiding the need of tapered structures. Light confinement in each waveguide is achieved combining strong lateral asymmetric structures and bent waveguides, both defined during lithography. Low propagation losses for the active waveguide and coupling efficiencies to the passive section as high as 97% have been obtained. PMID:24104159

López, Oscar García; Lasaosa, Daniel; López-Amo, Manuel; Galarza, Marko

2013-09-23

120

Integrated Optics Using Smectic and Nematic Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper two practical technological approaches are presented to demonstrate that liquid crystals can be employed to make low cost integrated optic devices with characteristics required for optical communication systems. In a first approach ferroelectric and nematic liquid crystals are combined with ion-exchanged glass waveguides to produce high performing optical switches. A polarization independent configuration of such switches is

Antonio dAlessandro; Romeo Beccherelli; Bob Bellini; Ilias G. Manolis; Rita Asquini; Domenico Donisi

2006-01-01

121

Intra-industry differences in vertical integration, heterogeneous costs and pricing: the case of web hosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many differentiated product industries, both traditional and “new economy” activities, vertically integrated firms also\\u000a supply inputs to apparent rivals in the downstream business. This generates heterogeneity between low- and high-sunk cost\\u000a suppliers with implications for entry and competitive conduct. The web hosting market is typical with primary suppliers operating\\u000a alongside resellers who rent server space from them. We explore

Michael S. Thompson; Steve Thompson

2008-01-01

122

Sustainable engineering vertically-integrated project scheme in undergraduate engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable engineering has strong potential for hands-on multi-disciplinary project-based learning. In particular, projects within sustainable engineering can readily involve electrical, mechanical, computer, civil, and chemical engineering aspects while still being accessible to undergraduate engineering students. In this paper, we discuss a series of renewable energy and alternative energy storage projects, the structure of the vertically integrated project scheme at Elizabethtown

Troy O. McBride; Kurt DeGoede; Jean Fullerton

2009-01-01

123

Power dissipation in a vertically integrated chip-scale atomic clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physics package of a vertically integrated chip-scale atomic clock, based on cesium, has recently been demonstrated at NIST. This device requires 69 mW of electrical power to maintain the vapor cell 34 K above the temperature of the baseplate. The physics package structure is analyzed by use of analytical thermal modeling and finite-element calculation. Improvements to the design are

John Kitching; Svenja Knappe; Peter D. D. Schwindt; Vishal Shah; Leo Hollberg; Li-Anne Liew; John Moreland

2004-01-01

124

Price Regulation in a Vertically Integrated Natural Gas Industry: The Case of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comisión Reguladora de Energía of Mexico has implemented a netback rule for linking the Mexican natural gas price to the Texas natural gas benchmark price in an industry structure characterized by a vertically integrated state-owned monopoly. This paper shows that in an open economy where agents can choose between gas and alternative fuels, and where the density function describing

Dagobert L. Brito

2005-01-01

125

Development of an integrated vertical-slantwise convective parameterization scheme and its associated numerical experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated vertical-slantwise convective parameterization scheme, based on the vertical Kuo-Anthes and the slantwise Nordeng convective parameterization schemes, is introduced into the MM5 model. By employing the MM5 model with the proposed scheme, numerical simulations of a snowstorm event that occurred over southern China on 28-29 January 2008 and of Typhoon Haitang (2005) are conducted. The results indicate that during the snowstorm event, the atmosphere was convectively stable in the vertical direction but with conditional symmetric instability (CSI) in the lower troposphere, and when the area of CSI developed and extended to upper levels, strong rising motion occurred and triggered the release of large amount of energy, producing enhanced convective precipitation with the total precipitation much closer to the observation. The development and strengthening of CSI corresponded to changes in the intensity of snowfall, convergence, and ascending motions of air, revealing that CSI was responsible for the initiation and growth of the snowstorm. The results from a 72-h explicit simulation of Typhoon Haitang indicate that CSI occurred mainly at lower levels with a well-defined spiral structure, and it tended to have a larger impact on the intensity of typhoon than on its track. The minimum pressure at the typhoon center for the 72-h runs with the integrated vertical-slantwise convective parameterization scheme was on average 3 hPa (maximum 8 hPa) lower than that from the runs with only the vertical cumulus parameterization scheme. Introducing the influence of CSI into the model has improved the warm core structure at the middle and upper levels of the typhoon, with stronger and persistent upward motions causing increased precipitation, and the latent heat released through convection in turn made the typhoon develop further.

Fei, Jianfang; Wu, Rongsheng; Huang, Xiaogang; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Xiaoping

2011-08-01

126

Natural convection experiments in a liquid-saturated porous medium bounded by vertical coaxial cylinders  

SciTech Connect

An experimental effort is presently underway to investigate natural convection phenomena in liquid-saturated porous media utilizing a geometry, and hydrodynamic/thermal boundary conditions, relevant to the problem of nuclear-waste isolation in geologic repositories. During the first phase of this research program, detailed measurements were made of the steady-state thermal field throughout an annular test region bounded by a vertical, constant-heat-flux, inner cylinder and a concentrically-placed, constant-temperature, outer cylinder. An overlying, constant-pressure, fluid layer was utilized to supply a permeable upper surface boundary condition. Results showed the heater surface temperature to increase with increasing vertical distance due to the presence of a buoyantly-driven upflow. The measured temperature difference (..delta..T) between the average heater surface temperature and the constant, outer-surface, temperature was found to be progressively below the straight-line/conduction-only solution for ..delta..T vs power input as the latter was systematically increased. Comparisons between measured results and numerical predictions generated with the finite-element code MARIAH showed very good agreement, thereby contributing to the qualification of this code for repository-design applications.

Reda, D.C.

1983-01-01

127

Two Methods for Measurement of Gas-Liquid Flows in Vertical Upward Pipe Using Dual-Plane ERT System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern industrial processes, the accurate measurement of two-phase flow is an important task. Process tomography can provide a distribution information of a two-phase pipe flow. In order to carry out instantaneous flowrate measurements of the gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical upward pipe, a dual-plane electrical-resistance-tomography (ERT) system is combined with a cross-correlation technique to measure the gas-liquid two-phase

Feng Dong; Yanbin Xu; Lei Hua; Huaxiang Wang

2006-01-01

128

Interdisciplinary Social Science: An Example of Vertical and Horizontal Integrative Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ``Concept-Centered'' strategy for Integrative Studies was proposed and implemented in the creation of the book Power in Focus: Perspectives from Multiple Disciplines. Essays on the ubiquitous concept of Power were solicited internationally and a final cut of ten essays from ten different disciplines, written specifically for this project, were included. This provides an example of what might be called Horizontal Integration, as it cut across multiple disciplines. One of the essays in the volume provides an example of Vertical Integration, as it applies a psychodynamic hypothesis concerning the development of Power relations among humans across hierarchical levels, from the child to the family to other groups and institutions in society, including finally entire nations and regions of the world.

Durlabhji, Subhash

2005-03-01

129

Film boiling heat transfer from a vertical cylinder in forced flow of liquids under saturated and subcooled conditions at pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forced convection film boiling heat transfer on a vertical 3-mm diameter and 180-mm length platinum test cylinder located in the center of the 40-mm inner diameter test channel was measured. Saturated water, and saturated and subcooled R113 were used as the test liquids that flowed upward along the cylinder in the test channel. Flow velocities ranged from 0 to 3

M. Shiotsu; K. Hama

2000-01-01

130

A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 ?m and 150 ?m has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm-2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

Beimforde, M.; Andricek, L.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

2010-12-01

131

An Integrated Approach toward Retrieving Physically Consistent Profiles of Temperature, Humidity, and Cloud Liquid Water.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for deriving physically consistent profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water content. This approach combines a ground-based multichannel microwave radiometer, a cloud radar, a lidar-ceilometer, the nearest operational radiosonde measurement, and ground-level measurements of standard meteorological properties with statistics derived from results of a microphysical cloud model. All measurements are integrated within the framework of optimal estimation to guarantee a retrieved profile with maximum information content. The developed integrated profiling technique (IPT) is applied to synthetic cloud model output as a test of accuracy. It is shown that the liquid water content profiles obtained with the IPT are significantly more accurate than common methods that use the microwave-derived liquid water path to scale the radar reflectivity profile. The IPT is also applied to 2 months of the European Cloud Liquid Water Network (CLIWA-NET) Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) BRIDGE main experiment (BBC) campaign data, considering liquid-phase, nonprecipitating clouds only. Error analysis indicates root-mean-square uncertainties of less than 1 K in temperature and less than 1 g m-3 in humidity, where the relative error in liquid water content ranges from 15% to 25%. A comparison of the vertically integrated humidity profile from the IPT with the nearest operational radiosonde shows an acceptable bias error of 0.13 kg m-2 when the Rosenkranz gas absorption model is used. However, if the Liebe gas absorption model is used, this systematic error increases to -1.24 kg m-2, showing that the IPT humidity retrieval is significantly dependent on the chosen gas absorption model.


Löhnert, Ulrich; Crewell, Susanne; Simmer, Clemens

2004-09-01

132

Performance and Transient Behavior of Vertically Integrated Thin-film Silicon Sensors  

PubMed Central

Vertical integration of amorphous hydrogenated silicon diodes on CMOS readout chips offers several advantages compared to standard CMOS imagers in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range and dark current while at the same time introducing some undesired transient effects leading to image lag. Performance of such sensors is here reported and their transient behaviour is analysed and compared to the one of corresponding amorphous silicon test diodes deposited on glass. The measurements are further compared to simulations for a deeper investigation. The long time constant observed in dark or photocurrent decay is found to be rather independent of the density of defects present in the intrinsic layer of the amorphous silicon diode.

Wyrsch, Nicolas; Choong, Gregory; Miazza, Clement; Ballif, Christophe

2008-01-01

133

Vertical alignment nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by double-side in-plane switching with positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a vertical alignment liquid crystal cell controlled by double-side in-plane switching with a positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal material. In this structure, the pixel electrodes are interdigital electrodes, which are deposited on the bottom and top substrates parallel to each other. In the voltage-off state, the liquid crystal molecules are vertically aligned under the crossed polarizers; hence the cell appears to be dark. When an in-plane field is applied, the liquid crystal molecules tilt down to the left or right along the field direction, which is at 45° with respect to the input polarizer, giving rise to maximum transmission of the incident light. We fabricated the proposed cells, which show higher transmittance and lower driving voltage compared with the conventional vertical alignment configuration with a positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal. The improved electro-optical properties are due to the stronger in-plane field compared with the configuration having one-side electrode. In this device, the response time and viewing angle characteristics are almost the same as the conventional structure.

Shin, Hun Ki; Kim, Ki-Han; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Jae Chang

2008-10-01

134

Integrated Liquid Cooling Systems for 3-D Stacked TSV Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an integrated liquid cooling system for 3-D stacked modules with high dissipation level is proposed. The fluidic interconnects in this system are elaborated and the sealing technique for different fluid interfaces is discussed. Meanwhile, the pressure drop for each part of the system is analyzed. The optimized fluidic interconnects minimizing the pressure drop have been designed and

Gong Yue Tang; Siow Pin Tan; Navas Khan; D. Pinjala; John H. Lau; Ai Bin Yu; Kripesh Vaidyanathan; Kok Chuan Toh

2010-01-01

135

An Evaluation Process of Polymeric Adhesive Wafer Bonding for Vertical System Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bonding of wafers using dielectric polymer thin films as bonding adhesives is one of key approaches to monolithic vertical system integration. As the first step for the integration, properties of the polymer desired for baseline adhesive material are studied, followed by the evaluations on bonding results obtained from wafer pairs bonded between a silicon and a glass wafers. Four sequential evaluation procedures are performed after bonding; (1) optical inspection is made to measure the fraction of bonded area, (2) a razor blade test is taken to separate the bonded wafers, (3) a four-point bending method is used to measure bonding strength quantitatively, (4) FTIR is applied to analyze changes in chemical structure. Bonding integrity is evaluated how the intentionally created debond areas of the bonded wafers are changed after the subsequent thinning processes. To date, benzocyclobutene (BCB), FlareTM, and methylsilsesquioxane (MSSQ) and Parylene-N have been considered as bonding adhesives. Among these polymer materials, BCB and FlareTM are selected as initial adhesive materials after a screening process through optical inspection. Wafer pairs bonded using FlareTM have higher bond strength than those using BCB. However, the bond strength of wafer pairs bonded using BCB is still higher than that at the interface between Cu and porous low-k inter-level dielectrics (ILD) (a back end interconnect structure), indicating almost 100% of bonded area reproducibly. In the light of such evaluation results, BCB has been eventually selected as a baseline adhesive material for the wafer bonding prcess for vertical system integration.

Kwon, Yongchai; Seok, Jongwon

2005-06-01

136

Integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation on simple networks: connection formula at vertices.  

PubMed

We study the case in which the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on simple networks consisting of vertices and bonds has an infinite number of constants of motion and becomes completely integrable just as in the case of a simple one-dimensional (1D) chain. Here the strength of cubic nonlinearity is different from bond to bond, and networks are assumed to have at least two semi-infinite bonds with one of them working as an incoming bond. The connection formula at vertices obtained from norm and energy conservation rules shows (1) the solution on each bond is a part of the universal (bond-independent) soliton solution of the completely integrable NLSE on the 1D chain, but is multiplied by the inverse of square root of bond-dependent nonlinearity; (2) nonlinearities at individual bonds around each vertex must satisfy a sum rule. Under these conditions, we also showed an infinite number of constants of motion. The argument on a branched chain or a primary star graph is generalized to other graphs, i.e., general star graphs, tree graphs, loop graphs and their combinations. As a relevant issue, with use of reflectionless propagation of Zakharov-Shabat's soliton through networks we have obtained the transmission probabilities on the outgoing bonds, which are inversely proportional to the bond-dependent strength of nonlinearity. Numerical evidence is also given to verify the prediction. PMID:20866536

Sobirov, Z; Matrasulov, D; Sabirov, K; Sawada, S; Nakamura, K

2010-06-24

137

Integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation on simple networks: Connection formula at vertices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the case in which the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on simple networks consisting of vertices and bonds has an infinite number of constants of motion and becomes completely integrable just as in the case of a simple one-dimensional (1D) chain. Here the strength of cubic nonlinearity is different from bond to bond, and networks are assumed to have at least two semi-infinite bonds with one of them working as an incoming bond. The connection formula at vertices obtained from norm and energy conservation rules shows (1) the solution on each bond is a part of the universal (bond-independent) soliton solution of the completely integrable NLSE on the 1D chain, but is multiplied by the inverse of square root of bond-dependent nonlinearity; (2) nonlinearities at individual bonds around each vertex must satisfy a sum rule. Under these conditions, we also showed an infinite number of constants of motion. The argument on a branched chain or a primary star graph is generalized to other graphs, i.e., general star graphs, tree graphs, loop graphs and their combinations. As a relevant issue, with use of reflectionless propagation of Zakharov-Shabat’s soliton through networks we have obtained the transmission probabilities on the outgoing bonds, which are inversely proportional to the bond-dependent strength of nonlinearity. Numerical evidence is also given to verify the prediction.

Sobirov, Z.; Matrasulov, D.; Sabirov, K.; Sawada, S.; Nakamura, K.

2010-06-01

138

Multi-domain vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystals for reduced off-axis gamma shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several liquid crystal (LC) modes, such as twisted nematic, vertical alignment (VA), and in-plane switching, have been in competition with each other in the LC display market. Among them, the VA mode has been widely used because of the high contrast ratio. Since the LC molecules are aligned perpendicular to the substrate in the initial state, an excellent dark state can be obtained at normal viewing direction. However, effective phase retardation of LC layer at oblique viewing direction differs greatly from that at normal viewing direction. Thus, gamma distortion phenomenon occurs at oblique view direction. To reduce the gamma shift in the VA mode at oblique viewing direction, multi-domain VA modes were proposed. Although gamma shifts of these modes are smaller than that of the single domain VA mode, the problems still remain. Recently, several technologies for 8-domain alignment have been proposed to decrease the gamma shift at off-axis. However, additional driving circuits are required to realize the eight-domain structure. In this paper we report technologies for the multi-domain VA mode with no additional driving circuits. By using the proposed technologies, we can obtain the dual threshold voltage in each sub-pixel to realize the multi-domain VA mode with no decrease of contrast ratio.

Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Park, Byung Wok; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

2013-03-01

139

Vertical Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple duopoly model is used to show the advantage to a manufacturer of se lling his product through an independent retailer (vertical separatio n) rather than directly to consumers (vertical integration). Vertical separation is profitable insofar as it induces more friendly behavio r from the rival manufacturer. The authors consider the case where fr anchise fees can be used

Giacomo Bonanno; John Vickers

1988-01-01

140

Vertically integrated sensor array technology for unattended sensor networks (Keynote Address)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing need for unattended sensor networks drives individual sensor development, signal processing for network management, and communication technology. The application space is becoming more complex, with requirements for sensor networks in force protection; surveillance of large expanses of rugged terrain; and monitoring complex urban areas. Individual sensors exhibit excellent performance and include a wide variety of sensing modes, such as acoustic, electro-optical imaging, seismic, and radio frequency devices. These sensors continue to shrink with packaging, while applications continue to demand more of the sensor technology. Although single imaging arrays, which are available in spectral bands from the visible through the infrared, can be integrated into packages size as small as a cubic inch, the information from a single sensor is not sufficient to meet requirements for day/night, all-weather operation. This has driven the need for integration of multiple sensors into the compact packages intended for an individual sensor. A major step toward addressing the need for more effective sensor technology for unattended sensor networks is being taken through development of Vertically Integrated Sensor Array (VISA) technology. This technology, currently being developed for imaging sensors, builds multiple layers of signal processing at each pixel in the sensor array. Processing power is dramatically increased, allowing the integration of multiple sensors in small compact packages. This paper reviews the VISA approach to imaging sensors and describes applications for unattended sensors.

Balcerak, Raymond; Thurston, John; Breedlove, Jonathan

2005-05-01

141

Integrated field emission electron guns with single vertically aligned carbon nanofiber cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured carbon-based materials hold great promise as field emission (FE) cathodes for integrated FE devices. These materials display remarkable FE properties as a consequence of their unique chemical and physical properties. Among this class of materials, the vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) is exceptional in that its synthesis can be deterministically controlled. This has enabled the characterization of the FE properties of individual VACNF grown on Si substrates. The results of these studies indicate that the VACNF is an excellent candidate for integrated FE electron sources where the generation of a focused electron beam from a microscale structure is required. In this dissertation, the design, fabrication and characterization of FE electron sources using single VACNF cathodes is presented. This work emphasized the construction of devices using standard wafer-scale microfabrication techniques. Consequently, the compatibility of VACNF with these processes was explored in detail. Results showed that the VACNF could be incorporated into well established processes for synthesizing integrated FE electron sources. Gated cathode electron sources and sources incorporating an integrated electrostatic focusing electrode were designed using single carbon nanofiber cathodes. Numerical simulations of the device structures were performed to analyze the electric field structure within the devices. Following fabrication of these devices, testing was performed to verify device operation demonstrating their functionality.

Guillorn, Michael Alberto

2003-10-01

142

Experimental investigation on gas–liquid two-phase slug flow enhanced carbon dioxide corrosion in vertical upward pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon dioxide corrosion behavior of API N80 grade steel enhanced by gas–liquid two-phase vertical upward slug flow has been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated. It is found that the hydrodynamic characteristics of slug flow, such as the direction alternated wall shear stress, the fluctuation of wall normal stress, and the mass transfer near the wall, have significant effects on

Donghong Zheng; Defu Che; Yinhe Liu

2008-01-01

143

Two methods for measurement of gas-liquid flows in vertical upward pipe using dual-plane ERT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-plane Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) system is employed to combine ERT with cross correlation technique to measure the gas phase volumetric flowrate in gas-liquid flows in vertical upward pipe. According to the uniformity of the local void fraction distribution and the velocity distribution of gas phase, pixel-correlation method and eigenvalue-correlation method are put forward to estimate the gas phase

Xu Yanbin; Dong Feng; Wang Huaxiang; Qiao Xutong

2004-01-01

144

Vertical and horizontal transmission of salmonella within integrated broiler production system.  

PubMed

Salmonella remains one of the leading causes of food-borne illness in the United States, and many key questions regarding the introduction and persistence in animal production systems still remain. In order to understand the ecology of Salmonella within an integrated commercial broiler production system, 289 Salmonella enterica were recovered from two integrated poultry farms during the production and processing of seven consecutive flocks. The variety and prevalence of Salmonella serotypes differed between farms. Overall, 15 serotypes were identified, with the most common being Typhimurium (55%), Montevideo (7.9%), Kentucky (9%), and Enteritidis (9.7%). Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis isolates recovered from processed carcasses from Farm One were further characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and were shown to be indistinguishable from isolates recovered from the poultry house environment and mice trapped on this farm. Additionally, the same broiler S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis strains, identified by PFGE, were also isolated from samples taken at a company breeder farm, suggesting vertical transmission of these Salmonella serotypes in this poultry production system. Results indicate that management practices at the breeder level may have a profound effect on the transmission and persistence of salmonellae within an integrated production system, as well as on the potential contamination of poultry-derived products. PMID:15992303

Liljebjelke, Karen A; Hofacre, Charles L; Liu, Tongrui; White, David G; Ayers, Sherry; Young, Suzanne; Maurer, John J

2005-01-01

145

Design of monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor for optical programmable gate array.  

PubMed

We have theoretically analyzed the depleted optical thyristor structure and experimentally demonstrated optical logic gates implemented by monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser--depleted optical thyristor (VCL-DOT) for an optically programmable gate array. The optical AND-and OR-gates have been realized by changing a input bias of the single VCL-DOTs and all kinds of optical logic functions are also implemented by adjusting an intensity of the reference input beams into the differential VCL-DOTs. To achieve the high sensitivity and low threshold current, a small active region of lasing part and a wide detecting area are simultaneously designed by using a selective oxidation process.. PMID:18958103

Choi, Woon-Kyung; Choi, Young-Wan

2008-10-27

146

The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters : Construction, Integration, Commissionning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps comprising electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The construction of the full calorimeter system is completed since mid-2004. After construction in the home institutes, the modules have been integrated into wheels, and inserted into their respective cryostats. Results of electrical and mechanical quality checks performed during module construction, integration into wheels, cold test of complete calorimeter systems before and after lowering into the ATLAS cavern are reported. Finally, some results obtained from the first commissionning data are presented.

Schwemling, Ph.

2007-10-01

147

Integrated ARROW waveguides for gas\\/liquid sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present integrated antiresonant reflecting optical (ARROW) structures with hollow cores as a new paradigm for optical sensing of gases and liquids. ARROW waveguides with micron-sized hollow cores allow for single-mode propagation in low-index non-solid core materials where conventional index guiding is impossible. We review design, fabrication and optical characterization of these devices for possible applications in chemical sensing, single

Holger Schmidt; Dongliang Yin; David W. Deamer; John P. Barber; Aaron R. Hawkins

2004-01-01

148

Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, we report all-silicon, integrated optofluidic microsystems (OFMs) fabricated by electrochemical micromachining (ECM) technology, in which high aspect-ratio (HAR) photonic crystal (PhC) devices (i.e. micromirrors, optical cavities) are integrated by one-etching-step, together with microfluidic reservoirs/channels, for the infiltration of liquids in the PhC air gaps, and with fiber grooves for alignment/positioning of readout optical fibers in front of the PhC, on the same silicon die. This has not previously been reported in the literature, and opens up new ground in, though not limited to, the optofluidics field, due to the low-cost and high-flexibility of the ECM technology that allows optofluidic microsystem fabrication to be performed in any lab. Optofluidic characterization of PhC-OFMs by both capillary-action and pressure-driven operations is carried out through the measurement of the reflectivity spectra of HAR-PhCs upon injection of liquids featuring different refractive index values in the HAR-PhC air gaps, by using readout optical fibers positioned in the on-chip fiber grooves. High sensitivity and good limit of detection of PhC-OFMs are obtained for both capillary-action and pressure-driven operations. A best sensitivity value of 670 nm/RIU and a worst-case limit of detection of the order of 10(-3) RIU are measured, the former being comparable to state-of-the-art integrated refractive index sensors and the latter being limited by constraints of the experimental setup. The proof of concept about the biosensing potential of PhC-OFMs is given by successfully carrying out a sandwich assay based on antigen-antibody interactions for the detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP) at a concentration value of 10 mg L(-1), which represents the boundary level between physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:22930245

Surdo, S; Merlo, S; Carpignano, F; Strambini, L M; Trono, C; Giannetti, A; Baldini, F; Barillaro, G

2012-11-01

149

Prototype testing and evaluation of a structurally integrated conformal antenna installation in the vertical tail of a military aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further proof-of-concept development for structurally integrating communication antennas in the vertical tail of a military aircraft at Northrop Grumman is presented. Bread board testing on a full scale dual tail aircraft mock-up of a structurally integrated multifunction tail tip antenna, in the VHF-FM, VHF-AM, and UHF-AM frequency regimes, has confirmed earlier simulation results, where it was suggested that smart skin

Allen J. Lockyer; Jayanth N. Kudva; Daniel P. Coughlin; Kevin H. Alt; Christopher A. Martin; Michael D. Durham; Allen C. Goetz

1997-01-01

150

Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of ?-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

151

Integrated ARROW waveguides for gas/liquid sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present integrated antiresonant reflecting optical (ARROW) structures with hollow cores as a new paradigm for optical sensing of gases and liquids. ARROW waveguides with micron-sized hollow cores allow for single-mode propagation in low-index non-solid core materials where conventional index guiding is impossible. We review design, fabrication and optical characterization of these devices for possible applications in chemical sensing, single molecule fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, flow cytometry, and pollution monitoring of picoliter to nanoliter volumes. We describe how to determine and control the waveguide loss and dispersion of the ARROW waveguides and design optimization for realistic structures that are compatible with the fabrication constraints. The technology to realize hollow-core waveguides using conventional silicon microfabrication and sacrificial core layers is discussed. We present the first demonstration of waveguiding in integrated ARROW waveguides with both hollow and liquid cores. Single-mode propagation with mode areas as small as 6mm2 and volumes down to 15 picoliters is observed and the loss characteristics of the waveguides are determined. The observation of fluorescence from dye molecules with concentrations of 10 nmol/l is described. Higher-level integration towards compact, planar, and massively parallel sensors on a chip is discussed.

Schmidt, Holger; Yin, Dongliang; Deamer, David W.; Barber, John P.; Hawkins, Aaron R.

2004-10-01

152

Investigating the Proportionality between Near Surface Rain Rate and Vertically Integrated Solid/Liqud Water Using TRMM Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation between near surface rain rate and vertically integrated water is investigated by using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) data. The results showed that such correlation is not uniformly distributed globally. Particularly, over land the larger correlation locates over central to South Africa and South America under stratiform clouds, and the smaller correlation appears over desert areas (e.g., Sahara) and high elevation mountainous regions (e.g., Tibetan Plateau, Andes, Rockies). In addition, over land the correlation between near surface rain rate and vertically integrated water are consistently smaller under convective clouds than that under stratiform. On the contrary, over ocean surface the correlation under convective clouds is much larger than that under stratiform except over warm rain areas (e.g., ocean surface off California). It is also demonstrated that the rain rate around freezing level height (or where it peaks) has the largest correlation with the vertically integrated water, due to the fact that the rain rate around freezing level height (or where it peaks) constitute a larger percentage of vertically integrated water, regardless of stratiform/convective and over ocean/land surface. In addition, it is found that land surface type, 2-meter air temperature and land elevation have significant skills in pinpointing where the near surface rain rate and vertically integrated water has poor correlation, so that the localized method should be applied when rain fall retrieval algorithms are performed. This finding suggests that such non-proportionality will pose great challenge to the near surface rain rate retrieval algorithm development by using passive microwave technique even if somehow we can perfectly characterize the surface contribution.

