Sample records for vertically integrated liquid

  1. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  2. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  3. NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY Yeon SukChoi \\ Steven W. Van to measure the natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen between two vertical plates has been performed power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath

  4. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  5. Silicon Vertically Integrated Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

    E-print Network

    Yang, Peidong

    Silicon Vertically Integrated Nanowire Field Effect Transistors Josh Goldberger, Allon I. Hochbaum Manuscript Received February 24, 2006 ABSTRACT Silicon nanowires have received considerable attention, alternative transistor geometries need to be considered.1 Silicon nanowire based devices2,3 and horizontal

  6. Food Supply Chains with Vertical Integration

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Food Supply Chains with Vertical Integration SOM 822 Research Paper Diogo Souza-Monteiro Dep. of Resource Economics 05/10/2004 #12;Introduction Food Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex in different tiers of food chains. Barkena and Drabenstott (1995) claim that contracts are quickly taking

  7. Integrated continuous microfluidic liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Jason G; Sahoo, Hemantkumar R; Jensen, Klavs F

    2007-02-01

    We describe continuous flow liquid-liquid phase separation in microfluidic devices based on capillary forces and selective wetting surfaces. Effective liquid-liquid phase separation is achieved by using a thin porous fluoropolymer membrane that selectively wets non-aqueous solvents, has average pore sizes in the 0.1-1 microm range, and has a high pore density for high separation throughput. Pressure drops throughout the microfluidic network are modelled and operating regimes for the membrane phase separator are determined based on hydrodynamic pressure drops and capillary forces. A microfluidic extraction device integrating mixing and phase separation is realized by using silicon micromachining. Modeling of the phase separator establishes the operating limits. The device is capable of completely separating several organic-aqueous and fluorous-aqueous liquid-liquid systems, even with high fractions of partially miscible compounds. In each case, extraction is equivalent to one equilibrium extraction stage. PMID:17268629

  8. Natural Convection of Liquid Metals in Vertical Cavities

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Natural Convection of Liquid Metals in Vertical Cavities F. Wolff Research Assistant C. Beckermann- ties. Temperature measurements are employed to deduce the significance of natural convection- rameters, it is found that the natural convection patterns in liquid metals are considerably different from

  9. A vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics for CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bo; Bandilla, Karl W.; Doster, Florian; Keilegavlen, Eirik; Celia, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    Conventional vertically integrated models for CO2 storage usually adopt a vertical equilibrium (VE) assumption, which states that due to strong buoyancy, CO2 and brine segregate quickly, so that the fluids can be assumed to have essentially hydrostatic pressure distributions in the vertical direction. However, the VE assumption is inappropriate when the time scale of fluid segregation is not small relative to the simulation time. By casting the vertically integrated equations into a multiscale framework, a new vertically integrated model can be developed that relaxes the VE assumption, thereby allowing vertical dynamics to be modeled explicitly. The model maintains much of the computational efficiency of vertical integration while allowing a much wider range of problems to be modeled. Numerical tests of the new model, using injection scenarios with typical parameter sets, show excellent behavior of the new approach for homogeneous geologic formations.

  10. Horizontal cavity vertically emitting lasers with integrated monitor photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Malcolm; Behfar, Alex; Morrow, Alan; Schremer, Al; Stagarescu, Cristian

    2006-09-01

    A 1300nm, high power, vertically emitting Fabry Perot laser is presented with a monolithically integrated photodiode. The lasers use ridge waveguide technology with a 45° etched facet to create 30mW of vertically emitted light. Two types of monolithically integrated back facet monitor diodes are discussed togther with their merits for adequate collection efficiency and tracking error. HCSELs with integrated MPDs have passed over 3000 hours of reliability testing.

  11. Thermal dispersion in vertical gas-liquid flows with foaming and non-foaming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, L.R.Z.; Saez, A.E. [Univ. Simmon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transferecia] [Univ. Simmon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transferecia

    1995-05-01

    Heat transfer experiments have been performed in gas-liquid upwards flow in a vertical column with non-foaming (water) and foaming (kerosene) liquids. The main purpose of the experiments has been to characterized the degree of thermal mixing in the system. For the range of conditions employed, the nonfoaming liquid exhibits complete mixing a low liquid superficial velocities. An increased in liquid velocity leads to incomplete mixing. In the latter case, the thermal dispersion coefficient at low gas superficial velocities is larger than what correlations in the literature predict. For the foaming liquid, when foaming and bubbling regions coexist in the bubble column, each region behaves as a completely-mixed subsystem.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Chilldown of a Vertical Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Samuel; Hu, Hong; Schaeffer, Reid; Chung, Jacob; Hartwig, Jason; Majumdar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a one-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient chilldown of a vertical stainless steel tube with liquid nitrogen. The direction of flow is downward (with gravity) through the tube. Heat transfer correlations for film, transition, and nucleate boiling, as well as critical heat flux, rewetting temperature, and the temperature at the onset of nucleate boiling were used to model the convection to the tube wall. Chilldown curves from the simulations were compared with data from 55 recent liquid nitrogen chilldown experiments. With these new correlations the simulation is able to predict the time to rewetting temperature and time to onset of nucleate boiling to within 25% for mass fluxes ranging from 61.2 to 1150 kg/(sq m s), inlet pressures from 175 to 817 kPa, and subcooled inlet temperatures from 0 to 14 K below the saturation temperature.

  13. Economics of vertically integrated livestock and meat operations 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, David Paul

    1980-01-01

    ECONOMICS OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED LIVESTOCK AND MEAT OPERATIONS A Thesis by David Paul Crawford Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1980 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ECONOMICS OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED LIVESTOCK AND MEAT OPERATIONS A. Thesis by David Paul Crawford Approved as to style and content by: . ) 'i' / hairman of Committe Member Member ember Head...

  14. Wicking and flooding of liquids on vertical porous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Chang, Young Soo; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-03-01

    When one brings a wet paintbrush into contact with a vertical watercolor paper, the paint may wick into the porous sheet completely or run down to ruin the art. We study a simple model of this spreading dynamics of liquids on hydrophilic porous sheets under the effects of gravity, using a capillary as a liquid source and thin fabrics of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate. Upon finding the maximum flow rate, Qw, that can be absorbed into the fabric, we show that the model can be used to obtain an estimate of the in-plane permeability of fabrics in a simpler manner than the conventional schemes. The shape of a wetting area that grows when the flow rate exceeds Qw to lead to rivulet formation is also theoretically given. The nose shape of the wetting front is shown to be time-invariant, while its profile depends on the properties of the liquid and the fabric. This study can be applied to understand and improve the liquid absorption behavior of hygiene items, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning equipments, and fuel cell membranes in addition to elucidating the mundane painting activity.

  15. Heat-transfer mechanism of liquid film flow in a vertical, finely grooved heating surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ouchi; M. Izumi; N. Yamakawa; Y. Takamori; T. Takeyama

    1991-01-01

    The heating surface structure characteristic of a vertical tube is emphasized in order to obtain nucleate boiling stability in the liquid film and to avoid the splitting of the liquid film into rivulets. Horizontally, vertically, and obliquely grooved surfaces were used in this paper with a constant liquid flow rate and isothermal surface conditions. The overall, as well as local,

  16. Polar anchoring energy measurement of vertically aligned liquid-crystal cells

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Polar anchoring energy measurement of vertically aligned liquid-crystal cells Xiangyi Nie aligned nematic liquid-crystal cells. Both theoretical analyses and confirming experimental results are presented. Vertically aligned liquid-crystal cells with buffed polyimide alignment layers are used

  17. Managed care and vertical integration: implications for the hospital industry.

    PubMed

    Higgins, C W; Meyers, E D

    1987-08-01

    Efforts to control health care costs are encouraging vertical integration in the health services industry. This restructuring is uniting the financing and delivery of health services into one organizational structure. Current trends in health insurance suggest that the principal insurance products of vertically integrated systems will be carefully managed to reduce unnecessary utilization. As integrated health systems come to dominate the markets of health insurance and medical services, the hospital industry will be dramatically affected. Hospitals will be the principal cost centers while insurance products will be the principal sources of revenue in integrated systems. Accordingly, management will face incentives to minimize hospital utilization and sell or convert excess hospital assets. This article discusses specific changes that hospitals may face if current trends continue. PMID:10283402

  18. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  19. Vertical Integration and Patent Licensing in Upstream and Downstream Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fehmi Bouguezzi; Moez El Elj

    2010-01-01

    The present paper studies and compares different vertical integration structures on consumers and total surplus with licensing by mean of a fixed fee in two successive homogeneous-good Cournot duopolies where one of the firms in each market has a different cost-reducing innovation. The key difference between the present model and models in the existing literature is that here we suppose

  20. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  1. Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, E.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-amplifiers.

  2. Phase separation of monomer in liquid crystal mixtures and surface morphology in polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jae Jin; Kikuchi, Hirotsuku; Kim, Dae Hyun; Hyup Lee, Jun; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Higuchi, Hiroki; Lee, Seung Hee

    2011-08-01

    The polymer-stabilized vertically aligned (PS-VA) liquid crystal display (LCD) driving mode has high potential for manufacturing low power consuming displays due to the higher transmittance and fast response as compared with the existing patterned vertically aligned and multi-domain vertically aligned modes. In this paper we have investigated the reaction mechanisms of monomer-liquid crystal blends to form a surface pre-tilt angle of liquid crystal in vertical alignment LCD associated with a fishbone electrode structure. The observed sizes of polymer bumps formed on the substrates were found to be dependent on the exposed UV wavelength and were almost equal in both top and bottom substrates. When a large UV wavelength was used, the phase separation mechanism of monomer in PS-VA mode was found nearly isotropic rather than anisotropic in contrast to the previous studies.

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies of vertical annular liquid jets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Ramos

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical studies are described of vertical annular jets, the conditions are determined under which vertical jets form an enclosed volume which can be used as a chemical reactor, the influence is assessed of the nozzle gap width, nozzle geometry, pressure difference across the annular jet, and Froude, Weber and Reynolds numbers on the annular jet's covergence length, and the mass

  4. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  5. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  6. Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to adequate resources, and appropriate integration into existing medical education curricula. As focused ultrasonography increasingly penetrates academic and community practices, access to ultrasound equipment and trained faculty is improving. However, there has remained the major challenge of determining at which level is integrating ultrasound training within the medical training paradigm most appropriate. Methods The Ohio State University College of Medicine has developed a novel vertical curriculum for focused ultrasonography which is concordant with the 4-year medical school curriculum. Given current evidenced-based practices, a curriculum was developed which provides medical students an exposure in focused ultrasonography. The curriculum utilizes focused ultrasonography as a teaching aid for students to gain a more thorough understanding of basic and clinical science within the medical school curriculum. The objectives of the course are to develop student understanding in indications for use, acquisition of images, interpretation of an ultrasound examination, and appropriate decision-making of ultrasound findings. Results Preliminary data indicate that a vertical ultrasound curriculum is a feasible and effective means of teaching focused ultrasonography. The foreseeable limitations include faculty skill level and training, initial cost of equipment, and incorporating additional information into an already saturated medical school curriculum. Conclusions Focused ultrasonography is an evolving concept in medicine. It has been shown to improve education and patient care. The indications for and implementation of focused ultrasound is rapidly expanding in all levels of medicine. The ideal method for teaching ultrasound has yet to be established. The vertical curriculum in ultrasound at The Ohio State University College of Medicine is a novel evidenced-based training regimen at the medical school level which integrates ultrasound training into medical education and serves as a model for future integrated ultrasound curricula. PMID:23819896

  7. Interconnected operations services in a vertically integrated utility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.P. [ComEd, Lombard, IL (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The North American electric industry has historically been composed of regulated Vertically Integrated Utilities (VIU). Vertical integration means that the same company owns generation, transmission, and distribution facilities. Regulated utilities were ensured cost recovery for all justifiable expenses. The entire industry is in the process of deregulation. The industry-wide trend is to competitive generation, while transmission and distribution remain regulated. Many variations, in both timing and structure, exist in states that have enacted deregulation and retail choice legislation. Some have combined retail choice with an ISO and power exchange; others have opted for retail choice without either. In the past, Interconnected Operations Services (IOS) were obtained by informal means within the same company. Generation is now being actively bought and sold as companies align their strategic direction with different sectors of the emerging electric industry. In the future, these IOS will have to be obtained by formal arrangements. The formal arrangements will need to encompass parameters including service definitions, compensation, performance measurement, and performance incentives. These formal arrangements are presently taking different forms in the industry depending on the stage of deregulation in each area, and on the particular agreements made by each Control Area. This paper describes how VIUs obtained and dispatched the IOS needed for reliability, and what challenges will be faced with respect to these services.

  8. Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

  9. An analysis of the impact of vertical integration on the Texas Hog industry 

    E-print Network

    McClure, Robert Harold

    1959-01-01

    , Characteristics of Vertical Integration . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 III ' Characteristics of Producers Interviesed. ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ 32 IVe Hog Production Programs ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 43 V, Investment and Financing Operations ~ + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 63 VI, lMetlng prac... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 82 Schedule For VerticallF Integrated Producers. ~ ~ ~ 83 Schedule For Son-Integrated Producers ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e 94 LI~& 01" T~ Types of integrators who werc engaged in vertically inte ". rated hog programs. ~. . . . . ~ . ~. . . ~ 17 2 ~ ~es...

  10. An analysis of the impact of vertical integration on the Texas Hog industry

    E-print Network

    McClure, Robert Harold

    1959-01-01

    , Characteristics of Vertical Integration . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 III ' Characteristics of Producers Interviesed. ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ 32 IVe Hog Production Programs ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 43 V, Investment and Financing Operations ~ + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 63 VI, lMetlng prac... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 82 Schedule For VerticallF Integrated Producers. ~ ~ ~ 83 Schedule For Son-Integrated Producers ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e 94 LI~& 01" T~ Types of integrators who werc engaged in vertically inte ". rated hog programs. ~. . . . . ~ . ~. . . ~ 17 2 ~ ~es...

  11. Solution chemistry approach to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on gold wires: towards vertically integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flavel, Benjamin S.; Yu, Jingxian; Ellis, Amanda V.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2008-11-01

    A monolayer of hexadecyltrichlorosilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was self-assembled onto a p-type silicon (100) substrate to provide a resist for electrochemical anodization with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Silane treatment of the oxide nanostructures created by anodization lithography allowed for the creation of a chemically heterogeneous surface, containing regions of -NH2 or -SH surrounded by -CH3 functionality. These patterned regions of -NH2 or -SH provided the point of attachment for citrate-stabilized gold colloid nanoparticles, which act as 'seed' particles for the electro-less deposition of gold. This has allowed the creation of gold wires on a silicon surface. Carbon nanotubes, with high carboxylic acid functionality, were vertically immobilized on the patterned gold wires with the use of a cysteamine monolayer and a condensation reaction. Such a material may prove useful in the creation of future vertically integrated electronic devices where it is desirable for electron transport to be in three dimensions and this electron transport is demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry.

  12. Dopant-Enhanced Vertical Alignment of Negative Liquid Crystals

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    alignment (VA) cell [1,2] has been used widely in liquid crys- tal display (LCD) devices because of its difficult to align in a VA cell; a poor molecular alignment leads to a low contrast ratio and smeared to align in a VA cell; its dark state has a severe light leakage between two crossed polarizers. We report

  13. Strong Vertical Alignment of Liquid Crystal on Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Ta Tang; Cheng-Ying Kuo; Ru-Pin Pan; Jia-Min Shieh; Ci-Ling Pan

    2009-01-01

    Properties of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film as a liquid crystal (LC) alignment material is studied. We deposit the transparent porous AAO film on glass with the diameter of the pores controlled between 17-65 nm. The liquid crystal can be aligned vertically against the substrate with the AAO film. The measured polar anchoring strength is about 1.5 times 10-5 J\\/m,

  14. Parametric instabilities of a liquid free surface in a flexible container under vertical periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, R. S.; Nigam, N. C.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric instabilities of the free surface of a liquid in a rectangular container with a flexible base under a vertical periodic excitation are investigated. Bolotin's method is used to determine the regions of dynamic instabilities, with use of the linearized equations of hydrodynamics. Primary and secondary instability regions are determined. It is found that, in general, the presence of a flexible base has the effect of reducing the regions of instability of the free surface of the liquid.

  15. Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, M.

    1997-10-01

    This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

  16. Vertical alignment of high birefringence and negative dielectric anisotropic liquid crystals for projection displays

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    LC cells and the alignment of terphenyls are relatively poor. We have developed a new method to align Anisotropic, Liquid Crystal, Alignment, Vertical Aligned LC cell 1. INTRODUCTION Homeotropic cell (also called, the VA cell is ineffective. In this paper, we report a simple method for aligning the high birefringence

  17. Rewetting of a hot vertical surface by liquid sprays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Casamirra; F. Castiglia; M. Giardina; C. Lombardo; G. P. Celata; A. Mariani; L. Saraceno

    2005-01-01

    Hot surfaces rewetting interests several technological fields. A very important application is in nuclear reactors technology, where it governs the cooling of overheated fuel elements during hypothesized loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). This phenomenon is also important in many normal processes and accidental situations taking place in conventional processes. For example when the integrity of metallic containers, filled by toxic

  18. Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E. [School of Aeronautical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

  19. Liquid metal integrated test system (LIMITS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Tanaka; F. J. Bauer; T. J. Lutz; J. M. McDonald; R. E. Nygren; K. P. Troncosa; M. A. Ulrickson; D. L. Youchison

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the liquid metal integrated test system (LIMITS) at Sandia National Laboratories11Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE–AC04-94AL85000.. This system was designed to study the flow of molten metals and salts in a vacuum as a preliminary study

  20. Experimental study on chaos of a liquid-filled tank under vertical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, K.; Watanabe, K. [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering; Tani, J. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science

    1995-11-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental study on the chaos of a partially liquid-filled cylindrical tank under vertical excitation. The test cylinder made of polyester film was harmonically excited with constant displacement amplitude. It has been well known that the partially liquid-filled cylindrical tank under periodic vertical excitation gives rise to the parametoric resonance. As the excitation amplitude increases, the nonlinear response characteristics of soft and hard spring types as well as chaos were found to appear in this system. The occurrence of chaos was recognized by the time history, Poincare map, phase trajectory, and power spectrum. Furthermore, the sloshing and chaotic motion of the liquid surface were found to appear in the lower frequency range than the parametric resonance and chaotic motion of the cylindrical shell wall.

  1. Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR (liquid metal reactor) nuclear reactor units

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seismic isolation has been shown to be able to reduce transmitted seismic force and lower response accelerations of a structure. When applied to nuclear reactors, it will minimize seismic influence on the reactor design and provide a design which is less site dependent. In liquid metal reactors where components are virtually at atmospheric pressure but under severe thermal conditions, thin-walled structures are generally used for primary systems. Thin-walled structures, however, have little inherent seismic resistance. The concept of seismic isolation therefore offers a viable and effective approach that permits the reactor structures to better withstand thermal and seismic loadings simultaneously. The majority of published work on seismic isolation deals with use of horizontal isolation system only. In this investigation, however, local vertical isolation is also provided for the primary system. Such local vertical isolation is found to result in significant benefits for major massive components, such as the reactor cover, designed to withstand vertical motions and loadings. Preliminary estimations on commodity savings of the primary system show that, with additional local vertical isolation, the savings could be twice that estimated for horizontal isolation only. The degree of effectiveness of vertical isolation depends on the diameter of the reactor vessel. As the reactor vessel diameter increases, the vertical seismic effects become more pronounced and vertical isolation can make a significant contribution.

  2. Low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs using novel hybrid assembly techniques

    E-print Network

    Perkins, James Michael, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    A new heterogeneous integration technique has been developed and demonstrated to integrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on silicon CMOS integrated circuits for optical interconnect applications. Individual ...

  3. 100 GHz mixer vertically integrated (stacked) SIS junction array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belitskij, V. Yu.; Jacobsson, S. W.; Kovtonyuk, S. A.; Kollberg, E. L.; Ermakov, An. B.

    1993-05-01

    A Vertically Integrated Array (stacked array) of single window SIS junctions (VIA SIS), based on a stacked five layer structure of Nb-AlO(x)-Nb-AlO(x)-Nb has been fabricated and tested in a quasi-optical mixer configuration at 106 GHz. This particular VIA SIS design has two stacked junctions fabricated by standard trilayer process employing photolithography, reactive ion and wet etching processes. A simple expression for calculating the specific capacitance of single and arrayed SIS junctions is suggested. Due to the absence of interconnection leads between the individual junctions and reduced overall capacitance, compared to a single SIS junction, has the VIA SIS good future prospects for use in submillimeter wave SIS mixers. The VIA SIS may be regarded as a lumped rather than a distributed structure at least up to the gap frequency at 730 GHz for Nb. DC-IV measurements show high quality of the individual SIS junctions and good reproducibility of the array parameters over the substrate area. The first VIA SIS mixer experiments yielded a receiver noise temperature of 95 K (DSB) at a LO frequency of 106 GHz.

  4. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  5. Silicon photodetectors integrated with vertical silicon nitride waveguides as image sensor pixels: Fabrication and characterization

    E-print Network

    Silicon photodetectors integrated with vertical silicon nitride waveguides as image sensor pixels: 128.103.11.141 On: Sat, 22 Mar 2014 23:38:14 #12;Silicon photodetectors integrated with vertical silicon nitride waveguides as image sensor pixels: Fabrication and characterization Turgut Tuta) School

  6. Mobile-Velocity adaptive Vertical Handoff in Integrated WLAN and WiBro Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Cha; SungHoon Seo; YeoMin Choi; JooSeok Song

    2008-01-01

    Integration of communication networks has been accelerated and is recognized as an important evolution plan of the existing networks such as WLAN (wireless local area network) and WiBro (wireless broadband Internet) networks. For the network integration, vertical handoff plays an important role to provide seamless connectivity between different networks. Mobile node (MN) performs the vertical handoff in the overlapped coverage

  7. Three-dimensional simulation of liquid drop dynamics within unsaturated vertical Hele-Shaw cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Huang; Paul Meakin

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional, multiphase fluid flow model with volume of fluid-interface tracking was developed and applied to study the multiphase dynamics of moving liquid drops of different sizes within vertical Hele-Shaw cells. The simulated moving velocities are significantly different from those obtained from a first-order analytical approximation, based on simple force-balance concepts. The simulation results also indicate that the moving drops

  8. Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach

    PubMed Central

    Al Qahtani, Fahd; Abdelaziz, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated. PMID:24959094

  9. Vertically Integrated Double-layer on-chip crystalline silicon nanomembranes based on adhesive bonding

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    approaches, including hydrogenated amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon and silicon nitride [8Vertically Integrated Double-layer on-chip crystalline silicon nanomembranes based on adhesive on crystalline silicon. We develop a process using SU-8 based adhesive bonding to fabricate vertically stacked

  10. Vertical integration of System-on-Chip and Green Engineering across the undergraduate curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi P. Ramachandran; Peter M. Jansson; Ying Tang; Linda M. Head; Lawrence Chatman

    2010-01-01

    Vertical integration is significant in achieving better student comprehension of the connections among topics and concepts covered in various courses taught during the same or different semesters of the curriculum. Students realize that the courses are part of a flow that contributes to a knowledge base without artificial boundaries rather than being separate bodies of knowledge. In this paper, vertical

  11. Fabrication-tolerant active-passive integration scheme for vertically coupled microring resonator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chyng Wen Tee; Kevin A. Williams; Richard V. Penty; Ian H. White

    2006-01-01

    The large-scale photonic integration of microring resonators in three dimensions made possible by recent developments in vertical coupling and wafer bonding technology is shown to be sensitive to lateral mask misalignment for the ring and bus waveguides introduced during the fabrication process. For a typical 20-?m radius, vertically coupled microring calculations reveal a linear relationship between deviation in the coupling

  12. Monolithic vertical integration of metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with subterranean photonics in silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejaswi Indukuri; Prakash Koonath; Bahram Jalali

    2006-01-01

    Monolithic integration of photonics and electronics has been achieved in silicon by vertically integrating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and waveguide-coupled microdisk resonators in a double-layer silicon-on-insulator wafer, thus paving the way towards dense three-dimensional optoelectronic integration

  13. Heterogeneously Integrated Vapor–Liquid–Solid Grown Silicon Probes\\/(111) and Silicon MOSFETs\\/(100)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Okugawa; Kotaro Mayumi; Akihito Ikedo; Makoto Ishida; Takeshi Kawano

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we report the heterogeneous integra- tion of vertically aligned silicon (Si) microprobe arrays\\/(111) with MOSFET circuits\\/(100) by IC processes and subsequent selective vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of Si. A hybrid Si-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with different species of Si lay- ers, e.g., a (100)-top-Si\\/buried oxide\\/(111)-handle-Si system, was utilized for the heterogeneous integration technique. MOSFETs were fabricated on (100) top

  14. LIQUID MIXING STUDIES WITH AN INTEGRATED MIXER/VALVE

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    181 LIQUID MIXING STUDIES WITH AN INTEGRATED MIXER/VALVE Joel Voldman* , Martha L. Gray, and testing of an integrated mixer/valve and a method for determining its mixing performance. The method of their mixing performance - the mixing time. We have designed and fabricated a microfabricated liquid mixer/valve

  15. A numerical study of the effects of the vertical baffle on liquid sloshing in two-dimensional rectangular tank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakan Akyildiz

    2012-01-01

    The liquid sloshing in a moving partially filled rectangular tank with a vertical baffle is investigated. A numerical algorithm based on the volume of fluid (VOF) technique is used to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid sloshing. The numerical model solves the complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables by using of finite difference approximations with the moving coordinate system. The

  16. The horizontal variability of vertically integrated boundary layer winds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René V. Cormier

    1975-01-01

    This research provides a study of the horizontal variability of integrated boundary layer winds (IBLW's) for distances of the order of miles (kilometers). This information should be helpful for both theoretical and practical applications, e.g., boundary layer parameterization and air pollution models. The study concerned itself with winds integrated to a height of 1000 ft (300 m) and made use

  17. Screen Survival of Movies at Competitive Theaters: Vertical and Horizontal Integration in a Spatially Differentiated Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wayne Fu

    2009-01-01

    This article empirically examines the effects of vertical integration and horizontal control on the exhibition of films at competing theaters in a market in which some theater owners are integrated into film distribution and others are not. It analyzes the duration of the exhibition runs of movies released by distributors who owned no theaters in Singapore during 2002 and 2003

  18. Vertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    -Ethanol Value Chain 4. Feedstock and Security of Supply 5. Horizontal Consolidation in Manufacturing segment 6 integration along the value chain Three major driving forces/dynamics: security of supply, permeabilityVertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in Fuel

  19. Direct integration of metal oxide nanowire in vertical field-effect transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pho Nguyen; Hou T. Ng; Toshishige Yamada; Michael K. Smith; Jun Li; Jie Han; M. Meyyappan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate seamless direct integration of a semiconductor nanowire grown using a bottom-up approach to obtain a vertical field-effect transistor (VFET). We first synthesize single crystalline semiconductor indium oxide (In2O3) nanowires projecting vertically and uniformly on a nonconducting optical sapphire substrate. Direct electrical contact to the nanowires is uniquely provided by a self-assembled underlying In2O3 buffer layer formed in-situ during

  20. Integration of diffractive lenses with addressable vertical-cavity laser arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mial E. Warren; Tu C. Du; Joel R. Wendt; G. Allen Vawter; Richard F. Carson; Kevin L. Lear; S. P. Kilcoyne; Richard P. Schneider; John C. Zolper

    1995-01-01

    An optical interconnection system is being developed to provide vertical, digital data channels for stacked multichip modules. A key component of the system is an array of individually addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with diffractive lenses integrated into the substrate to control beam divergence and direction. The lenses were fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography and reactive ion beam etching into the

  1. How economic integration affects the vertical structure of the public sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Liberati; Antonio Sciala

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of economic integration on the vertical structure of the public sector within a country.\\u000a To tackle this issue we set up a model of fiscal federalism, where economic integration is assumed to affect central government\\u000a tax revenues. The main findings are that when an increase of the impact of economic integration brings about a reduction

  2. Numerical simulation of mixed convection heat and mass transfer with liquid film cooling along an insulated vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddaoui, M.; Mir, A.; Belahmidi, E.

    2002-08-01

    A computer code was developed for modelling laminar mixed convection heat and mass transfer with the evaporative cooling of liquid film falling along an insulated vertical channel. The numerical method applied solves the coupled governing equations together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. Results are specifically presented for air-water system. Parametric computations were performed to investigate the effects of Reynolds number, inlet liquid temperature and inlet liquid mass flow rate on the liquid film cooling mechanism. The results indicate that the latent heat transfer is a main mechanism for heat removal from the interface. Additionally, significant liquid cooling results for the system with a higher gas flow Reynolds number Re, a lower liquid flow rate ?0 or a higher inlet liquid temperature TL0.

  3. Tri-state logic using vertically integrated Si-SiGe resonant interband tunneling diodes with double NDR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niu Jin; Sung-Yong Chung; Roux M. Heyns; Paul R. Berger; Ronghua Yu; Phillip E. Thompson; Sean L. Rommel

    2004-01-01

    A vertically integrated npnp Si-based resonant interband tunneling diode (RITD) pair is realized with low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy by stacking two RITDs with a connecting backward diode between them. The current-voltage characteristics of the vertically integrated RITD pair demonstrates two sequential negative differential resistance regions in the forward-biasing condition. Tri-state logic is demonstrated by using the vertically integrated RITDs as

  4. FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    into the environment and a pump and pipes to drive and contain the working fluid (most often water). Most presented in designing liquid cooling solu- tions are performance, reliability and price. To that end a one-phase liquid cooling concept is pro- posed, where all pumps, valves and piping are fully integrated on board level

  5. Unifying Laboratory Content of a Digital Systems and Computer Architecture Curriculum through Horizon and Vertical Integration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This paper describes the application of horizontal and vertical integration to unify the digital systems and computer architecture curriculum for the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University Calumet. An enhanced set of twelve laboratory assignments and five design projects resulted from performing the integration. Horizontal integration was achieved by providing a consistent presentation of concepts across two computer architecture laboratory courses while simultaneously providing students the necessary skill-set for developing a successful career as a computer engineer. Vertical integration was achieved by interweaving common technical theories and skills to establish interdependence among all digital system and computer architecture laboratory coursework. The restructured laboratory sequence provides a cohesive educational experience and significant exposure to concepts, design methodologies, and software tools ubiquitous in the semiconductor and computer industry.

  6. Transition from mixed to forced convection for opposing vertical flows in liquid-saturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Mixed-convection phenomena can occur within liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs due to interactions of injected flows, or ground-water flows, with the buoyancy-induced fluid motion. This problem was studied experimentally and numerically for the case of opposing flows about a vertical heat source in a liquid-saturated porous medium. The ratio of the Rayleigh number (Ra) to the Peclet number (Pe) was identified as the nondimensional parameter which characterizes the relative influence of buoyancy-driven to pressure-gradient-driven fluid motion. The transition from mixed to forced convection was numerically determined to be (Ra/Pe) approx. = -0.5, where the minus sign denotes superimposed downflow. Agreement between measured and predicted thermal-field results showed that the finite-element code of Gartling and Hickox (1982 a,b) can be used to model low-temperature (single-phase) geothermal reservoirs throughout the natural, mixed, and forced convection regimes. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Measuring the impact of vertical integration on response times in ethernet fieldbuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Denis; Silvain Ruel; Jean-Marc Faure; G. Marsal; Georg Frey

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of Ethernet and Internet technologies in the fieldbuses of automation systems widely facilitates vertical integration. Control functions can coexist more easily with higher level functions such as supervision, production reporting or maintenance. But what does the response time of the control function become when architecture components -e.g. controllers, remote input-output modules or fieldbuses -are requested in parallel by

  8. MSO growth, vertical vs. 'virtual' integration to top 1996 trends list.

    PubMed

    1995-12-22

    After a whirlwind 1995, what's coming for healthcare systems in 1996? Not much time to rest, predicts Alan Zuckerman, executive vice president, Chi Systems Inc., Philadelphia. More intense competition between for-profit and not-for-profit health systems, a rising debate over vertical vs. "virtual" integration and a wave of management services organizations could define 1996. PMID:10154264

  9. Integration of vertical InAs nanowire arrays on insulator-on-silicon for electrical isolation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Integration of vertical InAs nanowire arrays on insulator-on-silicon for electrical isolation Shadi and transport barriers at the Si­III­V NW interface. Smart-cut® technique is used to transfer a thin InAs layer onto SiO2/Si and is subsequently used for ordered organometallic vapor phase epitaxy of InAs NWs

  10. Page 1 of 21 Vertical integration in a growing industry: security of supply

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Page 1 of 21 Vertical integration in a growing industry: security of supply and market access of the industry boundaries, (ii) security of supply and (iii) access to market. The permeability of industry is to secure supply and mitigate risks of price volatility. Oil and gas firms move upstream to enhance security

  11. Pecuniary Knowledge Externalities in a New Taxonomy: Knowledge Interactions in a Vertically Integrated System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Gehringer

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a new sectoral taxonomy that focuses on the existence of non negligible external effects, deriving from user-producer knowledge interactions, the latter in turn coupled with intermediate goods transactions, in a system of vertically integrated manufacturing and services sectors. These externalities, the so called pecuniary knowledge externalities, are the main source of changing technological conditions experienced by downstream

  12. Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence: Device and microscopy characterizations

    E-print Network

    Russell, Kasey

    Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence: Device and microscopy directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL heterostructure with GaAs quantum-well active of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2208738 I. INTRODUCTION As a recent development of ballistic electron emission

  13. Numerical simulation of mixed convection heat and mass transfer with liquid film cooling along an insulated vertical channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Feddaoui; A. Mir; E. Belahmidi

    2003-01-01

    A computer code was developed for modelling laminar mixed convection heat and mass transfer with the evaporative cooling of liquid film falling along an insulated vertical channel. The numerical method applied solves the coupled governing equations together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. Results are specifically presented for air–water system. Parametric computations were performed to investigate the effects of Reynolds

  14. Electric Field Tuning of Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystals on a Silver Grating Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Ogawa; Masayoshi Ojima; Koji Murata; Yasumasa Fujiwara; Hitoshi Kubo; Hiroyuki Yoshida; Akihiko Fujii; Masanori Ozaki

    2011-01-01

    We report electric field tuning of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by controlling the polarization state of incident light using vertical alignment liquid crystal (VA-LC) layer. Excitation of SPR depends on the polarization state of incident light and incident angle. We fabricated a metallic grating structure in order to excite SPR, and then we investigated the applied voltage dependence of reflection

  15. High-contrast vertical alignment of lateral difluoro-terphenyl liquid crystals Chien-Hui Wen, Sebastian Gauza, and Shin-Tson Wua

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    cell; a poor alignment leads to a low-contrast ratio and smeared thresh- old behavior. Several VAHigh-contrast vertical alignment of lateral difluoro-terphenyl liquid crystals Chien-Hui Wen method for achieving high-contrast vertical alignment of lateral difluoro-terphenyl liquid crystals using

  16. Corporate Strategies along the LNG Value Added Chain An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

    This study analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global LNG market. In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration. Our hypothesis is that high transaction costs along the LNG value added chain induce a higher degree of vertical integration. This hypothesis is tested by implementing ordered response models. To explain determinants of

  17. Realization of MEMS-IC Vertical Integration Utilizing Smart Bumpless Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Masayoshi; Moriguchi, Makoto; Sasaki, Sho; Oba, Masatoshi

    This paper reports fundamental technologies, properties, and new experimental results of SBB (Smart Bumpless Bonding) to realize MEMS-IC vertical integration. Although conventional bonding technologies have had difficulties integrating MEMS and its processing circuit because of their rough bonding surfaces, fragile structures, and thermal restriction, SBB technology realized the vertical integration without thermal treatment, any adhesive materials including bumps, and chemical mechanical polishing. The SBB technology bonds sealing parts for vacuum sealing and electrodes for electrical connection simultaneously as published in previous experimental study. The plasma CVD SiO2 is utilized to realize vacuum sealing as sealing material. And Au projection studs are formed on each electrode and connected electrically between two wafers by compressive plastic deformation and surface activation. In this paper, new experimental results including vacuum sealing properties, electrical improvement, IC bonding results on the described fundamental concept and properties are reported.

  18. Integrated plant for treatment of liquid radwaste

    SciTech Connect

    Sen Gupta, S.K. [Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    In the early 1980`s, AECL Research, at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, built a Waste Treatment Centre for managing low-level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes. At present, two industrial liquid waste streams are being routinely treated. One stream originates from the central Decontamination Centre (DC), where reactor components, protective plastic clothing, and respirators are cleaned. The other Active Drain (AD) stream is produced from a large and diverse number of research laboratories and radioisotope production facilities. The two waste streams, totalling about 2500 m per year (0.66 million US gallons), are volume reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO), and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies; two thin-film evaporators (TFE) are employed for (i) the final volume reduction step, and (ii) the subsequent solidification of evaporator bottom with bitumen for containment of the radioactivity.

  19. An Integrated Approach toward Retrieving Physically Consistent Profiles of Temperature, Humidity, and Cloud Liquid Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhnert, Ulrich; Crewell, Susanne; Simmer, Clemens

    2004-09-01

    A method is presented for deriving physically consistent profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water content. This approach combines a ground-based multichannel microwave radiometer, a cloud radar, a lidar-ceilometer, the nearest operational radiosonde measurement, and ground-level measurements of standard meteorological properties with statistics derived from results of a microphysical cloud model. All measurements are integrated within the framework of optimal estimation to guarantee a retrieved profile with maximum information content. The developed integrated profiling technique (IPT) is applied to synthetic cloud model output as a test of accuracy. It is shown that the liquid water content profiles obtained with the IPT are significantly more accurate than common methods that use the microwave-derived liquid water path to scale the radar reflectivity profile. The IPT is also applied to 2 months of the European Cloud Liquid Water Network (CLIWA-NET) Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) BRIDGE main experiment (BBC) campaign data, considering liquid-phase, nonprecipitating clouds only. Error analysis indicates root-mean-square uncertainties of less than 1 K in temperature and less than 1 g m-3 in humidity, where the relative error in liquid water content ranges from 15% to 25%. A comparison of the vertically integrated humidity profile from the IPT with the nearest operational radiosonde shows an acceptable bias error of 0.13 kg m-2 when the Rosenkranz gas absorption model is used. However, if the Liebe gas absorption model is used, this systematic error increases to -1.24 kg m-2, showing that the IPT humidity retrieval is significantly dependent on the chosen gas absorption model.


  20. Power dissipation in a vertically integrated chip-scale atomic clock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kitching; Svenja Knappe; Peter D. D. Schwindt; Vishal Shah; Leo Hollberg; Li-Anne Liew; John Moreland

    2004-01-01

    The physics package of a vertically integrated chip-scale atomic clock, based on cesium, has recently been demonstrated at NIST. This device requires 69 mW of electrical power to maintain the vapor cell 34 K above the temperature of the baseplate. The physics package structure is analyzed by use of analytical thermal modeling and finite-element calculation. Improvements to the design are

  1. A vertically integrated eutrophication model and its application to a river-style reservoir — Fuchunjiang, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingfeng WU; Liancong LUO; Boqiang QIN; Guangbai CUI; Zuoming YU; Zhiming YAO

    2009-01-01

    Based on a 2-D hydrodynamic model, a vertically integrated eutrophication model was developed. The physical sub-model can be used for calculation of water density at different depths, and the water quality sub-model was used for calculation of algal growth. The cohesive and non-cohesive sediments were simulated separately with different methods. The light extinction coefficient used in the underwater light regime

  2. 0.2 mT Residual offset of CMOS integrated vertical Hall sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Schurig; C. Schott; P.-A. Besse; M. Demierre; R. S. Popovic

    2004-01-01

    A residual offset lower than 0.2mT is obtained with a CMOS integrated vertical Hall (VH)-sensor microsystem. Instead of the conventional design with five contacts in the sensor active area, we apply a layout with only four contacts. This design shows a higher effectiveness for the offset reduction by the spinning current (SC) method, because of the symmetrical current flow for

  3. A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

    2014-07-23

    A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity. PMID:24863393

  4. Fabrication of Annealed Proton-Exchanged Waveguides Vertically Integrated with Chalcogenide Waveguides

    E-print Network

    Macik, Dwayne

    2012-10-19

    of tapered couplers is needed for waveguides with different cross-sectional dimensions [14] or different refractive indices. To get efficient coupling, the waveguides must be phase matched (𝛽𝑎 = 𝛽𝑏). This is achieved by introducing the second waveguide... .................................................. 16 8 Diffused waveguide with graded index profile .......................................... 18 9 Two identical parallel waveguides positioned as a directional coupler ..... 19 10 AFM image of chalcogenide rib waveguide vertically integrated...

  5. Short Cavity DBR Laser Using Vertical Groove Gratings for Large-Scale Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boudewijn Docter; Toru Segawa; Takaaki Kakitsuka; Shinji Matsuo; Tetsuyoshi Ishii; Yoshihiro Kawaguchi; Yasuhiro Kondo; Hiroyuki Suzuki; Fouad Karouta; Meint K. Smit

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel compact distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser using InP-InGaAsP deep ridge waveguides with vertical groove gratings. Stable single-mode laser operation was achieved with an active cavity length down to 25 mum and a threshold current of 14 mA. The devices are promising building blocks in large-scale photonic integrated circuits because of their simple structure and low power

  6. Integrated vertical radar profiles (VRP) and multi-fold GPR for site characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pipan; E. Forte; G. Dal Moro; M. Sugan; I. Finetti

    2003-01-01

    Non-invasive characterization of contaminated sites and brownfields is being used to support planning and correlation of sampling and in decision-making and monitoring of rehabilitation procedures. We exploit a combination of surface (linear\\/azimuthal multi-fold) and borehole [vertical radar profiling (VRP)] techniques for an integrated and constrained assessment of the radar velocity field. The test of the method is performed with a

  7. A NEW SECTORAL TAXONOMY BASED ON PECUNIARY KNOWLEDGE EXTERNALITIES: KNOWLEDGE INTERACTIONS IN A VERTICALLY INTEGRATED SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Gehringer

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a new sectoral taxonomy that focuses on the existence of non-negligible external effects that derive from user–producer knowledge interactions. These are coupled with intermediate goods transactions, in a system of vertically integrated manufacturing and services sectors. These externalities, the so-called pecuniary knowledge externalities, are the main source of changing technological conditions experienced by downstream producers. A distinguishing

  8. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  9. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits

    PubMed Central

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (Vout) versus input (Vin) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of ?45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. PMID:19940239

  10. Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

  11. Education Theory and Vertical Curricular Organization Based with Individual RFID Integrated Game-Learning for Primary Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Shen Jian; Tzu-Yao Chien; Sin-Han Chen; Chia-Yu Liu; Che Chuan Ku; Shu Hui Hsu

    2012-01-01

    For general teachers, in order to product digital teaching games more in line with the teaching theory and principles, the Education Theory and Vertical Curricular Organization Based with Individual RFID Integrated Modular Scenario Design of Game-Learning for Primary Education is proposed. This designed RPG learning games are based on the structure of primary curriculum courses according to the Vertical Curricular

  12. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  13. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd, E-mail: todd.sulchek@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering and Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  14. Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

  15. Interdisciplinary Social Science: An Example of Vertical and Horizontal Integrative Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durlabhji, Subhash

    2005-03-01

    A "Concept-Centered" strategy for Integrative Studies was proposed and implemented in the creation of the book Power in Focus: Perspectives from Multiple Disciplines. Essays on the ubiquitous concept of Power were solicited internationally and a final cut of ten essays from ten different disciplines, written specifically for this project, were included. This provides an example of what might be called Horizontal Integration, as it cut across multiple disciplines. One of the essays in the volume provides an example of Vertical Integration, as it applies a psychodynamic hypothesis concerning the development of Power relations among humans across hierarchical levels, from the child to the family to other groups and institutions in society, including finally entire nations and regions of the world.

  16. Stability of a vertical liquid film with consideration of the marangoni effect and heat exchange with the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrova, O. A.

    2014-05-01

    The stability of a free vertical liquid film under the combined action of gravity and thermocapillary forces has been studied. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes and thermal conductivity equations is obtained for the case of plane steady flow with constant film thickness. It is shown that if the free surfaces of the film are perfectly heat insulated, the liquid flow rate through the cross section of the layer is zero. It is found that to close the model with consideration of the heat exchange with the environment, it is necessary to specify the liquid flow rate and the derivative of the temperature with respect to the longitudinal coordinate or the flow rate and the film thickness. The stability of the solution with constant film thickness at small wave numbers is studied. A solution of the spectral problem for perturbations in the form of damped oscillations is obtained.

  17. Three-dimensional optical analyses and optimizations of a vertical alignment color-filters-embedded liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplay

    E-print Network

    Three-dimensional optical analyses and optimizations of a vertical alignment color-filters-dimensional optical analyses and optimizations of a vertical alignment color-filters-embedded liquid of China 2 Center for Display Research, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay

  18. Vertical integration of science, technology, and applications fiscal year 1989 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.J.

    1990-06-01

    The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) is an initiative developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective dissemination and use of research results, with emphasis on applying these results to environmental problems. VISTA is being supported at PNL by DOE. The goal of VISTA is to make research results (data, models, and advanced concepts) usable and available to users in the areas of hazardous waste management and global climate change to speed research and development applications and reduce the costs of solving the complex environmental problems facing DOE and the nation. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Vertical waveguides integrated with silicon photodetectors: Towards high efficiency and low cross-talk image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tut, Turgut; Dan, Yaping; Duane, Peter; Yu, Young; Wober, Munib; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the experimental realization of vertical silicon nitride waveguides integrated with silicon photodetectors. The waveguides are embedded in a silicon dioxide layer. Scanning photocurrent microscopy is performed on a device containing a waveguide, and on a device containing the silicon dioxide layer, but without the waveguide. The results confirm the waveguide's ability to guide light onto the photodetector with high efficiency. We anticipate that the use of these structures in image sensors, with one waveguide per pixel, would greatly improve efficiency and significantly reduce inter-pixel crosstalk.

  20. Modeling multiphase flow for high viscosity liquids: a study of vertical/inclined zero net liquid flow

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Jose Ramon

    2001-01-01

    TABLE 6 ? FLOW DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT~ Cp Flow Regimes of Liquid Flow Distribution Coefficient, C, Researchers Turbulent 12 1. 35 1. 25 ? 1. 28 1. 2 1. 2 Nicklin et al. Gregory and Scott ' Dukler and Hubbard Nicholson et al. Taitel...