You, Y.; Liu, G.

2011-12-01

153

Vertically Aligned InP Nanowires Grown via the Self-Assisted Vapor--Liquid--Solid Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the growth of vertical InP nanowires via the self-assisted vapor--liquid--solid mode on an InP(111) substrate. Single nanowires exhibit a highly uniform diameter along the axial direction despite their 15 ?m length. We show direct evidence of the self-assisted growth mode by performing a compositional analysis of the NW tip. We demonstrated that the In particle at the NW tip could be removed by modifying the V/III source material ratio during growth. Single InP nanowires exhibit a distinct TO phonon peak and show the luminescence of the excitonic emission at 4 K.

Zhang, Guoqiang; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

2012-05-01

154

VISTA (Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications) user interface software study  

SciTech Connect

The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) project is an initiative to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective application of basic research results by end users. Developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, VISTA's purpose is to develop and deploy information systems (software or software/hardware products) to broad segments of various markets. Inherent in these products would be mechanisms for accessing PNL-resident information about the problem. A goal of VISTA is to incorporate existing, commercially available user interface technology into the VISTA UIMS. Commercial systems are generally more complete, reliable, and cost-effective than software developed in-house. The objective of this report is to examine the current state of commercial user interface software and discuss the implications of selections thereof. This report begins by describing the functionality of the user interface as it applies to users and application developers. Next, a reference model is presented defining the various operational software layers of a graphical user interface. The main body follows which examines current user interface technology by sampling a number of commercial systems. Both the window system and user interface toolkit markets are surveyed. A summary of the current technology concludes this report. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Chin, G.

1990-04-01

155

A Vertically Integrated CMOS Microsystem for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analysis.  

PubMed

We describe a two-chip micro-scale time-resolved fluorescence analyzer integrating excitation, detection, and filtering. A new 8×8 array of drivers realized in standard low-voltage 0.35-?m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor is bump-bonded to AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs). The array is capable of producing sample excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM), enabling short lifetime fluorophores to be investigated. The fluorescence emission is detected by a second, vertically-opposed 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35-?m high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry. Captured chip data are transferred to a PC for further processing, including histogramming, lifetime extraction, calibration and background/noise compensation. This constitutes the smallest reported solid-state microsystem for fluorescence decay analysis, replacing lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics, and discrete electronics. The system is demonstrated with measurements of fluorescent colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples. PMID:23853381

Rae, Bruce R; Jingbin Yang; McKendry, Jonathan; Zheng Gong; Renshaw, David; Girkin, John M; Erdan Gu; Dawson, Martin D; Henderson, R K

2010-12-01

156

Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. Objective To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal) managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of ‘exercised decision-space’ – traditionally used to measure local level managers’ exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority – classified as ‘low’, ‘medium’ or ‘high’ – over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use). We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical) was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience), and M&E knowledge. Results Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4), and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84). A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49). There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. Conclusions This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system planning and management under the leadership of horizontal managers.

Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon; Blaauw, Duane

2013-01-01

157

China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?  

PubMed

The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain. PMID:21539027

Huang, Philip C C

2011-01-01

158

Vertical membrane storage system and method of storing liquids using the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vertical membrane storage system including a flexible membrane housing having an upper enclosed portion capable of storing a fluid and a lower open portion for receiving the fluid is disclosed. The storage system also includes a flotation tube disposed above and connected to the upper enclosed portion, and an anchor having receiving means for receiving a fluid disposed concentrically therein, whereby the anchor is connected to and encloses the lower open portion of the flexible membrane. The vertical membrane storage system can be used for storing a variety of fluids including, but not limited to, overflow sewage, oil-contaminated water, and the like.

Johnstone; Duncan (McLean, VA)

2004-04-27

159

Light-control of liquid crystal alignment from vertical to planar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous or discontinuous transition from vertical to planar alignment was found in nematic cells, containing polyimide alignment layer exposed to linear polarized UV light, depending on whether the alignment layer was mechanically rubbed or not prior the illumination. The polyimide material is designed originally to promote vertical alignment when deposited onto the inner cell substrates' surface. The mechanism behind these observations is complicated. It includes inclination of the alkyl side chains of the polyimide alignment layer towards the rubbing direction and the bond breaking process due to UV illumination which are considered as the key factors for occurrence of such alignment transition.

Ata Alla, Rasha; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

2013-06-01

160

Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electrooptical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the effects of liquid crystal (LC) alignment characteristics on a SiOx thin films of various thicknesses deposited at an oblique angle of 45° by RF magnetic sputtering. A uniform LC alignment characteristic was achieved on the SiOx thin film, and the pretilt angle was about 90°. The thermal stability of the SiOx thin film was sustained until 200 °C. There was no difference in LC aligning capability owing to the thickness of SiOx thin film obliquely deposited at 45°. The vertical alignment liquid crystal display (VA-LCD) on the SiOx thin film deposited at the oblique angle of 45° by sputtering showed good electrooptical characteristics. These results suggest that a uniform homeotropic LC alignment can be achieved and a large VA-LCD can be produced by sputtering.

Choi, Sung-Ho; Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Kim, Sungyeon; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Myoung, Jae-Min; Seo, Dae-Shik

2006-12-01

161

Initiation conditions of liquid ascent of the countercurrent two-phase flow in vertical pipes (in the presence of two-phase mixture in the lower portion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on the countercurrent two-phase flow of air and water were conducted using vertical pipes of 10–26 mm in diameter to investigate the initiation conditions of liquid ascent. When a liquid film flowed down to a bubbling two-phase mixture in the lower portion of the pipe, liquid ascent began at much lower gas velocities than usual flooding velocities without the

Y. Koizumi; T. Ueda

1996-01-01

162

A numerical study of the effects of the vertical baffle on liquid sloshing in two-dimensional rectangular tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid sloshing in a moving partially filled rectangular tank with a vertical baffle is investigated. A numerical algorithm based on the volume of fluid (VOF) technique is used to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid sloshing. The numerical model solves the complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables by using of finite difference approximations with the moving coordinate system. The ratio of baffle height to the initial liquid depth has been changed in the range of 0?hB/h?1.2. The critical baffle height to reach the roof of the tank and the baffle height beyond the liquid does not get over the baffle anymore have been investigated. The vortex originated by the flow separation from the baffle tip became weaker with increasing the baffle height. In order to assess the accuracy of the method used, some results with baffle height are compared with the experimental results. Comparisons show good agreement for slosh loads in the cases investigated. The free surface elevation and the time variations of pressures have been also presented.

Akyildiz, Hakan

2012-01-01

163

Development of Molecular Beam Epitaxially Grown Hg1-x Cd x Te for High-Density Vertically-Integrated Photodiode-Based Focal Plane Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hg1-x Cd x Te samples of x ~ 0.3 (in the midwave infrared, or MWIR, spectral band) were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for fabrication into 30-?m-pitch, 256 × 256, front-side-illuminated, high-density vertically-integrated photodiode (HDVIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). These MBE Hg1-x Cd x Te samples were grown on CdZnTe(211) substrates prepared in this laboratory; they were ~10-?m thick and were doped with indium to ~5 × 1014 cm-3. Standard HDVIP process flow was employed for array fabrication. Excellent array performance data were obtained from these MWIR arrays with MBE HgCdTe material. The noise-equivalent differential flux (NE??) operability of the best array is 99.76%, comparable to the best array obtained from liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) material prepared in this laboratory.

Aqariden, F.; Dreiske, P. D.; Kinch, M. A.; Liao, P. K.; Murphy, T.; Schaake, H. F.; Shafer, T. A.; Shih, H. D.; Teherani, T. H.

2007-08-01

164

Low-temperature vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of vertically aligned silicon oxide nanowires using concurrent ion bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically aligned silicon oxide nanowires can be synthesized over a large area by a low-temperature, ion-enhanced, reactive vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) method. Synthesis of these randomly ordered arrays begins with a thin indium film deposited on a Si or SiO2 surface. At the processing temperature of 190 °C, the indium film becomes a self-organized seed layer of molten droplets, receiving atomic silicon from a DC magnetron sputtering source rather than from the gaseous precursors used in conventional VLS growth. Simultaneous vigorous ion bombardment aligns the objects vertically and expedites mixing of oxygen and silicon into the indium. Silicon oxide precipitates from each droplet in the form of multiple thin strands having diameters as small as 5 nm. These strands form a single loose bundle growing normal to the surface, eventually consolidating to form one nanowire. The vertical rate of growth can reach 300 nm min-1 in an environment containing argon, hydrogen, and traces of water vapour. This paper discusses the physical and chemical factors leading to the formation of the nanostructures. It also demonstrates how the shape of the resulting nanostructures can be further controlled by sputtering, during both VLS growth and post-VLS processing. Key technological advantages of the developed process are nanowire growth at low substrate temperatures and the ability to form aligned nanostructure arrays, without the use of lithography or templates, on any substrate onto which a thin silicon film can be deposited.

Bettge, Martin; MacLaren, Scott; Burdin, Steve; Wen, Jian-Guo; Abraham, Daniel; Petrov, Ivan; Sammann, Ernie

2009-03-01

165

Transformation of the integral integral F(r, r ', vertical bar(r)over-right-arrow-(r)over-right-arrow vertical bar) d(r)over-right-arrow d(r)over-right-arrow ' using Hylleraas coordinates in N-dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integral integral F(r, r', vertical bar r - r'vertical bar) dr dr' where r and r' are N-dimensional position vectors can be transformed into a simple three-dimensional integral using Hylleraas coordinates. A simple derivation of this result is presented.

Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chatterjee, A.

2006-09-01

166

[Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition].  

PubMed

Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system. PMID:21634169

Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin

2011-03-01

167

Wave-augmented mass transfer in a liquid film falling inside a vertical tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniformly distributed water films were formed inside vertical tubes, and partial disintegrations of hump-like surface waves (or large waves) into clusters of dimples were observed on the films at the Reynolds number Re?40 and larger, associated with marked deceleration of mass-transfer augmentation. In about 1 m or taller films with the uniform distribution, two empirical correlations between the Sherwood number

C. D. Park; T. Nosoko; S. Gima; S. T. Ro

2004-01-01

168

Novel vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with integrated optical beam router for massively parallel free-space interconnection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a novel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with monolithically integrated phase-shifters. Optical beams emitting at angles of 0° to 9.6° from the surface-normal direction have been achieved. Dynamic switching of the radiation angle has also been successfully demonstrated by turning on\\/off the phase-shifted region of the VCSEL. This novel device can reduce the complexity and size of switching nodes,

L. Fan; M. C. Wu; H. C. Lee; P. Grodzinski

1994-01-01

169

Integrated liquid jet waveguide for fluorescence spectroscopy on chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optofluidic jet waveguide for on chip fluorescence analysis is presented. The waveguide consists of an high speed water jet produced by means of a micro-channel coupled with a multimode optical fiber collecting the fluorescence opportunely excited. The liquid jet acts, at the same time, as the solution to analyse and as an optical waveguide. This configuration allows a strong reduction of the scattering and fluorescence of non analyte substances enabling a very low limit of detection (LOD). The integrated device is fabricated by PMMA micro-machining allowing a self-alignment between the liquid jet waveguide and the optical fiber used to deliver the fluorescence to the detector. The performance of the system has been tested on Cy5 water solutions and LOD of 2.56 nM has been obtained. A proof-of-concept of filter-free measurements has been performed demonstrating that fluorescence measurements can be performed also by using a photodiode with an LOD of 6.11 nM.

Persichetti, Gianluca; Testa, Genni; Bernini, Romeo

2013-03-01

170

Heat transfer to boiling liquids in a single vertical tube thermosiphon reboiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of heat transfer to boiling liquids has been carried out on a single tube natural circulation reboiler. Experiments were performed with distilled water, methanol, benzene, toluene, and ethylene glycol to cover a wide range of boiling points and thermophysical properties. The heat transfer section consisted of an electrically heated stainless steel tube 25.56 mm I.D. and 1900

S. S. Alam

1995-01-01

171

Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR (liquid metal reactor) nuclear reactor units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic isolation has been shown to be able to reduce transmitted seismic force and lower response accelerations of a structure. When applied to nuclear reactors, it will minimize seismic influence on the reactor design and provide a design which is less site dependent. In liquid metal reactors where components are virtually at atmospheric pressure but under severe thermal conditions, thin-walled

Ting-shu Wu; Y. W. Chang; R. W. Seidensticker

1988-01-01

172

Formation of curvature singularities on the interface between dielectric liquids in a strong vertical electric field.  

PubMed

The nonlinear dynamics of the interface between two deep dielectric fluids in the presence of a vertical electric field is studied. We consider the limit of a strong external electric field where electrostatic forces dominate over gravitational and capillary forces. The nonlinear integrodifferential equations for the interface motion are derived under the assumption of small interfacial slopes. It is shown in the framework of these equations that, in the generic case, the instability development leads to the formation of root singularities at the interface in a finite time. The interfacial curvature becomes infinite at singular points, while the slope angles remain relatively small. The curvature is negative in the vicinity of singularities if the ratio of the permittivities of the fluids exceeds the inverse ratio of their densities, and it is positive in the opposite case (we consider that the lower fluid is heavier than the upper one). In the intermediate case, the interface evolution equations describe the formation and sharpening of dimples at the interface. The results obtained are applicable for the description of the instability of the interface between two magnetic fluids in a vertical magnetic field. PMID:24032931

Kochurin, Evgeny A; Zubarev, Nikolay M; Zubareva, Olga V

2013-08-14

173

Formation of curvature singularities on the interface between dielectric liquids in a strong vertical electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear dynamics of the interface between two deep dielectric fluids in the presence of a vertical electric field is studied. We consider the limit of a strong external electric field where electrostatic forces dominate over gravitational and capillary forces. The nonlinear integrodifferential equations for the interface motion are derived under the assumption of small interfacial slopes. It is shown in the framework of these equations that, in the generic case, the instability development leads to the formation of root singularities at the interface in a finite time. The interfacial curvature becomes infinite at singular points, while the slope angles remain relatively small. The curvature is negative in the vicinity of singularities if the ratio of the permittivities of the fluids exceeds the inverse ratio of their densities, and it is positive in the opposite case (we consider that the lower fluid is heavier than the upper one). In the intermediate case, the interface evolution equations describe the formation and sharpening of dimples at the interface. The results obtained are applicable for the description of the instability of the interface between two magnetic fluids in a vertical magnetic field.

Kochurin, Evgeny A.; Zubarev, Nikolay M.; Zubareva, Olga V.

2013-08-01

174

HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

2010-10-01

175

The Effect of Dynamic Wetting on the Stability of a Gas-Liquid Interface Subjected to Vertical Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of an interface in a container partially filled with silicone oil and subjected to gravity and vertical oscillations has been examined theoretically and computationally. An exact theory for the onset of a parametric instability producing Faraday-like waves was developed for arbitrary liquid viscosity, stress-free walls, and deep two-dimensional or axisymmetric containers. Finite-element simulations for stress-free walls are in excellent agreement with the theory, which predicts instability in discrete frequency bands. These simpler calculations are a departure point for examining the more realistic problem, which involves no-slip at the walls and dynamic wetting modeled with a Blake condition. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Kraynik, Andrew M.; Romero, Louis; Torczynski, John R.; Brooks, Carlton F.; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Jepson, Richard A.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

2009-11-01

176

Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)  

SciTech Connect

Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

2011-04-13

177

Vertical photoionization of liquid-to-supercritical ammonia: thermal effects on the valence-to-conduction band gap.  

PubMed

We recently reported first femtosecond pump–probe experiments on the geminate recombination dynamics of solvated electrons in fluid ammonia (Urbanek et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 2223–2233). The electrons were generated through a vertical two-photon ionization at a total energy of 9.3 eV. Here, we present a full Monte Carlo analysis of the time-resolved data to determine the solvated electron’s thermalization distance from the ionization hole, NH(3)(+). The simulations are compared with the experiment over wide thermodynamic conditions to obtain insight into the dependence of the vertical ionization mechanism on the electronic properties of the solvent network. The simulations reveal that the average thermalization distance, , decreases strongly with both increasing temperature, T, and decreasing density, ?, from 3.2 nm in the cryogenic fluid down to roughly 0.5 nm in the dilute supercritical phase with almost gas-like densities. We combine our results with the current understanding of the T,?-dependence of the electronic structure of the liquid phase and discuss in detail the role of thermally induced energy level shifts for the valence-to-conduction band gap. The observed changes of the thermalization distance can be well attributed to a gradual decrease of the excess energy initially imparted on the ejected electron as gas-like conditions are progressively approached. PMID:23815751

Urbanek, Janus; Vöhringer, Peter

2013-07-12

178

Introduction of vertical integration and case-based learning in anatomy for undergraduate physical therapy and occupational therapy students.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate the benefits of innovative teaching methodologies introduced to final year occupational and physical therapy students in Christian Medical College in India. Students' satisfactions along the long-term retention of knowledge and clinical application of the respiratory anatomy have been assessed. The final year undergraduate physical therapy and occupational therapy students had respiratory anatomy teaching over two sessions. The teaching involved case-based learning and integrated anatomy lectures (vertical integration) with the Anatomy department. Pretest and immediate and follow-up post-tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the innovative methods. A feedback questionnaire was marked to grade case-based learning. The method of integrated and case-based teaching was appreciated and found to be useful in imparting knowledge to the students. Students retained the gained knowledge adequately and the same was inferred by statistically significant improvement in both post-test scores. Vertical integration of anatomy in the final year reinforces their existing knowledge of anatomy. Case-based learning may facilitate the development of effective and clinically sound therapists. PMID:21560253

Parmar, Suresh K; Rathinam, Bertha A D

2011-05-10

179

Pool boiling heat transfer from vertical heater array in liquid nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The heat transfer from an array of discrete sources is expected to differ from the behavior of a single heat source due to the interaction between the flow induced by individual heat sources. This study details the results from experiments conducted to study the pool boiling heat transfer characteristics from a vertical heater array with flush-mounted heat sources. The lower heaters were found to enhance the heat transfer from upper heaters. The bubble pumped convection due to the lower heaters enhanced the preboiling heat transfer coefficient at the upper heater by as much as 700%. The critical heat flux from the upper heaters was also enhanced up to 15%. Correlations are presented for both these effects. 21 refs.

Chui, C.J.; Sehmbey, M.S.; Chow, L.C.; Hahn, O.J. [Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-04-01

180

Thermo-optical coefficient determination of index liquids used for optimization of optical integrated components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization procedure for designing silica integrated components (specially in the telecommunication infrared spectrum, around wavelength 1550 nm) uses specific index liquids as a core top layer. These liquids consist of transparent silicone oils which present a very low vapor pressure. In this paper we present an accurate method to measure the thermo-optical coefficient of these liquids. We determine that, for liquid based silicone, this coefficient is -4.5×10-4K-1. By the way, this technique also enable us to know the behavior of integrated directional coupler as thermo-optical switch. These experiments are useful to design such kind of integrated components.

Bosc, D.

2001-07-01

181

Performance Improvement of Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Separators Using Integrated Level and Pressure Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone (GLCC ©1 ) separators for two-phase flow metering loop can be improved by eliminating liquid overflow into the gas leg or gas blow-out through the liquid leg, utilizing suitable integrated control systems. In this study, a new integrated control system has been developed for the GLCC, in which the control is achieved by a

Shoubo Wang; Ram S. Mohan; Ovadia Shoham; Jack D. Marrelli; Gene E. Kouba

2000-01-01

182

STOVL (Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing) Aircraft Simulation for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies...

J. R. Mihaloew C. K. Drummond

1989-01-01

183

Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries where products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In the absence of quality regulation the producer in the large country produces a higher quality than the producer in the small country. Moreover, the quality levels between the two producers converge in case

Jørgen Drud Hansen; Jørgen Ulff-Møller Nielsen

2006-01-01

184

Filter-less vertical integrated RGB color sensor for light monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BiCMOS RGB color sensor for ambient light monitoring is presented. It can be used in applications like white balancing, color measurement and TFT monitor backlight control. The effect of different penetration depths in silicon for different wavelengths is used to determine the color of the incident light. The sensor is formed by three vertically stacked photodiodes - a shallow

A. Polzer; W. Gaberl; H. Zimmermann

2011-01-01

185

Helical Capacitance Sensor-Based Gas Fraction Measurement of Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Tube With Small Diameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A helical capacitance sensor for gas fraction in- cluding void fraction and volumetric void fraction measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical tube of 5 mm in diameter is presented in this paper. The structure of the helical capacitance sensor is optimized using a finite element method to achieve a homogeneous sensitivity field distribution. A calibration device using the

Jiamin Ye; Lihui Peng; Weirong Wang; Wenxing Zhou

2011-01-01

186

Vertical Integration of Three-Phase Flow Equations for Analysis of Light Hydrocarbon Plume Movement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Groundwater contaminatioon due to surface spills or subsurface leakage of hydrocarbon fuels, organic solvents, and other immiscible organic liquids is a widespread problem. Numerical models for phase-separated hydrocarbon migration in the vadose zone and ...

J. C. Parker R. J. Lenhard

1989-01-01

187

The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with

Martin Aleksa

2006-01-01

188

Optical AND/OR gates based on monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure.  

PubMed

Latching optical switches and optical logic gates with AND and OR functionality are demonstrated for the first time by the monolithic integration of a vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor structure. The thyristors have a low threshold current of 0.65 mA and a high on/off contrast ratio of more than 50 dB. By simply changing a reference switching voltage, this single device operates as two logic functions, optical logic AND and OR. The thyristor laser fabricated by using the oxidation process and has achieved high optical output power efficiency and a high sensitivity to the optical input light. PMID:19529606

Choi, Woon-Kyung; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Do-Gyun; Choi, Young-Wan; Choquette, Kent D; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok-Ha

2006-11-27

189

Terascale integration via a redesign of the crossbar based on a vertical arrangement of poly-Si nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The race of integrated-circuit technology towards high bit density has already brought transistor densities of the order of 109 cm-2, while keeping conventional circuit layouts. Crossbar structures are widely believed to meet the requirements of high bit density along with sustainable interconnection complexity avoiding the dramatic cost increase of the manufacturing facilities required by advanced lithography. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of producing poly-Si nanowires preserving bulk electrical properties that are nonetheless so dense as to allow cross-point density in excess of 1011 cm-2. This result could be achieved by organizing silicon nanowires in nearly vertical arrays.

Cerofolini, G. F.; Ferri, M.; Romano, E.; Suriano, F.; Veronese, G. P.; Solmi, S.; Narducci, D.

2010-09-01

190

Vertical Signal Transmission in Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits by Capacitive Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, methods for direct vertical transmission of digital signals between adjacent chiplayers in three-dimensional circuit structures are presented. Alternative circuit schemes are investigated and compared to state-of-the-art structures with respect to signal delay and power dissipation. Improvements of over 30% in terms of speed and up to an order of magnitude in terms of dynamic power dissipation are

Stefan A. Kühn; Michael B. Kleiner; Roland Thewes; Werner Webedl

1995-01-01

191

Planarization techniques for vertically integrated metallic MEMS on silicon foundry circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various micromachining techniques exist to realize integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which include sensors, signal processing and\\/or driving circuits, and\\/or actuators in one small die. Post-processing techniques performed on foundry-fabricated circuits (e.g., MOSIS) are attractive since such an approach eliminates the need for an in-house integrated circuit fabrication line to produce integrated MEMS. A method based on the combination of metallic

J-B Leey; Joseph Mayo

1997-01-01

192

Design and characterization of an integrated CMOS gate driver for vertical power MOSFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the trends in energy management are performance enhancement and increase in system reliability for the reduction of energy consumption. In this context, the integration of the gate driver within power transistors is particularly appropriate. This integration offers multiple advantages, from electrical and EMI performance improvement to power module size reduction, and reliability and functionality increase. This article presents a

SIMONOT Timothé; ROUGER Nicolas; CREBIER Jean-Christophe

2010-01-01

193

Experimental natural convection on vertical surfaces for building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study on natural convection in an open channel is carried out in order to investigate the effect of the geometrical configuration of heat sources on the heat transfer behaviour. To this aim, a series of vertical heaters are cooled by natural convection of air flowing between two parallel walls. The objective of the work is to investigate the physical mechanisms which influence the thermal behaviour of a double-skin photovoltaic (PV) facade. This results in a better understanding of the related phenomena and infers useful engineering information for controlling the energy transfers from the environment to the PV surfaces and from the PV surfaces to the building. Furthermore increasing the heat transfer rate from the PV surfaces increases the conversion efficiency of the PV modules since they operate better as their temperature is lower. The test section consists in a double vertical wall, 2 m high, and each wall is constituted by 10 different heating modules 0.2 m high. The heater arrangement simulates, at a reduced scale, the presence of a series of vertical PV modules. The heat flux at the wall ranges from 75 to 200 W/m{sup 2}. In this study, the heated section is 1.6 m in height, preceded by an adiabatic of 0.4 m in height. Different heating configurations are analyzed, including the uniform heating mode and two different configurations of non uniform, alternate heating. The experimental procedure allows the wall surface temperature, local heat transfer coefficient and local and average Nusselt numbers to be inferred. The experimental evidences show that the proper selection of the separating distance and heating configuration can noticeably decrease the surface temperatures and hence enhance the conversion efficiency of PV modules. (author)

Fossa, M. [Diptem, Universita di Genova, Via Opera Pia 15a, 16145 Genova (Italy); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL UMR 5008, CNRS-INSA Lyon - Universite Lyon 1), Bat. Sadi Carnot, INSA de Lyon, 20 av. A. Einstein, 69 621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Leonardi, E. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

2008-02-15

194

Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, work is described on the fabrication of highly uniform 8×8 arrays of GaAs-AlGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's). Oxide-confined VCSEL arrays show an average threshold current of 0.74±0.02 mA, an average output power of 2.05±0.03 mW at 8 mA and an average power conversion efficiency of 14.3%. Their wavelength is measured to be 967±0.35 nm over the array.

S. Eitel; S. J. Fancey; H.-P. Gauggel; K.-H. Gulden; W. Bachtold; M. R. Taghizadeh

2000-01-01

195

The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry, was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end-cap (EMEQ geometry. The hadronic end-cap calorimeter (HEC) relies on a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat

B. Laforge

2006-01-01

196

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

197

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22

198

A highly integrated nanoliter dispensing system for fast liquid handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The final aim of the presented work is to speed up the liquid handling process in high-throughput screening (HTS) by providing a new method for parallel and contact-free dispensing. Therefore a dosage system called Dispensing Well Plate (DWP) has been developed. This device is able to dispense up to 1536 different liquids in the range of 10 to 200

R. Steger; B. Bohl; C. Moosmann; G. Birkle; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

199

Evolution of the liquid metal reactor; The integral fast reactor (IFR) concept  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the integral fat reactor (IFR) concept. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel, the original choice in liquid metal reactor development. An IFR development program is detailed by the authors.

Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1989-01-01

200

Time-resolved liquid crystal voltage contrast: a new method for testing of digital integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new method for temporal resolved voltage contrast measurements of integrated circuits (IC) with nematic liquid crystals. It is shown that the rms-behaviour of the liquid crystal can be exploited to perform sampled voltage contrast measurements with high temporal resolution. The determination of suitable measurement parameters is treated in detail and discussed by examples. The temporal

M. Wieberneit; R. Lackmann

1996-01-01

201

THE IMPACT OF DEFENCE INTEGRATORS AND STANDARDS ON VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL INNOVATION IN THE DEFENCE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the extent and character of product innovation in defence technologies where there are strong network effects, but where there is not a generally accepted system of open standards. Specifically, we examine the implications for innovation from the development of network?centric defence agencies accompanied by the creation of system integrators in the defence industry. The results show that

Vasilis Zervos; G. M. Peter Swann

2009-01-01

202

Implementing Vertical and Horizontal Engineering Students' Integration and Assessment of Consequence Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to…

Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

2012-01-01

203

Engaged Learning across the Curriculum: The Vertical Integration of Food for Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses a relatively new and decidedly healthy educational movement emerging across the United States, from grade schools to high schools, from community colleges to graduate programs at the nation's most prestigious universities. The movement goes by the name of "engaged learning." The authors describe two experiments to integrate

Duster, Troy; Waters, Alice

2006-01-01

204

Vertical alignment of liquid crystal through ion beam exposure on oxygen-doped SiC films deposited at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the vertical alignment of liquid crystal (LC) through the ion beam exposure on amorphous oxygen-doped SiC (SiOC) film surfaces deposited at room temperature. The optical transmittance of these films was similar to that of polyimide layers, but much higher than that of SiO{sub x} films. The light leakage of a LC cell aligned vertically on SiOC films was much lower than those of a LC cell aligned on polyimide layers or other inorganic films. They found that LC molecules align vertically on ion beam treated SiOC film when the roughness of the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) data is high on the SiOC film surface, while they align homogeneously when the roughness of the EFM data is low.

Son, Phil Kook; Park, Jeung Hun; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Rho, Soon Joon; Jeon, Back Kyun; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jang Sub; Lim, Soon Kwon [School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); LC/OLED Research Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Process Development Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-09-03

205

A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal mode to obtain a higher transmittance and lower driving voltage.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) mode for solving low transmittance and high driving voltage problems in conventional in-plane-switching (IPS) PS-BPLC modes. By controlling the ray directions of incident beams by means of two prism sheets attached to the top and bottom substrates, continuous grayscale properties can be achieved with a vertical field, where the transmittance of the proposed structure can be increased to become twice as high as that of a IPS PS-BPLC cell, and its driving voltage can also be lowered by about 20 V. With the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC mode, the hysteresis problem of the IPS PS-BPLC mode can also be solved due to a reduction of the electric field required to achieve sufficient field-induced retardation. PMID:21935109

Kim, Yong-Hun; Hur, Sung-Taek; Park, Chang-Sub; Park, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Suk-Won; Kang, Shin-Won; Kim, Hak-Rin

2011-08-29

206

A 3D Vertically Integrated Deep N-Well CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Layer0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep N-Well (DNW) Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. In these devices the triple well option, available in deep submicron processes, is exploited to implement analog and digital signal processing at the pixel level. Many prototypes have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130nm CMOS technology. A new kind of DNW-MAPS, namely Apsel5_3D, which exploits the capabilities of vertical integration (3D) processes, is presented and discussed in this paper. The impact of 3D processes on the design and performance of DNW pixel sensors could be large, with significant advantages in terms of detection efficiency, pixel cell size and immunity to cross-talk, therefore complying with the severe constraints set by future HEP experiments.

Traversi, G.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.

2011-01-01

207

Cavity-resonator-integrated grating input/output coupler for high-efficiency vertical coupling with a small aperture.  

PubMed

A cavity-resonator-integrated grating input/output coupler (CRIGIC) is designed to operate at about 850 nm wavelength for high-efficiency vertical coupling of a guided wave and a free-space wave with a small aperture. The CRIGIC consists of a grating coupler and a waveguide cavity resonator constructed by two distributed Bragg reflectors. A coupling efficiency of 96% with a 3 dB bandwidth of 1.2 nm is predicted by a theoretical calculation. An output coupling efficiency of about 60% is experimentally demonstrated on a 20 microm aperture device, fabricated in a thin-film SiO(2)-based waveguide on a substrate with an Au reflection layer, for what we believe to be the first time. PMID:20548362

Kintaka, Kenji; Kita, Yuki; Shimizu, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Ura, Shogo; Nishii, Junji

2010-06-15

208

Fabrication of pseudo-pi vertical alignment mode liquid crystal devices with ultra-violet polymerisation and investigations of their electro-optical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we applied the non-contact photo-polymerisation method in fabricating pseudo-polyimide (PI) liquid crystal (LC) devices with vertical alignment copolymer films, in the hope of solving the problems associated with traditional rubbing alignment processes. We mixed different photo-polymerisation-type acrylic monomers and negative dielectric anisotropy LC at proper weight percentages, and induced phase separation behaviour between the photo-polymerisation-type acrylic monomers

Czung-Yu Ho; Jiunn-Yih Lee

2010-01-01

209

Positive and negative Coulomb drag in vertically integrated one-dimensional quantum wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron interactions in and between wires become increasingly complex and important as circuits are scaled to nanometre sizes, or use reduced-dimensional conductors such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires and gated high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems. This is because the screening of the long-range Coulomb potential of individual carriers is weakened in these systems, which can lead to phenomena such as Coulomb drag, where a current in one wire induces a voltage in a second wire through Coulomb interactions alone. Previous experiments have demonstrated Coulomb electron drag in wires separated by a soft electrostatic barrier of width >~80 nm (ref. 12), which was interpreted as resulting entirely from momentum transfer. Here, we measure both positive and negative drag between adjacent vertical quantum wires that are separated by ~15 nm and have independent contacts, which allows their electron densities to be tuned independently. We map out the drag signal versus the number of electron sub-bands occupied in each wire, and interpret the results both in terms of momentum-transfer and charge-fluctuation induced transport models. For wires of significantly different sub-band occupancies, the positive drag effect can be as large as 25%.

Laroche, D.; Gervais, G.; Lilly, M. P.; Reno, J. L.

2011-12-01

210

A thermally-aware performance analysis of vertically integrated (3-D) processor-memory hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits have emerged as promising candidates to overcome the interconnect bottlenecks of nanometer scale designs. While they offer several other advantages, it is expected that the benefits from this technology can potentially be off-set by thermal considerations which impact chip performance and reliability. The work presented in this paper is the first attempt to study the performance

Gian Luca Loi; Banit Agrawal; Navin Srivastava; Sheng-chih Lin; Timothy Sherwood; Kaustav Banerjee

2006-01-01

211

Liquid tunable lens integrated with a rotational symmetric surface for long depth of focus.  

PubMed

A liquid tunable lens with an extended depth of focus (DOF) is proposed. By integrating a phase plate with rotational symmetric quartic function (QF) contour into the liquid lens cavity, the lens can achieve higher tolerance to the defocus aberration. The liquid lens was fabricated with a convenient and low-cost process that combined single-point diamond turning (SPDT) with soft lithography using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Experimental results demonstrate that both focal length tunability and extended DOF can be achieved with the proposed liquid lens. PMID:20885488

Kang, Jingran; Yu, Hongbin; Chen, Haiqing

2010-10-01

212

A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2008-12-01

213

Application of integral equation theory to polyolefin liquids and blends  

SciTech Connect

The ability to model the packing of polymers in melts and blends is important in many polymer applications. One significant application is the development of new polymer blends. It would be exceedingly helpful to the materials chemist if molecular modeling could be employed to predict the thermodynamics and phase behavior of hypothetical polymer alloys before embarking on a time consuming and expensive synthesis program. The well known Flory-Huggins theory has been remarkably successful in describing many aspects of polymer mixing from a qualitative point of view. This theory is known, however, to suffer from several deficiencies which can be traceable to the fact that: (1) it is a lattice model requiring both monomer components to have the same volume; and (2) a mean field or random mixing approximation is made which effectively ignores chain connectivity. Because of these limitations the Flory-Huggins theory does not include packing effects and cannot be used to make quantitative molecular engineering calculations. Recently Curro and Schweizer developed a new approach for treating polymer liquids and mixtures which the authors call PRISM theory. This is an extension to polymers of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM Theory) developed by Chandler and Andersen to describe the statistical mechanics of small molecule liquids. The PRISM theory is a continuous space description of a polymer liquid, which includes chain connectivity and nonrandom mixing effects in a computationally tractable manner. The primary output from PRISM calculations is the average structure or packing of the amorphous liquid given by the radial distribution function denoted as g(r). This radial distribution function is employed to deduce thermodynamic or structural properties of interest. Here, the authors describe the theoretical approach and demonstrate its application to polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, and polyisobutylene liquids and blends.

Curro, J.G.; Weinhold, J.D.

1997-11-01

214

CMOS chip planarization by chemical mechanical polishing for a vertically stacked metal MEMS integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the planarization process of a CMOS chip for the integration of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metal mirror array. The CMOS chip, which comes from a commercial foundry, has a bumpy passivation layer due to an underlying aluminum interconnect pattern (1.8 µm high), which is used for addressing individual micromirror array elements. To overcome the tendency for tilt error in the CMOS chip planarization, the approach is to sputter a thick layer of silicon nitride at low temperature and to surround the CMOS chip with dummy silicon pieces that define a polishing plane. The dummy pieces are first lapped down to the height of the CMOS chip, and then all pieces are polished. This process produced a chip surface with a root-mean-square flatness error of less than 100 nm, including tilt and curvature errors.

Lee, Hocheol; Miller, Michele H.; Bifano, Thomas G.

2004-01-01

215

A Darcian integral approximation to interblock hydraulic conductivity means in vertical infiltration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has demonstrated that using non-Darcian interblock conductivity means in mass-conservative models of unsaturated infiltration can produce mass infiltration errors up to 20 times larger than those that mass conservation corrected. But the method to generate true Darcian means from solutions to elliptic boundary value problems is too computationally intensive to be used effectively in models, especially with variable porous media. A previously introduced piecewise approximation did not estimate Darcian means well near saturation for relations, such as a van-Genuchten form, which curves strongly near saturation. This paper introduces a generally more accurate approximation to Darcian means, the Darcian Integral Mean, using the examples of matrix and fracture flow conductivity relations for Topopah Spring welded volcanic tuff (Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA). It compares the new approximation to the geometric and arithmetic means for matrix and fracture flow, respectively. Although the new approximation may have significant computational overhead of its own, compared to standard means, as well as imperfections, it offers to other investigators a reasonable tool to examine the properties of Darcian means in running models.

Baker, Donald L.

2000-06-01

216

Vertical Integration of Pharmacogenetics in Population PK/PD Modeling: A Novel Information Theoretic Method  

PubMed Central

To critically evaluate an information-theoretic method for identifying gene–environmental interactions (GEI) associated with pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and clinical outcomes from genome-wide pharmacogenetic data. Our approach, which is built on the K-way interaction information (KWII) metric, was challenged with simulated data and clinical PK/PD data sets from the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) and a gemcitabine clinical trial. The KWII efficiently identified both novel and known interactions for warfarin and gemcitabine. Interactions between herbal supplementation and VKORC1 genotype were associated with warfarin response. For gemcitabine-associated neutropenia, combination treatment with carboplatin and cytidine deaminase (CDA) 208G?A genotypes were identified as risk factors. Gemcitabine disposition was associated with drug metabolism–transporter interactions between deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) and the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT). This novel approach is effective for detecting GEI involved in drug exposure and response and could enable integration of genome-wide pharmacogenetic data into the population PK/PD analysis paradigm.

Knights, J; Chanda, P; Sato, Y; Kaniwa, N; Saito, Y; Ueno, H; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M

2013-01-01

217

Fabrication techniques for multiscale 3D-MEMS with vertical metal micro- and nanowire integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents different low-temperature and high-throughput LIGA-like processes for the batch fabrication of metal micro systems that use long nano- or microwires perpendicularly rising from a substrate. First, circuit paths and seed layers are fabricated applying standard UV lithography and PVD. Second, three lithography techniques are used, namely ion track lithography, enhanced UV lithography and aligned x-ray lithography, to structure 20-400 µm thick polymer films. Ion track lithography is only used to fabricate extremely high aspect ratio cylindrical pores with 0.1-1 µm diameter and 20-100 µm length. The aligned UV and x-ray lithographies are employed to structure templates for various micro system components. Third, these polymer templates are filled using low-temperature electroplating processes transferring the polymer openings into metal structures. Finally, the polymer is dry etched to release all metal structures. These structures are applicable in future accelerometers and gas flow sensors. Using five configurations to define five different functional structures, we demonstrate fabrication processes applying the three different types of lithography. The main aspects concern the combination of both standard lithography techniques and especially developed lithography techniques. Furthermore, these aspects comprise the use of structures created by lithography for high aspect ratio polymer templates and multilayer electroplating with varying aspect ratios. The growth in place of nanowire arrays and micropillars along with surrounding structures is the key feature for low-temperature large-scale micro-nano integration technology without harmful transfer technologies.

Greiner, F.; Quednau, S.; Dassinger, F.; Sarwar, R.; Schlaak, H. F.; Guttmann, M.; Meyer, P.

2013-02-01

218

Integrated RF probe for in vivo multinuclear spectroscopy and functional imaging of rat brain using an 11.7 Tesla 89 mm bore vertical microimager  

Microsoft Academic Search

To acquire high quality in vivo NMR data from rat brain using a vertical 89-mm bore magnet, specially designed NMR probes with integrated RF coils and animal handling capability are required. An RF probe design that is also capable of rat head fixation, body support and suitable for physiology monitoring and maintenance was constructed for an 89 mm bore, 11.7

S. Li; J. Shen

2005-01-01

219

Integration of polymer and metal microstructures using liquid-phase photopolymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate, using a fabrication technique, liquid-phase photopolymerization (LP3) for the relatively fast and low-cost integration of thick polymers and electroformed metal microstructures to develop a range of microfluidic components and systems. Liquid-phase UV-photosensitive polymers, similar to negative-tone photoresists, are used to create both polymer microstructures and molds to define electroformed metal (here, nickel—Ni) microstructures. This fabrication

Abhishek K Agarwal; David J Beebe; Hongrui Jiang

2006-01-01

220

Integration of polymer and metal microstructures using liquid-phase photopolymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate, using a fabrication technique, liquid-phase photopolymerization (LP3) for the relatively fast and low-cost integration of thick polymers and electroformed metal microstructures to develop a range of microfluidic components and systems. Liquid-phase UV-photosensitive polymers, similar to negative-tone photoresists, are used to create both polymer microstructures and molds to define electroformed metal (here, nickel---Ni) microstructures. This fabrication

Abhishek K. Agarwal; David J. Beebe; Hongrui Jiang

2006-01-01

221

Studies of neutron-? pulse shape discrimination in EJ-309 liquid scintillator using charge integration method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse shape discrimination capability based on the charge integration has been investigated for liquid scintillator EJ-309. The effectiveness of neutron-? discrimination in 4-in. diameter and 3-in. thick EJ-309 cells coupled with 3-in. photomultiplier tubes has been carefully studied in the laboratory environment and compared to the commonly used EJ-301 liquid scintillator formulation. Influences of distortions in pulse shape caused by 13.7-m long cables necessary for some remote operations have been examined. The parameter space for an effective neutron-? discrimination for these assays, such as position and width of a gate used for integration of the delayed light, has been explored.

Pawe?czak, I. A.; Ouedraogo, S. A.; Glenn, A. M.; Wurtz, R. E.; Nakae, L. F.

2013-05-01

222

Monomer, clusters, liquid: an integrated spectroscopic study of methanol condensation.  

PubMed

We have combined static pressure, spectroscopic temperature, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements to develop a detailed picture of methanol condensing from a dilute vapor-carrier gas mixture under the highly supersaturated conditions present in a supersonic nozzle. In our experiments, methanol condensation can be divided into three stages as the gas mixture expands in the nozzle. In the first stage, as the temperature decreases rapidly, small methanol n-mers (clusters) form, increase in concentration, and evolve in size. In the second stage, the temperature decreases more slowly, and the n-mer concentrations continue to rise. Thermodynamic and FTIR experiments cannot, however, definitively establish if the average cluster size is constant or if it continues to increase. Finally, when the vapor becomes supersaturated enough, liquid droplets form via nucleation and growth, consuming more monomer and reducing the concentration of clusters. At the point where liquid first appears, cluster formation has already consumed up to 30% of the monomer. This is significantly more than is predicted by a model that describes the vapor phase as an equilibrium mixture of methanol monomer, dimer, and tetramer. An energy balance suggests that a significant fraction of the cluster population is larger than the tetramer, while preliminary SAXS measurements suggest that these clusters contain, on average, 6 monomers. PMID:21331433

Laksmono, Hartawan; Tanimura, Shinobu; Allen, Heather C; Wilemski, Gerald; Zahniser, Mark S; Shorter, Joanne H; Nelson, David D; McManus, J Barry; Wyslouzil, Barbara E

2011-02-18

223

Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides.  

PubMed

We report a vertical p-i-n thin-film germanium photodetector integrated on 3microm thick large core silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. The device demonstrates very high external responsivity due to the low fiber coupling loss to the large core waveguides. The germanium width and thickness are carefully designed to achieve high responsivity yet retain high-speed performance. Even with fiber coupling loss included, the device has demonstrated greater than 0.7A/W external responsivity at 1550nm for TM polarization and 0.5A/W for TE polarization. A low dark current of 0.2microA at -0.5V bias is reported. 3dB bandwidths of 12GHz and 8.3GHz at -2.5V bias are also reported for 100microm and 200microm long devices, respectively. The device can cover the communication wavelength spectrum up to 1620nm with a relatively flat responsivity of >0.5A/W. Further studies suggest that with a modified design the device is capable of achieving 1A/W external responsivity for both TE and TM polarizations and greater than 30GHz bandwidth. PMID:20173827

Feng, Ning-Ning; Dong, Po; Zheng, Dawei; Liao, Shirong; Liang, Hong; Shafiiha, Roshanak; Feng, Dazeng; Li, Guoliang; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V; Asghari, Mehdi

2010-01-01

224

Vertically integrated deep N-well CMOS MAPS with sparsification and time stamping capabilities for thin charged particle trackers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fine pitch, deep N-well CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW CMOS MAPS) with sparsified readout architecture and time stamping capabilities has been designed in a vertical integration (3D) technology. In this process, two 130 nm CMOS wafers are face-to-face bonded by means of thermo-compression techniques ensuring both the mechanical stability of the structure and the electrical interconnection between circuits belonging to different layers. This 3D design represents the evolution of a DNW monolithic sensor already fabricated in a planar 130 nm CMOS technology in view of applications to the vertex detector of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper is devoted to discussing the main design features and expected performance of the 3D DNW MAPS. Besides describing the front-end circuits and the general architecture of the detector, the work also provides some results from calculations and Monte Carlo device simulations comparing the old 2D solution with the new 3D one and illustrating the attainable detection efficiency improvements.

Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

2010-12-01

225

Passive fluidic chip composed of integrated vertical capillary tubes developed for on-site SPR immunoassay analysis targeting real samples.  

PubMed

We have successfully developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement system for the on-site immunoassay of real samples. The system is composed of a portable SPR instrument (290 mm(W) × 160 mm(D) × 120 mm(H)) and a microfluidic immunoassay chip (16 mm(W) × 16 mm(D) × 4 mm(H)) that needs no external pump system. An integrated vertical capillary tube functions as a large volume (150 ?L) passive pump and a waste reservoir that has sufficient capacity for several refill operations. An immunoassay was carried out that employed the direct injection of a buffer and a test sample in sequence into a microfluidic chip that included 9 antibody bands and 10 reference reagent bands immobilized in the flow channel. By subtracting a reliable averaged reference sensorgram from the antibody, we effectively reduced the influence of the non-specific binding, and then our chip successfully detected the specific binding of spiked IgG in non-homogeneous milk. IgG is a model antigen that is certain not to be present in non-homogeneous milk, and non-homogeneous milk is a model of real sample that includes many interfering foreign substances that induce non-specific binding. The direct injection of a real sample with no pretreatment enabled us to complete the entire immunoassay in several minutes. This ease of operation and short measuring time are acceptable for on-site agricultural, environmental and medical testing. PMID:22969339

Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Miura, Toru; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Haga, Tsuneyuki; Tamechika, Emi

2012-05-29

226

Comparison of integral equations for correlations in liquid metallic hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dharma-Wardana and Perrot (DWP, 1982) calculated the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of hydrogen plasma by using an integral equation derived from the density-functional formalism with the local density approximation. The contribution from the electron-proton correlation was neglected in the effective electron-proton and proton-proton interactions, and the exchange-correlation effect of the electrons in the presence of ions was approximated by that

Junzo Chihara

1986-01-01

227

Microfluidic integration of parallel solid-phase liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

We report the development of a fully integrated microfluidic chromatography system based on a recently developed column geometry that allows for robust packing of high-performance separation columns in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices having integrated valves made by multilayer soft lithography (MSL). The combination of parallel high-performance separation columns and on-chip plumbing was used to achieve a fully integrated system for on-chip chromatography, including all steps of automated sample loading, programmable gradient generation, separation, fluorescent detection, and sample recovery. We demonstrate this system in the separation of fluorescently labeled DNA and parallel purification of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplified variable regions of mouse immunoglobulin genes using a strong anion exchange (AEX) resin. Parallel sample recovery in an immiscible oil stream offers the advantage of low sample dilution and high recovery rates. The ability to perform nucleic acid size selection and recovery on subnanogram samples of DNA holds promise for on-chip genomics applications including sequencing library preparation, cloning, and sample fractionation for diagnostics. PMID:23384109

Huft, Jens; Haynes, Charles A; Hansen, Carl L

2013-02-22

228

An investigation of heat exchange of liquid metal during flow in a vertical tube with non-uniform heating in the transverse magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental investigations of heat exchange during the downflow of liquid metal in a vertical tube with non-uniform heating in the transverse magnetic field are presented. The experiment was more realistic in terms of conditions of the blanket of a fusion reactor of the tokamak type. Profiles of the average temperature, distribution of local and mean heat transfer coefficients (Nusselt numbers), and the intensities and spectra of temperature pulsations have been measured. On certain combinations of operating parameters in the strong magnetic field low-frequency temperature pulsations with abnormal intensity were found.

Mel'nikov, I. A.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sviridov, E. V.; Shestakov, A. A.

2013-05-01

229

Vertically Integrated Unidirectional Biristor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unidirectional read-out characteristics of a two-terminal biristor are investigated through numerical simu- lations and experiments. The base doping profile in the biristor, which is analogous to an open-base bipolar junction transistor (BJT), is a key parameter to control both the multiplication factor and the common-emitter gain of the open-base BJT. The simu- lated results indicate that the asymmetric base

Dong-Il Moon; Sung-Jin Choi; Sungho Kim; Jae-Sub Oh; Young-Su Kim; Yang-Kyu Choi

2011-01-01

230

Heat and mass transfer for liquid film evaporation along a vertical plate covered with a thin porous layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the heat and mass enhancement of liquid film evaporation by covering a porous layer on the plate. Liquid and gas streams are approached by two coupled laminar boundary layers incorporated with non-Darcian modes. The numerical solution is obtained by utilizing a fully implicit finite difference method and examined in detail for the

Jin-Sheng Leu; Jiin-Yuh Jang; Yin Chou

2006-01-01

231

Heat transfer enhancement through liquid film evaporation into countercurrent moist air flow in a vertical plate channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the heat removal process from hot channel plate through liquid film evaporation into a countercurrent air flow. The influences of the wall heat flux, the inlet Reynolds number of liquid film and the inlet Reynolds number of moist air on the transfer characteristics are investigated detailedly. The Results show that the

Y. L. Tsay

1995-01-01

232

Two-layer integral model for calculating the evaporation rate from a liquid surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral model is presented for predicting the evaporation rate from a single component liquid layer exposed to wind. This approach simplifies the solution of the convection–diffusion equation by averaging over the height of the concentration boundary-layer thickness. The model is valid for hydraulically smooth as well as rough surfaces and yields results which are in good agreement with those

J. P. Kunsch

1998-01-01

233

Estimating Integrated Cloud Liquid Water from Extended Time Observations of Solar Irradiance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated liquid water content (LWC) from the measured solar irradiance is described. The cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the sam...

C. W. Fairall R. E. Rabadi J. B. Snider

1990-01-01

234

Dense and vertically-aligned centimetre-long ZnS nanowire arrays: ionic liquid assisted synthesis and their field emission properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the self-ordering behavior of ionic liquids on solid surface, a gold ion containing ionic liquid was employed to obtain a uniform pattern of gold nanoparticles on Si substrate. Using this catalytic pattern, super-dense, centimetre long, well-crystallized and vertically-aligned ZnS nanowire arrays were then generated. It was found that the densely-packed gold nanoparticles played a key role in the nanowire alignment. Furthermore, the field-emission measurements show that the present ultralong ZnS nanowires arrays possess a low turn-on field of 3.69 V ?m-1 and a high field-enhancement factor of 1215.4, indicating they are valuable field emitters.Based on the self-ordering behavior of ionic liquids on solid surface, a gold ion containing ionic liquid was employed to obtain a uniform pattern of gold nanoparticles on Si substrate. Using this catalytic pattern, super-dense, centimetre long, well-crystallized and vertically-aligned ZnS nanowire arrays were then generated. It was found that the densely-packed gold nanoparticles played a key role in the nanowire alignment. Furthermore, the field-emission measurements show that the present ultralong ZnS nanowires arrays possess a low turn-on field of 3.69 V ?m-1 and a high field-enhancement factor of 1215.4, indicating they are valuable field emitters. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11835a

Chen, Shimou; Li, Liang; Wang, Xi; Tian, Wei; Wang, Xuebing; Tang, Dai-Ming; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

2012-03-01

235

Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.  

PubMed

In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission. PMID:21348530

Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

2011-01-11

236

CO2- and Aerosol-Induced Changes in Vertically Integrated Zonal Momentum Budget in a GCM Experiment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Climate Computing Center recently conducted a model experiment in which separate runs simulate the climatic response to increasing CO2 alone and to increasing CO2 together with direct radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols. One of the variables that shows interesting differences between the different runs is the near-surface zonal-mean zonal wind. As compared with the control run, the midlatitude surface westerlies intensify and shift poleward in the CO2-only run in both hemispheres in both the northern winter (DJF) and summer (JJA). However, the aerosol forcing moderates these changes in general and, in particular, reverses the pattern of change in the Northern Hemisphere in JJA. Consistent differences between the various runs occur in the meridional distribution of sea level pressure.The origin of these simulated changes is studied by using the vertically integrated zonal-mean zonal momentum budget, utilizing the intimate linkage between the low-level wind and the surface stress and the close time-mean balance between the surface stress and the other terms in the budget. Regardless of the forcing used, momentum convergence in transient eddies is found to be the dominant agent of change in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere and in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes in JJA. In particular, the changes in the contribution of high-pass transients are relatively large and they seem to be qualitatively traceable to the changes in the tropospheric meridional temperature gradient. In the northern extratropics in DJF, stationary eddies make an even larger contribution than the transients.