  1. Generation of vertical-horizontal and horizontal-horizontal gravity gradients using stochastically modified integral estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshagh, Mehdi; Romeshkani, Mohsen

    2011-10-01

    The Earth's gravity field modelling is an ill-posed problem having a sensitive solution to the error of data. Satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) is a space technique to measure the second-order derivatives of geopotential for modelling this field, but the measurements should be validated prior to use. The existing terrestrial gravity anomalies and Earth gravity models can be used for this purpose. In this paper, the second-order vertical-horizontal (VH) and horizontal-horizontal (HH) derivatives of the extended Stokes formula in the local north-oriented frame are modified using biased, unbiased and optimum types of least-squares modification. These modified integral estimators are used to generate the VH and HH gradients at 250 km level for validation purpose of the SGG data. It is shown that, unlike the integral estimator for generating the second-order radial derivative of geopotential, the system of equations from which the modification parameters are obtained is unstable for all types of modification, with large cap size and high degree, and regularization is strongly required for solving the system. Numerical studies in Fennoscandia show that the SGG data can be estimated with an accuracy of 1 mE using an integral estimator modified by a biased type least-squares modification. In this case an integration cap size of 2.5° and a degree of modification of 100 for integrating 30' × 30' gravity anomalies are required.

  2. Vertically Aligned InP Nanowires Grown via the Self-Assisted Vapor-Liquid-Solid Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

    2012-05-01

    We have demonstrated the growth of vertical InP nanowires via the self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid mode on an InP(111) substrate. Single nanowires exhibit a highly uniform diameter along the axial direction despite their 15 µm length. We show direct evidence of the self-assisted growth mode by performing a compositional analysis of the NW tip. We demonstrated that the In particle at the NW tip could be removed by modifying the V/III source material ratio during growth. Single InP nanowires exhibit a distinct TO phonon peak and show the luminescence of the excitonic emission at 4 K.

  3. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer inside a vertical channel in evaporating a heated falling glycols liquid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nait Alla, Abderrahman; Feddaoui, M'barek; Meftah, Hicham

    2015-03-01

    The interactive effects of heat and mass transfer in the evaporation of ethylene and propylene glycol flowing as falling films on vertical channel was investigated. The liquid film falls along a left plate which is externally subjected to a uniform heat flux while the right plate is the dry wall and is kept thermally insulated. The model solves the coupled governing equations in both phases together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. The systems of equations obtained by using an implicit finite difference method are solved by Tridiagonal Matrix Algorithm. The influence of the inlet liquid flow, Reynolds number in the gas flow and the wall heat flux on the intensity of heat and mass transfers are examined. A comparison between the results obtained for studied glycols and water in the same conditions is made. The results indicate that water evaporates in more intense way in comparison to glycols and the increase of gas flow rate tends to improve slightly the evaporation.

  4. A numerical study of the effects of the vertical baffle on liquid sloshing in two-dimensional rectangular tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyildiz, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The liquid sloshing in a moving partially filled rectangular tank with a vertical baffle is investigated. A numerical algorithm based on the volume of fluid (VOF) technique is used to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid sloshing. The numerical model solves the complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables by using of finite difference approximations with the moving coordinate system. The ratio of baffle height to the initial liquid depth has been changed in the range of 0? hB/ h?1.2. The critical baffle height to reach the roof of the tank and the baffle height beyond the liquid does not get over the baffle anymore have been investigated. The vortex originated by the flow separation from the baffle tip became weaker with increasing the baffle height. In order to assess the accuracy of the method used, some results with baffle height are compared with the experimental results. Comparisons show good agreement for slosh loads in the cases investigated. The free surface elevation and the time variations of pressures have been also presented.

  5. Vertical segregation in the self-assembly of nanoparticles at the liquid/air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiuYanming Liu; Yang Liu Equally Contributed To This Paper., Yanming; Liu, Yang; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Vertical segregation was induced by the size-dependent charge neutralization during the one-step interfacial self-assembly of colloidal gold nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution. This self-assembly approach also can assemble particles with tunable compositions into layered films.Vertical segregation was induced by the size-dependent charge neutralization during the one-step interfacial self-assembly of colloidal gold nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution. This self-assembly approach also can assemble particles with tunable compositions into layered films. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and Fig. S1-S13. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04779f

  6. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  7. Integrated ARROW waveguides for gas/liquid sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Holger; Yin, Dongliang; Deamer, David W.; Barber, John P.; Hawkins, Aaron R.

    2004-10-01

    We present integrated antiresonant reflecting optical (ARROW) structures with hollow cores as a new paradigm for optical sensing of gases and liquids. ARROW waveguides with micron-sized hollow cores allow for single-mode propagation in low-index non-solid core materials where conventional index guiding is impossible. We review design, fabrication and optical characterization of these devices for possible applications in chemical sensing, single molecule fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, flow cytometry, and pollution monitoring of picoliter to nanoliter volumes. We describe how to determine and control the waveguide loss and dispersion of the ARROW waveguides and design optimization for realistic structures that are compatible with the fabrication constraints. The technology to realize hollow-core waveguides using conventional silicon microfabrication and sacrificial core layers is discussed. We present the first demonstration of waveguiding in integrated ARROW waveguides with both hollow and liquid cores. Single-mode propagation with mode areas as small as 6mm2 and volumes down to 15 picoliters is observed and the loss characteristics of the waveguides are determined. The observation of fluorescence from dye molecules with concentrations of 10 nmol/l is described. Higher-level integration towards compact, planar, and massively parallel sensors on a chip is discussed.

  8. Switchable transmissive and reflective liquid-crystal display using a multi-domain vertical alignment

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    alignment Zhibing Ge (SID Member) Xinyu Zhu Thomas X. Wu (SID Member) Shin-Tson Wu (SID Fellow) Wang-Yang Li Chung-Kuang Wei Abstract -- A wide-view transflective liquid-crystal display (LCD) capable of switching

  9. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the executive summary of the five volume series.

  10. Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

  11. Heterogeneously integrated III-V laser on thin SOI with compact optical vertical interconnect access.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jing; Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris Keh Ting; Krishnamurthy, Vivek; Lee, Chee Wei; Tang, Kun; Seng Kay, Anthony Yew; Loh, Ter Hoe; Wang, Qian

    2015-04-01

    A new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure is reported in this report that consists of a III-V ridge waveguide gain section on silicon, III-V/Si optical vertical interconnect accesses (VIAs), and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonic waveguide sections. The III-V semiconductor layers are introduced on top of the 300-nm-thick SOI layer through low temperature, plasma-assisted direct wafer-bonding and etched to form a III-V ridge waveguide on silicon as the gain section. The optical VIA is formed by tapering the III-V and the beneath SOI in the same direction with a length of 50 ?m for efficient coupling of light down to the 600 nm wide silicon nanophotonic waveguide or vice versa. Fabrication details and specification characterizations of this heterogeneous III-V/Si Fabry-Perot (FP) laser are given. The fabricated FP laser shows a continuous-wave lasing with a threshold current of 65 mA at room temperature, and the slope efficiency from single facet is 144??mW/A. The maximal single facet emitting power is about 4.5 mW at a current of 100 mA, and the side-mode suppression ratio is ?30??dB. This new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure demonstrated enables more complex laser configuration with a sub-system on-chip for various applications. PMID:25831337

  12. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. Mei; F. C. Chen

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from

  13. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viung C. Mei; Fang C. Chen

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool

  14. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of integrated thruster/PMS tests demonstrate operation of the feed system in the relevant environment.

  15. Vertical handover-decision-making algorithm using fuzzy logic for the integrated Radio-and-OW system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jindong Hou; Dominic C. O'Brien

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-Due to the complementary nature of radio and optical wireless (OW) both in capacity and coverage, the combined use of both for data transmission could have advantages over a single media. However, big technical challenges for vertical-handover (VHO) strategy arise for such an integrated system. According to different interruption types and traffic modes, two basic VHO schemes can be applied:

  16. Economics of the LNG Value Chain and Corporate Strategies An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

    This paper analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration leading to an industry in which a small number of large and powerful players are active. Our hypothesis of high transaction costs along the LNG value chain inducing a

  17. Gas-liquid pressure drop in vertical internally wavy 90 bend

    SciTech Connect

    Benbella, Shannak [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Huson University College, P.O. Box 50, Al-Huson (Jordan); Al-Shannag, Mohammad; Al-Anber, Zaid A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, P.O. Box 15008, Marka 11134, Amman (Jordan)

    2009-01-15

    Experiments of air water two-phase flow pressure drop in vertical internally wavy 90 bend have been carried out. The tested bends are flexible and made of stainless steel with inner diameter of 50 mm and various curvature radiuses of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mm. The experiments were performed under the following conditions of two-phase parameters; mass flux from 350 to 750 kg/m{sup 2} s. Gas quality from 1% to 50% and system pressure from 4 to 7.5 bar. The results demonstrate that the effect of the above-mentioned parameters is very significant at high ranges of mass flow quality. Due to the increasing of two-phase flow resistance, energy dissipations, friction losses and interaction of the two-phases in the vertical internally wavy 90 bend the total pressure drops are perceptible about 2-5 times grater than that in smooth bends. Based on the mass and energy balance as well as the presented experimental results, new empirical correlation has been developed to calculate the two-phase pressure drop and hence the two-phase friction factor of the tested bends. The correlation includes the relevant primary parameter, fit the data well, and is sufficiency accurate for engineering purposes. (author)

  18. Vertical photoionization of liquid-to-supercritical ammonia: thermal effects on the valence-to-conduction band gap.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Janus; Vöhringer, Peter

    2013-07-25

    We recently reported first femtosecond pump–probe experiments on the geminate recombination dynamics of solvated electrons in fluid ammonia (Urbanek et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 2223–2233). The electrons were generated through a vertical two-photon ionization at a total energy of 9.3 eV. Here, we present a full Monte Carlo analysis of the time-resolved data to determine the solvated electron’s thermalization distance from the ionization hole, NH(3)(+). The simulations are compared with the experiment over wide thermodynamic conditions to obtain insight into the dependence of the vertical ionization mechanism on the electronic properties of the solvent network. The simulations reveal that the average thermalization distance, , decreases strongly with both increasing temperature, T, and decreasing density, ?, from 3.2 nm in the cryogenic fluid down to roughly 0.5 nm in the dilute supercritical phase with almost gas-like densities. We combine our results with the current understanding of the T,?-dependence of the electronic structure of the liquid phase and discuss in detail the role of thermally induced energy level shifts for the valence-to-conduction band gap. The observed changes of the thermalization distance can be well attributed to a gradual decrease of the excess energy initially imparted on the ejected electron as gas-like conditions are progressively approached. PMID:23815751

  19. Gas-liquid Two Phase Flow Modelling of Incompressible Fluid and Experimental Validation Studies in Vertical Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. X.; Shen, X.; Yin, Y. J.; Guo, Z.; Wang, H.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, Gas-liquid two phase flow mathematic models of incompressible fluid were proposed to explore the feature of fluid under certain centrifugal force in vertical centrifugal casting (VCC). Modified projection-level-set method was introduced to solve the mathematic models. To validate the simulation results, two methods were used in this study. In the first method, the simulation result of basic VCC flow process was compared with its analytic solution. The relationship between the numerical solution and deterministic analytic solution was presented to verify the correctness of numerical algorithms. In the second method, systematic water simulation experiments were developed. In this initial experiment, special experimental vertical centrifugal device and casting shapes were designed to describe typical mold-filling processes in VCC. High speed camera system and data collection devices were used to capture flow shape during the mold-filling process. Moreover, fluid characteristic at different rotation speed (from 40rpm, 60rpmand 80rpm) was discussed to provide comparative resource for simulation results. As compared with the simulation results, the proposed mathematical models could be proven and the experimental design could help us advance the accuracy of simulation and further studies for VCC.

  20. High resolution retrieval of liquid water vertical distributions using collocated Ka-band and W-band cloud radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dong; Johnson, Karen; Liu, Yangang; Wiscombe, Warren

    2009-12-01

    The retrieval of cloud water content using dual-frequency radar attenuation is very sensitive to error in radar reflectivity. Either a long radar dwell time or an average over many range gates is needed to reduce random noise in radar data and thus to obtain accurate retrievals - but at the cost of poorer temporal and spatial resolution. In this letter we have shown that, by using advanced mathematical inversion techniques like total variation regularization, vertically resolved liquid water content can be retrieved at an accuracy of about 0.15 gm-3 at 40 m resolution. This is demonstrated using the co-located Ka-band and W-band cloud radars operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. The liquid water path calculated from the radars agrees closely with that from a microwave radiometer, with a mean difference of 70 gm-2. Comparison with lidar observations reveals that the dual-frequency retrieval also reasonably captures the cloud base height of drizzling clouds - something that is very difficult to determine from radar reflectivity alone.

  1. InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated and vertically coupled with silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Qiu, Chao; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V materials with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuitry by an adhesive die-to-wafer bonding process has been proposed as a solution to Si-based lasers and photodetectors. Here, we present the design and optimization of an InGaAs PIN photodetector vertically coupled with the underlying SOI waveguide, which could be readily fabricated using this bonding process. With the help of grating couplers, a thick bonding layer of 2.5 ?m is applied, which inherently avoids the risk of low-bonding yield suffering in the evanescent coupling counterpart. An anti-reflection layer is also introduced between the bonding layer and the III-V layer stack to relieve the accuracy requirement for the bonding layer thickness. Besides, by optimizing the structure parameters, a high-absorption efficiency of 82% and a wide optical 1dB-bandwidth of 220nm are obtained. The analysis shows that the detection bandwidth of the present surface-illuminated photodetector is generally limited by transit-time in the i-InGaAs layer. The relationship of the detection bandwidth and the absorption efficiency versus the i-InGaAs layer thickness is presented for the ease of choosing proper structure parameters for specific applications. With the results presented here, the device can be readily fabricated.

  2. VISTA (Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications) user interface software study

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, G.

    1990-04-01

    The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) project is an initiative to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective application of basic research results by end users. Developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, VISTA's purpose is to develop and deploy information systems (software or software/hardware products) to broad segments of various markets. Inherent in these products would be mechanisms for accessing PNL-resident information about the problem. A goal of VISTA is to incorporate existing, commercially available user interface technology into the VISTA UIMS. Commercial systems are generally more complete, reliable, and cost-effective than software developed in-house. The objective of this report is to examine the current state of commercial user interface software and discuss the implications of selections thereof. This report begins by describing the functionality of the user interface as it applies to users and application developers. Next, a reference model is presented defining the various operational software layers of a graphical user interface. The main body follows which examines current user interface technology by sampling a number of commercial systems. Both the window system and user interface toolkit markets are surveyed. A summary of the current technology concludes this report. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Lateral integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and slow light Bragg reflector waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toshikazu; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-03-20

    We present the modeling and the experiment on the lateral integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and slow light Bragg reflector waveguide devices. The modeling shows an efficient direct-lateral coupling from a VCSEL to an integrated slow light waveguide. The calculated result shows a possibility of 13 dB chip gain and an extinction ratio over 5 dB for a compact slow light semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and electroabsorption modulator integrated with a VCSEL, respectively. We demonstrate an SOA-integrated VCSEL, exhibiting the maximum output power over 6 mW. Also, we fabricate a sub-50-?m long electroabsorption modulator laterally integrated with a VCSEL. An extinction ratio of over 15 dB for a voltage swing of 2.0 V is obtained without noticeable change of threshold. In addition, we demonstrate an on-chip electrothermal beam deflector integrated with a VCSEL. PMID:24663452

  4. Fabrication of thin vertical mirrors through plasma etch and KOH:IPA polishing for integration into MEMS electrostatic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, M. Q.; Amin, T. M. F.; Ning, Y.; McKinnon, G.; Tulip, J.; Jäger, W.

    2013-03-01

    We developed a process for the fabrication of thin vertical mirrors as integrated structures of MEMS electrostatic actuators. The mirrors can be implemented as a vertical extension of the actuator sidewall, or can be positioned at any movable part of the actuator. The process involves the fabrication of a mesa structure on the handle layer of a silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafer through deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The etch/passivation cycles of the DRIE process were optimized to achieve vertical etch profiles with a depth of up to 200 ?m with an aspect ratio of 10:1. The DRIE process introduced typical etch scallops with peak-to-valley and rms roughnesses on the order of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A mask layer was used to pattern a 2.1 ?m sacrificial oxide layer for the mesa structure. A second mask layer allowed us to define a large etch cavity for handle layer back-etch. The DRIE etched mesa structure was then etched with diluted potassium hydroxide (KOH) in isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Temperature and etch concentration were optimized for the removal of etch scallops without the formation of <111> etch facets. The etch scallops were almost completely removed and mirror quality surfaces were achieved. The developed mesa structures are suitable for integration into actuators that are patterned in the device layer. A third masking layer, aligned through infrared camera, was used to position the thin vertical mirror at the actuator sidewall. The process provides design flexibility in integrating vertical mirrors of adjustable dimensions to movable elements of MEMS structures.

  5. Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels

    SciTech Connect

    Nilpueng, Kitti [Department of Mechanical Engineering, South East Asia University, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-06-15

    Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} are investigated. The flow phenomena, which are bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and dispersed bubbly flow are observed and recorded by high-speed camera. When the phase shifts are increased, the onset of the transition from the bubbly flow to the churn flow shifts to a higher value of superficial air velocity, and the regions of the slug flow and the churn flow are smaller. In other words, the regions of the bubbly flow and the dispersed bubbly flow are larger as the phase shift increases. The slug flow pattern is only found in the test sections with phase shifts of 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Recirculating gas bubbles are always found in the troughs of the corrugations. The recirculating is higher when the phase shifts are larger. The relationship between the two-phase multipliers calculated from the measured pressure drops, and the Martinelli parameter is compared with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. The correlation in the case of turbulent-turbulent condition is shown to fit the data very well for the phase shift of 0{sup o} but shows greater deviation when the phase shifts are higher. (author)

  6. Geometrically nonlinear analysis of smart functionally graded plates integrated with a layer of vertically reinforced 1–3 piezoelectric composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Panda; Manas Chandra Ray

    2008-01-01

    Summary  This paper deals with the performance of the vertically reinforced 1–3 piezoelectric composite material as the distributed\\u000a actuator for controlling nonlinear deformations of smart functionally graded (FG) plates. A nonlinear semi-analytical model\\u000a based on von Karman type geometric nonlinearity has been derived for the FG plates integrated with a layer of this piezoelectric\\u000a composite acting as the distributed actuator of

  7. The gas-liquid phase-transition singularities in the framework of the liquid-state integral equation formalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gari Sarkisov; Enrique Lomba

    2005-01-01

    The singularities of various liquid-state integral equations derived from the Ornstein-Zernike relation and its temperature derivatives, have been investigated in the liquid-vapor transition region. As a general feature, it has been found that the existence of a nonsolution curve on the vapor side of the phase diagram, on which both the direct and the total correlation functions become complex-with a

  8. Integrity of the tubes used in vertical and horizontal steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergunker, V. D.

    2011-03-01

    Statistical data on experience gained from operation of steam generators around the world are presented, problems arising in vertical and horizontal steam generators are described, and the conditions of heattransfer tubes used in them are compared.

  9. Photoresponsive carbohydrate-based giant surfactants: automatic vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystal for the remote-controllable optical device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Sang-A; Kang, Dong-Gue; Park, Minwook; Choi, Yu-Jin; Jeong, Kwang-Un

    2015-03-25

    Photoresponsive carbohydrate-based giant surfactants (abbreviated as CELAnD-OH) were specifically designed and synthesized for the automatic vertical alignment (VA) layer of nematic (N) liquid crystal (LC), which can be applied for the fabrication of remote-controllable optical devices. Without the conventional polymer-based LC alignment process, a perfect VA layer was automatically constructed by directly adding the 0.1 wt % CELA1D-OH in the N-LC media. The programmed CELA1D-OH giant surfactants in the N-LC media gradually diffused onto the substrates of LC cell and self-assembled to the expanded monolayer structure, which can provide enough empty spaces for N-LC molecules to crawl into the empty zones for the construction of VA layer. On the other hand, the CELA3D-OH giant surfactants forming the condensed monolayer structure on the substrates exhibited a planar alignment (PA) rather than a VA. Upon tuning the wavelength of light, the N-LC alignments were reversibly switched between VA and PA in the remote-controllable LC optical devices. Based on the experimental results, it was realized that understanding the interactions between N-LC molecules and amphiphilic giant surfactants is critical to design the suitable materials for the automatic LC alignment. PMID:25738306

  10. Membrane-Based, Liquid–Liquid Separator with Integrated Pressure Control

    E-print Network

    Adamo, Andrea

    We describe the development and application of an improved, membrane-based, liquid–liquid separator. Membrane-based separation relies on the exploitation of surface forces and the use of a membrane wetted by one of the ...

  11. Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

  12. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

  13. Integrated Antiresonant Hollow Waveguide Liquid Sensor S.Campopiano1

    E-print Network

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    the waveguide core). This permits to avoid the need for a separate reference arm to take into account optical liquid sensor based on hollow core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROW) is proposed. The sensor permits to measure the refractive index of a liquid filling the core by simply monitoring

  14. Boundary integral simulations of liquid emptying from a model gravure cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazish Hoda; Satish Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We perform boundary integral simulations to understand the removal of Newtonian liquids from a model gravure cell. Two different configurations are considered. In the first configuration, there is a free surface and an outlet boundary, and the liquid is driven out of a cavity by a combination of horizontal substrate motion and an imposed pressure gradient; a similar model was

  15. Bass Connections: Information, Society and Culture Request for Faculty Proposals: Vertically Integrated Interdisciplinary Teams

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    Bass Connections: Information, Society and Culture Request for Faculty Proposals: Vertically with and to change the world around them. These teams form the core of Bass Connections and the Information, Society teams. The goal of Bass Connections is to transform undergraduate education at Duke: award size

  16. Physician Opinions About an Anatomy Core Curriculum: A Case for Medical Imaging and Vertical Integration

    E-print Network

    was to assess the importance of a human gross anatomy course by soliciting the opinions of physicians fromPhysician Opinions About an Anatomy Core Curriculum: A Case for Medical Imaging and Vertical and Anatomy, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Pre-clinical anatomy curricula must provide medical

  17. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits

    E-print Network

    Xiong, Qihua

    materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D inte- grated circuits. 3D integrated circuits multilayer reports (9, 10) have investigated 3D integration of nanoscale materials. This work has shown that sequential printing of NWs, nanoribbons, and/or CNTs is a viable approach for constructing 3D integrated

  18. Terascale integration via a redesign of the crossbar based on a vertical arrangement of poly-Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerofolini, G. F.; Ferri, M.; Romano, E.; Suriano, F.; Veronese, G. P.; Solmi, S.; Narducci, D.

    2010-09-01

    The race of integrated-circuit technology towards high bit density has already brought transistor densities of the order of 109 cm-2, while keeping conventional circuit layouts. Crossbar structures are widely believed to meet the requirements of high bit density along with sustainable interconnection complexity avoiding the dramatic cost increase of the manufacturing facilities required by advanced lithography. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of producing poly-Si nanowires preserving bulk electrical properties that are nonetheless so dense as to allow cross-point density in excess of 1011 cm-2. This result could be achieved by organizing silicon nanowires in nearly vertical arrays.