Räisänen, Jouni

1998-04-01

237

A vertically integrated eutrophication model and its application to a river-style reservoir--Fuchunjiang, China.  

PubMed

Based on a 2-D hydrodynamic model, a vertically integrated eutrophication model was developed. The physical sub-model can be used for calculation of water density at different depths, and the water quality sub-model was used for calculation of algal growth. The cohesive and non-cohesive sediments were simulated separately with different methods. The light extinction coefficient used in the underwater light regime sub-model was linearly related to the sum of sediment and phytoplankton biomass. Some components less important to the model were simplified to improve practicability and calculation efficiency. Using field data from Fuchunjiang Reservoir, we calculated the sensitivity of ecological parameters included in this model and validated the model. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters strongly influenced the phytoplankton biomass, including phytoplankton maximum growth rate, respiration rate, non-predatory mortality rate, settling rate, zooplankton maximum filtration rate, specific extinction coefficient for suspended solids and sediment oxygen demand rate. The model was calibrated by adjusting these parameters. Total chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations at different layers in the water column were reproduced very well by the model simulations. The simulated chl-a values were positively correlated to the measured values with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.92. The mean difference between measured and simulated chl-a concentrations was 12% of the measured chl-a concentration. Measured and simulated DO concentrations were also positively correlated (r = 0.74) and the mean difference was 4% of measured DO concentrations. The successful validation of model indicated that it would be very useful in water quality management and algal bloom prediction in Fuchunjiang Reservoir and a good tool for water quality regulation of other river-style reservoirs. PMID:19634443

Wu, Tingfeng; Luo, Liancong; Qin, Boqiang; Cui, Guangbai; Yu, Zuoming; Yao, Zhiming

2009-01-01

238

Co-integration of nano-scale vertical- and horizontal-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors for low power CMOS technology.  

PubMed

In order to extend the conventional low power Si CMOS technology beyond the 20-nm node without SOI substrates, we propose a novel co-integration scheme to build horizontal- and vertical-channel MOSFETs together and verify the idea using TCAD simulations. From the fabrication viewpoint, it is highlighted that this scheme provides additional vertical devices with good scalability by adding a few steps to the conventional CMOS process flow for fin formation. In addition, the benefits of the co-integrated vertical devices are investigated using a TCAD device simulation. From this study, it is confirmed that the vertical device shows improved off-current control and a larger drive current when the body dimension is less than 20 nm, due to the electric field coupling effect at the double-gated channel. Finally, the benefits from the circuit design viewpoint, such as the larger midpoint gain and beta and lower power consumption, are confirmed by the mixed-mode circuit simulation study. PMID:22966563

Sun, Min-Chul; Kim, Garam; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

2012-07-01

239

Vertical mammaplasty.  

PubMed

Current criticisms regarding vertical mammaplasty include problems with poor immediate postoperative appearance, nipple-areola complex malposition, and excessive lower pole length. These problems can be avoided by proper patient selection, by utilizing correct concepts of skin design, and by observing correct glandular resection and closure concepts. Vertical mammaplasty also can result in other problems, such as hypertrophic circumareolar scars and lower pole deformities, including notching, boxy shape, infra-areolar depression, and flatness. These problems are also largely avoidable by using correct technique. Several basic concepts described previously have not proven necessary to achieve good results. Abandoning some of these principles has contributed to the ability to establish an aesthetically ideal breast shape intraoperatively as well as to a decrease in morbidity. This includes eliminating liposuction as a major integral component of the procedure, eliminating suturing the gland to the pectoralis muscle, not undermining the lower pole skin, and avoiding overly wide skin resection and tight wound closure that produces significant lower pole distortion in the early postoperative period. An important concept that has proven reliable is to use a "closed" design that does not predetermine the areolar opening whenever circumstances permit. When this is not possible, a modification that utilizes the smallest possible circumference as an open design is better than a large "mosque." These alternatives allow greater flexibility in determining final nipple position and also reduce the risk of hypertrophic circumareolar scars. Important glandular resection concepts include creating pillars that are attached to both the skin and the chest wall; making them of adequate dimension to avoid postoperative lower pole shape problems, such as flattening; resecting closer to the skin lateral to the pillars to avoid a boxy breast shape; and using a drain both to assist in accurately determining the endpoint of resection and to avoid postoperative seromas. Key closure concepts include approximation of the superior surfaces of the pillars at their base to maintain vertical height and thereby prevent lower pole flattening; approximation of the inferior surfaces of the pillars to the base of the breast to prevent notching; and proper management of the vertical incision by restricting the purse-string suture effect to only the inferior portion of the incision, where there may be skin excess present. Inclusion of these concepts leads to predictable and improved aesthetic results in vertical mammaplasty. This allows full realization of the purported advantages of vertical mammaplasty and allows this method to be utilized with a level of confidence similar to that seen with inverted-T techniques. PMID:15793463

Hidalgo, David A

2005-04-01

240

Three-terminal Si-based negative differential resistance circuit element with adjustable peak-to-valley current ratios using a monolithic vertical integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Si-based resonant bipolar transistors are demonstrated by the monolithic vertical integration of Si-based resonant interband tunnel diodes atop the emitter of Si/SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) on a silicon substrate. In the common emitter configuration, IC versus VCE shows negative differential resistance characteristics. The resulting characteristics are adjustable peak-to-valley current ratios, including infinite and negative values, and tailorable peak current densities by the control of the HBT base current under room temperature operation. With the integrated RITD-HBT combination, latching properties which are the key operating principle for high-speed mixed-signal, memory, and logic circuitry, are experimentally demonstrated.

Chung, Sung-Yong; Jin, Niu; Berger, Paul R.; Yu, Ronghua; Thompson, Phillip E.; Lake, Roger; Rommel, Sean L.; Kurinec, Santosh K.

2004-04-01

241

Studying dissolution with a model integrating solid-liquid interface kinetics and diffusion kinetics.  

PubMed

A dissolution model that integrates the solid-liquid interface kinetics and the mass transport kinetics is introduced. Such a model reduces to the Noyes-Whitney equation under special conditions, but offers expanded range of applicability and flexibility fitting dissolution profiles when interfacial kinetics and interfacial concentration deviate from the assumptions implied in the Noyes-Whitney equation. General solutions to the integrated dissolution model derived for noninteractive solutes as well as for solutes participating in ionization equilibrium are discussed. Parameters defining the integrated dissolution model are explained conceptually along with practical ways for their determinations. Conditions under which the model exhibits supersaturation features are elaborated. Simulated dissolution profiles using the integrated dissolution model for published experimental data exhibiting supersaturation features are illustrated. PMID:23106346

Gao, Jeff Y

2012-11-26

242

Integration of liquid crystal elements for creating an infrared Lyot filter.  

PubMed

An infrared Lyot filter was fabricated by integrating a polarization beam splitter and two retarders into a single device. A liquid crystal layer was constructed between two silicon pentaprisms that were designed suitably so that light was incident on this layer at 28°. At this angle, the liquid crystal transmitted p-polarized light (Brewster's angle) and reflected s-polarized light (total internal reflection). The p- or s-polarized light was directed to another liquid crystal layer (retarder) between the prism and a mirror, which induced a wavelength-dependent retardation in the reflection process. Consequently, the light that returned to the beam splitter was transmitted or reflected depending on wavelength. PMID:23736420

Saito, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Keisuke

2013-05-20

243

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides. No top sealing of the channels is required. Surface accessible fluid input ports are formed in a BPSG layer, with no additional steps, by appropriate design of template layers. By tightly controlling the refractive index of the waveguide layer and the microchannel-forming layer, fully integrated structures facilitating optical coupling between solid waveguides and liquids segments in various geometries are demonstrated. Applications in liquid-filled photonic device elements for novel nonlinear optical devices and in optical sensors and on-chip spectroscopy are outlined.

Dumais, Patrick; Callender, Claire L.; Ledderhof, Christopher J.; Noad, Julian P.

2006-12-01

244

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon.  

PubMed

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides. No top sealing of the channels is required. Surface accessible fluid input ports are formed in a BPSG layer, with no additional steps, by appropriate design of template layers. By tightly controlling the refractive index of the waveguide layer and the microchannel-forming layer, fully integrated structures facilitating optical coupling between solid waveguides and liquids segments in various geometries are demonstrated. Applications in liquid-filled photonic device elements for novel nonlinear optical devices and in optical sensors and on-chip spectroscopy are outlined. PMID:17151758

Dumais, Patrick; Callender, Claire L; Ledderhof, Christopher J; Noad, Julian P

2006-12-20

245

An Integrated Approach toward Retrieving Physically Consistent Profiles of Temperature, Humidity, and Cloud Liquid Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for deriving physically consistent profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water content. This approach combines a ground-based multichannel microwave radiometer, a cloud radar, a lidar-ceilometer, the nearest operational radiosonde measurement, and ground-level measurements of standard meteorological properties with statistics derived from results of a microphysical cloud model. All measurements are integrated within the framework of

Ulrich Löhnert; Susanne Crewell; Clemens Simmer

2004-01-01

246

Enrichment of Integral Membrane Proteins for Proteomic Analysis Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, most proteomic studies rely on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) to detect and identify constituent peptides of enzymatically digested proteins obtained from various organisms and cell types. However, sample preparation methods for isolating membrane proteins typically involve the use of detergents, chaotropes, or reducing reagents that often interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI). To increase the identification of integral membrane

Josip Blonder; Michael B. Goshe; Ronald J. Moore; Liljiana Pasa-Tolic; Christophe D. Masselon; Mary S. Lipton; Richard D. Smith

2002-01-01

247

Three-dimensional optical analyses and optimizations of a vertical alignment color-filters-embedded liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of vertical alignment (VA) mode color filter liquid crystal on silicon (CF-LCoS) microdisplay was developed. In order to minimize the fringing field effect in small color pixels, a three dimensional (3D) optical model was established and performed to analyze this VA mode CF-LCoS microdisplay. The simulated result was compared with the experimental data and they coincided well. Optimization of this breed of VA mode CF-LCoS microdisplay was proposed with optimal pretilt angle and pixel size. With the pretilt angle of 86 degrees and the pixel size of 15 ?m, the color purity of the VA mode CF-LCoS microdisplay could attain more than 60% National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) level, and the contrast was larger than 400.

Zhang, Baolong; Li, Dan; Dai, Fengzhi; Yang, Shifeng; Kwok, Hoising

2011-09-01

248

Evaluation of Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystals by measuring off-axis retardation in vertical electric field cells.  

PubMed

Because of the nonuniform electric field of the in-plane-switching cell in the thickness direction, an accurate and efficient way for evaluating the Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) needs to be developed. This study demonstrates a method for evaluating the Kerr constant by measuring the off-axis-induced retardation (R(th)) change in normal vertical field cells using a commercial polarimeter. The angle-dependent behavior of the R(th) change is observed as an electric-tunable positive C retarder. In this paper, a sigmoid fitting model has been chosen for calculating the Kerr constant for considering the very small intrinsic birefringence of the BPLC. PMID:21947049

Hsieh, Pao-Ju; Chen, Huang-Ming Philip

2011-09-20

249

Study of vapor liquid two-phase frictional pressure drop in a vertical heated spirally internally ribbed tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments of vapor liquid two-phase frictional pressure drop of upward flow boiling in a smooth tube and in a spirally internally ribbed tube were conducted, respectively. The spirally internally ribbed tube has an outside diameter of 22mm and an inside diameter of 11mm (an equivalent inside diameter of 11.6mm) and the smooth tube has an outside diameter of 19mm and

Lixin Cheng; Tingkuan Chen

2007-01-01

250

The Impact of a Vertically Travelling Magnetic Field on the Flow in a Cylindrical Liquid Metal Bubble Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes laboratory experiments for the investigations of flow structures and related transport processes in liquid metal bubbly flows under the influence of a traveling magnetic field (TMF). The melt flow is driven by central gas injection into a cylindrical container filled with the low-melting-point alloy GaInSn. The velocity fields of both the liquid and the gaseous phase were measured nonintrusively using the ultrasound Doppler method. Depending on the traveling direction of the magnetic field, the TMF mainly imposes either a concurrent flow or counterflow with respect to the original bubble-driven circulation. In general, the application of a downward TMF significantly increases the liquid velocity all over the fluid volume. An upward TMF gives rise to the more complex structures of the velocity field resulting in alternately arranged upstream and downstream regions. Both the upward and downward TMF promote the occurrence of nonsteady motions with distinct velocity fluctuations leading to an intensification of related transport processes in the melt and providing the perspective of enhanced mixing efficiencies.

Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

2009-10-01

251

The Oversea Investment Decision of a Vertically Integrated Multinationals - A Research in View of the Monopolistic Competition Frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the following factors: population scale; income level; the expenditure proportion on industrial products; wages level; transaction costs; elasticity of substitution; marginal costs ,which functions acted on the vertical FDI scale of host country from developed country in a monopolistic competition model composed of the developed country enterprises and the developing country enterprises. On this foundation trying to

Zhang Yan-bo; Guo Ya-jun; Han Ying

2006-01-01

252

The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters: Construction, integration, commissioning and performance from selected beam-test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps comprising electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The construction of the full calorimeter system is completed since mid-2004. After construction in the home institutes, the modules have been integrated into wheels, and inserted into their respective cryostats. The readout electronics has also been installed and commissioned. Results of electrical and mechanical quality checks performed during module construction, integration into wheels, cold test of complete calorimeter systems before and after lowering into the ATLAS cavern are reported. Some performance results on response linearity, energy resolution, muon detection and timing resolution, all obtained from the extensive test-beam program done during the construction and integration, are shown. These results confirm that the detector will meet the required physics performance. Since 2006, a continuously increasing fraction of the detector is tested using cosmic muons, and some results obtained from these data are presented.

Schwemling, Ph.

2009-01-01

253

Pretilt Angles of Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) with the Application of Copolymers Possessing Chalconyl and Cholesteryl Moieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed the synthesis of a new copoly (M4Ch-ChMA), copoly ((4-methacryloyloxy) chalcone-cholestery methacrylate), with chalconyl and cholesteryl moiety characteristics for photoalignment materials. Good thermal stabilities of the synthesized copolymers are confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement. The pretilt angles of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) are reduced as UV exposure time is increased on the copolymer surfaces. A pretilt angle of 81° in NLC was observed with UV exposure of 3 min on the copolymer-3 surface. The NLCs pretilt angle is attributed to increased chalcone with increasing the UV exposure time.

Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Seo, Dae-Shik; Son, Jong Ho; Suh, Dong Hack

2000-11-01

254

Integrative responses of neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius to visceral afferent stimulation and vestibular stimulation in vertical planes  

PubMed Central

Anatomical studies have demonstrated that the vestibular nuclei project to nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), but little is known about the effects of vestibular inputs on NTS neuronal activity. Furthermore, lesions of NTS abolish vomiting elicited by a variety of different triggering mechanisms, including vestibular stimulation, suggesting that emetic inputs may converge on the same NTS neurons. As such, an emetic stimulus that activates gastrointestinal (GI) receptors could alter the responses of NTS neurons to vestibular inputs. In the present study, we examined in decerebrate cats the responses of NTS neurons to rotations of the body in vertical planes before and after the intragastric administration of the emetic compound copper sulfate. The activity of more than one-third of NTS neurons was modulated by vertical vestibular stimulation, with most of the responsive cells having their firing rate altered by rotations in the head-up or head-down directions. These responses were aligned with head position in space, as opposed to the velocity of head movements. The activity of NTS neurons with baroreceptor, pulmonary, and GI inputs could be modulated by vertical plane rotations. However, injection of copper sulfate into the stomach did not alter the responses to vestibular stimulation of NTS neurons that received GI inputs, suggesting that the stimuli did not have additive effects. These findings show that the detection and processing of visceral inputs by NTS neurons can be altered in accordance with the direction of ongoing movements.

Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; DeStefino, Vincent J.

2011-01-01

255

Numerical Simulation of a Vertical Solar Collector Integrated in a Building Frame: Radiation and Turbulent Natural Convection Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented work represents one part of the accurate studies led in a French Integrated Research Project supported by the CNRS. The context of this study is related to the integration of a combined photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector as a component of buildings' facades. This concept is developed so as to determine the best integration strategy—to make the most efficient use

C. Muresan; C. Ménézo; R. Bennacer; R. Vaillon

2006-01-01

256

A novel oral hygiene system through integration of a sonic toothbrush and liquid toothpaste.  

PubMed

A novel system for home oral hygiene, the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is an integrated sonic toothbrush and liquid-toothpaste dispensing system. New research has established the ability of this system to reduce plaque, especially in interproximal regions, and to reduce gingivitis. The unique capability for the user to reapply liquid toothpaste during brushing (ie, re-dose) allows for a greater reduction in bacteria in the sulcus and an enhanced in-use experience that leads to improved compliance with brushing instruction, specifically longer brushing times. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, the system and its constituents have been shown to be safe for daily use. PMID:15637974

Dudgeon, Douglas J; Barlow, Ashley P

2004-10-01

257

Partial and integral enthalpies of mixing of Ag–Ga–Sn liquid alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Calvet type calorimeter was used for measurement of partial and integral enthalpies of mixing of Ag–Ga–Sn alloys. The Ag–Ga binary alloys have been studied with 0liquid alloys have been investigated at 803K along the

D. Li; S. Delsante; W. Gong; G. Borzone

2011-01-01

258

Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10-10 mbarL s-1, in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

Antelius, Mikael; Fischer, Andreas C.; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

2012-04-01

259

Vertical Bargraph Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program involves the generation of an advance approach to electronic aircraft instrumentation. The display media is a twisted nematic liquid crystal display (TN LCD). The instrument was designed as a one-for-one replacement for the existing vertical b...

S. Aftergut G. M. Gozeba C. R. Stein R. L. Skovholt W. W. Thurlow

1975-01-01

260

Transparent image generator by using vertically aligned polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (VA-PSLC) for see-through display applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the feasibility of using a Vertically-Aligned Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal (VA-PSLC) film, which is also known as LC gel, as a transparent image generator to form a see-through display system. This is achieved, in its simplest form, by projecting a collimated LED light source onto a transparent glass screen, with the image generated by the scattered light from the VA-PSLC. By moving the observer's head slightly away from the incident light specular reflection direction, a clear image can be observed on the transparent glass screen together with the background objects that are behind the screen. From our experimental results, this see-through display system using VA-PSLC transparent image generator can achieve a fast response time (with rise time of ~10 ms and fall time of ~5ms) and an acceptable contrast ratio (< ~100:1). The driving voltage is about 15~20V. Further improvements can be achieved by further optimizing the LC material/monomer parameters, device fabrication process/conditions and the optical system setup. In this system, polarizers are not required so that very high light efficiency can be obtained.

Wang, Mu-Hao; Choi, Wing-Kit; Su, Guo-Dung

2012-10-01

261

Integrative responses of neurons in parabrachial nuclei to a nauseogenic gastrointestinal stimulus and vestibular stimulation in vertical planes.  

PubMed

The parabrachial and adjacent Kölliker-Fuse (PBN/KF) nuclei play a key role in relaying visceral afferent inputs to the hypothalamus and limbic system and are, thus, believed to participate in generating nausea and affective responses elicited by gastrointestinal (GI) signals. In addition, the PBN/KF region receives inputs from the vestibular system and likely mediates the malaise associated with motion sickness. However, previous studies have not considered whether GI and vestibular inputs converge on the same PBN/KF neurons, and if so, whether the GI signals alter the responses of the cells to body motion. The present study, conducted in decerebrate cats, tested the hypothesis that intragastric injection of copper sulfate, which elicits emesis by irritating the stomach lining, modifies the sensitivity of PBN/KF neurons to vertical plane rotations that activate vestibular receptors. Intragastric copper sulfate produced a 70% median change in the gain of responses to vertical plane rotations of PBN/KF units, whose firing rate was modified by the administration of the compound; the response gains for 16 units increased and those for 17 units decreased. The effects were often dramatic: out of 51 neurons tested, 13 responded to the rotations only after copper sulfate was injected, whereas 10 others responded only before drug delivery. These data show that a subset of PBN/KF neurons, whose activity is altered by a nauseogenic stimulus also respond to body motion and that irritation of the stomach lining can either cause an amplification or reduction in the sensitivity of the units to vestibular inputs. The findings imply that nausea and affective responses to vestibular stimuli may be modified by the presence of emetic signals from the GI system. PMID:22277934

Suzuki, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Yates, Bill J

2012-01-25

262

Characterization and modeling of RF substrate coupling effects due to vertical interconnects in 3D integrated circuit stacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses substrate coupling effects in 3D integrated circuits carried by TSV interconnects (Through Silicon Vias). These electrical couplings lead to several impacts on 3D circuit performance. RF (Radio Frequency) characterizations have been performed on dedicated test structures in order to extract electrical models of substrate coupling and make obvious this phenomenon. New modeling tools for predictive studies have

E. Eid; T. Lacrevaz; C. Bermond; S. de Rivaz; S. Capraro; J. Roullard; L. Cadix; B. Fle?chet; A. Farcy; P. Ancey; F. Calmon; O. Valorge; P. Leduc

2010-01-01

263

Materials and Device Research for High-Speed Integrated Optoelectronic Transmitters Using Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was conducted in order to investigate and realize the monolithic integration of an InGaAsP/InP surface emitting LED Double Heterojunction Light Emitting Diode (DH) with an entire process of the research: design, growth, fabrication, characte...

R. D. Dupuis

1996-01-01

264

Gas-liquid vortex separator-eliminator  

SciTech Connect

Closed liquid circulating systems, which have supply and return lines and a circulating pump, have a problem when gas present in the circulating liquid. A device for removing the gas by insertion in the system includes an upright main body which has an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The separating horizontal wall has a gas discharge port in the center thereof. The horizontal inlet has an integral diffuser positioned immediately inside of the lower chamber. The integral diffuser is affixed at horizontal and vertical angles to the horizontal axis of the inlet. The horizontal outlet has a vertical pipe leg positioned inside of the lower chamber so that the lower segment thereof is positioned in the lower portion of the lower chamber and that the vertical axis of the lower segment of the vertical pipe leg is aligned in the vertical axis of the upright main body. A gas vent-eliminator is positioned within the upper chamber. The liquid enters the inlet and is forced tangentially against the side of and downwardly in the lower chamber so as to form a water vortex in the lower chamber whereby the gas in the liquid is released in the form of bubbles. The lower end of the vertical pipe leg is below where the bubbles form. The gas bubbles rise into the upper chamber and are purged into the atmosphere by means of the gas vent-eliminator.

Hull, R.; Lane, J.A.

1984-10-09

265

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOEpatents

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01

266

LED projector with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves and a fly’s eye integrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a projection system with two liquid crystal on silicon light valves that are illuminated by light-emitting diode light sources (LEDs). The LED illumination system is designed with a fly’s eye integrator. Using this integrator we combine for each primary color two LEDs into one bright source to illuminate the light valve. In the color management system a wire-grid

Bart Van Giel; Youri Meuret; Lawrence Bogaert; Hüseyin Murat; Herbert De Smet; Hugo Thienpont

2008-01-01

267

Freezing in a vertical tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental heat transfer experiments were performed for freezing of an initially superheated or nonsuperheated liquid in a cooled vertical tube. Measurements were made which yielded information about the freezing front and the frozen mass, about the various energy components extracted from the tube, and about the decay of the initial liquid superheat. Four component energies were identified and evaluated from

E. M. Sparrow; J. A. Broadbent

1983-01-01

268

A new approach to untargeted integration of high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data.  

PubMed

Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, hyphenated mass spectrometry has become the predominant method to detect and quantify metabolites present in bio-samples relevant for all sorts of life science studies being executed. In contrast to targeted methods that are dedicated to specific features, global profiling acquisition methods allow new unspecific metabolites to be analyzed. The challenge with these so-called untargeted methods is the proper and automated extraction and integration of features that could be of relevance. We propose a new algorithm that enables untargeted integration of samples that are measured with high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In contrast to other approaches limited user interaction is needed allowing also less experienced users to integrate their data. The large amount of single features that are found within a sample is combined to a smaller list of, compound-related, grouped feature-sets representative for that sample. These feature-sets allow for easier interpretation and identification and as important, easier matching over samples. We show that the automatic obtained integration results for a set of known target metabolites match those generated with vendor software but that at least 10 times more feature-sets are extracted as well. We demonstrate our approach using high resolution LC-MS data acquired for 128 samples on a lipidomics platform. The data was also processed in a targeted manner (with a combination of automatic and manual integration) using vendor software for a set of 174 targets. As our untargeted extraction procedure is run per sample and per mass trace the implementation of it is scalable. Because of the generic approach, we envision that this data extraction lipids method will be used in a targeted as well as untargeted analysis of many different kinds of TOF-MS data, even CE- and GC-MS data or MRM. The Matlab package is available for download on request and efforts are directed toward a user-friendly Windows executable. PMID:24139572

van der Kloet, Frans M; Hendriks, Margriet; Hankemeier, Thomas; Reijmers, Theo

2013-09-23

269

Accuracy assessment of an integrated profiling technique for operationally deriving profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated profiling technique (IPT) for the simultaneous retrieval of the atmospheric state parameters temperature, humidity, and liquid water content profiles is assessed. The method combines measurements of a modern, ground-based profiling station equipped with a microwave profiler, cloud radar, and ceilometer, with the closest operational radiosonde measurement and standard surface-based meteorological measurements. All are combined within an optimal estimation

Ulrich Löhnert; Erik van Meijgaard; Henk Klein Baltink; Silke Groß; Reinout Boers

2007-01-01

270

Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser  

SciTech Connect

The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

1998-01-01

271

On the impact of large-amplitude fluctuations in deep integrated transports over sloping bathymetry on the vertical structure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-variable barotropic flow over the continental rises of the eastern and western boundaries of the Atlantic projects on the vertical structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) streamfunction. This AMOC component is invisible to density measurements, and is therefore difficult to quantify by observations. The RAPID/MOCHA array has provided daily estimates of the vigor of the AMOC at 26.5°N since April 2004, based on simultaneous observations of (i) Gulf Stream transports using cable measurements across the Straits of Florida, (ii) Ekman transports inferred from satellite scatterometry, and (iii) mid-ocean baroclinic transports derived from density profiles taken at the Moroccan and Bahamas continental slopes. Time-variable reference transports for the baroclinic mid-ocean transports - required to estimate the daily strength of the AMOC - have previously been estimated indirectly, via the imposition of a physically plausible, integral zero-net-transport constraint at each time step (Cunningham et al., 2007). This constraint has been implemented in the form of a spatially uniform compensation velocity field. Using geostrophic reference transports inferred from deep bottom pressure measurements carried out on the eastern and western boundaries at 26.5°N, Kanzow et al. (2007) showed that the AMOC strength was highly correlated with that using the integral transport constraint. At the same time AMOC related abyssal, basin-wide integrated meridional rms transport fluctuations using the former approach exceeded those relying on the transport constraint by a factor 3. Based on an analysis of bottom pressure records collected between April 2004 and October 2007 we show that abyssal, zonally integrated transport variations at 5000 m show pronounced seasonal variability, and that the amplitude of the observed fluctuations exceeds that at any other level below the thermocline, in contrast to the transport constraint solution. The reason for this are intense time-variable flows over the eastern continental rise, as revealed by the bottom pressure records, that vary out of phase with the integrated transports over the remaining part of zonal extent of the 6000 km wide section, thereby reducing basin-wide integrated transport on shallower levels. The presence of the large-amplitude abyssal transport variability is puzzling from an energetics point of view, as it clearly exceeds the level of variability required for a barotopic compensation of Gulf Stream and Ekman transports. Overall, our results reveal that the external mode exhibits a pronounced zonal structure. This suggests that a modification of the spatially invariant compensation flow field (required to estimate mid-ocean reference transports) to incorporate a simple approximation to the zonal structure inferred from the bottom pressure measurements, yields a much more realistic representation of the deep, time-variable, vertical structure of the AMOC.