  19. Content Delivery and Vertical Integration in On-line Content Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Lanzi; Massimiliano Marzo

    2005-01-01

    On-line content delivery and vertical alliances between conduit and content providers are nowadays crucial issues in on-line content markets. In this paper, we discuss and compare two types of model for on-line content delivery: push and pull. We assume non-zero marginal cost for network transits, justified by the presence of network services for content delivery (like data caching). Under both

  20. A high performance P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator with self-connected and vertically integrated fibers by patterned EHD pulling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; An, Ningli; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-07-21

    Piezoelectricity based energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations has attracted extensive attention for its potential application in powering wireless mobile electronics recently. Here, a patterned electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pulling technology was proposed to fabricate a new self-connected, piezoelectric fiber array vertically integrated P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator, with a molecular poling orientation fully aligned to the principal excitation for maximized conversion and a well-bridged electrode pair for efficient charge collection. The nanogenerator is fabricated in a novel way by applying a voltage across an electrode pair sandwiching an air gap and an array of shallow micropillars, during which the EHD force tends to pull the micropillars upward, generating a microfiber array finally in robust contact with the upper electrode. Such a thermoplastic and EHD deformation of the microfibers, featured simultaneously by an electric field and by a microfiber elongation dominantly vertical to the electrode, leads to a poling orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) well coincident with the principal strain for the generator excited by a force normal to the electrodes. The as-prepared piezoelectric device exhibits an enhanced output voltage up to 4.0 V and a current of 2.6 ?A, therefore the piezoelectric voltage was enhanced to 5.4 times that from the bulk film. Under periodic mechanical impact, electric signals are repeatedly generated from the device and used to power a seven-segment indicator, RBGY colored light-emitting diodes, and a large-scale liquid crystal display screen. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but offer a new type of self-connected nanogenerator for the next generation of self-powered electronics. PMID:25981294

  1. Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. White; Hesam Oveys; Xudong Fan; Terry L. Smith; Junying Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate integrated biosensors utilizing antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) to excite the whispering gallery modes of a liquid core optical ring resonator (LCORR) sensor. Because this architecture is based on integration, it is robust and well suited for dense multiplexing of sensors. They analytically and experimentally characterize the coupling between the ARROW structure and the LCORR and show

  2. An integrated view of the 1987 Australian monsoon and its mesoscale convective systems. II - Vertical structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mapes, Brian; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The vertical structure of monsoon thermal forcing by precipitating convection is diagnosed in terms of horizontal divergence. Airborne Doppler-radar divergence profiles from nine diverse mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are presented. The MCSs consisted of multicellular convective elements which in time gave rise to areas of stratiform precipitation. Each of the three basic building blocks of the MCSs - convective, intermediary, and stratiform precipitation areas - has a consistent, characteristic divergence profile. Convective areas have low-level convergence, with its peak at 2-4 km altitude, and divergence above 6 km. Intermediary areas have convergence aloft, peaked near 10 km, feeding into mean ascent high in the upper troposphere. Stratiform areas have mid-level convergence, indicating a mesoscale downdraught below the melting level, and a mesoscale updraught aloft. Rawinsonde composite divergence profiles agree with the Doppler data in at least one important respect: the lower-tropospheric convergence into the MCSs peaks 2-4-km above the surface. Rawinsonde vorticity profiles show that monsoonal tropical cyclones spin-up at these elevated levels first, then later descend to the surface. Rawinsonde observations on a larger, continental scale demonstrate that at large horizontal scales only the 'gravest vertical mode' of MCS heating is felt, while the effects of shallower components of the heating (or divergence) profiles are trapped near the heating, as predicted by geostrophic adjustment theory.

  3. Realization of integral 3-dimensional image using fabricated tunable liquid lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheol Joong; Lee, Jin Su; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting has been widely studied for various optical applications such as optical switch, sensor, prism, and display. In this study, vari-focal liquid lens array is developed using electrowetting principle to construct integral 3-dimensional imaging. The electrowetting principle that changes the surface tension by applying voltage has several advantages to realize active optical device such as fast response time, low electrical consumption, and no mechanical moving parts. Two immiscible liquids that are water and oil are used for forming lens. By applying a voltage to the water, the focal length of the lens could be tuned as changing contact angle of water. The fabricated electrowetting vari-focal liquid lens array has 1mm diameter spherical lens shape that has 1.6mm distance between each lens. The number of lenses on the panel is 23x23 and the focal length of the lens array is simultaneously tuned from -125 to 110 diopters depending on the applied voltage. The fabricated lens array is implemented to integral 3-dimensional imaging. A 3D object is reconstructed by fabricated liquid lens array with 23x23 elemental images that are generated by 3D max tools. When liquid lens array is tuned as convex state. From vari-focal liquid lens array implemented integral imaging system, we expect that depth enhanced integral imaging can be realized in the near future.

  4. Application of integral equation theory to polyolefin liquids and blends

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, J.G.; Weinhold, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The ability to model the packing of polymers in melts and blends is important in many polymer applications. One significant application is the development of new polymer blends. It would be exceedingly helpful to the materials chemist if molecular modeling could be employed to predict the thermodynamics and phase behavior of hypothetical polymer alloys before embarking on a time consuming and expensive synthesis program. The well known Flory-Huggins theory has been remarkably successful in describing many aspects of polymer mixing from a qualitative point of view. This theory is known, however, to suffer from several deficiencies which can be traceable to the fact that: (1) it is a lattice model requiring both monomer components to have the same volume; and (2) a mean field or random mixing approximation is made which effectively ignores chain connectivity. Because of these limitations the Flory-Huggins theory does not include packing effects and cannot be used to make quantitative molecular engineering calculations. Recently Curro and Schweizer developed a new approach for treating polymer liquids and mixtures which the authors call PRISM theory. This is an extension to polymers of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM Theory) developed by Chandler and Andersen to describe the statistical mechanics of small molecule liquids. The PRISM theory is a continuous space description of a polymer liquid, which includes chain connectivity and nonrandom mixing effects in a computationally tractable manner. The primary output from PRISM calculations is the average structure or packing of the amorphous liquid given by the radial distribution function denoted as g(r). This radial distribution function is employed to deduce thermodynamic or structural properties of interest. Here, the authors describe the theoretical approach and demonstrate its application to polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, and polyisobutylene liquids and blends.

  5. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-print Network

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  6. From a Horizontal to a Vertical Method of Integrating Educational Diagnosis with Classroom Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dassa, Clement

    1990-01-01

    Describes two Quebec studies integrating educational diagnosis with classroom assessment to develop learning strategies. Outlines new model based on studies and new mastery learning developments. Argues that the unit of measurement should shift from the student to the teacher-student interaction, and the methodology should be "horizontal" rather…

  7. Engaged Learning across the Curriculum: The Vertical Integration of Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy; Waters, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a relatively new and decidedly healthy educational movement emerging across the United States, from grade schools to high schools, from community colleges to graduate programs at the nation's most prestigious universities. The movement goes by the name of "engaged learning." The authors describe two experiments to integrate

  8. THE IMPACT OF DEFENCE INTEGRATORS AND STANDARDS ON VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL INNOVATION IN THE DEFENCE INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasilis Zervos; G. M. Peter Swann

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the extent and character of product innovation in defence technologies where there are strong network effects, but where there is not a generally accepted system of open standards. Specifically, we examine the implications for innovation from the development of network?centric defence agencies accompanied by the creation of system integrators in the defence industry. The results show that

  9. Conservation laws and bosonization in integrable Luttinger liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Carmelo, J.M.P.; Castro Neto, A.H.; Campbell, D.K. (Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, SP-28949 Madrid (Spain) Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States))

    1994-08-15

    We examine and explain the Luttinger-liquid character of models solvable by the Bethe ansatz by introducing a suitable bosonic operator algebra. In the case of the Hubbard chain, this involves two bosonic algebras which apply to [ital all] values of [ital U], electronic density, and magnetization. Only at zero magnetization does [ital not] lead to the usual charge-spin separation. We show that our pseudoparticle'' operator approach clarifies, unifies, and extends several recent results, including the existence of independent right and left equations of motion and the concept of pseudoparticle'' (also known as Bethe quasiparticle'').

  10. Exact integral equations for the distribution functions of liquids and liquid mixtures

    E-print Network

    Likos, Christos N.

    relating the density derivative of the radial distribution function &(r)/ap to an integral over the triplet distribution function over one of its arguments with the radial distri- bution function of the system of the radial distribution functions of a multicomponent system to corresponding integrals over the various

  11. A Vertically Integrated CMOS Microsystem for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Rae; Jingbin Yang; Jonathan McKendry; Zheng Gong; David Renshaw; John M. Girkin; Erdan Gu; Martin D. Dawson; Robert K. Henderson

    2010-01-01

    We describe a two-chip micro-scale time-resolved fluorescence analyzer integrating excitation, detection, and filtering. A new 8×8 array of drivers realized in standard low-voltage 0.35-?m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor is bump-bonded to AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs). The array is capable of producing sample excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM), enabling short lifetime fluorophores to be investigated. The

  12. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 4: Reviews and presentation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Liquid rocket booster integration study is presented. Volume 4 contains materials presented at the MSFC/JSC/KSC Integrated Reviews and Working Group Sessions, and the Progress Reviews presented to the KSC Study Manager. The following subject areas are covered: initial impact assessment; conflicts with the on-going STS mission; access to the LRB at the PAD; the activation schedule; transition requirements; cost methodology; cost modelling approach; and initial life cycle cost.

  13. Numerical Pattern Formation on Magnetothermal Convection of Diamagnetic Liquids in a Cylindrical Vessel of Rayleigh–Benard Model: Effects of Axisymmetric Horizontal Magnetic Forces on Vertical Magnetic Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Syou; Sumitani, Mariko; Udagawa, Chikako; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-07-01

    We carried out three-dimensional computations of the magnetothermal convection of diamagnetic liquids (e.g., water) in a shallow cylindrical vessel of the Rayleigh–Benard model to investigate the effects of the radial components of the magnetic force (MFR) and the vertical components of the magnetic force (MFZ) on heat transfer and pattern formation. For the purpose of examining various magnitudes of radial and vertical components of the magnetic force, we used a 1800-turn coil instead of an actual conventional magnet, and a 2-turn coil as a new proposal. In the computation, the Prandtl number was constant at 6.0 (i.e., water at room temperature), and the Rayleigh number was 1.0 × 104. As a result, an axisymmetric pattern and a spokelike pattern appeared in the convection. Subsequently, we arranged all the results with a new parameter, which is the absolute ratio of the radial component of magnetic force at the vessel sidewall to the vertical resultant force at the vessel center. This parameter represents the relative contribution of MFR to the vertical resultant force (RFZ). The RFZ is the sum of the gravitational force and MFZ, and is associated with the magnetic Rayleigh number. By using this parameter, the spoke pattern convection appeared when the parameter was within 0.11 to 0.85. This result suggests that not only the MFR but also the MFZ plays an important role in determining whether the convection flow pattern transited to the axisymmetric flow or not. This parameter range is easily satisfied in a conventional superconducting magnet. We can say that the spoke pattern convection may be a common phenomenon in the magnet. On the other hand, the flow pattern had little effect on the heat transfer in convection. Thus, the effects of MFR and MFZ on the pattern formation in the magnet are much more complicated than those previously considered.

  14. Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides

    E-print Network

    Fan, Xudong "Sherman"

    demonstrated using an anti- resonant reflecting optical waveguide ARROW structure that employs a high-reflectivityIntegrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides Ian M. White, Hesam Oveys, and Xudong Fana Biological Engineering Department

  15. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino County study phases 1-A, 1-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

    1981-01-01

    User needs, data types, data automation, and preliminary applications are described for an effort to assemble a single data base for San Bernardino County from data bases which exist at several administrative levels. Each of the data bases used was registered and converted to a grid-based data file at a resolution of 4 acres and used to create a multivariable data base for the entire study area. To this data base were added classified LANDSAT data from 1976 and 1979. The resulting data base thus integrated in a uniform format all of the separately automated data within the study area. Several possible interactions between existing geocoded data bases and LANDSAT data were tested. The use of LANDSAT to update existing data base is to be tested.

  16. Exploratory study for estimating atmospheric low level particle pollution based on vertical integrated optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahi, Houda; Santer, Richard; Weill, Alain; Crepon, Michel; Thiria, Sylvie

    2011-07-01

    We present a method for retrieving atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) from sun-sky photometer measurements (AOT). As PM10 is a "surface parameter" and AOT is an "integrated parameters", we first determined whether a "functional relationship" linking these two quantities exists. Since these two parameters strongly depend on atmospheric structures and meteorological variables, we classified the meteorological situations in terms of weather types by using a neuronal classifier (Self organizing Map). For each weather type, we found that a relationship between AOT and PM10 can be established. We applied this approach to the Lille region (France) for the summer 2007 and then extended to a five summer period (summers of the years 2003-2007) in order to increase the statistical confidence of the PM10 retrieval from AOT measurements. The good performances of the method led us to envisage the possibility of deriving the PM10 from satellite observations.

  17. Pressure changes associated with the ascent and bursting of gas slugs in liquid-filled vertical and inclined conduits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R James; B Chouet; J. S Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    At basaltic volcanoes, the sources of long-period and very-long-period seismicity and acoustic signals are frequently described in terms of fluid dynamic processes, in particular the formation and ascent of gas slugs within the magma column and their bursting at the surface. To investigate pressure changes associated with these processes, two-phase flow experiments have been carried out in vertical and inclined

  18. Vertical integration as a remedy for imbalances in the ‘Porterian’ value system. The Dutch financial securities industry at the beginning of the 20th century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janneke Hermans; Nachoem Wijnberg; Onno de Wit; Jan van den Ende

    2004-01-01

    The way of accounting for vertical integration, of this paper is based on the ‘Porterian’ value system and focuses on the relation between the creation and appropriation of value. The essence of a value system is that at each stage in the system value is created and added to the value created at previous stages. We propose that firms which

  19. Comparison of the prevalence and genomic characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolated from various production groups in a vertically integrated swine operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006. Isolation of C. difficile was performed utilizing an enrichment technique and restrictive media. Prelim...

  20. A model study of the vertically integrated transport variability through the Yucatan Channel: Role of Loop Current evolution and flow compensation around Cuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuehua Lin; Richard J. Greatbatch; Jinyu Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between Loop Current intrusion in the Gulf of Mexico and vertically integrated transport variations through the Yucatan Channel is examined using models and the available observations. Transport in the model is found to be a minimum when the Loop Current intrudes strongly into the Gulf of Mexico, typically just before a ring is shed, and to be a

  1. Determination of N-nitrosamines by automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction integrated with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amayreh, Mousa; Chanbasha, Basheer; Alhooshani, Khalid; Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-05-01

    An automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction integrated with gas chromatography and mass spectrometric procedure was developed for the determination of three N-nitrosamines (N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, and N-nitroso di-n-butylamine) in water samples. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize relevant extraction parameters including extraction time, dispersive solvent volume, water sample pH, sodium chloride concentration, and agitation (stirring) speed. The optimal dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction conditions were 28 min of extraction time, 33 ?L of methanol as dispersive solvent, 722 rotations per minute of agitation speed, 23% w/v sodium chloride concentration, and pH of 10.5. Under these conditions, good linearity for the analytes in the range from 0.1 to 100 ?g/L with coefficients of determination (r(2) ) from 0.988 to 0.998 were obtained. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were between 5.7 and 124 ng/L with corresponding relative standard deviations from 3.4 to 5.9% (n = 4). The relative recoveries of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, and N-nitroso di-n-butylamine from spiked groundwater and tap water samples at concentrations of 2 ?g/L of each analyte (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3) were (93.9 ± 8.7), (90.6 ± 10.7), and (103.7 ± 8.0)%, respectively. The method was applied to determine the N-nitrosamines in water samples of different complexities, such as tap water, and groundwater, before and after treatment, in a local water treatment plant. PMID:25755180

  2. Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy of hard spheres via a thermodynamic integration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The hard-sphere crystal-liquid interfacial free energy ?cl is determined from molecular dynamics simulations using a thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme. The advantage of this TI scheme compared to previous methods is to successfully circumvent hysteresis effects due to the movement of the crystal-liquid interface. This is accomplished by the use of extremely-short-range and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls that prevent the drift of the interface while imposing a negligible free-energy penalty. We find that it is crucial to analyze finite-size effects in order to obtain reliable estimates of ?cl in the thermodynamic limit.

  3. Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy of hard spheres via a thermodynamic integration scheme.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The hard-sphere crystal-liquid interfacial free energy ?cl is determined from molecular dynamics simulations using a thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme. The advantage of this TI scheme compared to previous methods is to successfully circumvent hysteresis effects due to the movement of the crystal-liquid interface. This is accomplished by the use of extremely-short-range and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls that prevent the drift of the interface while imposing a negligible free-energy penalty. We find that it is crucial to analyze finite-size effects in order to obtain reliable estimates of ?cl in the thermodynamic limit. PMID:25871126

  4. Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ning-Ning; Dong, Po; Zheng, Dawei; Liao, Shirong; Liang, Hong; Shafiiha, Roshanak; Feng, Dazeng; Li, Guoliang; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V; Asghari, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    We report a vertical p-i-n thin-film germanium photodetector integrated on 3microm thick large core silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. The device demonstrates very high external responsivity due to the low fiber coupling loss to the large core waveguides. The germanium width and thickness are carefully designed to achieve high responsivity yet retain high-speed performance. Even with fiber coupling loss included, the device has demonstrated greater than 0.7A/W external responsivity at 1550nm for TM polarization and 0.5A/W for TE polarization. A low dark current of 0.2microA at -0.5V bias is reported. 3dB bandwidths of 12GHz and 8.3GHz at -2.5V bias are also reported for 100microm and 200microm long devices, respectively. The device can cover the communication wavelength spectrum up to 1620nm with a relatively flat responsivity of >0.5A/W. Further studies suggest that with a modified design the device is capable of achieving 1A/W external responsivity for both TE and TM polarizations and greater than 30GHz bandwidth. PMID:20173827

  5. Vertically Aligned Various Lengths Doped-Silicon Microwire Arrays by Repeated Selective Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kawano; A. Ikedo; T. Kawashima; K. Sawada; M. Ishida

    2009-01-01

    We have proposed a growth technique of various lengths, 2-4 mum diameter, conductive-silicon micowire arrays, by repeated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of n-type silicon, using Au as the growth catalyst and a mixture gas of 1% PH3 with 100% Si2H6 as the silicon gas source. We obtained a longer 100 mum-length silicon wire by both the first growth of 50 mum-length

  6. Application of the phase method in radioisotope measurements of the liquid - solid particles flow in the vertical pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Mosorov, Volodymyr; Hanus, Pawe?

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents idea and an application of the gamma-absorption method to a two-phase flow investigation in a vertical pipeline, where the flow of solid particles transported by water was examined by a set of two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals. In the described experiments as solid phase the ceramic models representing natural polymetallic ocean nodules were used. For advanced analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the phase of cross-spectral density function has been applied. Results of the average solid-phase velocity measurements were compared with one obtained by application of the classical cross-correlation. It was found that the combined uncertainties of the velocity of solid particles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 0.6% in phase method and 3.2% in cross-correlation method.

  7. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-03-15

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945?L acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66?gL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500?gL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids. PMID:25660716

  8. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Patrick; Callender, Claire L; Ledderhof, Christopher J; Noad, Julian P

    2006-12-20

    The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides. No top sealing of the channels is required. Surface accessible fluid input ports are formed in a BPSG layer, with no additional steps, by appropriate design of template layers. By tightly controlling the refractive index of the waveguide layer and the microchannel-forming layer, fully integrated structures facilitating optical coupling between solid waveguides and liquids segments in various geometries are demonstrated. Applications in liquid-filled photonic device elements for novel nonlinear optical devices and in optical sensors and on-chip spectroscopy are outlined. PMID:17151758

  9. Optical monitoring of anchoring change in vertically aligned thin liquid crystal film for chemical and biological sensor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Namkung, Jun; Lin, Yongbin; Lindquist, Robert

    2010-04-01

    A significant advance in sensitivity of liquid-crystal (LC)-based chemical and biological sensors can be achieved by actively monitoring anchoring energy change. We simulate the deformation of a LC director with different anchoring energies using the finite element method and the optical properties of the LC film using the finite-difference time-domain method. Polarizing micrographs are collected and compared with simulated textures. Measurement of optical transmission is used to monitor the anchoring change. Experimental and simulation results both demonstrate the optical method can effectively monitor the surface anchoring change due to the presence of targeted analytes. PMID:20357871

  10. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-03-01

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.

  11. New Love wave liquid sensor operating at 2 GHz using an integrated micro-flow channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Assouar; P. Kirsch; P. Alnot

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on waveguide modes with shear-horizontal polarization (Love modes) are very promising for sensor applications, especially in liquid media. We present here the realization of a 2 GHz operating frequency sensor based on the SiO2\\/36YX LiTaO3 structure with an integrated PDMS micro-flow channel and using electron beam lithography to realize the submicronic interdigital transducers. Using

  12. Fast Integrated Electro-Optical Switch and Beam Deflector Based on Nematic Liquid Crystal Waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sirleto; L. Petti; P. Mormile; G. C. Righini; G. Abbate

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the design, the realization, and the experimental characterization of an integrated electro-optical switch and a beam deflector, both based on planar nematic liquid crystal (NLC) waveguides, are reported.In order to test such devices, a particular waveguide structure consisting of a three-stage device, having a thin nematic LC film as the middle stage and two glass waveguides as

  13. Emiflective Display with Integration of Reflective Liquid Crystal Display and Organic Light Emitting Diode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Ru Yang; Kang-Hung Liu; Han-Ping D. Shieh

    2007-01-01

    A novel emi-flective display which integrates a reflective liquid crystal display (R-LCD) and an organic light emitting diode (OLED) was demonstrated, whose OLED achieved a gain factor of 8 in contrast ratio (CR) compared with the conventional OLED. Under the high light ambience, the R-LCD is sustained with the CR of 10:1 at the viewing angle between ± 55°; while

  14. Stabilized Liquid Membrane Device (SLMD) for the Passive, Integrative Sampling of Labile Metals in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Brumbaugh; J. D. Petty; J. N. Huckins; S. E. Manahan

    2002-01-01

    A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described forpotential use as an in situ, passive, integrative samplerfor cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead(Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending)consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equalmixture (v\\/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid)

  15. Depth plane adaptive integral imaging using a varifocal liquid lens array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Joong; Chang, Minho; Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced integral imaging system with an electrically controllable image plane to address the issue of the limited depth problem in integral imaging. For implementation of the variable image plane, a varifocal liquid lens array and driving device are adopted instead of an ordinary solid lens array. The position of the central depth plane is varied by adjusting the focal length of the lens array. The proposed system enables matching between the object position and depth plane electrically, and thus an object moving from 5.15 to 11.72 cm is clearly displayed with this method. PMID:25967160

  16. Vertical test integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Today, most every weapon system is electronics intensive. Digital computers are at the core of military aircraft, ship, and vehicle weapons systems. Indeed, each weapon system's performance is largely determined by its digital computers and other electronics. This electronics dependency is necessary in order to provide the speed, functional compliance, and accuracy to achieve the required weapon system performance. Historically,

  17. Vertical test integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jackson

    1999-01-01

    Today most every weapon system is very electronics intensive. Digital computers are at the core of military aircraft, ship and vehicle weapons systems. Indeed, each weapon system's performance is largely determined by its digital computers and other electronics. This electronics dependency is necessary in order to provide the speed, functional compliance and accuracy to achieve the required weapon system performance.