Kanzow, T.; Cunningham, S. A.

2009-04-01

272

Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

Winden, A.; Mikulics, M.; Grützmacher, D.; Hardtdegen, H.

2013-10-01

273

Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range.  

PubMed

Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range. PMID:24029688

Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

2013-09-12

274

Functions and Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

2010-01-01

275

Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

2003-01-01

276

Initialisation of a vertically-integrated, higher-order ice sheet model using observations of surface mass balance and elevation rate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the tasks facing ice sheet modellers is to predict how the size and shape of the large ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica will evolve over coming centuries. An ice sheet model provides a tool to evolve the geometry of the ice sheet from its present configuration to a future one. However, errors in the specification of the present geometry and flow, or the model parameters, will inevitably lead to errors in the forecast of the future. Accurate specification of the present state and model parameters using observational data is commonly referred to as model initialisation. Here we demonstrate two different methods of initialisation. Both make use of a recently developed iterative approach to invert for the basal drag coefficient and ice viscosity. The first is more conventional and uses satellite observations of the horizontal surface velocity to invert for basal drag. The second uses only measurements of the rates of snow accumulation and elevation change, together with the assumption of continuity and conservation of mass. Both approaches are applied to a vertically-integrated, higher-order ice sheet model. For each method, maps of the velocity field, basal drag coefficient, and ice viscosity will be presented for the Antarctic ice sheet.

Arthern, R.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Williams, C. R.

2012-04-01

277

Measurement of interactions between solid particles, liquid droplets, and/or gas bubbles in a liquid using an integrated thin film drainage apparatus.  

PubMed

A novel device was designed to measure drainage dynamics of thin liquid films confined between a solid particle, an immiscible liquid droplet, and/or gas bubble. Equipped with a bimorph force sensor, a computer-interfaced video capture, and a data acquisition system, the newly designed integrated thin film drainage apparatus (ITFDA) allows for the direct and simultaneous measurements of force barrier, true film drainage time, and bubble/droplet deformation under a well-controlled external force, receding and advancing contact angles, capillary force, and adhesion (detachment) force between an air bubble or oil droplet and a solid, a liquid, or an air bubble in an immiscible liquid. Using the diaphragm of a high-frequency speaker as the drive mechanism for the air bubble or oil droplet attached to a capillary tube, this newly designed device is capable of measuring forces over a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, including bubble approach and retract velocities up to 50 mm/s and displacement range up to 1 mm. The results showed that the ITFDA was capable of measuring hydrodynamic resistance, film drainage time, and other important physical parameters between air bubbles and solid particles in aqueous solutions. As an example of illustrating the versatility, the ITFDA was also applied to other important systems such as interactions between air bubble and oil droplet, two air bubbles, and two oil droplets in an aqueous solution. PMID:23379835

Wang, Louxiang; Sharp, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

2013-03-07

278

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07

279

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-04-15

280

Investigation of the liquid/vapor composition of compressed liquid CO2 with N2 and O2 in integrated pollutant removal systems for coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Accurate prediction of the processes in Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) using compression and condensation of coal combustion products requires an understanding of the liquid/vapor ternary CO2/O2/N2 system. At conditions close to the critical point of CO2 the existing equations of state deviate from the sparse measured results available in the literature. Building on existing data and procedures, the USDOE/Albany Research Center has designed an apparatus for examining compositions in this region. The design of the apparatus and planned initial experiments are presented.

Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Penner, Larry R.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

281

Monolithically integrated, flexible display of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal driven by rubber-stamped organic thin-film transistors  

SciTech Connect

This letter describes the monolithic integration of rubber-stamped thin-film organic transistors with polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) to create a multipixel, flexible display with plastic substrates. We report the electro-optic switching behavior of the PDLCs as driven by the organic transistors, and we show that our displays operate robustly under flexing and have a contrast comparable to that of newsprint. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Mach, P.; Rodriguez, S. J.; Nortrup, R.; Wiltzius, P.; Rogers, J. A.

2001-06-04

282

Structural properties of liquid N-methylacetamide via ab initio, path integral, and classical molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better understand the physical interactions that stabilize protein secondary structure, the neat liquid state of a peptidic fragment, N-methylacetamide (NMA), was studied using computer simulation. Three different descriptions of the molecular liquid were examined: an empirical force field treatment with classical nuclei, an empirical force field treatment with quantum mechanical nuclei, and an ab initio density functional theory (DFT) treatment. The DFT electronic structure was evaluated using the BLYP approximate functional and a plane wave basis set. The different physical effects probed by the three models, such as quantum dispersion, many-body polarization, and nontrivial charge distributions on the liquid properties, were compared. Much of the structural ordering in the liquid is characterized by hydrogen bonded chains of NMA molecules. Modest structural differences are present among the three models of liquid NMA. The average molecular dipole in the liquid under the ab initio treatment, however, is enhanced by 60% over the gas phase value.

Whitfield, T. W.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.

2006-03-01

283

Instability of a flat horizontal interface between a thin layer of a ferrofluid and a thin layer of a nonmagnetic liquid in the presence of a vertical magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An asymptotic analysis of the equations and boundary conditions of fluid dynamics is performed, and a nonlinear model is constructed for the onset of the development of Rosensweig instability in a thin horizontal ferrofluid layer at rest covered with a thin layer of a lighter nonmagnetic liquid. The surface of a nonmagnetized slab is the lower boundary of the ferrofluid, and the interface with a gas is the upper boundary of the nonmagnetic liquid. The pressure in the gas is constant. The instability being considered arises upon the application of a rather strong uniform vertical magnetic field. The proposed model involves five dimensionless parameters. The critical magnetization of the initial ferrofluid layer with a flat upper boundary and the threshold wave number are found. The effect of the governing parameters on the instability region and on the wavelength of the fastest growing mode is studied in the linear formulation of the problem.

Korovin, V. M.

2012-10-01

284

Quantitative and mechanistic measurements of container/closure integrity. Bubble, liquid, and microbial leakage tests.  

PubMed

The parenteral vial/closure seal interface is tested for leakage of gas, liquids, and microorganisms. Gas leakage is determined using a bubble test, liquid leakage is detected by atomic absorption of a copper ion tracer solution, and microbial leakage is verified using a liquid-borne microbial suspension challenge test. Leakage performance by these methods is compared to gaseous leakage rates quantitatively determined for the same package systems. The establishment of leakage rate specifications based on these results is discussed. PMID:2732847

Morton, D K; Lordi, N G; Troutman, L H; Ambrosio, T J

285

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor

John S. Hsu; Curtis W. Ayers; Chester Coomer; Laura D. Marlino

2006-01-01

286

Design of Novel Highly Integrated Passive Devices for Digital Broadcasting Satellite \\/ 802.11 Home Networking Solution in Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Based Organic Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high performance integrated passive devices (IPD) allows an optimum solution in the tradeoff between integration and flexibility for design modification. The paper presents the integration of sub-circuits into IPD's for WLAN and distributed broadcasting satellite (DBS) applications on liquid polymer crystal (LCP)-based organic substrate technology. An integrated diplexer-coupler-harmonic filter for dual-band WLAN applications and a diplexer-balun chipset

V. Govind; P. Monajemi; L. Carastro; S. Lapushin; C. Russell; S. Dalmia; J. Vickers; V. Sundaram; G. White

2006-01-01

287

Path-integral and effective potential Monte Carlo simulations of liquid nitrogen, hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum features in liquid nitrogen at T = 66 K are studied. Quantum Monte Carlo runs have been performed using different one-centre interaction potentials and strategies. Hard-sphere, Lennard-Jones and quantum effective potential (Feynman-Hibbs, Wigner-Kirkwood) models are the basic ingredients for carrying out calculations, which are classical, semiclassical and of path-integral nature. Relevant thermodynamic and structural data are presented. The results show how the magnitude of hard-sphere quantum effect is dramatically reduced in using smooth potentials. The Wigner-Kirkwood fluid is, the closest to the 'exact' path-integral fluid compared with other effective potential models. The results obtained from path-integral MC account for the available experimental information.

Sesé, Luis M.

288

A numerical analysis of solid-liquid phase change heat transfer around a single and two horizontal, vertically spaced cylinders in a rectangular cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a new numerical model is proposed to analyze solid-liquid phase change heat transfer in a complicated geometry. The present model can treat the solid\\/liquid phase change heat transfer with\\/without porous media, as well as conventional transient natural convection with\\/without porous media. Solidification calculations of pure water (without porous media) around a single cylinder and two cylinders

R. Viskanta

1997-01-01

289

Theoretical modeling of UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra in liquid state systems including vibrational and conformational effects: The vertical transition approximation.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe in detail a general and efficient methodology, based on the perturbed matrix method and molecular dynamics simulations, to model UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra including vibrational and conformational effects. The basic approximation used is to consider all the chromophore atomic coordinates as semiclassical degrees of freedom, hence allowing the calculation of the complete spectral signal by using the electronic vertical transitions as obtained at each possible chromophore configuration, thus including the contributions of vibrations and conformational transitions into the spectrum. As shown for the model system utilized in this paper, solvated 1-phenyl-naphthalene, such an approximation can be rather accurate to reproduce the absorption and emission spectral line shape and properties when, as it often occurs, the vertical vibronic transition largely overlaps the other non-negligible vibronic transitions. PMID:24070274

D'Alessandro, Maira; Aschi, Massimiliano; Mazzuca, Claudia; Palleschi, Antonio; Amadei, Andrea

2013-09-21

290

Theoretical modeling of UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra in liquid state systems including vibrational and conformational effects: The vertical transition approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe in detail a general and efficient methodology, based on the perturbed matrix method and molecular dynamics simulations, to model UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra including vibrational and conformational effects. The basic approximation used is to consider all the chromophore atomic coordinates as semiclassical degrees of freedom, hence allowing the calculation of the complete spectral signal by using the electronic vertical transitions as obtained at each possible chromophore configuration, thus including the contributions of vibrations and conformational transitions into the spectrum. As shown for the model system utilized in this paper, solvated 1-phenyl-naphthalene, such an approximation can be rather accurate to reproduce the absorption and emission spectral line shape and properties when, as it often occurs, the vertical vibronic transition largely overlaps the other non-negligible vibronic transitions.

D'Alessandro, Maira; Aschi, Massimiliano; Mazzuca, Claudia; Palleschi, Antonio; Amadei, Andrea

2013-09-01

291

Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrige...

J. S. Hsu C. W. Ayers C. Coomer L. D. Marlino

2004-01-01

292

Panel-size component integration (PCI) with molded liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future product development in microelectronics requires low-cost, high-speed, high-reliability, good manufacturability, and environmental compatibility. Recently developed DCA techniques, such as flip-chip and CSP on high-density microvia substrates, are believed to be able to satisfy such needs. Further integration of passive devices has been realized recently in the Single Level Integrated Module (SLIM). The integration of active devices into a planar

J. Kivilahti; J. Liu; J. E. Morris; T. Suga; C. P. Wong

2002-01-01

293

Epitaxial growth of a nanoscale, vertically faceted, one-dimensional, high-aspect ratio grating in III-V materials for integrated photonics  

SciTech Connect

Homoepitaxial selective growth of a GaAs nanoscale, high-aspect ratio, one-dimensional (1D) grating with vertical facets is reported. For a pattern direction along [110], the kinetics of faceting in selective molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) induce (110)-type facets vertical to a GaAs(001) substrate near the boundary between an SiO{sub 2} mask and an open substrate area. On a 1.25-{mu}m period, 1D stripe, SiO{sub 2}-patterned GaAs(001) substrate with an opening width of {approx}300 nm, vertical faceting results in a grating structure consisting of 2.8-{mu}m-high, 820-nm-wide features. Kinetics of faceting in selective MBE is explained as a result of the minimization of total surface energy.

Lee, S.C.; Dawson, L.R.; Brueck, S.R.J. [Center for High Technology Materials and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard, SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

2005-08-15

294

Liquid Metal Vertical Interconnects for Flip-Chip Assembly of GaAs C-Band Power Amplifiers onto Micro-Rectangular Coaxial Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior work has demonstrated a new process utilizing room temperature liquid metal, galinstan, as an interconnect material for flip chip bonding. This interconnect forms a flexible bond between chips and carriers and therefore a flip chip assembly using this technology is much less susceptible to thermomechanical stresses. This paper applies this concept to interconnect MMIC chips to 3D Polystrata transmission

Parrish Ralston; Marcus Oliver; Krishna Vummidi; Sanjay Raman

2011-01-01

295

In vivo silicon-based flexible radio frequency integrated circuits monolithically encapsulated with biocompatible liquid crystal polymers.  

PubMed

Biointegrated electronics have been investigated for various healthcare applications which can introduce biomedical systems into the human body. Silicon-based semiconductors perform significant roles of nerve stimulation, signal analysis, and wireless communication in implantable electronics. However, the current large-scale integration (LSI) chips have limitations in in vivo devices due to their rigid and bulky properties. This paper describes in vivo ultrathin silicon-based liquid crystal polymer (LCP) monolithically encapsulated flexible radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) for medical wireless communication. The mechanical stability of the LCP encapsulation is supported by finite element analysis simulation. In vivo electrical reliability and bioaffinity of the LCP monoencapsulated RFIC devices are confirmed in rats. In vitro accelerated soak tests are performed with Arrhenius method to estimate the lifetime of LCP monoencapsulated RFICs in a live body. The work could provide an approach to flexible LSI in biointegrated electronics such as an artificial retina and wireless body sensor networks. PMID:23617401

Hwang, Geon-Tae; Im, Donggu; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jooseok; Koo, Min; Park, So Young; Kim, Seungjun; Yang, Kyounghoon; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Kwyro; Lee, Keon Jae

2013-04-30

296

The effect of plasmonic particles on solar absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we used the finite-difference time domain method to determine whether metallic caps provide plasmonic enhancement of absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays. Metallic caps result naturally from the vapor-liquid-solid growth process, which uses metal catalyst particles to initiate growth. We found that gold, copper, and silver catalysts all decrease the integrated optical absorption across the solar spectrum.

Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L.

2010-08-01

297

Integrated separation scheme for coal-derived liquids using ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A separation scheme for coal-derived liquids has been developed that separates by functionality into discrete compound classes using ion-exchange resins; neutrals are further subdivided into fractions differing in polarity, structure, and molecular weight by adsorption chromatography. Sufficient material can be separated to allow further characterization at both gross structural and molecular levels. It gives excellent overall reproducibility (+\\/- 4%) and

Michael G. Strachan; R. B. Johns

1986-01-01

298

Evaporating liquid flow in a channel (An integral model based on shallow water flow approximation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities generally include channels to convey potential spills of the liquid to an impoundment. There is increasing concern that dispersion of vapors generated by flow of LNG in a channel may lead to higher than limit vapor concentrations for safety at site boundary from channels that may be close to the dike walls. This issue

Phani K. Raj

2011-01-01

299

Integration of horizontal carbon nanotube devices on silicon substrate using liquid evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a process to fabricate horizontal carbon nanotube (CNT) components with controllable orientations and positions on silicon substrate. This process makes use of capillary effect to pull down inclined CNT bundles. Liquid wettable to both CNT bundles and silicon substrates was used to generate attractive force to level the CNT. The final orientation of CNT bundles was determined

Zhiyong Xiao; Yang Chai; Yuan Li; Minghui Sun; Philip C. H. Chan

2010-01-01

300

Dielectric Characterization of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal in Microwave Range – Material Integration in Specific Electronic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an original way to obtain reconfigurable microwave devices, filled with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC). We study the dielectric parameters of the material in the microwave range, using an original cell. Then, we manufacture a microwave tunable device using the PDLC.The purpose of our work is to cancel the polymer alignment layer used in microwave devices filled

Freddy Krasinski; Bertrand Splingart; Frédéric Dubois; Ulrich Maschke; Christian Legrand

2011-01-01

301

A novel Brayton cycle with the integration of liquid hydrogen cryogenic exergy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stored or transported liquid hydrogen for use in power generation needs to be vaporized before combustion. Much energy was invested in the H2 liquefaction process, and recovery of as much of this energy as possible in the re-evaporation process will contribute to both the overall energy budget of the hydrogen use process, and to environmental impact reduction. A new gas

Na Zhang; Noam Lior

2008-01-01

302

Solid\\/liquid phase-change heat transfer around two horizontal, vertically spaced cylinders -- An experimental study on the effect of density inversion of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid\\/liquid phase-change heat transfer around cylinders occurs in many systems including latent-heat thermal-energy storage systems. In such systems, interactions of the heat transfer around the cylinders is often observed. Although several studies have reported on the heat transfer around a single cylinder and two or more cylinders, there have been no systematic studies to examine the effect of initial water

Kengo Sasaguchi; Koji Kusano; Hideaki Kitagawa

1995-01-01

303

Application of dual-plane ERT system and cross-correlation technique to measure gas–liquid flows in vertical upward pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of process tomography provides a new method for two-phase flow measurement. The dual-plane electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is combined with the correlation measurement technique to carry out the two-phase flow measurement in which the continuous phase is conductive liquid. The method of the estimation of void fraction and the disperse phase velocity by extracting the eigenvalue of the

F. Dong; Y. B. Xu; L. J. Xu; L. Hua; X. T. Qiao

2005-01-01

304

Integral enthalpy of mixing of the liquid ternary Au–Cu–Sn system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary Au–Cu–Sn has been determined with a Calvet type calorimeter at 6 different cross sections at 1273K. The substitutional solution model of Redlich–Kister–Muggianu was used for a least square fit of the experimental data in order to get an analytical expression for the integral enthalpy of mixing. The ternary extrapolation models of Kohler,

S. Knott; Z. Li; A. Mikula

2008-01-01

305

CO2-Binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System  

SciTech Connect

Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 ?C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

2011-04-01

306

Tunable liquid-filled lens integrated with aspherical surface for spherical aberration compensation.  

PubMed

A novel liquid-filled lens design is presented. During fabrication, high precision single point diamond turning (SPDT) is introduced into standard soft lithography process to fabricate an aspherical surface constituting one end of lens. This enables the spherical aberration associated with the operation of the conventional liquid-filled lenses to be compensated for. Through flexibly optimizing this surface contour, it can be designed to work within particular working regions with improved optical quality. At the same time, the deformable elastic membrane is still adopted at the other end of the lens, thus preserving the high focal length tunability. This proof of concept and the performance of the proposed lens have been demonstrated using the lateral shearing interferometry experiment.. PMID:20588848

Yu, Hongbin; Zhou, Guangya; Leung, Hui Min; Chau, Fook Siong

2010-05-10

307

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids EMI-BF4 and EMI-Im. The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) electrospray array is composed of the following two microfabricated parts: 1) an emitter die with as many as 502 emitters in 1.13 cm2 and

Blaise Gassend; Luis Fernando Velasquez-Garcia; Akintunde Ibitayo Akinwande; Manuel Martinez-Sanchez

2009-01-01

308

The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the

Himantha Cooray; Pietro Cicuta; Dominic Vella

2012-01-01

309

Energy conservation practices - vertical tube foam evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the vertical tube foam evaporation (VTFE) of aqueous liquids which reduces energy requirements by enhancing the evaporation coefficient, which permits the use of a lower temperature difference, to drive the evaporation process. The VTFE method relies on imposing a foamy mode of flow of the evaporating liquid over the heat transfer surface or tube-side wall. This mode

Sephton

1981-01-01

310

Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conventional LCD backlight system is composed of light sources, a light-guide plate (LGP) and optical sheets, such as reflection sheets, diffusion sheets and prism sheets, etc. In order to make the backlight system thinner and brighter, we propose a novel integrated LGP based on micro-prism structures by using traditional transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material, which can be designed to

Di Feng; Yingbai Yan; Xingpeng Yang; Guofan Jin; Shoushan Fan

2005-01-01

311

Frequency of observation and the estimation of integrated volatility in deep and liquid financial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two newly available ultrahigh-frequency datasets, we investigate empirically how frequently one can sample certain foreign exchange and U.S. Treasury security returns without contaminating estimates of their integrated volatility with market microstructure noise. We find that one can sample FX returns as frequently as once every 15 to 20 seconds without contaminating volatility estimates; bond returns may be sampled as

Alain P. Chaboudy; Benjamin Chiquoine; Erik Hjalmarsson; Mico Loretan

2008-01-01

312

The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems  

SciTech Connect

The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

Green, Michael A.

2003-07-09

313

Static and dynamic quantum effects in molecular liquids: A linearized path integral description of water  

PubMed Central

Structure, transport properties, and IR spectra including quantum effects are calculated for a flexible simple point charge model of liquid water. A recently introduced combination of a variational local harmonic description of the liquid potential surface and the classical Wigner approximation for the dynamics is used. The potential energy and interatomic radial distribution functions are in good agreement with accurate results from the literature and are significantly closer to experiment than predictions found from classical theory. The oxygen and hydrogen velocity correlation functions are also calculated, and the corresponding molecular diffusion coefficient is in good accord with existing theoretical estimates including quantum effects. Of most interest, an ab initio quantum correction factor is obtained to correct the far IR spectrum of water. When corrected, a spectrum based on a classical simulation yields results that agree well with experiment. Combined with internal tests of consistency, these observations indicate that this quite flexible approach will be effective for a variety of molecular problems involving the dynamics of light nuclei.

Poulsen, Jens Aage; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.

2005-01-01

314

A modified repulsive bridge correction to accurate evaluation of solvation free energy in integral equation theory for molecular liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral equation theory for molecular liquids is one of the powerful frameworks to evaluate solvation free energy (SFE). Different from molecular simulation methods, the theory computes SFE in an analytical manner. In particular, the correction method proposed by Kovalenko and Hirata [Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 237 (1998); and J. Chem. Phys. 113, 2793 (2000)] is quite efficient in the accurate evaluation of SFE. However, the application has been limited to aqueous solution systems. In the present study, an improved method is proposed that is applicable to a wide range of solution systems. The SFE of a variety of solute molecules in chloroform and benzene solvents is evaluated. A key is the adequate treatment of excluded volume in SFE calculation. By utilizing the information of chemical bonds in the solvent molecule, the accurate computation of SFE is achieved.

Kido, Kentaro; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi

2012-07-01

315

Interfacial Behavior in Polyelectrolyte Blends: Hybrid Liquid-State Integral Equation and Self-Consistent Field Theory Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyelectrolytes and electrolyte solutions are known to demonstrate a rich array of phase behaviors due to the effects of long-ranged interactions inherent in Coulombic attractions and repulsions. While there is a wealth of literature examining these materials to provide some physical insight into their thermodynamics, all of these methods make strong approximations with regards to the nature of the ionic component. In this investigation we develop a hybrid liquid-state integral equation and self-consistent field theory numerical theory, and systematically demonstrate the ramifications on local ion structure on the overall thermodynamics of segregated polymer blends. We show effects on phase separation such as suppression due to hard sphere interactions and enhancement due to ion cohesion that are not described using traditional Poisson-Boltzmann mean-field theory.

Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera

2013-10-01

316

Vertical Economies of Scope in Dairy Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of Azzam and Skinner (2007), the economic literature on farm structure has largely neglected issues of vertical organization of the farm. In this article we estimate a multi-stage, multi-output cost function in order to measure vertical economies of scope in organic and conventional dairy farms. In particular, we model the integration of production of grains and forages

Carlos D. Mayen; Joseph V. Balagtas; Corinne E. Alexander

2009-01-01

317

Accuracy assessment of an integrated profiling technique for operationally deriving profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated profiling technique (IPT) for the simultaneous retrieval of the atmospheric state parameters temperature, humidity, and liquid water content profiles is assessed. The method combines measurements of a modern, ground-based profiling station equipped with a microwave profiler, cloud radar, and ceilometer, with the closest operational radiosonde measurement and standard surface-based meteorological measurements. All are combined within an optimal estimation procedure. The accuracy assessment is carried out in a virtual environment of a regional climate model. The model thermodynamic state is converted into the measurement space via so-called forward modeling. The IPT is then applied to the simulated measurements to retrieve the desired atmospheric state parameters which can be evaluated with the original model state. It is found that IPT-derived temperature and humidity profiles can add significant information for the time period between two operational radiosonde ascents, both if the measurements take place at the radiosonde site or if they are spatially apart. The benefits of a profiling station that applies an IPT can be valuable both for the reprocessing of dedicated field campaign data to obtain the best representation of the atmospheric state and for nowcasting and data assimilation applications. Depending on the density of the given operational radiosonde network, a ground-based profiling station has the potential of either significantly improving the quality of such a network or even substituting a small number of radiosonde stations. A further benefit of a ground-based profiling station is the retrieval of cloud microphysical properties, where IPT liquid water path retrieval accuracies show values better than 10 g m-2, and liquid water content profiles can be derived with relative accuracies of ˜30%.

LöHnert, Ulrich; van Meijgaard, Erik; Baltink, Henk Klein; Groß, Silke; Boers, Reinout

2007-02-01

318

An integrated double balanced mixer on multilayer liquid crystalline polymer (M-LCP) based substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of an integrated double balanced mixer on a novel multilayer LCP based substrate. Low-loss lumped and distributed components were realized on a 3-layer LCP stackup, which were then used for the design of novel wideband baluns. A double balanced mixer for WLAN applications was realized using embedded baluns in the substrate. The mixer exhibits 5.1-8.6

Wansuk Yun; Vinu Govind; Sidharth Dalmia; Venky Sundaram; Madhavan Swaminathan; George E. White

2005-01-01

319

Chromosomal integration of sfp gene in Bacillus subtilis to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis C9 effectively degrades aliphatic hydrocarbons up to a chain length of C19 and produces a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant, surfactin, yet it has no genetic competency. Therefore, to obtain a transformable surfactin producer, the sfp gene cloned from B. subtilis C9 was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis 168, a non-surfactin producer, by homologous recombination. The transformants reduced the

Young-Ki Lee; Seong-Bin Kim; Chan-Sun Park; Jong-Guk Kim; Hee-Mock Oh; Byung-Dae Yoon; Hee-Sik Kim

2005-01-01

320

Integral Circulation Experiment: Thermal–hydraulic simulator of a heavy liquid metal reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the IP-EUROTRANS (6th Framework Program EU), domain DEMETRA, ENEA was involved in the Work Package 4.5 “Large Scale Integral Test”, devoted to characterize a relevant portion of a sub-critical ADS reactor block (core, internals, heat exchanger, cladding for fuel elements) in steady state, transient and accidental conditions. More in details ENEA assumed the commitment to perform

M. Tarantino; P. Agostini; G. Benamati; G. Coccoluto; P. Gaggini; V. Labanti; G. Venturi; K. Liftin; N. Forgione; V. Moreau

2011-01-01

321

Thermal characterization of a liquid cooled AlSiC base plate with integral pin fins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present the thermal analysis and experimental performance assessment of an aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) metal matrix composite (MMC) base plate with integral cooling fins. By attaching a pin-finned base plate to an open-chambered flow-through heat sink, the mechanical interface between the base plate and cooling medium is eliminated. This reduces the overall thermal resistance and improves

Kevin A. Moores; Yogendra K. Joshi; Gerhard H. Schiroky

2001-01-01

322

The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers with superconducting electronic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of many of the superconducting circuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a serious disadvantage. This paper discusses the process of refrigerating superconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers. Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency and reliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. A comparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load and using heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed for monitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

Green, Michael A.