  18. Co-integration of nano-scale vertical- and horizontal-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors for low power CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min-Chul; Kim, Garam; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    2012-07-01

    In order to extend the conventional low power Si CMOS technology beyond the 20-nm node without SOI substrates, we propose a novel co-integration scheme to build horizontal- and vertical-channel MOSFETs together and verify the idea using TCAD simulations. From the fabrication viewpoint, it is highlighted that this scheme provides additional vertical devices with good scalability by adding a few steps to the conventional CMOS process flow for fin formation. In addition, the benefits of the co-integrated vertical devices are investigated using a TCAD device simulation. From this study, it is confirmed that the vertical device shows improved off-current control and a larger drive current when the body dimension is less than 20 nm, due to the electric field coupling effect at the double-gated channel. Finally, the benefits from the circuit design viewpoint, such as the larger midpoint gain and beta and lower power consumption, are confirmed by the mixed-mode circuit simulation study. PMID:22966563

  19. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2011-03-01

    In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission. PMID:21348530

  20. The forms and bioavailability of phosphorus in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland with earthworms and different substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wang, Lin; Li, Huili; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui

    2015-09-01

    A sequential extraction method was utilized to analyze seven forms of P in an integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVFCW) containing earthworms and different substrates. The aluminum-bound P (Al-P) content was found to be lower, and the occluded P (Oc-P) content was higher in the IVFCW. The addition of earthworms into the influent chamber of IVFCW increased the exchange P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), calcium bound P (Ca-P), Oc-P, detritus-bound (De-P) and organic P (Org-P) content in the influent chamber, and also enhanced P content uptake by wetland plants. A significantly positive correlation between P content of above-ground wetland plants and the Ex-P, Fe-P, Oc-P and Org-P content in the rhizosphere was found (P<0.05), which indicated that the Ex-P, Fe-P, Oc-P and Org-P could be bio-available P. The Ex-P, Fe-P, De-P, Oc-P and Ca-P content of the influent chamber was higher where the substrate contained a mixture of Qing sand and river sand rather than only river sand. Also the IVFCW with earthworms and both Qing sand and river sand had a higher removal efficiency of P, which was related to higher P content uptake by wetland plants and P retained in IVFCW. These findings suggest that addition of earthworms in IVFCW increases the bioavailable P content, resulting in enhanced P content uptake by wetland plants. PMID:26025066

  1. Determination of the solid-liquid interfacial free energy along a coexistence line by Gibbs–Cahn integration

    E-print Network

    Laird, Brian Bostian; Davidchack, Ruslan L.; Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark

    2009-09-18

    We calculate the solid-liquid interfacial free energy?sl for the Lennard-Jones (LJ) system at several points along the pressure-temperature coexistence curve using molecular-dynamics simulation and Gibbs–Cahn integration. ...

  2. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  3. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E

    2015-01-28

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined. PMID:25637990

  4. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.

  5. Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship With Respect to Cervical and Cranial Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    PubMed Central

    Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Methods: Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009–2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. Results: In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and “muscle” adjustments. Conclusion: There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction PMID:22778531

  6. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  7. Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antelius, Mikael; Fischer, Andreas C.; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10-10 mbarL s-1, in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

  8. Quantum path integral molecular dynamics simulations on transport properties of dense liquid helium

    E-print Network

    Kang, Dongdong; Sun, Huayang; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Transport properties of dense liquid helium under the conditions of planet's core and cool atmosphere of white dwarfs have been investigated by using the improved centroid path-integral simulations combined with density functional theory. The self-diffusion is largely higher and the shear viscosity is notably lower predicted with the quantum mechanical description of the nuclear motion compared with the description by Newton equation. The results show that nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), which depends on the temperature and density of the matter via the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the ionization of electrons, are essential for the transport properties of dense liquid helium at certain astrophysical conditions. The Stokes-Einstein relation between diffusion and viscosity in strongly coupled regime is also examined to display the influences of NQEs.

  9. A model of recent vertical movements of the earth's surface in Lithuania: integration of geodetic levelling data and geological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Šliaupa, Saulius; Anik?nien?, Asta; D?nas, Žydr?nas; Šliaupien?, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    The precise geodetic levelling reveals the recent activity of the vertical movements of the earth's crust. However, the main shortcoming of the levelling networks is scarceness of the measurement tracks that cannot be compensated for by a high density of the levelling sites within the tracks. The pattern and trends of vertical movements between the measured lines remain unknown. A special approach has been developed to allow prediction of vertical movements within the test grounds. It is based on the multicomponent statistical correlation of the levelling data with the significant geological parameters. The correlations between among parameters were derived separately for each particular test ground and then combined into one common model. It allowed compilation of a rather detailed map of vertical movements in Lithuania during the past 30-40 years. The rate of vertical movements of the earth's surface, obtained from the geodetic levelling, varies from -2.7 mm to 3.5 mm/y. The closest correlation of the recent movements was identified for the topography and the sub-Quaternary surface. It indicates that the major morphological features of Lithuania have a tectonic background. Furthermore, a close correlation was obtained with the gravity and in some parts with the magnetic fields which reflect the deep structure of the earth's crust. A close correlation suggests that the heterogeneity of the crust is important for the distribution of its vertical movements. The application of the close correlation with the geoparameters allowed a considerable improvement of the map of the vertical movements in Lithuania.

  10. Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

  11. Mathematical model for regional land subsidence due to pumping: 2. Integrated aquifer subsidence equations for vertical and horizontal displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bear, Jacob; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    1981-08-01

    A mathematical model for regional subsidence due to pumping from an aquifer is developed on the basis of Biot's work on coupled three-dimensional consolidation. Following Biot's work on threedimensional consolidation, with coupling between mass conservation and equilibrium equations, a mathematical model for regional subsidence due to pumping from an aquifer is developed by averaging the three-dimensional model over the thickness of the aquifer and assuming conditions of plane stress. Both (vertical) land subsidence and horizontal displacements, as functions of plane coordinates and time, can be estimated by solving the model equations for a given confined or leaky confined aquifer. An analytical solution is presented for the special case of a single well pumping from an infinite homogeneous isotropic aquifer. The solution provides estimates of changes in averaged (over the vertical) values of piezometric head, vertical subsidence, and horizontal displacement. The results indicate that under the conditions of the studied case of radial flow the solution for piezometric head is identical to the one obtained by noncoupled models. Furthermore, half the volume strain is produced by vertical subsidence while the other half by the horizontal displacement. Hence the vertical subsidence is only approximately half the value obtained in noncoupled models which neglect horizontal displacement. A numerical example demonstrates these conclusions.

  12. Transparent image generator by using vertically aligned polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (VA-PSLC) for see-through display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mu-Hao; Choi, Wing-Kit; Su, Guo-Dung

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using a Vertically-Aligned Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal (VA-PSLC) film, which is also known as LC gel, as a transparent image generator to form a see-through display system. This is achieved, in its simplest form, by projecting a collimated LED light source onto a transparent glass screen, with the image generated by the scattered light from the VA-PSLC. By moving the observer's head slightly away from the incident light specular reflection direction, a clear image can be observed on the transparent glass screen together with the background objects that are behind the screen. From our experimental results, this see-through display system using VA-PSLC transparent image generator can achieve a fast response time (with rise time of ~10 ms and fall time of ~5ms) and an acceptable contrast ratio (< ~100:1). The driving voltage is about 15~20V. Further improvements can be achieved by further optimizing the LC material/monomer parameters, device fabrication process/conditions and the optical system setup. In this system, polarizers are not required so that very high light efficiency can be obtained.

  13. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1984. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. Metallic fuel was the original choice in early liquid metal reactor development. Solid technical accomplishments have been accumulating year after year in all aspects of the IFR development program. But as we make technical progress, the ultimate potential offered by the IFR concept as a next generation advanced reactor becomes clearer and clearer. The IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next generation reactor. This document discusses these requirements: breeding, safety, and waste management. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Reconfigurable RF MEMS Phased Array Antenna Integrated Within a Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) System-on-Package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nickolas Kingsley; George E. Ponchak; John Papapolymerou

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, a fully integrated phased array antenna with radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switches on a flexible, organic substrate is demonstrated above 10 GHz. A low noise amplifier (LNA), MEMS phase shifter, and 2 times 2 patch antenna array are integrated into a system-on-package (SOP) on a liquid crystal polymer substrate. Two antenna arrays are compared;

  15. Toward a more comprehensive theory of zooplankton diel vertical migration: Integrating ultraviolet radiation and water transparency into the biotic paradigm

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Craig E.

    School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Washington State University, Vancouver, Washington Abstract comprehensive framework for understanding DVM in zooplankton. We focus on ``normal'' (down during the day, up widespread and massive migrations of animals on Earth. These striking migrations across strong vertical

  16. Highly stable liquid metal-based pressure sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30-1000 s-1. The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability. PMID:26007732

  17. Highly Stable Liquid Metal-Based Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30–1000 s?1. The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability. PMID:26007732

  18. Exact thermodynamics and Luttinger liquid properties of the integrable t-J model

    E-print Network

    G. Juttner; A. Klumper; J. Suzuki

    1996-11-08

    A Trotter-Suzuki mapping is used to calculate the finite-temperature properties of the one-dimensional supersymmetric $t-J$ model. This approach allows for the exact calculation of various thermodynamical properties by means of the quantum transfer matrix (QTM). The free energy and other interesting quantities are obtained such as the specific heat and compressibility. For the largest eigenvalue of the QTM leading to the free energy a set of just two non-linear integral equations is presented. These equations are studied analytically and numerically for different particle densities and temperatures. The structure of the specific heat is discussed in terms of the elementary charge as well as spin excitations. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the low-temperature behavior confirming scaling predictions by conformal field theory and Luttinger liquid theory. To our knowledge this is the first complete investigation of a strongly correlated electron system on a lattice at finite temperature.

  19. Liquid crystal waveguide technologies for a new generation of low-power photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Alessandro, Antonio; Martini, Luca; Civita, Luca; Beccherelli, Romeo; Asquini, Rita

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we show two approaches to fabricate photonic channels on different substrate technology platforms, in particular silicon and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), for flexible photonic integrated circuits. The electro-optic effect and nonlinear optical properties of liquid crystals (LC) allow the realization of low cost and low energy consumption optoelectronic devices operating at both visible and near-infrared wavelengths. High extinction ratio and large tuning range guided wave devices will be presented to be used for both optofluidic and datacom applications, in which both low realization costs and low power consumption are key features. In particular we will show our recent results on polarization independent light propagation in waveguides whose core consists of LC infiltrated in PDMS channels (LC:PDMS waveguides) fully compatible with optofluidic and lab-on-chip microsystems.

  20. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  1. Study of Thermodynamic Vent and Screen Baffle Integration for Orbital Storage and Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to determine the feasibility of integrating an internal thermodynamic vent system and a full wall-screen liner for the orbital storage and transfer of liquid hydrogen (LH2). Ten screens were selected from a comprehensive screen survey. The experimental study determined the screen bubble point, flow-through pressure loss, and pressure loss along rectangular channels lined with screen on one side, for the 10 screens using LH2 saturated at 34.5 N/cm2 (50 psia). The correlated experimental data were used in an analysis to determine the optimum system characteristics in terms of minimum weight for 6 tanks ranging from 141.6 m3 (5,000 ft3) to 1.416 m3 (50 ft3) for orbital storage times of 30 and 300 days.

  2. A vertical microfluidic probe.

    PubMed

    Kaigala, G V; Lovchik, R D; Drechsler, U; Delamarche, E

    2011-05-01

    Performing localized chemical events on surfaces is critical for numerous applications. We earlier invented the microfluidic probe (MFP), which circumvented the need to process samples in closed microchannels by hydrodynamically confining liquids that performed chemistries on surfaces (Juncker et al. Nat. Mater. 2005, 4, 622-628). Here we present a new and versatile probe, the vertical MFP (vMFP), which operates in the scanning mode while overcoming earlier challenges that limited the practical implementation of the MFP technology. The key component of the vMFP is the head, a microfluidic device (?1 cm(2) in area) consisting of glass and Si and having microfluidic features fabricated in-plane in the Si layer. The base configuration of the head has two micrometer-size channels that inject/aspirate liquids and terminate at the apex which is ?1 mm(2). In scanning mode, the head is oriented vertically with the apex parallel to the surface with typical spacing of 1-30 ?m. Such length scales and using flow rates from nanoliters/second to microliters/second allow chemical events to be performed on surfaces with tens of picoliter quantities of reagents. Before scanning, the head is clipped on a holder for leak-free, low dead volume interface assembly, providing a simple world-to-chip interface. Surfaces are scanned by mounting the holder on a computer-controlled stage having ?0.1 ?m resolution in positioning. We present detailed steps to fabricate vMFP heads having channels with dimensions from 1 ?m × 1 ?m to 50 ?m × 50 ?m for liquid localization over areas of 10-10,000 ?m(2). Additionally, advanced design strategies are described to achieve high yield in fabrication and to support a broad range of applications. These include particulate filters, redundant aperture architectures, inclined flow-paths that service apertures, and multiple channels to enable symmetric flow confinement. We also present a method to characterize flow confinement and estimate the distance between the head and the surface by monitoring the evolution of a solution of fluorescently labeled antibody on an activated glass surface. This flow characterization reveals regimes of operation suitable for different surface topographies. We further integrate the dispensing of immersion liquid to the vMFP head for processing surfaces for extended periods of time (?60 min). The versatility of the vMFP is exemplified by patterning fluorescently labeled proteins, inactivation of cells using sodium hypochlorite, and staining living NIH fibroblasts with Cellomics. These applications are enabled by the compact design of the head, which provides easy access to the surface, simplifies alignment, and enables processing surfaces having dimensions from the micrometer to the centimeter scale and with large topographical variations. We therefore believe that ease-of-operation, reconfigurability, and conservative use of chemicals by the vMFP will lead to its widespread use by microtechnologists and the chemical and biomedical communities. PMID:21476506

  3. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 

    E-print Network

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference...

  4. Integration of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal composites with conducting polymer thin films toward the fabrication of flexible display devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pen-Cheng Wang; Alan G. MacDiarmid

    2007-01-01

    A short review on the current development in all-organic PDLC (Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal) “light valves” using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes is presented in this article. Due to conducting polymers’ better mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates, integration of driving electrodes based on conducting polymer thin films in display devices can have some advantages over

  5. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 9, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2000 295 An Integrated Liquid Mixer/Valve

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    Mixer/Valve Joel Voldman, Student Member, IEEE, Martha L. Gray, Member, IEEE, and Martin A. Schmidt, Member, IEEE Abstract--We present an integrated liquid mixer/valve to be used for sample preparation for bioscience analysis systems. The mixer/valve is a glass-silicon bonded structure with a wafer

  6. Disruption of E. coli amyloid-integrated biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by a polysorbate surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G.; Cegelski, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    Functional amyloid fibers termed curli contribute to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in E. coli. We discovered that the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 inhibits biofilm formation by uropathogenic E. coli at the air-liquid interface, referred to as pellicle formation, and at the solid-liquid interface. At Tween 20 concentrations near and above the critical micelle concentration, the interfacial viscoelastic modulus is reduced to zero as cellular aggregates at the air-liquid interface are locally disconnected and eventually eliminated. Tween 20 does not inhibit the production of curli, but prevents curli-integrated film formation. Our results support a model in which the hydrophobic curli fibers associated with bacteria near the air-liquid interface require access to the gas phase to formed strong physical entanglements and to form a network that can support shear stress. PMID:23259693

  7. Disruption of Escherichia coli amyloid-integrated biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by a polysorbate surfactant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G; Cegelski, Lynette

    2013-01-22

    Functional amyloid fibers termed curli contribute to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli . We discovered that the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 inhibits biofilm formation by uropathogenic E. coli at the air-liquid interface, referred to as pellicle formation, and at the solid-liquid interface. At Tween 20 concentrations near and above the critical micelle concentration, the interfacial viscoelastic modulus is reduced to zero as cellular aggregates at the air-liquid interface are locally disconnected and eventually eliminated. Tween 20 does not inhibit the production of curli but prevents curli-integrated film formation. Our results support a model in which the hydrophobic curli fibers associated with bacteria near the air-liquid interface require access to the gas phase to formed strong physical entanglements and to form a network that can support shear stress. PMID:23259693

  8. A new approach to untargeted integration of high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    van der Kloet, Frans M; Hendriks, Margriet; Hankemeier, Thomas; Reijmers, Theo

    2013-11-01

    Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, hyphenated mass spectrometry has become the predominant method to detect and quantify metabolites present in bio-samples relevant for all sorts of life science studies being executed. In contrast to targeted methods that are dedicated to specific features, global profiling acquisition methods allow new unspecific metabolites to be analyzed. The challenge with these so-called untargeted methods is the proper and automated extraction and integration of features that could be of relevance. We propose a new algorithm that enables untargeted integration of samples that are measured with high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In contrast to other approaches limited user interaction is needed allowing also less experienced users to integrate their data. The large amount of single features that are found within a sample is combined to a smaller list of, compound-related, grouped feature-sets representative for that sample. These feature-sets allow for easier interpretation and identification and as important, easier matching over samples. We show that the automatic obtained integration results for a set of known target metabolites match those generated with vendor software but that at least 10 times more feature-sets are extracted as well. We demonstrate our approach using high resolution LC-MS data acquired for 128 samples on a lipidomics platform. The data was also processed in a targeted manner (with a combination of automatic and manual integration) using vendor software for a set of 174 targets. As our untargeted extraction procedure is run per sample and per mass trace the implementation of it is scalable. Because of the generic approach, we envision that this data extraction lipids method will be used in a targeted as well as untargeted analysis of many different kinds of TOF-MS data, even CE- and GC-MS data or MRM. The Matlab package is available for download on request and efforts are directed toward a user-friendly Windows executable. PMID:24139572

  9. Performance Evaluation of An Integrated Vertical Handover Model for Next Generation Mobile Networks Using Virtual MAC Addresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossen Altwelib; Majdi Ashibani; Fathi Ben Shatwan

    The integration of existing cellular systems with wireless access technologies, such as wireless LANs, have attracted considerable attention during the past few years. There are a number of challenges need to be addressed including authentication, security, QoS support, and mobility management. Efficient mobility management, and especially handover management, is considered one of the major factors toward a seamless connectivity across

  10. A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/sea for climate models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital change experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for sea ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged climate model. It is found that, in response to a change between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital change dominates over the opposite summer change for sea ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital change is shown to dominate.

  11. Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, C A; Sun, Z; Wittwer, V J; Popa, D; Milana, S; Kulmala, T S; Sundaram, R S; Mangold, M; Sieber, O D; Golling, M; Lee, Y; Ahn, J H; Ferrari, A C; Keller, U

    2013-12-16

    We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ?0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors. PMID:24514728

  12. A vertical/horizontal integration wind-induced circulation model (VH13D): A method for including surface and bottom logarithmic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    A three-dimensional model called VH13D is developed using the vertical/horizontal integration (VHI) approach. The double-logarithmic velocity profile including both the surface and bottom sublayer characteristic lengths is employed to accurately evaluate the bottom shear stress and depth-averaged advective terms. The model is verified using analytical solutions and laboratory data for shear-induced countercurrent flows and is compared with other two- and three-dimensional circulation models in a simplified basin. It is demonstrated that the newly developed model improves the conventional two-dimensional depth-averaged and Quasi-3D models and provides a new approach to the three-dimensional wind-induced circulation model. It can efficiently simulate the wind-induced 3D current structure in lakes and estuaries under isothermal conditions.

  13. Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes 

    E-print Network

    Bao, Buping

    2009-05-15

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process involves the chemical conversion of natural gas (or other gas sources) into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid ...

  14. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  15. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  16. Functions and Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

  17. Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

  18. Integral Circulation Experiment: Thermal-hydraulic simulator of a heavy liquid metal reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantino, M.; Agostini, P.; Benamati, G.; Coccoluto, G.; Gaggini, P.; Labanti, V.; Venturi, G.; Class, A.; Liftin, K.; Forgione, N.; Moreau, V.

    2011-08-01

    In the frame of the IP-EUROTRANS (6th Framework Program EU), domain DEMETRA, ENEA was involved in the Work Package 4.5 " Large Scale Integral Test", devoted to characterize a relevant portion of a sub-critical ADS reactor block (core, internals, heat exchanger, cladding for fuel elements) in steady state, transient and accidental conditions. More in details ENEA assumed the commitment to perform an integral experiment aiming to reproduce the primary flow path of the " European Transmutation Demonstrator (ETD)" pool-type nuclear reactor, cooled by Lead Bismuth Eutectics (LBE). This experimental activity, called " Integral Circulation Experiment (ICE)", has been implemented merging the efforts of several research institutes, among which, besides ENEA, FZK, CRS4 and University of Pisa, allowing to design an appropriate test section to be installed in the CIRCE facility. The goal of the experiments is therefore to demonstrate the technological feasibility of a heavy liquid metal (HLM) nuclear system pool-type in a relevant scale (1 MW), investigating the related thermal-hydraulic behaviour (heat source and heat exchanger coupling, primary system and downcomer coupling, gas trapping into the main stream, thermal stratification in the pool, forced and mixed convection in rod bundle) under both steady state and transient conditions. Moreover the preliminary as well as the planned experiments aims to address performance and reliability tests of some prototypical components, such as heat source, heat exchanger, chemistry control system. The paper reports a detailed description of the experiment, the design performed for the test section and its main components as well as the preliminary experimental results carried out in the first experimental campaign run on the CIRCE pool, which consists of a full power steady state test. The preliminary experimental results carried out have demonstrate the proper design of the test section trough the experiment goals as well as the HLM primary system technological viability. Moreover the results depicted into the paper are the first experimental data made available, especially for what concern the HLM pool thermal-hydraulic in a large scale system.

  19. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

  20. Structural properties of liquid N-methylacetamide via ab initio, path integral, and classical molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, T. W.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.

    2006-03-01

    In order to better understand the physical interactions that stabilize protein secondary structure, the neat liquid state of a peptidic fragment, N-methylacetamide (NMA), was studied using computer simulation. Three different descriptions of the molecular liquid were examined: an empirical force field treatment with classical nuclei, an empirical force field treatment with quantum mechanical nuclei, and an ab initio density functional theory (DFT) treatment. The DFT electronic structure was evaluated using the BLYP approximate functional and a plane wave basis set. The different physical effects probed by the three models, such as quantum dispersion, many-body polarization, and nontrivial charge distributions on the liquid properties, were compared. Much of the structural ordering in the liquid is characterized by hydrogen bonded chains of NMA molecules. Modest structural differences are present among the three models of liquid NMA. The average molecular dipole in the liquid under the ab initio treatment, however, is enhanced by 60% over the gas phase value.

  1. Innovative spectroscopy of liquids: a fiber optic supercontinuum source and an integrating sphere for scattering-free absorption measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Mignani; L. Ciaccheri; I. Cacciari; H. Ottevaere; H. Thienpont; O. Parriaux; M. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    An innovative fiber optic setup for the scattering-free absorption spectroscopy of liquids is presented. It makes use of an integrating sphere that contains the sample under test, coupled to a fiber optic supercontinuum source and to a fiber optic spectrometer. The highly-bright broadband light shining on the sphere's surface is diffusely reflected and collected by the fiber-coupled spectrometric detector. When

  2. Solvation structure and gelation ability of polyelectrolytes: predictions by quantum chemistry methods and integral equation theory of molecular liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Lyubimova; X. Liu; Sergey Gusarov; A. E. Kobryn; Andriy Kovalenko

    2011-01-01

    Solvation structure and gelation ability of novel oligomeric electrolyte poly(pyridinium-1,4-diyliminocarbonyl-1,4-phenylenemethylene chloride) (1·Cl) as well as its derivatives 1·X obtained by counterion substitution: X? = BF4?, PF6?, TFSA?, I?, SCN?, DCA?, ClO4?, SO3CF3? have been studied by quantum chemistry methods and integral equation theory of molecular liquids. The interaction energy, ?Etot, between the counterions and polymer chains has been estimated in

  3. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  4. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

  5. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA)

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  6. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winden, A.; Mikulics, M.; Grützmacher, D.; Hardtdegen, H.

    2013-10-01

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

  7. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production. PMID:25808519

  8. Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship with Respect to Lumbopelvic Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    PubMed Central

    Vermet, Shannon; McGinnis, Karen; Boodham, Melissa; Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught in the undergraduate program used for patients with lumbopelvic conditions are expected to be utilized by students during their clinical internship program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or are being used by the clinical faculty. Methods: A confidential survey was distributed to clinical faculty at the college. It consisted of a list of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used for lumbopelvic conditions taught at that college. Clinicians were asked to indicate the frequency with which they performed or they required students to perform each item. Results: Seventeen of 23 clinicians responded. The following procedures were most likely required to be performed by clinicians: posture; ranges of motion; lower limb sensory, motor, and reflex testing; and core orthopedic tests. The following were less likely to be required to be performed: Waddell testing, Schober's test, Gillet tests, and abdominal palpation. Students were expected to perform (or clinicians performed) most of the mobilization (in particular, iliocostal, iliotransverse, and iliofemoral) and spinal manipulative therapies (in particular, the procedures referred to as the lumbar roll, lumbar pull/hook, and upper sacroiliac) taught at the college. Conclusion: This study suggests that there was considerable, but not complete, vertical integration between the undergraduate and clinical education program at this college. PMID:20480014

  9. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications-Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy).

    PubMed

    Achille, Cristiana; Adami, Andrea; Chiarini, Silvia; Cremonesi, Stefano; Fassi, Francesco; Fregonese, Luigi; Taffurelli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results. PMID:26134108

  10. Path Integral Molecular Dynamics within the Grand Canonical-like Adaptive Resolution Technique: Quantum-Classical Simulation of Liquid Water

    E-print Network

    Agarwal, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however computationally this technique is very demanding. The abovementioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One possible solution to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this ...

  11. Vertical Farm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    With the continued growth of the human population of the Earth, there is increasing concern with the planet's ability to provide sustenance for all of its inhabitants. This compelling website by Dickson Despommier and his colleagues at Columbia University provides a worthy alternative to other forms of agriculture: the vertical farm. As Dr. Despommier notes on the site, "..they offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (year-round crop production), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming." The site offers a great deal of information about these vertical farms, a detailed essay on the importance of such farms, a number of potential designs, and a discussion forum. Finally, there are a number of plans that indicate how this type of farm might be effectively created and sustained.

  12. An Integrable Model of Nonstationary Rotationally Symmetrical Motion of Ideal Incompressible Liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Pukhnachov

    2000-01-01

    We consider a partially invariant solution of the Eulerequations with respect to a six-parameter Lie group admitted by thissystem where the vertical component of velocity is a function of thevertical coordinate and time only while two other components andpressure do not depend on the polar angle in a cylindrical coordinatesystem. The analysis of the corresponding overdetermined system leads totheir special

  13. Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and the syngas is fed to the Fischer - Tropsch reactor. The products obtained are separated while the heavy.-Introduccion The use of biomass to obtain liquid fuels has attracted interest due to their compatibility

  14. A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor

    E-print Network

    Gassend, Blaise

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

  15. Kinematical relations among radar-observed water concentrations, vertical motions, and liquid-water drop-size spectra in convective clouds 

    E-print Network

    Runnels, Robert Clayton

    1962-01-01

    by using a signal generator to introduce a signal into the receiver of the CPS-9 radar. The minimum detectable signal is measured and equated to the gain setting. Equation (16) was used to calculate the equivalent radar reflec- tivity from values of Pr...) 1500 m (long pulse) Pulse Repetition Frequency 931 sec r (short pulse) 186 sec r (long pulse) Antenna Diameter 2. 36 m Beam Width (horizontal and vertical) Antenna Gain Minimum Detectable Signal 0. 9 deg 1. 14 x 10+ 1. 6 x 10 rs watt (short...

  16. Vertically aligned silicon microwire arrays of various lengths by repeated selective vapor-liquid-solid growth of n-type silicon\\/n-type silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihito Ikedo; Takahiro Kawashima; Takeshi Kawano; Makoto Ishida

    2009-01-01

    Repeated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with Au and PH3-Si2H6 mixture gas as the growth catalyst and silicon source, respectively, was used to construct n-type silicon\\/n-type silicon wire arrays of various lengths. Silicon wires of various lengths within an array could be grown by employing second growth over the first VLS grown wire. Additionally, the junction at the interface between the first

  17. Solvation thermodynamics of alkali and halide ions in ionic liquids through integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, Samantha; Malvaldi, Marco; Chiappe, Cinzia

    2008-08-01

    In this work, we study the solvation thermodynamics and other solvation properties of small ions in two room-temperature ionic liquids, dimethyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [mmim] [pf6] and dimethyl imidazolium chloride [mmim][cl] with the reference interaction site model (RISM). The nature of the charge affects several aspects of solvation, from electrostriction to the mutual disposition of cations around the solute; nevertheless, the long-range screening behavior of the liquid appears to be insensitive to both charge and dimensions of the solute. The ion solvation is energy driven, as expected for the nature of the solvent, and displays a marked asymmetry between cation and anion solvation chemical potential. Such asymmetry is dependent, even qualitatively, on the ionic liquid chosen as solvent. Partial molar volumes of ions in solution are found to follow the nature of ion-solvent interaction.

  18. In vivo silicon-based flexible radio frequency integrated circuits monolithically encapsulated with biocompatible liquid crystal polymers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geon-Tae; Im, Donggu; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jooseok; Koo, Min; Park, So Young; Kim, Seungjun; Yang, Kyounghoon; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Kwyro; Lee, Keon Jae

    2013-05-28

    Biointegrated electronics have been investigated for various healthcare applications which can introduce biomedical systems into the human body. Silicon-based semiconductors perform significant roles of nerve stimulation, signal analysis, and wireless communication in implantable electronics. However, the current large-scale integration (LSI) chips have limitations in in vivo devices due to their rigid and bulky properties. This paper describes in vivo ultrathin silicon-based liquid crystal polymer (LCP) monolithically encapsulated flexible radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) for medical wireless communication. The mechanical stability of the LCP encapsulation is supported by finite element analysis simulation. In vivo electrical reliability and bioaffinity of the LCP monoencapsulated RFIC devices are confirmed in rats. In vitro accelerated soak tests are performed with Arrhenius method to estimate the lifetime of LCP monoencapsulated RFICs in a live body. The work could provide an approach to flexible LSI in biointegrated electronics such as an artificial retina and wireless body sensor networks. PMID:23617401

  19. Image integrity-based gray-level error control for low power liquid crystal displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk-Ju Kang; Young Hwan Kim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to dynamic gray-level error control for global dimming of liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. In the LCD devices, global dimming is used to reduce power consumption by limiting the maximum luminance and lowering the brightness of backlight. The existing approaches, based on the fixed rate of clipped pixels, deteriorate the image quality

  20. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 ?C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

  1. The electro-optical characteristics and applicability evaluation of a photo-induced vertical alignment negative-type liquid crystal\\/photo-curable acrylic prepolymer mixture system mixed with chiral smectic A phase liquid crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Czung-Yu Ho; Jiunn-Yih Lee

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated newly synthesised chiral smectic A (SmA*) liquid crystals (LCs) with a lactic acid structure with polarised optical microscopy (POM). We started cooling from the clear point until a SmA* phase emerged as the temperature dropped to the range 55.7–88.6°C. At this point, the alignment of the LC molecules resulted in a homeotropic texture. To

  2. Preliminary evaluation of liquid integrity monitoring methods for gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tanks, which contain a supernatant over a layer of radioactive sludge, are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best way to remove the sludge and remediate the tanks. As part of this study, a preliminary assessment of liquid integrity (or ``tightness``) monitoring methods for the Gunite tanks has been conducted. Both an external and an internal liquid integrity monitoring method were evaluated, and a preliminary assessment of the liquid integrity of eight Gunite tanks was made with the internal method. The work presented in this report shows that six of the eight GAAT considered here are liquid tight and that, in the case of the other two, data quality was too poor to allow a conclusive decision. The analysis indicates that when the release detection approach described in this report is used during the upcoming treatability study, it will function as a sensitive and robust integrity monitoring system. Integrity assessments based on both the internal and external methods can be used as a means of documenting the integrity of the tanks before the initiation of in-tank operations. Assessments based on the external method can be used during these operations as a means of providing a nearly immediate indication of a release, should one occur. The external method of release detection measures the electrical conductivity of the water found in the dry wells associated with each of the tanks. This method is based on the fact that the conductivity of the liquid in the GAAT is very high, while the conductivity of the groundwater in the dry wells and the underdrain system for the GAAT is very low.

  3. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-09

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  4. Fractal Liquids

    E-print Network

    Marco Heinen; Simon K. Schnyder; John F. Brady; Hartmut Löwen

    2015-05-05

    We introduce fractal liquids by generalizing classical liquids of integer dimensions $d = 1, 2, 3$ to a fractal dimension $d_f$. The particles composing the liquid are fractal objects and their configuration space is also fractal, with the same non-integer dimension. Realizations of our generic model system include microphase separated binary liquids in porous media, and highly branched liquid droplets confined to a fractal polymer backbone in a gel. Here we study the thermodynamics and pair correlations of fractal liquids by computer simulation and semi-analytical statistical mechanics. Our results are based on a model where fractal hard spheres move on a near-critical percolating lattice cluster. The predictions of the fractal Percus-Yevick liquid integral equation compare well with our simulation results.

  5. From the integrable one-parameter Lai-Sutherland model to a strongly interacting Luttinger liquid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnaukhov, I. N.

    2000-12-01

    One parameter family of the Lai-Sutherland models with hard-core repulsive potential is formulated and solved by the Bethe ansatz method in one dimension for an arbitrary core radius (? + 1)/2. The ground-state Bethe ansatz equations are analysed and solved numerically for an arbitrary electron density, several values of color components, and the core radius. The ground-state energy, the Fermi velocity, and the critical exponents describing the asymptotic behavior of the correlation functions at long distances have been calculated numerically for an arbitrary density of electrons. In contrast to the integrable models studied previously, the long-distance behavior is described by a strongly interacting Luttinger liquid state. This state is characterized by a large value of the critical exponent ? for the momentum distribution function (? > 1) and realized at a high electron density region n > nc(?(nc) = 1).

  6. Wall-liquid and wall-crystal interfacial free energies via thermodynamic integration: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2012-07-28

    A method is proposed to compute the interfacial free energy of a Lennard-Jones system in contact with a structured wall by molecular dynamics simulation. Both the bulk liquid and bulk face-centered-cubic crystal phase along the (111) orientation are considered. Our approach is based on a thermodynamic integration scheme where first the bulk Lennard-Jones system is reversibly transformed to a state where it interacts with a structureless flat wall. In a second step, the flat structureless wall is reversibly transformed into an atomistic wall with crystalline structure. The dependence of the interfacial free energy on various parameters such as the wall potential, the density and orientation of the wall is investigated. The conditions are indicated under which a Lennard-Jones crystal partially wets a flat wall. PMID:22852644

  7. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (p<0.05). In addition, acrosomal membrane damage was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (p<0.05). And mitochondrial membrane damage with all sperm was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that highly magnetized semen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen. PMID:25592860

  8. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with time-multiplexed depth planes using a varifocal liquid lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheoljoong; Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Jin Su; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a depth enhancing technique for integral imaging (II) system using a varifocal lens array. Expressible depth range of II is restricted in a specific region. If the image gets out of the region, displayed image becomes distorted and broken. The center of the region which called central depth plane (CDP) is defined by the focal length of lens array. In our experiment, liquid lens array is used for II system instead of ordinary solid lens array. The focal length of lens array varies depending on the applied voltage across. As a result, the proposed II system enables control of the location of image planes electrically. With this depth plane controllable system, time multiplexed II system is implemented. For this purpose, two objects of different positions and appropriate voltage level for each object are chosen. In display panel, elemental images for each object are alternately displayed with high frame rate and appropriate voltage levels are applied to the liquid lens array. Because the time period between two sequences is very short, both objects are seems to appear simultaneously. Hence the depth range of the constructed image is enhanced.

  9. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Liquid Water: A Highly Accurate ab initio Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Santra, Biswajit; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we report highly accurate ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulations on liquid water at ambient conditions utilizing the recently developed PBE0+vdW(SC) exchange-correlation functional, which accounts for exact exchange and a self-consistent pairwise treatment of van der Waals (vdW) or dispersion interactions, combined with nuclear quantum effects (via the colored-noise generalized Langevin equation). The importance of each of these effects in the theoretical prediction of the structure of liquid water will be demonstrated by a detailed comparative analysis of the predicted and experimental oxygen-oxygen (O-O), oxygen-hydrogen (O-H), and hydrogen-hydrogen (H-H) radial distribution functions as well as other structural properties. In addition, we will discuss the theoretically obtained proton momentum distribution, computed using the recently developed Feynman path formulation, in light of the experimental deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180.

  10. INTEGRATION OF FILTRATION AND ADVANCED OXIDATION: DEVELOPMENT OF A MEMBRANE LIQUID-PHASE PLASMA REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tiered approach will be undertaken to achieve the overall project goal of demonstrating the integrated membrane/plasma process as an innovative, affordable, sustainable and effective treatment technology for small treatment systems. The team will first use a regimented ap...

  11. Thermo-structural analysis of integrated back plate in IFMIF\\/EVEDA liquid lithium target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyoshi Watanabe; Mizuho Ida; Hiroo Kondo; Kazuyuki Nakamura; Eiichi Wakai

    2011-01-01

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are in progress under the Broader Approach (BA) Agreement. As a part of this engineering design, we carried out thermo-structural analysis of the back plate in the IFMIF target. In this analysis, the target assembly of the integrated back plate option was modeled with

  12. Boundary Potential Effect for the Kondo Problem in a Luttinger Liquid:. Integrable Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yupeng; Jin, Duo; Pu, Fu-Cho

    To study the impurity potential effect to the Kondo problem in a Luttinger liquid, we introduce a model of ferromagnetic single-impurity Kondo problem in a multi-band one-dimensional ?-potential Fermi gas, which is exactly solvable for a special Kondo coupling constant via Bethe ansatz. It is found that the boundary potential modifies the local moment seriously due to the charge-spin coupling and the strong backward scattering off the impurity, and thus strongly affects the fixed point of the system. Generally, their is a residual entropy for the ground state which depends on the strength of the boundary potential. In addition, the tunneling effect through the impurity and the breakdown of the open boundary induced by the impurity are also discussed.

  13. Elephant's foot phenomenon in liquid storage tanks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing the seismic response of a flat bottomed cylindrical liquid storage tank to vertical earthquake excitation. Here, vertical earthquake acceleration is considered to correspond to an increase in the density of a stored liquid. Taking into account the vertical and horizontal earthquake loads, hydrostatic pressure, and considering restrictive moment and shear forces at shell-bottom

  14. 3-D-integrated RF and millimeter-wave functions and modules using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) system-on-package technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manos M. Tentzeris; Joy Laskar; John Papapolymerou; Stéphane Pinel; V. Palazzari; R. Li; G. DeJean; N. Papageorgiou; D. Thompson; R. Bairavasubramanian; S. Sarkar; J.-H. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Electronics packaging evolution involves system, technology, and material considerations. In this paper, we present a novel three-dimensional (3-D) integration approach for system-on-package (SOP)-based solutions for wireless communication applications. This concept is proposed for the 3-D integration of RF and millimeter (mm) wave embedded functions in front-end modules by means of stacking substrates using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) multilayer and ?BGA

  15. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.; Hou, Hong Q.; Geib, Kent M.; Hammons, B. E.

    1998-04-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. We report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising form the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  16. A new look at vertical motion around the San Andreas Fault in the Southern California from Integrated GPS and InSAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Johnson, K. M.; Weldon, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Burgette, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Here we report on a new analysis of GPS and space-based InSAR-estimated vertical motions in the vicinity of the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) near the eastern Transverse Ranges. We consider GPS data from all of the available high precision geodetic networks in southern California such as the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and SCIGN networks. We analyze raw GPS observations using the GIPSY-OASIS software, and align the solutions to the newly updated NA12 reference frame, derived from ITRF2008. Vertical data are considered if the station has at least 4 years of data, have time series that are fit well by a linear plus seasonal terms plus steps from known equipment changes and earthquakes. We supplement the data with rates from time series analyses of ERS and ENVISAT radar data between 1992 and 2009, obtained from the WinSAR archive. We use 532 scenes from 7 track/frames to form 7476 interferograms, providing line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for overlapping descending (6) and ascending (1) frames. To separate the vertical from the horizontal signals, we align the InSAR LOS rates to the GPS LOS rates using a bilinear transformation and subtract the LOS signal of horizontal deformation estimated from a strain rate map constructed from horizontal GPS velocities. The result is an InSAR LOS rate map aligned to NA12, which we unproject into the vertical direction. InSAR and GPS motions track one another well, with RMS difference in vertical rate of 1.0 mm/yr, where the signal of vertical rate varies between -5.0 and 2.6 mm/yr. Aligning the InSAR to GPS reduces errors in InSAR attributable to long wavelength effects from the atmosphere and orbit uncertainties. The vertical rates show both basin-scale pockets of subsidence and regional wavelength variations in uplift rate. We detect previously reported signals in the San Bernadino, San Jacinto, Pomona, and LA basins with both the GPS and InSAR. Near the coast uplift patterns are similar to those from repeated leveling tied to tide gauges, and efforts are underway to extend this comparison farther inland. A longer wavelength uplift feature of between 1 to 2 mm/yr spans the southern SAF near its junction with the San Jacinto fault and eastern Transverse Ranges. Geodetic measurements of interseismic crustal deformation show north-south contraction and east-west extension, recording net contraction. We hypothesize that uplift is balancing the observed strain accumulation. Our model of elastic flexure and viscoelastic response in the lithosphere suggests that vertical data can improve estimates of SAF slip rate that currently vary depending on analysis method and dataset considered. However, attributing the vertical signal to fault strain accumulation requires accounting for the lingering effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, for which global models predict a down to the west trend, consistent with some features of the observed signals.

  17. Polymer microchips integrating solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography using reversed-phase polymethacrylate monoliths.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jikun; Chen, Chien-Fu; Tsao, Chia-Wen; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou; DeVoe, Don L

    2009-04-01

    Polymer microfluidic chips employing in situ photopolymerized polymethacrylate monoliths for high-performance liquid chromatography separations of peptides is described. The integrated chip design employs a 15 cm long separation column containing a reversed-phase polymethacrylate monolith as a stationary phase, with its front end seamlessly coupled to a 5 mm long methacrylate monolith which functions as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) element for sample cleanup and enrichment, serving to increase both detection sensitivity and separation performance. In addition to sample concentration and separation, solvent splitting is also performed on-chip, allowing the use of a conventional LC pump for the generation of on-chip nanoflow solvent gradients. The integrated platform takes advantage of solvent bonding and a novel high-pressure needle interface which together enable the polymer chips to withstand internal pressures above 20 MPa (approximately 2900 psi) for efficient pressure-driven HPLC separations. Gradient reversed-phase separation of fluorescein-labeled model peptides and BSA tryptic digest are demonstrated using the microchip HPLC system. Online removal of free fluorescein and enrichment of labeled proteins are simultaneously achieved using the on-chip SPE column, resulting in a 150-fold improvement in sensitivity and a 10-fold reduction in peak width in the following microchip gradient LC separation. PMID:19267447

  18. Integrating sphere-based photoacoustic setup for simultaneous absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements of biomedical liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2015-03-01

    A method for simultaneously measuring the absorption coefficient ?a and Grüneisen parameter ? of biological absorbers in photoacoustics is designed and implemented using a coupled-integrating sphere system. A soft transparent tube with inner diameter of 0.58mm is used to mount the liquid absorbing sample horizontally through the cavity of two similar and adjacent integrating spheres. One sphere is used for measuring the sample's ?a using a continuous halogen light source and a spectrometer fiber coupled to the input and output ports, respectively. The other sphere is used for simultaneous photoacoustic measurement of the sample's ? using an incident pulsed light with wavelength of 750nm and a flat transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. Absolute optical energy and pressure measurements are not necessary. However, the derived equations for determining the sample's ?a and ? require calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions. Initial measurements are done with biological samples relevant to biomedical imaging such as human whole blood, joint and cyst fluids. Absorption of joint and cyst fluids is enhanced using a contrast agent like aqueous indocyanine green dye solution. For blood sample, measured values of ?a = 0.580 +/- 0.016 mm-1 and ? = 0.166 +/- 0.006 are within the range of values reported in literature. Measurements with the absorbing joint and cyst fluid samples give ? values close to 0.12, which is similar to that of water and plasma.

  19. Simulation of crystal and liquid potassium via restricted path-integral molecular dynamics Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721

    E-print Network

    Deymier, Pierre

    Simulation of crystal and liquid potassium via restricted path-integral molecular dynamics Ki metal potassium model system. The simple metal undergoes a phase transformation upon heating. Calculated-dynamics PIMD method1,2 to the study of an alkali metal, namely, potassium K . The choice of this system

  20. Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Integration of structure and property measurements in a Paris-Edinburgh cell (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Shen, G.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the structure and physical properties of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures is important in understanding dynamics and evolution of the Earth and other planets. However, understanding the physics of liquid materials remains a challenge, especially under high pressure and high temperature conditions. We have recently developed an integrated setup for multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, ultrasonic measurement, and falling sphere viscometer using a Paris-Edinburgh press at sector 16-BM-B, HPCAT, at the APS, for comprehensively studying structures and physical properties of liquids and amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures. The sector 16-BM-B is capable of amorphous and liquid structure measurements by using multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction technique at high pressure and high temperature conditions in a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell (e.g., Yamada et al., 2011). The PE cell is capable of compressing large volume samples (typically >1 mm3) up to 7 GPa at temperatures exceed 2000 °C. In addition to the liquid and amorphous structure measurement capability, we have developed ultrasonic elastic wave velocity and falling sphere viscosity techniques in the PE cell. The elastic wave velocity is measured by ultrasonic pulse echo overlap method in conjunction with white x-ray radiography measurement for determining the wave travel distance (Kono et al., 2012). The falling sphere viscosity measurements are made with high-speed white x-ray radiography (>1000 frame/second) (Kono et al., 2013). The integration of liquid structure measurement with elastic wave velocity measurement and viscosity measurement in the PE cell provides a unique opportunity to investigate in situ correlation between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties of liquids and amorphous solids. Knowledge of the correlation will provide valuable constraints for modeling liquid properties at high pressures and high temperatures, and thus improving our understanding the nature of magmas at depths and the dynamics of the Earth's interior.