2003-12-01

323

REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS  

DOEpatents

An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

Bradley, J.G.

1957-10-29

324

Measurement of physical characteristics of bubbles in gas-liquid plumes: Part II. Local properties of turbulent air-water plumes in vertically injected jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural development of air-water bubble plumes during upward injection into a ladle-shaped vessel has been measured under different conditions of air flow rate, orifice diameter, and bath depth. The measured radial profiles of gas fraction at different axial positions in the plume were found to exhibit good similarity, and the distribution of the phases in the plume was correlated to the modified Froude number. Different regions of flow behavior in the plume were identified by changes in bubble frequency, bubble velocity, and bubble pierced length which occur as bubbles rise in the plume. Measurement of bubble velocity indicates that close to the nozzle the motion of the gas phase is strongly affected by the injection velocity; at injection velocities below 41 m/s, the velocity of the bubbles along the centerline exhibits an increase with height, while above, the tendency reverses. High-speed film observations suggest that this effect is related to the nature of gas discharge, i.e., whether the gas discharge produces single bubbles or short jets. In this region of developing flow, measurement of bubble frequency and pierced length indicates that break-up of the discharging bubbles occurs until a nearly constant bubble-size distribution is established in a region of fully developed flow. In this largest zone of the plume the bubbles influence the flow only through buoyancy, and the spectra of bubble pierced length and diameter can be fitted to a log-normal distribution. Close to the bath surface, a third zone of bubble motion behavior is characterized by a faster decrease in bubble velocity as liquid flows radially outward from the plume.

Castillejos, A. H.; Brimacombe, J. K.

1987-12-01

325

Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

NONE

1995-09-01

326

Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Sun with Microlens Array and Liquid Crystal Retarders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous spectrographic observations over extended solar structures, at a high spatial resolution and temporal cadence, are important to track and understand the physics of transient phenomena such as Ellerman bombs, flare kernels, prominences/filaments and spicules. With two-dimensional (2-D) field spectral data, we can make monochromatic images at a given wavelength in a designed passband and line profile analysis to derive 2-D distribution of atmospheric parameters. One technique to produce a spectrum of each spatial elements in an extended two-dimensional field is to use a micro-lens array. Replacing a slit of a conventional spectrograph with a micro-lens array then helps to capture two-dimensionally distributed short spectra from 2-D field using additional optics inserted, a bandpass filter and a large format detector. For observations of magnetic field, we can add polarization modulator made of liquid crystal retarders which give a sequence of alternative orthogonal polarization states with time. We describe a design concept and limitations for observations with the micro-lens array spectrograph and an initial result applied for a few existing solar telescopes at NAOJ and Hida Observatory, Kyoto University.

Suematsu, Y.; Shinoda, K.; Sano, I.; Kobiki, T.

2011-12-01

327

Integrated separation scheme for coal-derived liquids using ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A separation scheme for coal-derived liquids has been developed that separates by functionality into discrete compound classes using ion-exchange resins; neutrals are further subdivided into fractions differing in polarity, structure, and molecular weight by adsorption chromatography. Sufficient material can be separated to allow further characterization at both gross structural and molecular levels. It gives excellent overall reproducibility (+/- 4%) and recovery (>97%). Removal of acidic and base species prior to recovery of the liquefaction solvent by distillation is a major advantage of the method because it leads to a reduction both in the loss of lower boiling components and in the potential thermal alteration of the sample. The selectivity and discrimination of the procedure are demonstrated for a Victorian brown coal (Loy Yang field) liquefaction product as shown by spectroscopic and chemical analyses of its major fractions. The use of this method as a chemical probe can facilitate investigation of liquefaction mechanisms by enabling a ready selection for analysis of components varying according to a choice of parameters encompassing functionality, polarity, and structure. 29 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

Strachan, M.G.; Johns, R.B.

1986-02-01

328

Comparisons Between Integral Equation Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Atomistic Models of Polyethylene Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on dense liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 united atom CH{sub 2} units. A series of models was studied ranging in atomistic detail from coarse-grained, freely-jointed, tangent site chains to realistic, overlapping site models subjected to bond angle restrictions and torsional potentials. These same models were also treated with the self-consistent, polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. The intramolecular and total structure factors, as well as, the intermolecular radial distribution functions g(r) and direct correlation functions C(r) were obtained from theory and simulation. Angular correlation functions were also simulation obtained from the MD simulations. Comparisons between theory and reveal that PRISM theory works well for computing the intermolecular structure of coarse-grained chain models, but systematically underpredicts the extent of intermolecular packing as more atomistic details are introduced into the model. A consequence of g(r) having insufficient structure is that the theory yields an isothermal compressibility that progressively becomes larger, relative to the simulations, as overlapping the PRISM sites and angular restrictions are introduced into the model. We found that theory could be considerably improved by adding a tail function to C(r) beyond the effective hard core diameter. The range of this tail function was determined by requiring the theory to yield the correct compressibility.

Curro, John G.; Webb III, Edmund B.; Grest, Gary S.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.; Putz, Mathias; McCoy, John D.

1999-07-21

329

Comparisons between integral equation theory and molecular dynamics simulations for realistic models of polyethylene liquids  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on dense liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 united atom CH{sub 2} units. A series of models was studied ranging in atomistic detail from coarse-grained, freely-jointed, tangent site chains to realistic, overlapping site models subjected to bond angle restrictions and torsional potentials. These same models were also treated with the self-consistent, polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. The intramolecular and total structure factors, as well as, the intermolecular radial distribution functions g(r) and direct correlation functions C(r) were obtained from theory and simulation. Angular correlation functions were also obtained from the MD simulations. Comparisons between theory and simulation reveal that PRISM theory works well for computing the intermolecular structure of coarse-grained chain models, but systematically underpredicts the extent of intermolecular packing, and overpredicts the compressibility, as more realistic details are introduced into the model. We found that the PRISM theory could be considerably improved by adding a tail function to C(r) beyond the effective hard core diameter. The range of this tail function was determined by requiring the theory to yield the correct compressibility. The intermolecular radial distribution functions from this modified PRISM theory were in excellent agreement with g(r){close_quote}s obtained from the simulations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Curro, J.G.; Webb, E.B. III,; Grest, G.S.; Weinhold, J.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Puetz, M. [Center for Microengineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); McCoy, J.D. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1999-11-01

330

POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

331

Test results of the RS-44 integrated component evaluator liquid oxygen/hydrogen rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

1993-10-01

332

Integrated procedure for multiresidue analysis of dissolved and particulate drugs in municipal wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

For the first time, an integrated procedure for a quantitative multiresidue analysis of dissolved and particulate illicit drug target residues was developed and validated in three different wastewater matrices. The procedure consists of a comprehensive sample enrichment, fractionation and cleanup followed by the determination of target analytes by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ionisation polarities. The enrichment of illicit drugs from suspended solids and aqueous samples was performed using pressurised liquid extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE), respectively. The performance of different SPE cartridges was investigated in order to optimise the overall recovery and to reduce the matrix effects. The optimal results were obtained by combining mixed cation exchange (Oasis MCX) cartridges for fractionated enrichment, weak anion exchange for an additional extract cleanup and optimised chromatographic separation to minimise the impact from co-extracted interferences. The method was applied for the analysis of raw wastewater (RW), activated sludge (AS) and secondary effluent (SE) samples collected at four different wastewater treatment plants. The average contributions of the particulate drugs in the RW and AS were 1-28 and 23-65 %, respectively. This suggested that the total mass loads of some drugs might be underestimated by neglecting the particulate fraction. Moreover, relatively high distribution coefficients, determined for 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (RW = 1211 L/kg) and 11-hydroxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (RW = 1,786 L/kg) implied that adsorption might play a significant role in their overall removal during wastewater treatment. PMID:23377083

Senta, Ivan; Krizman, Ivona; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

2013-02-02

333

Molecular structure and elastic properties of thermotropic liquid crystals: Integrated molecular dynamics--Statistical mechanical theory vs molecular field approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between the molecular structure of liquid crystals and their elastic properties, which control the director deformations relevant for electro-optic applications, remains a challenging objective for theories and computations. Here, we compare two methods that have been proposed to this purpose, both characterized by a detailed molecular level description. One is an integrated molecular dynamics-statistical mechanical approach, where the bulk elastic constants of nematics are calculated from the direct correlation function (DCFs) and the single molecule orientational distribution function [D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1973)]. The latter is obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, together with the radial distribution function, from which the DCF is then determined by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation. The other approach is based on a molecular field theory, where the potential of mean torque experienced by a mesogen in the liquid crystal phase is parameterized according to its molecular surface. In this case, the calculation of elastic constants is combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of single molecule conformations. Using these different approaches, but the same description, at the level of molecular geometry and torsional potentials, we have investigated the elastic properties of the nematic phase of two typical mesogens, 4'-n-pentyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl and 4'-n-heptyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl. Both methods yield K3(bend) >K1 (splay) >K2 (twist), although there are some discrepancies in the average elastic constants and in their anisotropy. These are interpreted in terms of the different approximations and the different ways of accounting for the structural properties of molecules in the two approaches. In general, the results point to the role of the molecular shape, which is modulated by the conformational freedom and cannot be fully accounted for by a single descriptor such as the aspect ratio.

Capar, M. Ilk; Nar, A.; Ferrarini, A.; Frezza, E.; Greco, C.; Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.

2013-03-01

334

Effects of fish bioturbation on the vertical distribution of water temperature and dissolved oxygen in a fish culture-integrated waste stabilization pond system in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of wastewater stabilization with fish culture in a single-pond system is a double-benefit both due to the reclamation of the wastewater and fish production. In conventional fish ponds, it is known that fish activities (bioturbation) result in ecological benefits as they stir the sediment layer, improving aerobic conditions and, enhancing the oxidation of detritus in this layer. However,

Minh Phan-Van; Diederik Rousseau; Niels De Pauw

2008-01-01

335

How to (or Not to) Integrate Vertical Programmes for the Control of Major Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the delivery of multiple health interventions has the potential to minimize costs and expand intervention coverage. Integration of mass drug administration is therefore being encouraged for delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PCT) to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and trachoma in sub-Saharan Africa, as there is considerable geographical overlap of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). With only a

Narcis B. Kabatereine; Mwele Malecela; Mounir Lado; Sam Zaramba; Olga Amiel; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2010-01-01

336

Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional LCD backlight system is composed of light sources, a light-guide plate (LGP) and optical sheets, such as reflection sheets, diffusion sheets and prism sheets, etc. In order to make the backlight system thinner and brighter, we propose a novel integrated LGP based on micro-prism structures by using traditional transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only one LGP and to require no other optical sheets. By using the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, the light scattering phenomenon inside the LGP is analysed. The illumination angle with forward directivity and sufficient intensity uniformity are optimized with the simulation program. Design results reveal that our LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +40° to -20°, without using any optical sheets. Design examples, including 1.8 inch LGPs and 14.1 inch LGPs, are also performed.

Feng, Di; Yan, Yingbai; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Fan, Shoushan

2005-03-01

337

Monolithic optoelectronic switch based on the integration of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor and a GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the design and the first experimental demonstration of a monolithic integrated optoelectronic switch combining a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The switch has high current gain (500--700), low power dissipation (27 and 55 mW dc at optical output levels of 0.4 and 1.2 mW, respectively, and a high optical output levels of 0.4 and 1.2 mW, respectively), and a high optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency (150 W/A) under dc bias conditions, thus providing a high-performance electrical-to-optical interface for high-speed optical interconnections.

Ping Zhou; Cheng, J. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials); Zolper, J.C.; Lear, K.L.; Chalmers, S.A.; Vawter, G.A. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Leibenguth, R.E.; Adams, A.C. (AT and T Bell Labs., Breinigsville, PA (United States))

1993-09-01

338

Research enrichment: evaluation of structured research in the curriculum for dental medicine students as part of the vertical and horizontal integration of biomedical training and discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research programs within medical and dental schools are important vehicles for biomedical and clinical discovery, serving as effective teaching and learning tools by providing situations in which predoctoral students develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. Although research programs at many medical and dental schools are well-established, they may not be well integrated into the predoctoral curriculum to effectively support the

Karl Kingsley; Susan O'Malley; Tanis Stewart; Katherine M Howard

2008-01-01

339

Water-surface chlorophyll detection by remote sensing and vertical structure of chlorophyll analysis in Lake Superior: Water-surface chlorophyll as an estimate of water-column-integrated chlorophyll  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research, consisting of three parts, investigates the application of remote sensing to both the detection of water-surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl-a]) and the estimation of water-column-integrated [Chl-a] in Lake Superior. In Chapter 1, we describe four methods for determining remote sensing reflectance ( Rrs), using a combination of above-surface, below-surface, and polarization measurements of radiance, in western Lake Superior during the summer of 2003. The work allows us to examine in detail the effects of the unwanted surface reflectance from a rough water surface. The results of Chapter 1 provide consistent values of Rrs and indicate that the four methods are practical and helpful in determining Rrs reliably. In Chapter 2, we evaluate two standard empirical [Chl-a] retrieval algorithms: one for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and one for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compare the results from satellite data with the corresponding in-situ data collected in western Lake Superior in the summer of 2004. The linear correlations between the empirically-derived [Chl-a] and the in-situ measurements are poor (R2 around 0.1) for both algorithms. We find that more detailed information on particulate backscattering is required to test and derive a regionally optimized semi-analytical algorithm. To overcome the problems associated with retrieving water-surface [Chl-a] from the empirical and the semi-analytical algorithms, we apply artificial neural networks (ANNs). The results appear to provide better estimates of [Chl-a] than the empirical algorithms. In Chapter 3, we discuss the difference between the [Chl- a] profiles collected in offshore and inshore areas of western and southeastern Lake Superior and explore the possibility of applying a Gaussian distribution to the modeling for the offshore [Chl-a] profiles. We establish statistical relationships between the water-surface [Chl- a] and its vertical distribution characteristics: the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), the DCM depth (zmax), and the depth-integrated [Chl-a]. ANNs are used to relate the [Chl-a], the temperature, and the vertical attenuation coefficient (K d) near water surface to the depth-integrated [Chl- a]. Using these two kinds of inverse models, we determine the depth-integrated [Chl-a] distribution for western Lake Superior.

Yan, Yuhu

340

Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

2006-01-01

341

Integrated Lab-in-Syringe Platform Incorporating a Membraneless Gas-Liquid Separator for Automatic Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.  

PubMed

This manuscript reports the proof-of-concept of a novel integrated lab-in-syringe/gas-liquid separation (LIS/GLS) batch-flow system based on a programmable flow for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric assays. Homogeneous mixing of metered volumes of sample and reagent solutions drawn up in a sandwich-type mode along with in situ vapor generation are accomplished inside the microsyringe in a closed manner, while the separation of vapor species is achieved via the membraneless GLS located at the top of the syringe's valve in the upright position. The potentials of the proposed manifold were demonstrated for trace inorganic mercury determination in drinking waters and seawater. For a 3.0 mL sample, the limit of detection and repeatability (RSD) were found to be 0.03 ?g L(-1) Hg(II) and 3.1% (at the 2.0 ?g L(-1) concentration level), respectively, with a dynamic range extending up to 10.0 ?g L(-1). The proposed system fulfills the requirements of US-EPA, WHO, and EU Council Directives for measurements of the maximum allowed concentrations of inorganic mercury in drinking water. PMID:23977837

Giakisikli, Georgia; Miró, Manuel; Anthemidis, Aristidis

2013-09-12

342

Elephant's foot phenomenon in liquid storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for analyzing the seismic response of a flat bottomed cylindrical liquid storage tank to vertical earthquake excitation. Here, vertical earthquake acceleration is considered to correspond to an increase in the density of a stored liquid. Taking into account the vertical and horizontal earthquake loads, hydrostatic pressure, and considering restrictive moment and shear forces at shell-bottom

1983-01-01

343

Advanced Vertical Array Beamformer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advanced vertical array beamformer signal processor accomplishes acoustic beamforming of an underwater vertical array used in shallow water utilizing matched beam processing to suppress generated noise and/or ship radiated noise thereby increasing the...

T. C. Yang J. A. Mobbs

1998-01-01

344

Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, we become familiar with integrals, both by understanding them as sums of areas under plots of functions, and by understanding them as anti-derivatives. We present the u-substitution rule, which is the analog of the chain rule for differentiating composite functions.

Liao, David

345

Vertical Map Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

Perry, Joanne M.

1982-01-01

346

Advances in Continuously Profiling the Thermodynamic State of the Boundary Layer: Integration of Measurements and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes advances in ground-based thermodynamic profiling of the lower troposphere through sensor synergy. The well-documented integrated profiling technique (IPT), which uses a microwave profiler, a cloud radar, and a ceilometer to simultaneously retrieve vertical profiles of temperature, humid- ity, and liquid water content (LWC) of nonprecipitating clouds, is further developed toward an enhanced performance in the boundary layer

Ulrich Löhnert; S. Crewell; O. Krasnov; E. O'Connor; H. Russchenberg

2008-01-01

347

Evidence for Late Devonian vertical movements and extensional deformation in northern Africa and Arabia: Integration in the geodynamics of the Devonian world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Paleozoic geodynamic evolution is discussed at the scale of a wide part of Gondwana from North Africa to Arabia. With the aim of giving an integrated tectonic scenario for the study domain, we revisit six key areas, namely, the Anti-Atlas Belt (Morocco), the Bechar Basin (west Algeria), the Hassi R'Mel High (central Algeria), the Talemezane Arch (south Tunisia), the Western Desert (Egypt), and, finally, the High Zagros Belt (Iran). Below the so-called "Hercynian unconformity," which is in reality a highly composite discontinuity, surface and subsurface data display a well-known arch-and-basin geometry, with basement highs and intervening Paleozoic basins. We show that this major feature results mainly from a Late Devonian event and can no longer be interpreted as a far effect of the Variscan Orogeny. This event is characterized by a more or less diffuse extensional deformation and accompanied either by subsidence, in the western part of the system, or by an important uplift of probable thermal origin followed by erosion and peneplanation. By the end of the Devonian, the whole region suffered a general subsidence governed by the progressive cooling of the lithosphere. Such a primary configuration is preserved in Arabia with typical sag geometry of the Carboniferous and Permian deposits but strongly disturbed elsewhere by the conjugated effects of the Variscan Orogeny during the Carboniferous and/or by subsequent uplifts linked to the central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys rifting episodes. In conclusion, we try to integrate this new understanding in the geodynamics of the Late Devonian, which at world scale is characterized by the onset of the Variscan Orogeny on the one hand and by magmatism, rifting, and basement uplift on the other hand.

Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Tavakoli-Shirazi, Saeid; Leturmy, Pascale; Averbuch, Olivier; Mouchot, Nicolas; Raulin, Camille; Leparmentier, FrançOis; Blanpied, Christian; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

2013-03-01

348

Feature-preserving mesh denoising based on vertices classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an effective surface denoising method for noisy surfaces. The two key steps in this method involve feature vertex classification and an iterative, two-step denoising method depending on two feature weighting functions. The classification for feature vertices is based on volume integral invariant. With the super nature of this integral invariant, the features of vertices can

Zhe Bian; Ruofeng Tong

2011-01-01

349

Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

Cross, Rod

2007-11-01

350

Estimating the Gibbs energy of hydration from molecular dynamics trajectories obtained by integral equations of the theory of liquids in the RISM approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of integral equations of the theory of liquids in the reference interaction site model (RISM) approximation is used\\u000a to estimate the Gibbs energy averaged over equilibrium trajectories computed by molecular mechanics. Peptide oxytocin is selected\\u000a as the object of interest. The Gibbs energy is calculated using all chemical potential formulas introduced in the RISM approach\\u000a for the excess

D. A. Tikhonov; E. V. Sobolev

2011-01-01

351

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

352

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

353

Non-sag liquid application method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention provides a method for producing a substantially non-sag liquid mixture coating on a substantially vertical surface by applying a coating having continuously increasing thickness from one edge to another edge of the liquid mixture composed of at least two miscible liquid components and situating the edge at which the surface tension of the coating liquid mixture will be greater, as the more volatile liquid component evaporates, at a higher vertical position than the other edge.

Erickson; Dennis (Wilbraham, MA)

2000-09-12

354

Determination of liquid water altitudes using combined remote sensors  

SciTech Connect

Methods by which altitude ranges of supercooled cloud liquid water in the atmosphere may be estimated are explored using measurements from a combination of ground-based remote sensors. The tests were conducted as part of the Winter Icing and Storms Project that took place in eastern Colorado during the winters of 1990, 1991, and 1993. The basic method augments microwave radiometer measurements of path-integrated liquid water with observations from additional remote sensors to establish height limits for the supercooled liquid. One variation uses a simple adiabatic parcel lifting model initiated at a cloud-base height determined from a ceilometer, temperature and pressure from a radio acoustic sounding system or rawinsonde, and combines these with the radiometer`s total liquid measurement to obtain an estimate of the liquid cloud-top height. Since it does not account for liquid loss by entrainment or ice-liquid interaction processes, this method tends to underestimate the true liquid cloud top; for two cases examined in detail, 54% of icing pilot reports in the area were from above this estimated height. Some error is introduced due to differences in sampling locations and from horizontal variability in liquid water content. Vertical cloud boundaries from a K{sub a}-band radar were also used in the study; these often indicated thicker clouds than the liquid-layer depths observed from research aircraft, possibly due to the ambiguity of the ice-liquid phase distinction. Comparisons of liquid vertical profiles are presented, using normalized profile shapes based on uniform, adiabatic, and aircraft-derived composite assumptions. The adiabatic and climatological profile shapes generally agreed well with measurements from a research aircraft and were more realistic than the uniform profile. Suggestions for applications of these results toward a real-time aviation hazard identification system are presented. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Politovich, M.K. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-09-01

355

Peculiarities of vertical atmosphere absorption in the millimeter wave band  

Microsoft Academic Search

One complete year of continuous observations of vertical radiation of the atmosphere in two points of millimeter wave band (94 and 38 GHz) was conducted. The total vertical absorption, liquid and vapor water content of atmosphere, and average (effective) temperature of clouds are restored on the basis of these two-frequency radiometric data. Numerous cases of abnormal differences between experimental and

Nikolay V. Ruzhentsev

2003-01-01

356

Spatial decomposition of solvation free energy based on the 3D integral equation theory of molecular liquid: application to miniproteins.  

PubMed

We propose the method of spatial decomposition analysis (SDA) based on three-dimensional integral equation (3D-IE) theory of molecular liquids to study and decompose the thermodynamics of proteins in solution into atomic level contributions. The 3D-IE theory maps the solvation thermodynamic properties, such as the solvation free energy and solvation entropy, onto the 3D space around the solute, including the excluded volume of the solute macromolecule, with the elementary volume contributions expressed in terms of the 3D total and direct correlation functions. The SDA thus breaks down the thermodynamic quantity into partial contributions of the solute fragments (functional groups or residues) by applying the proximity criterion to the 3D-IE mapping onto both the solvation shell outside the solute macromolecule and its excluded volume inside the van der Waals cores, the latter giving a major contribution to the solvation thermodynamics. This is distinct from the previous use of the proximity criterion applied to the 3D distribution functions in the solvation shell only. As SDA does not require perturbing the protein molecule to extract the contributions from the constituent residues, it can become an alternative to the computational "alanine scanning approach". For illustration, we apply SDA to four miniproteins composed of 10-28 amino acid residues (chignolin, CLN025, Trp-cage, and FSD-1) and decompose their solvation free energy into the partial contributions of each residue. The present results show that SDA is capable of detecting a change in the protein thermodynamics due to mutations and local conformational changes. Furthermore, the SDA exhibits a convincing consistency with the experimental values of the whole-residue transfer free energies from water to 1-octanol. Thus, the SDA provides a meaningful decomposition of the protein thermodynamics which can bear a comparison with experimental measurements and therefore can serve as a valuable sensitive tool to analyze the protein thermodynamics at the atomistic resolution level. We envision that the SDA may also serve as a tool for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to correlate and predict various solute properties in a fragment-based manner. PMID:21166382

Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kovalenko, Andriy

2010-12-17

357

Measurements of two-phase flow patterns and local void fraction in vertical rectangular minichannel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology advancements entail a necessity to remove huge amounts of heat produced by today's electronic devices based on highly integrated circuits, major generators of heat. Heat transfer to boiling liquid flowing through narrow minichannels is a modern solution to the problem of heat transfer enhancement. The study was conducted for FC-72 boiling in a rectangular, vertical and asymmetrically heated minichannel that had depths of 0.5-1.5 mm, a width of 20 mm and a length of 360 mm. The heat flux increased and decreased within the range of 58.3-132.0 kWm-2, the absolute pressure ranged from 0.116 to 0.184 MPa and the mass flux was 185-1139.2 kgm-2s-1. The boiling process took place on a flat vertical heating surface made of Haynes-230 0.1 mm thick acid-proof rolled plate with the surface roughness of 121 ?m.

Kaniowski, Robert; Poniewski, Mieczys?aw

2013-06-01

358

Hunger enhances vertical vection.  