  1. Comparisons Between Integral Equation Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Atomistic Models of Polyethylene Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, John G.; Webb III, Edmund B.; Grest, Gary S.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.; Putz, Mathias; McCoy, John D.

    1999-07-21

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on dense liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 united atom CH{sub 2} units. A series of models was studied ranging in atomistic detail from coarse-grained, freely-jointed, tangent site chains to realistic, overlapping site models subjected to bond angle restrictions and torsional potentials. These same models were also treated with the self-consistent, polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. The intramolecular and total structure factors, as well as, the intermolecular radial distribution functions g(r) and direct correlation functions C(r) were obtained from theory and simulation. Angular correlation functions were also simulation obtained from the MD simulations. Comparisons between theory and reveal that PRISM theory works well for computing the intermolecular structure of coarse-grained chain models, but systematically underpredicts the extent of intermolecular packing as more atomistic details are introduced into the model. A consequence of g(r) having insufficient structure is that the theory yields an isothermal compressibility that progressively becomes larger, relative to the simulations, as overlapping the PRISM sites and angular restrictions are introduced into the model. We found that theory could be considerably improved by adding a tail function to C(r) beyond the effective hard core diameter. The range of this tail function was determined by requiring the theory to yield the correct compressibility.

  2. Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Sun with Microlens Array and Liquid Crystal Retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Shinoda, K.; Sano, I.; Kobiki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Simultaneous spectrographic observations over extended solar structures, at a high spatial resolution and temporal cadence, are important to track and understand the physics of transient phenomena such as Ellerman bombs, flare kernels, prominences/filaments and spicules. With two-dimensional (2-D) field spectral data, we can make monochromatic images at a given wavelength in a designed passband and line profile analysis to derive 2-D distribution of atmospheric parameters. One technique to produce a spectrum of each spatial elements in an extended two-dimensional field is to use a micro-lens array. Replacing a slit of a conventional spectrograph with a micro-lens array then helps to capture two-dimensionally distributed short spectra from 2-D field using additional optics inserted, a bandpass filter and a large format detector. For observations of magnetic field, we can add polarization modulator made of liquid crystal retarders which give a sequence of alternative orthogonal polarization states with time. We describe a design concept and limitations for observations with the micro-lens array spectrograph and an initial result applied for a few existing solar telescopes at NAOJ and Hida Observatory, Kyoto University.

  3. Well-aligned arrays of vertically oriented ZnO nanowires electrodeposited on ITO-coated glass and their integration in dye sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Lupan; V. M. Guérin; I. M. Tiginyanu; V. V. Ursaki; L. Chow; H. Heinrich; T. Pauporté

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effects of post-growth hydrothermal treatment and thermal annealing on properties of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires arrays (NWs). The samples were electrochemically deposited (ECD) on indium–tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and subjected to post-growth hydrothermal treatment (HT) at 150°C and, for the purpose of comparison, to conventional thermal annealing (CTA) in a furnace at 150, 400, and

  4. Test Results of the RS-44 Integrated Component Evaluator Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

  5. Vertical dynamics Spiral structure

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Vertical dynamics Spiral structure The Hubble type of the Galaxy STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 7;Outline Vertical dynamics Spiral structure The Hubble type of the Galaxy Outline Vertical dynamics van der Kruit, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute Structure of galaxy disks #12;Outline Vertical dynamics

  6. Energy-Efficient Multiobjective Thermal Control for Liquid-Cooled 3-D Stacked Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed M. Sabry; Ayse K. Coskun; David Atienza; Tajana Šimuni? Rosing; Thomas Brunschwiler

    2011-01-01

    D stacked systems reduce communication delay in multiprocessor system-on-chips (MPSoCs) and enable heteroge- neous integration of cores, memories, sensors, and RF devices. However, vertical integration of layers exacerbates temperature- induced problems such as reliability degradation. Liquid cooling is a highly efficient solution to overcome the accelerated thermal problems in 3-D architectures; however, it brings new challenges in modeling and run-time

  7. Determination of preservatives by integrative coupling method of headspace liquid-phase microextraction and capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Da-Si; Xie, Hai-Yang; He, You-Zhao; Gan, Wu-Er; Gao, Yong

    2010-12-01

    An integrative coupling method of headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was proposed in this paper. In the method, a separation capillary was used to create a microextraction droplet of the running buffer solution of CZE, hold the droplet at the capillary inlet, extract analytes of sample solutions in the headspace of a sample vial, inject concentrated analytes into the capillary and separate the analytes by CZE. The proposed method was applied to determine the preservatives of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in soy sauce and soft drink samples, in which the running buffer solution of 50 mmol/L tetraborate (pH 9.2) was directly used to form the acceptor droplet at the capillary inlet by pressure, and the preservatives in a 6-mL sample solution containing 0.25 g/mL NaCl were extracted at 90°C for 30 min in the headspace of a 14-mL sample vial. Then the concentrated preservatives were injected into the capillary at 10 cm height difference for 20 s and separated by CZE. The enrichment factors of benzoic acid and sorbic acid achieved 266 and 404, and the limits of detection (LODs) were 0.03 and 0.01 ?g/mL (S/N=3), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 88.7-105%. The integrative coupling method of HS-LPME and CZE was simple, convenient, reliable and suitable for concentrating volatile and semi-volatile organic acids and eliminating matrix interferences of real samples. PMID:21035121

  8. Refractive Index-Based Detection of Gradient Elution Liquid Chromatography using Chip-Integrated Microring Resonator Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wade, James H.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as non-destructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with HPLC. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution – a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviating extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of post-column (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also makes it an attractive potential detection technology that could be integrated within lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic separation devices. PMID:24328221

  9. On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.E.; Gourley, P.L.; Hadley, G.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Lear, K.L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States))

    1992-09-28

    We have fabricated large, two-dimensional (2D) arrays of optically pumped, phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers that emit more than 50% of their light in a central on-axis lobe. The emission of the arrays was modified from the usual four-lobed far-field of 2D coupled arrays by incorporation of a binary phase-shift mask on the surface of the array. The array consists of Fabry--Perot resonators comprising GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells surrounded by AlAs/AlGaAs quarterwave mirrors with a multiple order AlGaAs phase-delay layer on the top mirror stack. The phase-shift layer was etched away on alternating elements of the array. The resulting on-axis emission had an angular width of 2{degree} for an array of approximately 100 elements.

  10. Research enrichment: evaluation of structured research in the curriculum for dental medicine students as part of the vertical and horizontal integration of biomedical training and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Karl; O'Malley, Susan; Stewart, Tanis; Howard, Katherine M

    2008-01-01

    Background Research programs within medical and dental schools are important vehicles for biomedical and clinical discovery, serving as effective teaching and learning tools by providing situations in which predoctoral students develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. Although research programs at many medical and dental schools are well-established, they may not be well integrated into the predoctoral curriculum to effectively support the learning objectives for their students. Methods A series of structured seminars, incorporating faculty research, was designed for first-year dental students at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine to reinforce and support the concepts and skills taught in concurrent courses. A structured research enrichment period was also created to facilitate student engagement in active research using faculty and student curricular release time. Course evaluations and surveys were administered to gauge student perceptions of the curricular integration of research, the impact of these seminars on recruitment to the research program, and overall levels of student satisfaction with research enrichment. Results The analysis of course surveys revealed that students perceived the research-containing seminars effectively illustrated concepts, were logically sequenced, and were well-integrated into their curriculum. In addition, analysis of surveys revealed that the Integration Seminar courses motivated students to engage in research enrichment. Finally, this analysis provided evidence that students were very satisfied with their overall learning experience during research enrichment. Conclusion Curricular integration is one method of improving the teaching and learning of complicated and inter-related concepts, providing an opportunity to incorporate research training and objectives into traditionally separate didactic courses. Despite the benefits of curricular integration, finding the most appropriate points of integration, obtaining release time for curricular development and for research engagement, and funding predoctoral student research remain issues to be addressed in ways that reflect the character of the faculty and the goals of each institution. PMID:18284692

  11. Low-Loss Integrated-Waveguide Passive Circuits Using Liquid-Crystal Polymer System-on-Package (SOP) Technology for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki Seok Yang; Stephane Pinel; Il Kwon Kim; Joy Laskar

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we show a low-loss integrated waveguide (IWG), microstrip line-to-IWG transition, IWG bandpass filter (BPF), and system-on-package (SOP) using a liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) substrate, which can be used toward SOP technology for millimeter-wave applications. The proposed IWG can be used as a low-loss millimeter-wave transmission line on this substrate. The measured insertion loss of the IWG is -0.12

  12. Integrated system for on-line gas and liquid chromatography with a single mass spectrometric detector for the automated analysis of environmental samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Slobodník; A. C. Hogenboom; A. J. H. Louter; U. A. Th. Brinkman

    1996-01-01

    An integrated system has been developed which combines liquid (LC) and gas (GC) chromatographic separation with a single mass spectrometer (MS). On-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of 10–200 ml aqueous samples on a short (10 × 2.0 mm I.D.) precolumn packed with a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer is used for analyte enrichment. The trace-enrichment procedure was automated by means of a PROSPEKT cartridge-exchange\\/solvent-selection\\/valve-switching

  13. Multiband RF and mm-wave design solutions for integrated RF functions in liquid crystal polymer system-on-package technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Palazzaril; D. Thompson; N. Papageorgiou; S. Pinel; J. H. Lee; S. Sarkar; R. Pratap; G. DeJean; R. Bairavasubramanian; R.-L. Li; M. Tentzeris; J. Laskar; J. Papapolymerou; L. Roselli

    2004-01-01

    Electronic packaging evolution involves systems, technology and material considerations. In this paper, we present a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) based multilayer packaging technology that is rapidly emerging as an ideal platform for low cost, multi-band and reconfigurable RF front-end module integration. LCP's very low water absorption (0.04%), low cost and high electrical performance makes it very appealing for RF applications.

  14. Vertical Map Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Joanne M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

  15. Integrated SDS removal and peptide separation by strong-cation exchange liquid chromatography for SDS-assisted shotgun proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Difei; Wang, Nan; Li, Liang

    2012-02-01

    We report an improved shotgun method for analyzing proteomic samples containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This method is based on the use of strong-cation exchange (SCX) liquid chromatography (LC) for SDS removal that can be integrated with peptide separation as the first dimension of the two-dimensional LC tandem mass spectrometry workflow. To optimize the performance of SDS removal, various experimental conditions, including the concentrations of chemical reagents and salts in the sample, the SDS concentration, and the SCX mobile phase composition, were investigated. It was found that a peptide recovery rate of about 90% could be achieved while removing SDS efficiently. One key finding was that, by increasing the SDS concentration to a certain level (0.5%) in the digested peptide sample, the sample recovery rate could be increased. The peptide recovery rate of BSA digests was found to be 90.6 ± 1.0% (n = 3), and SDS in the SCX fractions collected was not detectable by pyrolysis GC-MS, i.e., below the detection limit of 0.00006% for the undesalted SCX fractions. The peptide recovery rates were found to be 90.9% ± 2.7 (n = 3) and 89.5% ± 0.5% (n = 3) for the digests of the membrane-protein-enriched fractions of E. coli cell lysates and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, respectively. Compared to the methods that use acid-labile surfactants, such as RapiGest and PPS, for the MCF-7 membrane fraction sample, the SDS method identified, on average (n = 3), more peptides (?5%) and proteins (?16%) than the RapiGest method, while the RapiGest method identified more peptides (?21%) and proteins (?7%) from the E. coli membrane fraction than the SDS method. In both cases, the two methods identified more peptides and proteins than the PPS method. Since SCX is widely used as the first dimension of 2D-LC MS/MS, integration of SDS removal with peptide separation in SCX does not add any extra steps to the sample handling process. We demonstrated the application of this method for 2D-LC MS/MS profiling of the MCF-7 membrane protein fraction and identified 6889 unique peptides, corresponding to 2258 unique proteins or protein groups from two replicate experiments with a false peptide discovery rate of ?0.8%, compared to 5172 unique peptides and 1847 unique proteins identified by the RapiGest method. PMID:22214374

  16. Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow

    E-print Network

    Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

  17. The effects of vertical and horizontal placement on no-vent fill of cryogenic insulated vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caili; Wang, Rongshun

    2010-08-01

    Since cryogenic vessels and products are widely applied into industries, scientific explorations and daily lives, more and more investigations on no-vent fill technologies have been conducted to protect resources and environment. In this paper, liquid-vapor interface area or liquid volume as a function of liquid height was calculated by the use of integration method. Based on the analysis of the effects of the liquid-vapor interface area on vapor condensation, the rising liquid-vapor interface area was considered as an important influencing factor which was seriously studied in the form of interface area ratio {Sh}/{Sv}. Experimental results indicated that the horizontal tanks performed better in no-vent fills than the vertical ones given the same operational condition. For the reason that the effects of initial condition and transfer properties on no-vent fills were excluded, the increasing rising liquid-vapor interface area was concluded as a main explanation to support that horizontal placement was more feasible in no-vent fills.

  18. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    E-print Network

    Macchiolo, A; Ellenburg, M; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2012-01-01

    The R&D activity presented is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 um or 150 um, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 um thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4e15 neq/cm^2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation is discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond ...

  19. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Ellenburg, M.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2013-12-01

    This R&D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 ?m or 150 ?m, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 ?m thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×1015 neq/cm2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3 ?m×10 ?m, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.

  20. Geysering inhibitor for vertical cryogenic transfer piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. S.

    1973-01-01

    Geysering (i.e., the expulsion of boiling liquid and its vapor from a vertical tube) has been a problem for the missile industry in long vertical cryogenic propellant feed lines connecting the launch vehicle propellant tank with the rocket engines. A proposed novel method of inhibiting geysering and the associated pressure gradients provides a self-starting self-regulating action that is not dependent on other active systems or components. The inhibiting action is attained by incorporating a concentric tube within the main transfer tube to prevent constriction of natural convective flow.

  1. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The simulations show that the helium gas is trapped inside the grooves. The predicted time-averaged gas coverage is in good qualitative agreement with the measured gas coverage.

  2. Interacting bosons in one dimension and the applicability of Luttinger-liquid theory as revealed by path-integral quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian; Affleck, Ian

    2010-08-01

    Harmonically trapped ultracold atoms and H4e in nanopores provide different experimental realizations of bosons in one dimension, motivating the search for a more complete theoretical understanding of their low-energy properties. Worm algorithm path-integral quantum Monte Carlo results for interacting bosons restricted to the one dimensional continuum are compared to the finite temperature and system size predictions of Luttinger-liquid theory. For large system sizes at low temperature, excellent agreement is obtained after including the leading irrelevant interactions in the Hamiltonian which are determined explicitly.

  3. Vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lytle

    1984-01-01

    Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is based upon reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. This technology has seen a surge in application and development in the last decade. The analogous concept of vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) consists of reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. Although the electromagnetic

  4. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  5. Partial and integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ag–Al–Cu and Ag–Cu–Zn alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor T. Witusiewicz; Ulrike Hecht; Stephan Rex; Ferdinand Sommer

    2002-01-01

    The partial enthalpies of mixing of the components of liquid ternary Ag–Al–Cu (T=1252±5 K) and Ag–Cu–Zn (T=1068–1113 K) alloys have been determined using a high-temperature isoperibolic calorimeter. Measurements were performed starting from both pure Al and Zn and from binary liquid Ag–Cu alloys along sections with constant Ag:Cu ratios 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 (Ag–Al–Cu system) and 2:3, 3:2 (Ag–Cu–Zn system). The

  6. C++ classes for electromagnetic depth sounding on a transitional earth using vertical magnetic dipole source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Prabhakar Rao; K. Mallick

    2001-01-01

    A C++ program is developed to compute the normalized vertical magnetic field of a vertical magnetic dipole source placed on the surface of the transitional earth. Three classes with member functions are designed to compute the kernel function, Hankel transform integral and the normalized vertical magnetic field. The digital filter technique is used to evaluate the Hankel integral. The program

  7. A measurement of the e/{pi} ratio difference between short (250 ns) and long (2.2 {mu}s) integration times with the D0 uranium-liquid argon central calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, B.

    1992-12-31

    The difference of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses(e/{pi}) in the DO Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the DO calorimeter trigger readout (short integration time: 250 ns) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2 {mu}s). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/{pi} ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

  8. Experience of Integrated NDT of Large Volume Welded Tanks for Storage of Liquid Ammonia, Petroleum Products and Alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy POSYPAYKO; Vladimir TROITSKY

    Performance of periodical integrated technical inspections of steel cylindrical welded tanks of a large volume is a mandatory condition of their safe service. The main purpose of integrated technical inspection of tanks is determination of their technical condition, possibility of further safe operation, dates of subsequent inspections, need for repair or removing the tanks from service.

  9. Vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is based upon reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. This technology has seen a surge in application and development in the last decade. The analogous concept of vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) consists of reception measurements performed in a borehole with a source near the ground surface. Although the electromagnetic concept has seen some application, this technology has not been as systematically developed and applied as VSP. Vertical electromagnetic profiling provides distinct and complementary data due to sensing different physical parameters than seismic profiling. Certain of the advantages of VEMP are presented. 28 references, 7 figures.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kutcher, H.R.

    1984-05-15

    A Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine is disclosed which includes a vertically extending rotor tube mounted on a support structure with two or three rotor blades of troposkein configuration on the rotor tube for rotating the tube in response to wind energy and thereby drive a generator to produce electrical power. The turbine includes an erection hinge which permits assembly of the rotor tube and blades at close to ground level followed by upward hinging of the rotor assembly to a vertical position. It also includes a system for automatically lubricating the top bearing upon erection and a system for visually tensioning the guy cables.

  11. Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  12. Integration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Liao

    In this video, we become familiar with integrals, both by understanding them as sums of areas under plots of functions, and by understanding them as anti-derivatives. We present the u-substitution rule, which is the analog of the chain rule for differentiating composite functions.

  13. Vertical neck lifting.

    PubMed

    Jacono, Andrew A; Talei, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The authors' vertical neck lifting procedure is an extended deep plane facelift, which elevates the skin and SMAS-platysma complex as a composite unit. The goal is to redrape cervicomental laxity vertically onto the face rather than laterally and postauricularly. The authors consider this an extended technique because it lengthens the deep plane flap from the angle of the mandible into the neck to release the cervical retaining ligaments that limit platysmal redraping. This technique does not routinely use midline platysmal surgery because it counteracts the extent of vertical redraping. A majority of aging face patients are good candidates for this procedure in isolation, but indications for combining vertical neck lifting with submental surgery are elucidated. PMID:24745389

  14. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smaller stomach is about the size of a banana. It limits the amount of food you can ... staples. This creates a long vertical tube or banana-shaped stomach. The surgery does not involve cutting ...

  15. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  16. Signal integrity characterization of microwave XFP ASIC BGA package realized on low-K liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhang Yazdani

    2006-01-01

    With the development of low-K nanometer devices, the need for compatible packaging material is ever increasing. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is emerging as a promising material for RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave packaging. Its coefficient of thermal expansion can be matched to that of low-K die to ensure mechanical reliability. This paper, for the first time, characterizes the electrical performance of

  17. Real-time cross-sectional averaged void fraction measurements in vertical annulus gas-liquid two-phase flow by neutron radiography and X-ray tomography techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Harvel; K. Hori; K. Kawanishi; J. S. Chang

    1996-01-01

    A Real-Time Neutron Radiography (RTNR) system and a high speed X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT) system are used to determine the flow regime, the instantaneous cross-sectional averaged void fraction, and the time averaged void fraction in a vertical annulus flow channel. A standard optical video system is also used to observe the flow regime. The annulus flow channel is operated as

  18. MicroChemLab: an integrated microanalytical system for chemical analysis using parallel gas and liquid phase microseparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Thomas; Gregory C. Frye-Mason; Christopher G. Bailey; Mial E. Warren; Julia A. Fruetel; Karl Wally; Janson Wu; Richard J. Kottenstette; Edwin J. Heller

    1999-01-01

    The ability to characterize suspect facilities for intelligence or counterforce purposes will rely heavily on the ability to identify chemical effluents from such facilities. Sandia is developing a complete micro-scale chemical analysis system named (mu) ChemLabTM. This system will be extremely small and low power because of the utilization of integrated circuit fabrication techniques. The use of monolithic integration of

  19. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  20. Countercurrent flooding in vertical-to-inclined pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaji, M.; Thomson, L.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4 (CA)); Krishnan, V.S. (Thermalhydraulics Branch, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (CA))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on countercurrent flooding data obtained using air and water for vertical-to- downwardly inclined pipes containing elbows of varying angles. Experiments were performed with six different test sections, all having an inner diameter of 51 mm and a 1-m- long vertical tube connected to an inclined or horizontal tube. The flooding data for 112.5{degrees} and 135{degrees} elbow angles were almost identical and showed that these geometries required the largest gas flow rates for flooding among all the geometries tested. The flooding gas velocities for the 157.5{degrees} elbow were slightly less than those of the 112.5{degrees} and 135{degrees} elbows but greater than those of the vertical pipe without any elbow and vertical-to- horizontal pipes at low to moderate liquid flow rates. In all vertical-to-inclined pipes, flooding was initiated in the inclined section at about 15 to 50 cm downstream of the elbow. Due to the countercurrent flow of gas, the liquid stream just downstream of the elbow became highly agitated and a frothy mixture was carried upstream by gas at flooding. At moderate to high liquid flow rates, the liquid was deflected off at the elbow to form a turbulent, jetlike stream that partially broke up into droplets. These droplets were, at the onset of flooding, entrained and carried over by the gas stream.

  1. Event-driven power-law relaxation in weak turbulence: A liquid crystals mesoscopic experiment bridging quantum dots and the integration theory for the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Fronzoni, Leone; Gemignani, Angelo; Grigolini, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Allegrini, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    We illustrate a theoretical approach to derive generalized master equations, in both quantum and classical physics, compatible with the occurrence of crucial events. We show how to derive out of it a new Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (FDT), called phenomenological FDT. We fail deriving from the same approach another FDT form, called dynamic FDT, which is proved by us to drive the response of liquid crystals to external perturbations. We argue that this experimental effect is incompatible with the adoption of a density approach, in the same way as the decoherence theory fails explaining the wave function collapse, if this corresponds to crucial events. We also argue that the same perspective applies to the brain, according to the tenets of the integration theory of consciousness.