PubMed

Hunger was found to facilitate visually induced illusory upward and downward self-motions (vertical vection), but not illusory self-motion in depth (vection in depth). We propose that the origin of this hunger effect lies in the possibility that vertical self-motions (both real and illusory) are more likely to induce changes in visceral state. PMID:23362680

Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji; Palmisano, Stephen

2012-01-01

359

Aiding vertical guidance understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate training and displays for the vertical guidance system of a modern glass cockpit airliner. The experiment consisted of a complete flight performed in a fixed-base simulator with airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate a new flight mode annunciator display and vertical navigation training. Results showed improved pilot performance with training and significant

Everett Palmer; Martin Alkin; Peter Polson; Daniel McCrobie; Lance Sherry

1999-01-01

360

Laser ultrasonic investigations of vertical Bridgman crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The many difficulties associated with the growth of premium quality CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te alloys has stimulated an interest in the development of a non-invasive ultrasonic approach to monitor critical growth parameters such as the solid-liquid interface position and shape during vertical Bridgman growth. This sensor methodology is based upon the recognition that in most materials, the ultrasonic velocity (and the elastic stiffness constants that control it) of the solid and liquid phases are temperature dependent and an abrupt increase of the longitudinal wave velocity occurs upon solidification. The laser ultrasonic approach has also been used to measure the ultrasonic velocity of solid and liquid Cd0.96Zn0.04Te as a function of temperature up to 1140°C. Using longitudinal and shear wave velocity values together with data for the temperature dependent density allowed a complete evaluation of the temperature dependent single crystal elastic stiffness constants for solid and the adiabatic bulk modulus for liquid Cd0.96Zn0.04 Te. It was found that the ultrasonic velocities exhibited a strong monotonically decreasing function of temperature in the solid and liquid phases and the longitudinal wave indicated an abrupt almost 50% decrease upon melting. Because ray propagation in partially solidified bodies is complex and defines the sensing methodology, a ray tracing algorithm has been developed to analyze two-dimensional wave propagation in the diametral plane of cylindrical solid-liquid interfaces. Ray path, wavefront and time-of-flight (TOF) projections for rays that travel from a source to an arbitrarily positioned receiver on the diametral plane have been calculated and compared to experimentally measured data on a model liquid-solid interface. The simulations and the experimental results reveal that the interfacial region can be identified from transmission TOF data and when used in conjunction with a nonlinear least squares reconstruction algorithm, the interface geometry (i.e. axial location and shape) can be precisely recovered and the ultrasonic velocities of both solid and liquid phases obtained. To gain insight into the melting and solidification process, a single zone VB growth furnace was integrated with the laser ultrasonic sensor system and used to monitor the melting-solidification and directional solidification characteristics of Cd0.96Zn 0.04Te.

Queheillalt, Douglas Ted

361

A vertically integrated capacitorless memory cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-port capacitorless PNPN device with high density, high speed and low power memory fabricated using standard CMOS technology is presented. Experiments and calibrated simulations were conducted which prove that this new memory cell has a high operation speed (ns level), large read current margin (read current ratio of 104×), low process variation, good thermal reliability and available retention time (190 ms). Furthermore, the new memory cell is free of the cyclic endurance/reliability problems induced by hot-carrier injection due to the gateless structure.

Xiaodong, Tong; Hao, Wu; Lichuan, Zhao; Ming, Wang; Huicai, Zhong

2013-08-01

362

Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis I : Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its CTBT verification efforts, the International Data Centre (IDC) analyzes seismic and other signals collected from hundreds of stations around the world. Current processing at the IDC proceeds in a series of pipelined stages. From station processing to network processing, each decision is made on the basis of local information. This has the advantage of efficiency, and simplifies the structure of software implementations. However, this approach may reduce accuracy in the detection and phase classification of arrivals, association of detections to hypothesized events, and localization of small-magnitude events.In our work, we approach such detection and association problems as ones of probabilistic inference. In simple terms, let X be a random variable ranging over all possible collections of events, with each event defined by time, location, magnitude, and type (natural or man-made). Let Y range over all possible waveform signal recordings at all detection stations. Then P?(X) describes a parameterized generative prior over events, and P[|#30#|]?(Y | X) describes how the signal is propagated and measured (including travel time, selective absorption and scattering, noise, artifacts, sensor bias, sensor failures, etc.). Given observed recordings Y = y, we are interested in the posterior P(X | Y = y), and perhaps in the value of X that maximizes it—i.e., the most likely explanation for all the sensor readings. As detailed below, an additional focus of our work is to robustly learn appropriate model parameters ? and ? from historical data. The primary advantage we expect is that decisions about arrivals, phase classifications, and associations are made with the benefit of all available evidence, not just the local signal or predefined recipes. Important phenomena—such as the successful detection of sub-threshold signals, correction of phase classifications using arrival information at other stations, and removal of false events based on the absence of signals—should all fall out of our probabilistic framework without the need for special processing rules. In our baseline model, natural events occur according to a spatially inhomogeneous Poisson process. Complex events (swarms and aftershocks) may then be captured via temporally inhomogeneous extensions. Man-made events have a uniform probability of occurring anywhere on the earth, with a tendency to occur closer to the surface. Phases are modelled via their amplitude, frequency distribution, and origin. In the simplest case, transmission times are characterized via the one-dimensional IASPEI-91 model, accounting for model errors with Gaussian uncertainty. Such homogeneous, approximate physical models can be further refined via historical data and previously developed corrections. Signal measurements are captured by station-specific models, based on sensor types and geometries, local frequency absorption characteristics, and time-varying noise models. At the conference, we expect to be able to quantitatively demonstrate the advantages of our approach, at least for simulated data. When reporting their findings, such systems can easily flag low-confidence events, unexplained arrivals, and ambiguous classifications to focus the efforts of expert analysts.

Russell, S.; Arora, N. S.; Jordan, M. I.; Sudderth, E.

2009-12-01

363

Three dimensional metallization for vertically integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mainstream planar technology is marked by physical and technological limitations, which have a severe impact on system characteristics. The performance, the multi-functionality and the reliability of microelectronic systems will be mainly limited by the wiring between the ICs and subsystems. The “on-chip” wiring also leads to a critical performance bottleneck for future IC generations which can be solved only

P. Ramm; D. Bollmann; R. Braun; R. Buchner; U. Cao-Minh; M. Engelhardt; G. Errmann; T. Graßl; K. Hieber; H. Hübner; G. Kawala; M. Kleiner; A. Klumpp; S. Kühn; C. Landesberger; H. Lezec; W. Muth; W. Pamler; R. Popp; E. Renner; G. Ruhl; A. Sänger; U. Scheler; A. Schertel; C. Schmidt; S. Schwarzl; J. Weber; W. Weber

1997-01-01

364

Russian Vertically Integrated Oil Companies: Management Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum production and refining occupies a special place among the sectors in the mineral and raw materials complex of Russia. Discussion of their role in supplying consumers with the most important energy resources, primarily motor fuel, as well as the significance they have in the Russian foreign trade balance, is superfluous. What is important is something elseâit is namely the

V. Mukhin

1998-01-01

365

Vertical Integration in the Statistical Knowledge Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

National agricultural statistical information is a product of cooperative agreements and collaboration across agencies at the state and federal levels. This allows for sharing of responsibilities for data gathering, aggregating and disseminating information, and providing services. The agencies involved in cooperative arrangements to accomplish these tasks include: US Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS), state statistical offices

Deborah Barreau; Chang Su; Kristina M. Spurgin

2004-01-01

366

Fully integrated L-phenylalanine separation and concentration using reactive-extraction with liquid-liquid centrifuges in a fed-batch process with E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel in situ product recovery (ISPR) approach for the (fully) integrated separation of L-phenylalanine (L-phe) from a 20 l fed-batch process with the recombinant L-tyrosine auxotrophic strain E. coli F-4\\/pF81 is presented. The strain was rationally constructed for the production of the aromatic amino acid. Glucose and tyrosine control is used. A reactive extraction system consisting of kerosene, the cation-selective

N. Rüffer; U. Heidersdorf; I. Kretzers; G. A. Sprenger; L. Raeven; R. Takors

2004-01-01

367

Interacting bosons in one dimension and the applicability of Luttinger-liquid theory as revealed by path-integral quantum Monte Carlo calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmonically trapped ultracold atoms and H4e in nanopores provide different experimental realizations of bosons in one dimension, motivating the search for a more complete theoretical understanding of their low-energy properties. Worm algorithm path-integral quantum Monte Carlo results for interacting bosons restricted to the one dimensional continuum are compared to the finite temperature and system size predictions of Luttinger-liquid theory. For large system sizes at low temperature, excellent agreement is obtained after including the leading irrelevant interactions in the Hamiltonian which are determined explicitly.

Del Maestro, Adrian; Affleck, Ian

2010-08-01

368

Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to

B. H. K. Lee

2000-01-01

369

Gravity-driven propagation of thin non-isoviscous rivulets on vertical and inclined planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many practical problems require the spreading of a liquid on a solid. In the glass industry, flows of molten glass on a vertical or inclined, in respect to the vertical, solid refractory surface are parts of several important applications. In present paper, propagation of a thin and relatively narrow rivulet on vertical and inclined solid planar surface is considered within

Andrey Filippov; Gaozhu Peng

2010-01-01

370

Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

371

Estimation of the vertical velocities associated with large scale dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apart from some exceptions (e.g. certain convection movements, small scale turbulence, or surface gravity wave), vertical velocities in the ocean are generally too weak to be measured. In particular, that is the case of the vertical movements associated to the large scale (basin wide) dynamics. This prevents any accurate assessment of the thermohaline circulation return flow and the thermocline vertical ventilation (mass, heat, oxygen and carbon fluxes). A 24 year averaged global run is used to assess the domain of validity of the linear vorticity balance (LVB). In this data set vertical velocities are mainly controlled by the large scale LVB dynamics at subtropical and tropical latitudes. Therefore it should be possible to reconstruct the vertical velocity field by integrating vertically the LVB with an appropriate boundary condition. Various conditions have been tested and it turns out that the condition of no vertical motion at 1000 m is the most promising for applying the same methodology to climatological observations ...

Estrade, P.; Lazar, A.; Ndoye, S.

2012-04-01

372

Vertical profiling of precipitation using passive microwave observations: The main impediment and a proposed solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methods have been proposed to train microwave radiometers to retrieve precipitation rates estimated by a radar that observed the same location at the same time. These radar-trained passive microwave algorithms differ in the quantities that are estimated; some estimate the vertically integrated liquid water, whereas others estimate the near-surface precipitation. Since it is no more or less credible to estimate the rain rate at the surface than it is to estimate the rain rate at any discrete altitude, it is particularly interesting to quantify to what extent it is indeed feasible to estimate vertical profiles of precipitation from a passive microwave radiometer, what the obstacles are, and what vertical resolution would be achievable. To that end, we selected five study regions and started by quantifying the vertical variability of rainfall as derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar. Two cases emerged: a monsoon-like case where the first principal component of the vertical precipitation accounts for about 90% of the variability and a Mediterranean-like case where the first principal component accounts for about 80% of the variability. A Bayesian approach was applied to the TRMM Microwave Imager measurements colocated with the radar profiles. For the monsoon-like regions, it produced estimates of rain rates at 250-meter vertical increments, which compared well with the TRMM radar estimates. For the Mediterranean-like regions, the retrieval errors were very large. We therefore proceeded to identify the main reason for the failure of the straightforward training method. It turns out to be the unknown signature of the sea surface in the portion of the beam that does not contain precipitation. In the problematic Mediterranean case, our original straightforward approach can still be applied to measurements that do not suffer from this identifiable partial beam filling. For measurements that do, we derive a filtering approach to neutralize the variability of the partial surface signature and thus overcome the problem.

Haddad, Ziad S.; Park, Kyung-Won

2009-03-01

373

A measurement of the e/{pi} ratio difference between short (250 ns) and long (2.2 {mu}s) integration times with the D0 uranium-liquid argon central calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The difference of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses(e/{pi}) in the DO Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the DO calorimeter trigger readout (short integration time: 250 ns) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2 {mu}s). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/{pi} ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

Pi, B.

1992-12-31

374

Gravity-driven Propagation of Thin Non-isoviscous Rivulets on Vertical and Inclined Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many practical problems require the spreading of a liquid on a solid. The liquid may be paint, a lubricant, and ink, polymer, or a dye. In the glass industry, flows of molten glass on a vertical or inclined, in respect to the vertical, solid refractory surface are parts of several important applications. In present paper, propagation of a thin and

Gaozhu Peng; Andrey Filippov

2008-01-01

375

Spatial Distribution of Vertical Shear.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spatial variations in small scale vertical shear in the upper ocean are described, relationships between small scale vertical shear and density stratification are investigated, and the potential for predicting mean vertical shear from measurements of the ...

S. L. Patterson F. C. Newman D. M. Rubenstein R. B. Lambert

1981-01-01

376

Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market

Di Feng; Xingpeng Yang; Guofan Jin; Yingbai Yan; Shoushan Fan

2006-01-01

377

Case study: Integrating membrane processes with evaporation to achieve economical zero liquid discharge at the Doswell Combined Cycle Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

New restrictive permitting, operating and environmental requirements placed on independent power producers, utility power plants, chemical processing plants, refineries and other industrial installations are mandating zero liquid discharge of wastewater to sewers, rivers, deep wells and the like. Economic reclamation and reuse of wastewater is becoming essential. Since the mid-70's, vapor compression evaporation has been the preferred means to achieve

Anita Seigworth; Rodi Ludlum; Eugene Reahl

1995-01-01

378

Vertical Multijunction Solar Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical analysis of the vertical multijunction (VMJ) solar cell was performed which indicated that using silicon certain configurations could be fabricated to satisfy the program objectives. Results indicate that initial AMO efficiencies of 15% can ...

P. M. Stella

1973-01-01

379

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now

Nathan A. Niemi; Michael Oskin; Thomas K. Rockwell

2008-01-01

380

Numerical simulation of transport processes in vertical cylinder epitaxy reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method employing a marching integration, finite difference method is used to determine the momentum, temperature, and component molar concentration profiles in the tapered annulus of a vertical cylinder epitaxy reactor for silicon deposition from SiCl in H. Results of the study contribute to the understanding of momentum, heat, and mass transfer in the vertical cylinder reactor. The numerical

C. W. Manke; L. F. Donaghey

1977-01-01

381

Identification of impurities in acarbose by using an integrated liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach.  

PubMed

The usefulness of applying an integrated LC-NMR and LC-MS approach to acarbose bulk drug impurity profiling is demonstrated. LC-MS and LC-NMR methodologies were employed for the online separation and structural elucidation of a final drug product. Combining data provided by the stop-flow LC-NMR and LC-MS experiments made it possible to identify the main components present in the acarbose sample. Spectral analysis revealed that A and B were known impurities while C was an unknown compound. LC-MS and LC-NMR analyses revealed that C was a pentasaccharide differing from the acarbose in number and nature of sugar subunits in the molecule. It was subsequently isolated and its structure was confirmed by the offline 1- and 2-D NMR experiments, and atom assignment was made. PMID:16158985

Novak, Predrag; Cindri?, Mario; Tepes, Predrag; Dragojevi?, Snjezana; Ilijas, Marina; Mihaljevi?, Kreso

2005-08-01

382

Vertical axis hermetic helical screw rotary compressor with discharge gas oil mist eliminator and dual transfer tube manifold for supplying liquid refrigerant and refrigerant vapor to the compression area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical axis hermetic compressor includes an inner cylindrical housing fixed internally of a sealed outer enclosure bearing paired helical screw rotors defining with the inner housing closed thread compressor compression chambers. An electrical drive motor overlies the rotors and is shaft connected to one of the rotors. Compressed refrigerant vapor, where refrigerant is the working fluid, discharges through the

1984-01-01

383

Free trade agreements and vertical-specialisation in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional integration in East Asia has been described as ‘market-led’ integration driven by the activities of multinational\\u000a corporations creating vertical specialisation. This paper investigates the effect of free trade agreements (FTAs) on vertical\\u000a specialisation-based trade by employing a gravity estimation for a sample of nine East Asian countries plus the US. We find\\u000a that FTAs promote international trade based on

Xinyi Li

2009-01-01

384

The asymptotic motion of an accelerating, thick layer of inviscid liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most studies of a gravitationally unstable interface between a liquid and a gas by boundary integral techniques prescribe the motion of the liquid in the far field. The mean gas pressure at the interface is then irrelevant in its motion. On the other hand, when a pressure jump is applied to a liquid column in a vertical duct, its acceleration is determined by the pressure jump no matter how tall the column. Previous studies of accelerating liquid layers [G. R. Baker, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon, and S. A. Orszag, ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability of fluid layers,'' J. Fluid Mech. 178, 161 (1987)] show that the motion of the gravitationally unstable interface depends on the reciprocal of the mean layer thickness H. In this paper, we derive an asymptotic boundary integral method that captures the O(1/H) effects on the motion of the unstable interface with a correction that is exponentially small in H. The validity of the asymptotic approach is confirmed by comparison with numerical simulations of the liquid layer. The success of the approach relies on expansions of the kernels in the boundary integrals, indicating that the procedure for deriving the asymptotic equations is more general than just for vertical ducts or periodic geometry. In a subsequent paper, we use our approach to derive the equations for the formation of a bubble at a submerged orifice that is driven by an increase in gas pressure.

Baker, Greg; Nie, Qing

1998-01-01

385

Real-time cross-sectional averaged void fraction measurements in vertical annulus gas-liquid two-phase flow by neutron radiography and X-ray tomography techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Real-Time Neutron Radiography (RTNR) system and a high speed X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT) system are used to determine the flow regime, the instantaneous cross-sectional averaged void fraction, and the time averaged void fraction in a vertical annulus flow channel. A standard optical video system is also used to observe the flow regime. The annulus flow channel is operated as

G. D. Harvel; K. Hori; K. Kawanishi; J. S. Chang

1996-01-01

386

Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.  

PubMed

A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Pr<0.0001) proved that the model matched the experimental data, and had a high predictive ability. The optimal technological parameters were: 81.5°C reaction temperature, 51.7cm fill height of catalyst KF/CaO and 105.98kPa system pressure. Under these conditions, the average yield of triplicate experiments was 93.7%, indicating the continuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. PMID:22940350

Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

2012-07-09

387

Design and simulation of electrically addressed infrared filtering chip based on cascaded liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot effect for integration application of infrared spectral imaging sensor array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wavelength tunable optical filter based on cascaded Liquid-Crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) cavity with many working units has been proposed and simulated in this paper. By choosing different material and according geometric parameters, we simulated the structure in the wavelength of medium infrared (IR)(3-5?m) and far IR(8-14?m) with the algorithm of thin film matrix equation and iterative finite-difference. Finally, we give the spectrum of the structure under different driving-voltage. Combing this structure with uncooled infrared focal plane array (IRFPA), the image of many spectral bands can be obtained in one picture frame by applying different driving-voltage on each unit. Compared with other design, this structure has the advantages of wide free spectral range (FSR), compact integration, low cost and high stability.

Zhang, Huaidong; Fu, Anbang; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

2013-09-01

388

Large-area arrayed polarimeters with modulated polarization state of light beam based on electrically controlling liquid crystal architecture for integrating sensor array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an integrated polarization image sensing architecture, which can be used for measuring all the Stokes parameters, and then regulating the polarization state of light beam according to the polarization state we have known, by changing the voltage amplitude applied over the patterned electrodes. The architecture contains a liquid crystal (LC) device and an uncooled photo detector. We can calculate the polarization state of the polarized light beam by the intensities of the light passing through the different area of the LC device, and then modulate the polarization state of the light beam to other polarization state which we want by only varying the voltage amplitude of the driving signal in sub-millisecond. In this paper, we will give the simulating results of the polarimeter architecture we designed.

Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

2013-08-01

389

Vertical Differentiation among Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is reported that research on the socioeconomic achievement process has begun to generate anomalous findings, many of which involve occupational status as conventionally measured. The author proposes a theory of vertical occupational differentiation based on the role activities of occupational incumbents. (Author/RLV)|

Spaeth, Joe L.

1979-01-01

390

Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines the potential of using the near-surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chla]surf), as it can be derived from ocean color observation, to infer the column-integrated phytoplankton biomass, its vertical distribution, and ultimately the community composition. Within this context, a large High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment database was analyzed. It includes 2419 vertical pigment profiles, sampled in case 1 waters with various trophic states (0.03-6 mg Chla m-3). The relationships between [Chla]surf and the chlorophyll a vertical distribution, as previously derived by Morel and Berthon (1989), are fully confirmed. This agreement makes it possible to go further and to examine if similar relationships between [Chla]surf and the phytoplankton assemblage composition along the vertical can be derived. Thanks to the detailed pigment composition, and use of specific pigment biomarkers, the contribution to the local chlorophyll a concentration of three phytoplankton groups can be assessed. With some cautions, these groups coincide with three size classes, i.e., microplankton, nanoplankton and picoplankton. Corroborating previous regional findings (e.g., large species dominate in eutrophic environments, whereas tiny phytoplankton prevail in oligotrophic zones), the present results lead to an empirical parameterization applicable to most oceanic waters. The predictive skill of this parameterization is satisfactorily tested on a separate data set. With such a tool, the vertical chlorophyll a profiles of each group can be inferred solely from the knowledge of [Chla]surf. By combining this tool with satellite ocean color data, it becomes possible to quantify on a global scale the phytoplankton biomass associated with each of the three algal assemblages.

Uitz, Julia; Claustre, Hervé; Morel, André; Hooker, Stanford B.

2006-08-01

391

Countercurrent flooding in vertical-to-inclined pipes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on countercurrent flooding data obtained using air and water for vertical-to- downwardly inclined pipes containing elbows of varying angles. Experiments were performed with six different test sections, all having an inner diameter of 51 mm and a 1-m- long vertical tube connected to an inclined or horizontal tube. The flooding data for 112.5{degrees} and 135{degrees} elbow angles were almost identical and showed that these geometries required the largest gas flow rates for flooding among all the geometries tested. The flooding gas velocities for the 157.5{degrees} elbow were slightly less than those of the 112.5{degrees} and 135{degrees} elbows but greater than those of the vertical pipe without any elbow and vertical-to- horizontal pipes at low to moderate liquid flow rates. In all vertical-to-inclined pipes, flooding was initiated in the inclined section at about 15 to 50 cm downstream of the elbow. Due to the countercurrent flow of gas, the liquid stream just downstream of the elbow became highly agitated and a frothy mixture was carried upstream by gas at flooding. At moderate to high liquid flow rates, the liquid was deflected off at the elbow to form a turbulent, jetlike stream that partially broke up into droplets. These droplets were, at the onset of flooding, entrained and carried over by the gas stream.

Kawaji, M.; Thomson, L.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4 (CA)); Krishnan, V.S. (Thermalhydraulics Branch, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (CA))

1991-01-01

392

Vertical Economies of Scope for Organic and Conventional Dairy Farms in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of dairy farm structure have neglected issues of vertical organization of the farm. In this study we model and measure the potential for dairy farms to reduce costs of production through vertical integration. We estimate a multi-stage, multi-output cost function to assess vertical economies of scope in organic and conventional dairy farms. We model the cost of producing grains

Carlos D. Mayen; Joseph Valdes Balagtas; Corinne E. Alexander

2009-01-01

393

Cloud Super-Cooled Liquid Water Estimation from Satellite Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated algorithm for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water (SLW) from satellite data was developed to perform cloud surveys for assessing potential precipitation enhancement. The algorithm produces spatial cloud SLW column distributions by utilizing many of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived cloud products in addition to parameterizations developed to estimate vertical cloud thickness and fractional cloud liquid water content. Vertically derived cloud SLW is integrated to produce column totals. Sensitivity studies identified differences up to 30% in SLW content from individual changes in the minimum cloud optical depth threshold, vertical cloud thickness estimation, moist adiabatic lapse rate, and cloud liquid fraction parameterization constants. Corrections to MODIS cloud water path artifacts also reduced the estimated SLW content by 10% to 50%. Validation of the cloud base height and temperature estimates and derived total column SLW has begun using ground data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope Alaska site and CloudSat radar derived cloud products. Results thus far indicate that the algorithm may underestimate important cloud properties such as cloud thickness and cloud liquid water content which, in turn, may lead to an underestimation of cloud SLW. Comparisons of the algorithm’s vertical estimates of cloud SLW to aircraft data taken during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in northern Alaska yield very good results. National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data was sampled along with annual MODIS datasets in both dry and wet years over the state of New Mexico to identify specific environmental indicators. Although cloud coverage was similar between the two periods, cloud SLW was found to be 60% greater and the number of days in which the 500 mb level wind was predominantly westerly increased by 12% during the wet year. The parameters with the highest correlation to cloud SLW were the 700 mb to the 500 mb level relative humidity.

Roskovensky, J. K.; Ivey, M.; Porch, W.; Beavis, N.; Herrman, R.

2010-12-01

394

Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase  

DOEpatents

By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

395

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

396

Global and local horizontal-vertical decoupling  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author investigated systematically the global and local effects of horizontal-vertical couplings on the beam and the measurement and control of these couplings. Piecemeal studies have been made on these subjects by different authors. For completeness, their results are integrated here wherever appropriate. This brings the understanding and execution of the coupling correction to the same degree of completeness as that of the closed orbit correction.

Teng, L.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

1997-06-01

397

Integrity of chromatin and replicating DNA in nuclei released from fission yeast by semi-automated grinding in liquid nitrogen  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei. Findings Here we present a useful method for nuclear isolation from the important model organism, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To preserve in vivo molecular configurations, we flash-froze the yeast cells in liquid nitrogen. Then we broke their tough cell walls, without damaging their nuclei, by grinding in a precision-controlled motorized mortar-and-pestle apparatus. The cryo-ground cells were resuspended and thawed in a buffer designed to preserve nuclear morphology, and the nuclei were enriched by differential centrifugation. The washed nuclei were free from contaminating nucleases and have proven well-suited as starting material for genome-wide chromatin analysis and for preparation of fragile DNA replication intermediates. Conclusions We have developed a simple, reproducible, economical procedure for large-scale preparation of endogenous-nuclease-free, morphologically intact nuclei from fission yeast. With appropriate modifications, this procedure may well prove useful for isolation of nuclei from other organisms with, or without, tough cell walls.

2011-01-01

398

Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL® system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, S.; Krebs, T.; Weiss, C.; Paur, H.-R.

2009-05-01

399

Jamming in Vertical Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona

2011-03-01

400

Jamming in Vertical Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a vertical channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona

2010-03-01

401

Micronutrients and vertical transmission of HIV-1.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant can occur during pregnancy, at the time of delivery, or post-natally through breast-feeding and is a major factor in the continuing spread of HIV infection. Inadequate nutritional status may increase the risk of vertical HIV transmission by influencing mater-nal and child factors for transmission. The potential effects on these factors include impaired systemic immune function in pregnant women, fetuses, and children; an increased rate of clinical, immunologic, and virologic disease progression; impaired epithelial integrity of the placenta and genital tract; increased viral shedding in breast milk from inflammation of breast tissue; increased risk of low birth weight and preterm birth; and impaired gastrointestinal immune function and integrity in fetuses and children. Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in many HIV-infected populations, and numerous studies have reported that these deficiencies impair immune responses, weaken epithelial integrity, and are associated with accelerated HIV disease progression. Although low serum vitamin A concentrations were shown to be associated with an increased risk of vertical HIV transmission in prospective cohort studies, randomized, placebo-controlled trials have reported that vitamin A and other vitamin supplements do not appear to have an effect on HIV transmission during pregnancy or the intrapartum period. However, the ability of prenatal and postpartum micronutrient supplements to reduce transmission during the breast-feeding period is still unknown. PMID:12036800

Dreyfuss, Michele L; Fawzi, Wafaie W

2002-06-01

402

Vertical axis wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical axis wind turbine is provided based on the co-pending application ser. No. 890,998, filed Mar. 28, 1978, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,204,805. In this improved system the centrifugal forces of rotation produce no bending moments in the air foil spars. Also, the center of mass, the center of useful aerodynamic pressure and the center of main bearing supported

Bolie

1981-01-01

403

Structural design and test capability of an integrated stiffened CFRP panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper's aim is to focus on the design, manufacture and test of a stiffened panel in composite material with integrated longitudinal foam-filled stiffeners, spar and rib caps, using one-shot liquid infusion (LI) process, reducing weight and number of subparts respect to metallic reference baseline P180 Avanti vertical fin. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Extensive activities in computational applications in order

Fulvio Romano; Josè Fiori; Umberto Mercurio

2010-01-01

404

Metal pumps liquid uphill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of liquids on a solid surface is determined by the surface wettability. In this work, by structuring metal surfaces with high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses, we engineer a unique surface pattern that dramatically modifies surface wetting properties. In a gravity-defying way, the treated metal surfaces make liquids sprint vertically uphill at an unprecedented speed of 1 cm/s. Furthermore, the surface structures we create here rapidly transport a significant amount of liquid against gravitation to an elevated point above the reservoir level, thus bringing this effect to potential real-life applications.

Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

2009-06-01

405

A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species.  

PubMed

This study presents a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-TOF-MS methods and statistical tools, including untargeted PCA and targeted PLS/OPLS-DA models, to analyze 31 accessions representing 24 species in the eggplant genus Solanum (Solanaceae), including eight species whose metabolic profiles were studied for the first time. Sixty-two Solanum metabolites were identified after detailed analysis of UV absorbance spectra, mass spectral fragmentation patterns, NMR spectra, and/or co-injection experiments with authentic standards. Among these were two new 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives that were identified by analyzing their MS/MS fragmentation. Based on these results, a Solanum metabolic database (SMD) and a detailed biosynthetic pathway of Solanum metabolites were created. Results of analyses identified seven marker metabolites that distinguish four Solanum sections, and revealed species-specific chemical patterns. Combining LC-MS data with multivariate statistical analysis was proven effective in studying the metabolic network within the large genus Solanum, allowing for integration of complicated chemistry, morphology, and evolutionary relationships. PMID:24055226

Wu, Shi-Biao; Meyer, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Litt, Amy; Kennelly, Edward J

2013-09-09

406

Spatial Mapping of Protein Abundances in the Mouse Brain by Voxelation Integrated with High-Throughput Liquid Chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Temporally and spatially resolved mapping of protein abundance patterns within the mammalian brain is of significant interest for understanding brain function and molecular etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases; however, such imaging efforts have been greatly challenged by complexity of the proteome, throughput and sensitivity of applied analytical methodologies, and accurate quantitation of protein abundances across the brain. Here, we describe a methodology for comprehensive spatial proteome mapping that addresses these challenges by employing voxelation integrated with automated microscale sample processing, high-throughput LC system coupled with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer and a “universal” stable isotope labeled reference sample approach for robust quantitation. We applied this methodology as a proof-of-concept trial for the analysis of protein distribution within a single coronal slice of a C57BL/6J mouse brain. For relative quantitation of the protein abundances across the slice, an 18O-isotopically labeled reference sample, derived from a whole control coronal slice from another mouse, was spiked into each voxel sample and stable isotopic intensity ratios were used to obtain measures of relative protein abundances. In total, we generated maps of protein abundance patterns for 1,028 proteins. The significant agreement of the protein distributions with previously reported data supports the validity of this methodology, which opens new opportunities for studying the spatial brain proteome and its dynamics during the course of disease progression and other important biological and associated health aspects in a discovery-driven fashion.

Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Chin, Mark H.; Wang, Haixing H.; Livesay, Eric A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Anderson, David J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Desmond J.; Smith, Richard D.

2007-01-25

407

Tensile failure of liquids under dynamic stressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains an account of various experiments associated with the propagation of a pressure pulse up a vertical column of liquid. When such a pulse reaches the upper free surface of the liquid it is reflected downwards as a pulse of tension. This method therefore provides a means of subjecting the liquid to tension under dynamic conditions of stressing.

D C F Couzens; D H Trevena

1974-01-01

408

Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

Pruess, K.

2011-05-15

409

Vertically moored platform anchoring  

SciTech Connect

An improved system is disclosed for anchoring a floating vessel which is anchored only by parallel and essentially vertical conduits. The anchoring load is carried by units of concentric pipes including an outer riser pipe and inner strings of casing. Drilling wells and/or production of oil and gas or like operations are conducted through these casings. The tension of the inner casing string is transmitted to the floating vessel through the upper end of the outer riser pipe. The system prevents excessive buildup of stresses in the upper end of the inner casing due to the bending caused by excursions caused by the waves, the wind and the current.

Blenkarn, K.A.; Beynet, P.A.

1984-02-14

410

Doppler Radar Relationships for Hail at Vertical Incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships are derived which can be used in the analysis of Doppler radar spectra of hail at vertical incidence to find storm updrafts and hailstone size distribution parameters. It is assumed that the hail is spherical and homogeneous, that it is either dry or coated with a film of liquid water, and that it is distributed with respect to size

Carlton W. Ulbrich

1977-01-01

411

Vertical stratification of tropical cloud properties as determined from satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new retrieval scheme is developed to infer tropical cloud properties and vertical structure, including liquid and ice water content, cloud top and base, and cloud layering. The retrieval scheme utilizes a cloud classification scheme that uses both International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud top temperature and a microwave index from the special sensor microwave\\/imager (SSM\\/I). Different cloud classes

Rong-Shyang Sheu; Judith A. Curry; Guosheng Liu

1997-01-01

412

Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation  

SciTech Connect

The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

Lee, A. P., LLNL

1997-07-10

413

Torsional nystagmus during vertical pursuit.  

PubMed

We examined three patients with cavernous angioma within the middle cerebellar peduncle. Each patient had an unusual ocular motor finding: the appearance of a strong torsional nystagmus during vertical pursuit. The uncalled-for torsion changed direction when vertical pursuit changed direction. In one patient, we recorded eye movements with the magnetic field technique using a combined direction and torsion eye coil. The slow-phase velocity of the inappropriate torsional nystagmus was linearly related to the slow-phase velocity of vertical smooth pursuit, and changed direction when vertical pursuit changed direction. This torsional nystagmus also appeared during fixation suppression of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), but was minimal during vertical head rotation when fixing a stationary target in the light. We suggest that inappropriately directed eye movements during pursuit might be another ocular motor sign of cerebellar dysfunction. Furthermore, we speculate that the signals used for vertical smooth pursuit are, at some stage, encoded in a semicircular canal VOR coordinate framework. To illustrate, for the vertical semicircular canals, vertical and torsional motion are combined on the same cells, with the anterior semicircular canals mediating upward movements and the posterior semicircular canals mediating downward movements. For the right labyrinth, however, both vertical semicircular canals produce clockwise slow phases (ipsilateral eye intorts, contralateral eye extorts). The opposite is true for the vertical semicircular canals in the left labyrinth; counterclockwise slow phases are produced. Hence, to generate a pure vertical VOR, the anterior or posterior semicircular canals on both sides of the head must be excited so that opposite-directed torsional components cancel. Thus, if pursuit were organized in a way similar to the VOR, pure vertical pursuit would require that oppositely-directed torsional components cancel in normals. If this did not happen, a residual torsional nystagmus could appear during attempted vertical pursuit. PMID:8797162

FitzGibbon, E J; Calvert, P C; Dieterich, M; Brandt, T; Zee, D S

1996-06-01

414

Study of Natural Convection Cooling of Multiple Discrete Heat Sources in a Vertical Channel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural convection liquid cooling of simulated electronic components in a vertical channel was investigated. The test surface contained a single column of eight rectangular, protruding heated elements, each simulating a 20 pin dual-in-line package. Temper...

T. D. Willson

1988-01-01

415

Plasma break-down and re-build: same functional vertical graphenes from diverse natural precursors.  

PubMed

Plasmas, the 4(th) state of matter, uniformly transform natural precursors with different chemical composition in solid, liquid, and gas states into the same functional vertical graphenes in a single-step process within a few minutes. Functional vertical graphenes show reliable biosensing properties, strong binding with proteins, and improved adhesion to substrates. PMID:24002820

Seo, Dong Han; Rider, Amanda Evelyn; Han, Zhao Jun; Kumar, Shailesh; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

2013-09-04

416

Magnetic field effect on the cooling of a low-Pr fluid in a vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of direct numerical simulations are presented for the transient and turbulent natural convection cooling of an initially isothermal quiescent liquid metal placed in a vertical cylinder in the presence of a vertical magnetic field. The electrically conductive low-Prandtl number fluid is put to motion when the cylindrical wall is suddenly cooled to a uniform lower temperature. For this particular

I. E. Sarris; A. I. Iatridis; C. D. Dritselis; N. S. Vlachos

2010-01-01

417

Observation of picometer vertical emittance with a vertical undulator.  

PubMed

Using a vertical undulator, picometer vertical electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the vertical electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel vertical emittance diagnostic. PMID:23215388

Wootton, K P; Boland, M J; Dowd, R; Tan, Y-R E; Cowie, B C C; Papaphilippou, Y; Taylor, G N; Rassool, R P

2012-11-08

418

Observation of Picometer Vertical Emittance with a Vertical Undulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a vertical undulator, picometer vertical electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the vertical electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel vertical emittance diagnostic.

Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Dowd, R.; Tan, Y.-R. E.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Taylor, G. N.; Rassool, R. P.

2012-11-01

419

The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation.

Cooray, Himantha; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

2012-07-01

420

Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. VI: A report on the utility of liquid tracer methods for evaluating the microbial barrier properties of pharmaceutical packaging.  

PubMed

The relationship between a liquid tracer package leak test (Mg ion ingress) and microbial immersion challenge test was demonstrated by direct and indirect correlation techniques. Rubber-stoppered glass vials with micropipette leaks were evaluated by a helium leak rate method, filled with broth, sterilized, and immersed in a bath containing microorganisms (E. coli/B. diminuta) and liquid tracer (Mg ions). After exposure and incubation, each unit was evaluated for liquid tracer ingress by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and for microbial ingress by visual inspection and blood agar streaking. Two hundred and eighty sterile broth-filled test units were challenged with microorganisms and liquid tracer. One hundred and fourteen units showed neither liquid tracer nor microbial ingress. One hundred and eight units were positive for both microbial and liquid tracer ingress. No test units were positive for microbial ingress but not for liquid tracer ingress. Fifty-eight units were positive for liquid tracer ingress but failed to show microbial ingress. Logistical regression was used to demonstrate that the probability of liquid tracer ingress was greater than microbial ingress at all leak sizes. The results indicate that the liquid tracer method studied herein was a useful indicator of the microbial barrier properties of pharmaceutical packaging. Additionally, the results support the contention that liquid penetration of a leak is required for microbial ingress. PMID:10969527

Kirsch, L E

421

Dynamics of geckos running vertically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geckos with adhesive toe pads rapidly climb even smooth vertical surfaces. We challenged geckos (Hemidactylus garnotii) to climb up a smooth vertical track that contained a force platform. Geckos climbed vertically at up to 77·cm·s -1 with a stride frequency of 15·Hz using a trotting gait. During each step, whole body fore-aft, lateral and normal forces all decreased to zero

K. Autumn; S. T. Hsieh; D. M. Dudek; J. Chen; C. Chitaphan; R. J. Full

2006-01-01

422

30.VERTIGO AND VERTICALITY IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical dimension is crucial to Super Monkey Ball on all levels1, and invites us to meditate on vertigo and verticality, falling and failing in the construc- tion of space and game-play in this game and in comput- er-games as such. In Super Monkey Ball, the vertical dimension should be mastered (landing on tiny islands with the ball glider), avoided

Troels Degn Johansson

423

4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

424

THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This course provides an introduction to leading theories of regional integration. The theories covered include classics such as neofunctionalism and (liberal) inter- governmentalism but constructivist as well as comparative perspectives on the European Union will also be treated. The theories will be applied to cases of horizontal, vertical and sectoral integration in the European Union. Objectives Students will gain

Dirk Leuffen

425

Ultrawide-View Liquid Crystal Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wide viewing angle technologies for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are reviewed. The most promising liquid crystal modes for wide view technologies, such as in-plane switching, multidomain vertical alignment, patterned vertical alignment, and advanced-super-view are compared. By optimizing the phase-compensation films and their device configurations, the ultrawide-view LCDs with a contrast ratio higher than 100:1 at ± 85° viewing cone are demonstrated.

Lu, Ruibo; Zhu, Xinyu; Wu, Shin-Tson; Hong, Qi; Wu, Thomas X.

2005-09-01

426

Vertical Cavities and Micro-Ring Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of this chapter is to present the concepts of vertical cavities (VCs) and ? -ring resonators (MRs). The chapter commences with the motivation for progressing beyond conventional edge-emitting cavities emphasising on the potential of VC and MRs. The fundamental physics of VC and MRs is then analysed focusing on device design aspects. VCs are studied for optical amplifier applications. Lasing VCs are analysed in terms of polarisation dynamics. MRs in single and multi-ring configurations, like coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) and side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators, (SCISSORs) are discussed. Active MRs for lasers and amplifiers are investigated.

Alexandropoulos, Dimitris; Scheuer, J.; Adams, M. J.

427

The anterior vertical SMAS lift  

Microsoft Academic Search

With minimal skin and SMAS undermining, as well as a rotation point that is closest to the nasolabial folds and jowls, the “anterior vertical SMAS lift” reduces the risk of hematoma while optimizing direct pull on those surface features that require improvement. The vertical rotation enhances the malar region and decreases preauricular skin excision. Further, the author has found this

Robert W. Bernard

2003-01-01

428

Fast vertical mining using diffsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of vertical mining algorithms have been proposed recently for association mining, which have shown to be very effective and usually outperform horizontal approaches. The main advantage of the vertical format is support for fast frequency counting via intersection operations on transaction ids (tids) and automatic pruning of irrelevant data. The main problem with these approaches is when intermediate

Mohammed Javeed Zaki; Karam Gouda

2003-01-01

429

Emotional sounds influence vertical vection.  

PubMed

While viewing a large vertically moving sinusoidal luminance grating, the perception of upward self-motion (vection) was modulated by positive sounds (e.g., a baby's laughter). This may be because positive emotion and the spatial metaphor of vertical directions were unified in the mind. PMID:23155739

Sasaki, Kyoshiro; Seno, Takeharu; Yamada, Yuki; Miura, Kayo

2012-01-01

430

Get your vertical basket centrifuges off to a good start  

SciTech Connect

For solid-liquid separation, vertical-basket centrifuges are established workhorses in many of the chemical process industries. Despite this widespread familiarity, care must always be taken when specifying these centrifuges and starting them up. First, the author points out a wide range of features, options and product measures that should be kept in mind while preparing the specification for a vertical-basket centrifuge. Then, he describes good practices for the process design associated with the centrifuge. Finally, he offers a number of guidelines for trouble-free startup.

Jarosz, P.H. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

1997-06-01

431

Liquid crystal optofluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, A. E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-01

432

Liquid Crystal Optofluidics  

SciTech Connect

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-11

433

Modelling the Effect of Passive Vertical Suspensions on the Dynamic Behaviour of Sprayer Booms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical products for crop protection are usually distributed on the field as liquids by field sprayers. Unwanted horizontal and vertical sprayer boom movements create local under- and over-applications of spray liquid. A non-linear finite element model of a tractor and a mounted sprayer is developed to simulate these unwanted boom vibrations during field operations. Representative disturbance signals at the hitch

Patrik Kennes; Herman Ramon; Josse De Baerdemaeker

1999-01-01

434

Chemical Theory and Computation Special Feature: Static and dynamic quantum effects in molecular liquids: A linearized path integral description of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure, transport properties, and IR spectra including quantum effects are calculated for a flexible simple point charge model of liquid water. A recently introduced combination of a variational local harmonic description of the liquid potential surface and the classical Wigner approximation for the dynamics is used. The potential energy and interatomic radial distribution functions are in good agreement with accurate

Jens Aage Poulsen; Gunnar Nyman; Peter J. Rossky

2005-01-01

435

Results of an integrated aerosol experiment in the continent-ocean transition zone (Primorye and the Sea of Japan); Part 1: Variations of atmospheric aerosol optical depth and vertical profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the results of an integrated aerosol experiment, performed in spring 2009 simultaneously in two regions: near Ussuriysk\\u000a and in the Sea of Japan onboard the Nadezhda training boat. For the measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and moisture content of the atmosphere, we used multiwavelength\\u000a sun photometers operating in the wavelength range 0.34–2.14 ?m. The measurements of the

S. M. Sakerin; A. N. Pavlov; O. A. Bukin; D. M. Kabanov; G. I. Kornienko; V. V. Pol’kin; S. Yu. Stolyarchuk; Yu. S. Turchinovich; K. A. Shmirko; A. Yu. Mayor

2011-01-01

436

GAS BEARING STABILITY STUDY-VERTICAL ROTOR INVESTIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental study of the stability of vertical ; rotors, supported by self-acting gas bearings, is reported. Data are included on ; forced vibration of an unbalanced rotor, unstable rotors with flexible drive, and ; instabilities of a direct driven (integral electric motor) rotor. Methods of ; calculating forced vibration amplitudes due to unbalance are presented, based on

R. C. Elwell; R. J. Hooker; B. Sternlicht

1960-01-01

437

PARAMETRIC METHODOLOGIES OF CLOUD VERTICAL TRANSPORT FOR ACID DEPOSITION MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

A CUmulus VENTing (CUVENT) cloud module has been developed that calculates the vertical flux of mass from the boundary layer to the cloud layer by an ensemble of nonprecipitating subgrid-scale air mass clouds. This model will be integrated into the Regional Acid Deposition Model ...

438

Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

2012-12-18

439

Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT) was considered to provide an experimental base in the form of structural dynamic characteristics for the shuttle vehicle. This data base was used in developing high confidence analytical models for the pred...

E. W. Ivey

1980-01-01

440

Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The vertical action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of vertical performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by

Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos

1997-01-01

441

Parametrically driven surface waves in viscoelastic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a container of liquid is subject to vertical sinusoidal oscillation, the free surface becomes unstable at a critical driving acceleration and gives rise to standing waves. Here, we consider containers of finite depth, neglect the influence of lateral boundaries, and perform a linear stability analysis for viscoelastic liquids. Floquet theory is applied to transform the linearized governing equations into

Satish Kumar

1999-01-01

442

Parametrically Driven Surface Waves in Viscoelastic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a container of liquid is subject to vertical sinusoidal oscillation, the free surface becomes unstable at a critical driving acceleration and gives rise to standing waves. Here, we consider containers of finite depth, neglect the influence of lateral boundaries, and perform a linear stability analysis for viscoelastic liquids. Floquet theory is applied to transform the linearized governing equations into

Satish Kumar

1999-01-01

443

Vertical transitions in low temperature co-fired ceramics for LMDS applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize the advantages of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC), such as highly integrated and low cost microwave packages, a library of repeatable and low loss vertical transitions is necessary. This paper presents measured results of three LTCC vertical transitions: stripline to coplanar waveguide (CPW), CPW to CPW, and CPW to microstrip. A novel grounding structure for intermediate ground planes

A. Panther; C. Glaser; M. G. Stubbs; J. S. Wight

2001-01-01

444

Modeling of ultrawidely tunable vertical cavity air-gap filters and VCSELs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tunable vertical cavity devices including an air-gap integrated in the cavity have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The ultrawide wavelength tuning is realized by micromechanical actuation of Bragg mirror membranes. Based on optical and mechanical model calculations, the air-gap filters and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are designed for investigating mainly the optical tuning efficiency. In our research, we

Cornelia Prott; F. Romer; E. O. Ataro; J. Daleiden; S. Irmer; A. Tarraf; H. Hillmer

2003-01-01

445

Study of contact melting inside isothermally heated vertical cylindrical capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-contact melting processes of phase change material (PCM) inside vertical cylindrical capsule are studied. PCM are heated by the capsule isothermally at the bottom and side. The theoretical formulas of the melting rate and thickness of liquid layer during the heat transfer process are obtained by analysis, which are convenient for engineering predictions. Finally, the factors that affect melting are discussed, and conclusions are drawn.

Chen, Wenzhen; Cheng, Shangmo; Luo, Zhen; Gu, Wangmin

1993-09-01

446

Three Phase Upward Flow in a Vertical Pipe  

SciTech Connect

Many specialized technologies need to be developed to deal with the mobilization, retrieval, transport and reliable delivery of large amounts of toxic and radioactive waste to pretreatment facilities. At these facilities the waste is prepared for long term, unsupervised storage. At Hanford as well as other DOE nuclear sites, there are many underground storage tanks that are holding many millions of gallons of toxic and radioactive waste. A class of these storage tanks can utilize pneumatic conveying for the retrieval of scarified solids that are occasionally laced with sticky sludge, followed by slurry transport to pretreatment facilities. The formation of a thin liquid film that travels upwards along the internal wall of a vertical retrieval pipe may prevent those particles that are laced with the sticky sludge from adhering to it and eventually causing instability and blockage. In this paper we develop an approach to the design of a three-phase gas-solid-liquid flow system that could transport scarified solid particles, including sticky particles, pneumatically through a vertical pipe. A liquid film is introduced and maintained along the pipe's inner wall to act as a lubricant that ensure that sticky particles will continue to be transported without permanently adhering to the pipe wall. The system's operating conditions are within the boundaries of the annular dispersed region on a typical flow pattern map of vertical flow of a gas-liquid mixture. High gas superficial velocities combined with low liquid superficial velocities, conditions that satisfy the requirement and geometry of our proposed system, characterize such a region.

Erian, Fadel F.; Pease, Leonard F.

2001-05-01

447

New Three-Dimensional Integration Technology Using Chip-to-Wafer Bonding to Achieve Ultimate Super-Chip Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new three-dimensional (3D) integration technology using the chip-to-wafer bonding technique provides the ultimate super-chip integration in which various kinds of chip of different sizes can be vertically stacked and electrically connected through a number of vertical interconnections. We have investigated several key technologies of vertical interconnection formation, chip alignment, chip-to-wafer bonding, adhesive injection, and chip thinning to vertically stack

Takafumi Fukushima; Yusuke Yamada; Hirokazu Kikuchi; Mitsumasa Koyanagi

2006-01-01

448

Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat  

SciTech Connect

Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

449

Vertical structure of debris discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: The vertical thickness of debris discs is often used as a measure of these systems' dynamical excitation, and as clues to the presence of hidden massive perturbers such as planetary embryos. However, this argument might be flawed because the observed dust should be naturally placed on inclined orbits by the combined effect of radiation pressure and mutual collisions. Aims: We critically reinvestigate this issue and numerically estimate the “natural” vertical thickness of a collisionally evolving disc, in the absence of any additional perturbing body. Methods: We use a deterministic collisional code, to follow the dynamical evolution of a population of indestructible test grains suffering mutual inelastic impacts. Grain differential sizes as well as the effect of radiation pressure are taken into account. Results: We find that, under the coupled effect of radiation pressure and collisions, grains naturally acquire inclinations of a few degrees. The disc is stratified with respect to grain sizes, the smallest grains having the largest vertical dispersion and the largest being clustered closer to the midplane. Conclusions: Debris discs should have a minimum “natural” observed aspect ratio hmin ~ 0.04±0.02 from visible to mid-IR wavelengths, where the flux is dominated by the smallest bound grains. These values are comparable to the estimated thicknesses of several vertically resolved debris discs, as illustrated by the specific example of AU Mic. For all systems with h ~ hmin, the presence (or absence) of embedded perturbing bodies cannot be inferred from the vertical dispersion of the disc.

Thébault, P.

2009-10-01

450

Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel  

DOEpatents

The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

1981-01-01

451

Mathematical modeling of falling liquid film evaporation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of evaporation process from a laminar falling liquid film on a vertical plate of constant temperature is presented. The model is developed with and without interfacial shear stress due to the vapor flow at the liquid film surface. The vapor pressure drop, vapor exit velocity and cooling rate are calculated for different liquid mass flow values. It

M. El Haj Assad; Markku J Lampinen

2002-01-01

452

RHIC VERTICAL AC DIPOLE COMMISSIONING.  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC vertical ac dipole was installed in the summer of 2001. The magnet is located in the interaction region between sector 3 and sector 4 common to both beams. The resonant frequency of the ac dipole was first configured to be around half of the beam revolution frequency to act as a spin flipper. At the end of the RHIC 2002 run, the ac dipole frequency was reconfigured for linear optics studies. A 0.35 mm driven betatron oscillation was excited with the vertical ac dipole and the vertical betatron functions and phase advances at each beam position monitor (BPM) around the RHIC yellow ring were measured using the excited coherence. We also recorded horizontal turn-by-turn beam positions at each BPM location to investigate coupling effects. Analysis algorithms and measurement results are presented.

BAI,M.; DELONG,J.; HOFF,L.; PAI,C.; PEGGS,S.; PIACENTINO,J.; OERTER,B.; ODDO,P.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

2002-06-02

453

Vertical profiling of air pollution at RAPCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and regional pollution interact at the interface between the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. The vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, and winds must be measured with high temporal and vertical resolution to characterize this interchange and ultimately to accurately forecast ozone and aerosol pollution. To address this critical issue, the Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery (RAPCD) was built and instrumented in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus. The UV DIAL ozone lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2-micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon-borne ECC ozonesondes, form the core of the RAPCD instrumentation for studying this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes a 915Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied Micro-particle Optics and Radiometry (A?OR) laboratory hosts the FTIR, MOUDI, and optical particle counter. Using MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues, and cooperative ventures with the co-located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL, we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state-of-the-science in pollution forecasting.

Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; McNider, Richard T.; Knupp, Kevin; Lapenta, Bill; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Burris, John

2004-09-01

454

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

455

Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of COâ in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but COâ leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical COâ can form two-phase mixtures of liquid

Pruess

2011-01-01

456

Vertical Transport through Twisted Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene and its heterostructues are promising candidates for high-frequency electronics. Vertical heterostructures created by stacking graphene layers and hexagonal boron nitride layers together display orientational disorder, due to rotational stacking faults. In this work we report our theoretical study of vertical charge transport through a rotated graphene/h-BN heterostructure. Our theoretical model combines the microscopic tight-binding method with the Landauer formalism for electrical transport. Electrical conductances are calculated for a variety of system configurations and system sizes. We found that the electrical conductance has a maximum value when the rotation angle is commensurate. Away from commensurate angles transport is suppressed but cannot be completely ignored. We show that the distance dependence of the transfer integrals between two atoms is crucial in modeling the rotation-angle dependence of the vertical transport.

Pan, Xingyuan; Hematiyan, Shayan; Sinova, Jairo; Polini, Marco; MacDonald, Allan

2013-03-01

457

Gammagard Liquid  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Liquid For maintenance therapy to improve muscle strength and ... license application for Immune Globulin Infusion (Human) [GAMMAGARD LIQUID ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

458

Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes  

PubMed Central

Summary This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-Francois

2013-01-01

459

Control of vertically polarized glare.  

PubMed

Reflected glare often interferes with vision. Since such glare is usually polarized it can be controlled with polarizers. The use of polarized filters to eliminate vertically polarized glare from blackboards and glossy printed material is presented. Practical means for the construction of such filters are discussed. PMID:6863803

Peli, E

1983-05-01

460

Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.  

SciTech Connect

The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2008-01-01