  2. Integration of Satellite-Derived Cloud Phase, Cloud Top Height, and Liquid Water Path into an Operational Aircraft Icing Nowcasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Julie; McDonough, Frank; Black, Jennifer; Landott, Scott; Wolff, Cory; Mueller, Steven; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Operational products used by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to alert pilots of hazardous icing provide nowcast and short-term forecast estimates of the potential for the presence of supercooled liquid water and supercooled large droplets. The Current Icing Product (CIP) system employs basic satellite-derived information, including a cloud mask and cloud top temperature estimates, together with multiple other data sources to produce a gridded, three-dimensional, hourly depiction of icing probability and severity. Advanced satellite-derived cloud products developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provide a more detailed description of cloud properties (primarily at cloud top) compared to the basic satellite-derived information used currently in CIP. Cloud hydrometeor phase, liquid water path, cloud effective temperature, and cloud top height as estimated by the LaRC algorithms are into the CIP fuzzy logic scheme and a confidence value is determined. Examples of CIP products before and after the integration of the LaRC satellite-derived products will be presented at the conference.

  3. Influence of Boar and Semen Parameters on Motility and Acrosome Integrity in Liquid Boar Semen Stored for Five Days

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Ninety ejaculates from a total of 76 AI boars were extended in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Boar identity, breed, weight of the ejaculate and sperm concentration were registered. Motility and acrosome integrity were assessed after storage at 16–18°C for 6, 30, 54, 78, and 102 h. Storage time had a significant influence on both motility (p < 0.01) and acrosome integrity (p < 0.001). The Least Square Means for percentage of motility showed a small decline from 79.8% after 6 h of storage to 78.4% at 102 h. Motility at 78 and 102 h was significantly different from motility at 6 h (p < 0.05). The percentage of sperm cells with normal acrosomes declined throughout the experiment. The Least Square Means for 6, 30, 54, 78, and 102 h of storage were 93.9%, 90.6%, 88.0%, 84.8%, and 78.2%, respectively. The decrease in acrosome integrity from one storage time to the next was highly significant throughout the trial (p < 0.001). There was a significant influence of boar (p < 0.001) and sperm concentration (p < 0.01) on motility, while acrosome integrity was affected only by boar (p < 0.001). Breed of the boars and weight of the ejaculate did not influence the dependent variables. PMID:12071116

  4. Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

    2012-05-01

    Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

  5. Post-scram Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) heat transport system dynamics and steam generator control: Figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukx, J. F. L. M.

    1982-06-01

    Dynamic modeling of LMFBR heat transport system is discussed. Uncontrolled transient behavior of individual components and of the integrated heat transport system are considered. For each component, results showing specific dynamic features of the component and/or model capability were generated. Controlled dynamic behavior for alternative steam generator control systems during forced and natural sodium coolant circulation was analyzed. Combined free and forced convection of laminar and turbulent vertical pipe flow of liquid metals was investigated.

  6. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  7. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  8. Forecast model applications of retrieved three dimensional liquid water fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, William H.; Olson, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Forecasts are made for tropical storm Emily using heating rates derived from the SSM/I physical retrievals described in chapters 2 and 3. Average values of the latent heating rates from the convective and stratiform cloud simulations, used in the physical retrieval, are obtained for individual 1.1 km thick vertical layers. Then, the layer-mean latent heating rates are regressed against the slant path-integrated liquid and ice precipitation water contents to determine the best fit two parameter regression coefficients for each layer. The regression formulae and retrieved precipitation water contents are utilized to infer the vertical distribution of heating rates for forecast model applications. In the forecast model, diabatic temperature contributions are calculated and used in a diabatic initialization, or in a diabatic initialization combined with a diabatic forcing procedure. Our forecasts show that the time needed to spin-up precipitation processes in tropical storm Emily is greatly accelerated through the application of the data.

  9. Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase

    DOEpatents

    Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

  10. Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, S.; Krebs, T.; Weiss, C.; Paur, H.-R.

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL® system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

  11. Journal of Integrated Omics JOURNAL OF INTEGRATED OMICS

    E-print Network

    Powers, Robert

    Journal of Integrated Omics JOURNAL OF INTEGRATED OMICS A METHODOLOGICAL JOURNAL HTTP; Staphylococcus; bacteria. Abbreviations NMR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; MS, Mass Spectrometry; LC, Liquid | Journal of Integrat

  12. Vertical Fluxes of Potential Vorticity and the Structure of the Thermocline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID P. M ARSHALL

    2000-01-01

    A new framework for understanding the vertical structure of ocean gyres is developed based on vertical fluxes of potential vorticity. The key ingredient is an integral constraint that in a steady state prohibits a net flux of potential vorticity through any closed contour of Bernoulli potential or density. Applied to an ocean gyre, the vertical fluxes of potential vorticity associated

  13. Large-scale qualitative and quantitative characterization of components in Shenfu injection by integrating hydrophilic interaction chromatography, reversed phase liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Zhang, Na; Shi, Shepo; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-08-14

    It is of great importance to clarify in depth the chemical composition, including qualitative and quantitative aspects, of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection that contains a great number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients to guarantee its safe medication in clinic. Column-switching hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-RPLC-MS/MS) has been revealed to be advantageous at simultaneous measurement of compounds covering a broad polarity range. Previous studies have profiled the hydrophobic components, mainly aconite alkaloids and ginsenosides, in Shenfu Injection (SFI); however, the hydrophilic substances haven't been taken into account. In the present study, we aim to holistically characterize the hydrophilic constituents and to simultaneously quantitate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in SFI. A strategy integrating predefined multiple reaction monitoring, step-wise multiple ion monitoring, and enhanced product ion scans was proposed to universally screen the hydrophilic substances using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Structural identification was carried out by comparing with authentic compounds, analyzing MS(2) spectra, and referring to accessible databases (e.g., MassBank, METLIN and HMDB). A total of 157 hydrophilic compounds were detected from SFI, and 154 ones were identified as amino acids, nucleosides, organic acid, carbohydrates, etc. A column-switching HILIC-RPLC-MS/MS system was developed and validated for simultaneously quantitative analysis of 40 primary hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients in SFI, including eleven amino acids, nine nucleosides, nine aconite alkaloids, and eleven ginsenosides. Taken together, the findings obtained could provide meaningful information for comprehensively understanding the chemical composition and offer a reliable approach for the quality control of SFI. PMID:26143607

  14. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

  15. Vertical ionospheric sounding measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Utlaut; T. N. Gautier

    1964-01-01

    This report presents data on the ionospheric perturbations resulting from the five 1962 high-altitude nuclear detonations, Star Fish, Check Mate, Blue Gill, King Fish, and Tight Rope, as obtained with sweep-frequency vertical-incidence ionosondes operated at the Islands of Maui, Tern (French Frigate Shoals), Midway, Wake (Star Fish only), Canton, Tutuila (American Samoa), and Tongatapu. The ionosondes at Midway and Tongataupu

  16. Orientation control and fixation of discotic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Ken

    2002-01-01

    We established hybrid, horizontal, vertical, and vertical-twisted alignment of discotic liquid crystals on web-coating thin film. Newly developed materials are the photopolymerizable discotic liquid crystals, in order to fix desired novel alignment, the alignment promoters that deposit toward air surface during web coating, followed by drying of solvent, and then accomplish desired alignment of liquid crystals, the alignment layers that promote desired alignment of liquid crystals from the substrate side and the chiral agents, which have strong chiral powers in small amounts. Hybrid aligned discotic liquid crystal thin film has proven quite effective in expanding the viewing angle of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays. PMID:12001207

  17. Prediction of the Mixture Effect On Boiling in Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN R. THOME

    1989-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effect of mixtures on the nucleate boiling contribution to flow boiling inside vertical tubes at low vapor qualities, operating conditions typical of vertical thermosyphon reboilers. The mass diffusion process created by the composition difference between the vapor and liquid phases was found to impede the boiling process and substantially reduce the nucleate boiling heat

  18. Vertical Motion Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

  19. Vertical root fractures and their management

    PubMed Central

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  20. Vertical wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, D.P.

    1988-08-16

    This patent describes a wind driven turbine of the vertical axis type comprising: (a) a support base; (b) a generally vertical column rotatably mounted to the support base; (c) upper and lower support means respectively mounted on the column for rotation therewith; wind driven blades connected between the upper and lower support means for rotation about the column and each blade being individually rotatable about a blade axis extending longitudinally through the blade to vary a blade angle of attach thereof relative to wind velocity during rotation about the column; and (e) control means for variably adjusting angles of attack of each blade to incident wind, the control means including a connecting rod means having drive means for rotating each blade about the associated blade axis in response to radial movement of the connecting rod means and control shaft pivotally mounted within the column and having a first shaft portion connected to the connecting rod means and a second shaft portion radially offset from the first shaft portion and pivotally connected to radially displace the first portion and thereby the connecting rod means to vary the blade angles of attack during rotation about the column.

  1. Measurement of ultralow vertical emittance using a calibrated vertical undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Rassool, R. P.

    2014-11-01

    Very few experimental techniques are useful for the direct observation of ultralow vertical emittance in electron storage rings. In this work, quantitative measurements of ultralow (pm rad) electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator are presented. An undulator radiation model was developed using the measured magnetic field of the APPLE-II type undulator. Using calibrated experimental apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of ?y=0.9 ±0.3 pm rad has been observed. These measurements could also inform modeling of the angular distribution of undulator radiation at high harmonics, for proposed diffraction-limited storage ring light sources.

  2. Fermi liquids and Luttinger liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Schulz; G. Cuniberti; P. Pieri

    1998-01-01

    In these lecture notes, the basic physics of Fermi liquids and Luttinger liquids is presented. Fermi liquids are discussed both from a phenomenological viewpoint, in relation to microscopic approaches, and as renormalization group fixed points. Luttinger liquids are introduced using the bosonization formalism, and their essential differences with Fermi liquids are pointed out. Applications to transport effects, the effect of

  3. Evaluation of a vertical continuous centrifuge for clarification of HTGR dissolver slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Olguin, L.J.

    1980-03-01

    A series of statistically designed centrifuge performance tests was conducted to evaluate the solid-liquid separation efficiency of a vertical continuous centrifuge. Test results show that 100% of the particles greater than 4 microns in diameter were removed from simulated HTGR fuel reprocessing dissolver solutions. Centrifugal force and liquid density are the principal variables affecting separation efficiency.

  4. Modelling the Effect of Passive Vertical Suspensions on the Dynamic Behaviour of Sprayer Booms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrik Kennes; Herman Ramon; Josse De Baerdemaeker

    1999-01-01

    Chemical products for crop protection are usually distributed on the field as liquids by field sprayers. Unwanted horizontal and vertical sprayer boom movements create local under- and over-applications of spray liquid. A non-linear finite element model of a tractor and a mounted sprayer is developed to simulate these unwanted boom vibrations during field operations. Representative disturbance signals at the hitch

  5. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  6. The effects of soil vertical discretization, soil thermal properties, and soil heat convection by liquid water transfer on the water and energy cycles in a coupled land-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuxing; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Chéruy, Frédérique; Ducharne, Agnès

    2015-04-01

    The soil heat transfer is an important component in general circulation model (GCM), and accurate representation of subsurface thermodynamics is essential for earth system modeling. The accuracy of the soil thermodynamics simulation is affected by many factors: (1) the bottom boundary layer position used in numerical scheme; (2) the soil thermal property (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) parameterization; as well as (3) the physical processes considered in the model. However, the impact of their correct representation on the quality of the simulated climate is poorly documented, and the way state-of-the art land surface model (LSM) used for climate simulations account for them is highly variable. For instance bottom boundary layer position varies from 2 m to 10 m or even more (100 m), the parameterizations of the soil thermal properties not always account for the soil texture effects, and the soil heat convection process is neglected in most soil thermodynamics models. In this work, we revisited the soil thermodynamics model included in the ORCHIDEE LSM in order (1) to determine the soil bottom layer depth which allows for simulating the annual cycle of temperature; (2) to improve the parameterization of the soil thermal properties (thermal conductivity and heat capacity) by accounting for both soil moisture and soil texture effects on the soil thermal properties; (3) to take into account the heat generated by liquid water movement in soil thermodynamics. The developpement of the parameterizations has been done in a 1-D framework where the results of the Finite Difference Method have been compared to the analytical solution. Sensitivity experiments with the LMDZ-ORCHIDEE coupled model (atmosphere-land component of IPSL-CM model) have been then designed to evaluate the impact of the soil thermal properties and soil heat convection on the water and energy cycles of the land-atmosphere. Main results are: (1) the 8 meter soil depth is proposed as a minimum requirement for simulating the annual cycle of soil temperature; (2) the surface water and energy cycles are sensitive to the soil thermal property parameterization. A lower (higher) thermal inertia leads to smaller (larger) amplitude of surface soil heat flux. The soil temperature decreases (increases) with the decreasing (increasing) of soil heat diffusivity. The net radiation is also affected by soil thermal properties due to the variation of upward long-wave radiation (caused by surface temperature). The changing of net radiation is mainly compensated by the sensible heat flux. During the night, the air temperature is more affected by the soil thermal properties than that during the day. (3) The rain temperature is lower than the land surface temperature in most regions, which means that the rainfall cools the land surface. In daily or shorter (e.g., 3-Houly) time scales, the soil temperature (turbulent heat flux) varies about 0.05 K (+/- 6 W/m2) with the rainfall (its heat flux) equal 0-5mm/d (0-4 W/m2). The soil heat convection effects on surface turbulent heat fluxes are small (+/- 1 W/m2) on monthly scale.

  7. Dynamics of geckos running vertically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Autumn; S. T. Hsieh; D. M. Dudek; J. Chen; C. Chitaphan; R. J. Full

    2006-01-01

    Geckos with adhesive toe pads rapidly climb even smooth vertical surfaces. We challenged geckos (Hemidactylus garnotii) to climb up a smooth vertical track that contained a force platform. Geckos climbed vertically at up to 77·cm·s -1 with a stride frequency of 15·Hz using a trotting gait. During each step, whole body fore-aft, lateral and normal forces all decreased to zero

  8. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  9. A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid—Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Seeck, O. H.; Magnussen, O. M.

    2010-06-01

    We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid—liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to qz = 2.5 Å-1 and lateral q? up to 4 Å-1will be available.

  10. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouthaan, A. J.

    1987-12-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is saturated. d.c. and dynamic analysis of BIL-gate behaviour are given. A minimum gate delay of well below 1 ns is projected if collector areas are smaller than 10 ?m 2 within an oxide isolated structure. A relation between maximum injector current density and device size is derived.

  11. Vertical structure and horizontal gradients of aerosol extinction coefficients over coastal India inferred from airborne lidar measurements during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosol, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S. K.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Suresh Babu, S.; Vinoj, V.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Naseema Beegum, S.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Alappattu, D. P.; Kunhikrishnan, P. K.

    2009-03-01

    Quantitative estimates of the vertical structure and the spatial gradients of aerosol extinction coefficients have been made from airborne lidar measurements across the coastline into offshore oceanic regions along the east and west coasts of India. The vertical structure revealed the presence of strong, elevated aerosol layers in the altitude region of ˜2-4 km, well above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Horizontal gradients also showed a vertical structure, being sharp with the e-1 scaling distance (D0H) as small as ˜150 km in the well-mixed regions mostly under the influence of local source effects. Above the ABL, where local effects are subdued, the gradients were much shallower (˜600-800 km); nevertheless, they were steep compared to the value of ˜1500-2500 km reported for columnar AOD during winter. The gradients of these elevated layers were steeper over the east coast of India than over the west coast. Near-simultaneous radio sonde (Vaisala, Inc., Finland) ascents made over the northern Bay of Bengal showed the presence of convectively unstable regions, first from surface to ˜750-1000 m and the other extending from 1750 to 3000 m separated by a stable region in between. These can act as a conduit for the advection of aerosols and favor the transport of continental aerosols in the higher levels (>2 km) into the oceans without entering the marine boundary layer below. Large spatial gradient in aerosol optical and hence radiative impacts between the coastal landmass and the adjacent oceans within a short distance of <300 km (even at an altitude of 3 km) during summer and the premonsoon is of significance to the regional climate.

  12. Latitude and longitude vertical disparities.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Phillipson, Graeme P; Glennerster, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term "vertical disparity" are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparities. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparities expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position-gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment-can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  13. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  14. New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; de Rijk, G.; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Hanzelka, P.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the R&D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m3 helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

  15. Film boiling on the inside of vertical tubes with upward flow of the fluid at low qualities

    E-print Network

    Dougall, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    Flow regimes, local heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions along the wall have been studied for film boiling inside a vertical tube with upward flow of a saturated liquid. The area of interest has been ...

  16. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed.

  17. Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

  18. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  19. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  20. Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos

    1997-01-01

    Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The vertical action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of vertical performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by

  1. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S. (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States))

    1992-10-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radial{times}7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels.

  2. Low gravity liquid level sensor rake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor); Craddock, Jeffrey C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The low gravity liquid level sensor rake measures the liquid surface height of propellant in a propellant tank used in launch and spacecraft vehicles. The device reduces the tendency of the liquid propellant to adhere to the sensor elements after the bulk liquid level has dropped below a given sensor element thereby reducing the probability of a false liquid level measurement. The liquid level sensor rake has a mast attached internal to a propellant tank with an end attached adjacent the tank outlet. Multiple sensor elements that have an arm and a sensor attached at a free end thereof are attached to the mast at locations selected for sensing the presence or absence of the liquid. The sensor elements when attached to the mast have a generally horizontal arm and a generally vertical sensor.

  3. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  4. Fabrication of MEMS using liquid jet dispensing technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey S. Sarkisov; Abdallah M. Darwish; Hossin A. Abdeldayem; Grigory Adamovsky; Mykola B. Kulishov; Curtis E. Banks; Jai C. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We describe a simple yet efficient technique of delineation of various polymer MEMS structures using computer driven liquid jet dispenser. A syringe-type dispenser with a replaceable needle is filled with a polymer solution and mounted on a vertical translation stage. The substrate is mounted on two-coordinate horizontal translation stage. Additional vertical translation arm is connected to the plunger of the

  5. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes 

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic...

  6. Insertion of liquid crystal molecules into hydrocarbon monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Piotr; Lacks, Daniel J.; Jákli, Antal; Mann, Elizabeth K.

    2014-08-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of vertical surface alignment of liquid crystals. We study the insertion of nCB (4-Cyano-4'-n-biphenyl) molecules with n = 0,…,6 into a bent-core liquid crystal monolayer that was recently found to provide good vertical alignment for liquid crystals. The results suggest a complex-free energy landscape for the liquid crystal within the layer. The preferred insertion direction of the nCB molecules (core or tail first) varies with n, which can be explained by entropic considerations. The role of the dipole moments was found to be negligible. As vertical alignment is the leading form of present day liquid crystal displays (LCD), these results will help guide improvement of the LCD technology, as well as lend insight into the more general problem of insertion of biological and other molecules into lipid and surfactant layers.

  7. Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. PMID:25151607

  8. The effects of vertical and horizontal placement on no-vent fill of cryogenic insulated vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caili Wang; Rongshun Wang

    2010-01-01

    Since cryogenic vessels and products are widely applied into industries, scientific explorations and daily lives, more and more investigations on no-vent fill technologies have been conducted to protect resources and environment. In this paper, liquid–vapor interface area or liquid volume as a function of liquid height was calculated by the use of integration method. Based on the analysis of the

  9. Liquid Crystals: LCD Displays

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will learn the history and applications of liquid crystal technology. This interactive presentation will allow students to not only learn about the technology, but it will actually allow them to analyze and work with examples. Everything from flat panel televisions to mood rings are used to show how liquid crystal plays an integral role in many products. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

  10. 39.2 / B. L. Zhang 39.2: Optical Analysis of Vertical Aligned Mode on Color Filter

    E-print Network

    39.2 / B. L. Zhang 39.2: Optical Analysis of Vertical Aligned Mode on Color Filter Liquid of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong Y. C. Chen Himax Display, No.12, Nanke 8th Road, Tainan on color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplay. Three-dimensional optical analyses were performed

  11. A separated flow model for predicting two-phase pressure drop and evaporative heat transfer for vertical annular flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Fu; James F. Klausner

    1997-01-01

    A separated flow model has been developed that is applicable to vertical annular two-phase flow in the purely convective heat transfer regime. Conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are used to solve for the liquid film thickness, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient. Closure relationships are specified for the interfacial friction factor, liquid film eddy-viscosity, turbulent Prandtl number, and entrainment

  12. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-06-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS).

  13. Vertical Discretization of Hydrostatic Primitive Equations with Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tae-Hyeong; Park, Ja-Rin

    2014-05-01

    A vertical finite element (VFE) discretization of hydrostatic primitive equations is developed for the dynamical core of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) system at KIAPS, which is horizontally discretized by a spectral element on a cubed-sphere grid. The governing equations are discretized on a hybrid pressure-based vertical coordinate [1]. Compared with a vertical finite difference (VFD) discretization, which is only first order accurate for non-uniform grids, the VFE has many advantages such that it gives more accurate results, all variables are defined in the same full level, the level of vertical noise might be reduced [2], and it is easily coupled with existing physics packages, developed for a Lorentz staggering grid system. Due to these reasons, we adopted the VFE scheme presented by Untch [2] for the vertical discretization. Instead of using semi-Lagrangian and semi-implicit schemes of ECMWF, we use the Eulerian equations and second-order Runge-Kutta scheme as the first step in implementing the VFE for the dynamical core of the KIAPS's NWP model. Since the Eulerian hydrostatic equations are used in this study, both integral and derivative operators are required to implement the VFE using the Galerkin method with b-splines as basis functions. To compare the accuracy of the VFE with the VFD, the two-dimensional test case of mountain waves is used where physical configuration and initial conditions are the same as that of Durran [3]. In this case, the horizontal and vertical velocities obtained by the analytical solution, VFD, VFE-linear and VFE-cubic are compared to understand their numerical features and the vertical flux of horizontal momentum is also presented as the measurement of solution accuracy since it is sensitive to errors in a solution [3]. It is shown that the VFE with a cubic b-spline function is more accurate than the VFD and VFE with a linear b-spline function as the vertical flux is closer to unity, which will be presented in the conference. Reference Simmons, A. J., Burridge, D. M., 1981: An energy and angular momentum conserving vertical finite difference scheme and hybrid vertical coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 758-766. Untch, A., Hortal, M., 2004: A finite-element schemes for the vertical discretization of the semi-Lagrangian version of the ECMWF forecast model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1505-1530. Durran, D. R., Klemp, J. B., 1983: A compressible model for the simulation of moist mountain waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 2341-2361.

  14. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  15. Vertical velocity in mesoscale geophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viúdez, Álvaro; Dritschel, David G.

    2003-05-01

    An analysis of the vertical velocity field using the full generalized {omega} equation (omega-equation) in a single mesoscale baroclinic oceanic gyre is carried out. The evolution of the gyre over 20 inertial periods is simulated using a new three-dimensional numerical model which directly integrates the horizontal ageostrophic vorticity, explicitly conserves the potential vorticity (PV) via contour advection on isopycnal surfaces, and inverts the nonlinear PV definition via the solution of a three-dimensional Monge Ampère equation. In this framework the omega-equation comes simply from the horizontal divergence of the horizontal ageostrophic vorticity prognostic equation. The ageostrophic vorticity is written as the Laplacian of a vector potential varphib, from which both the velocity and the density fields are recovered, respectively, from the curl and divergence of varphib. A new initialization technique based on the slow, progressive growth of the PV field during an initial time interval is used to avoid the generation of internal gravity waves during the initialization of the gyre. This method generates a nearly balanced baroclinic gyre for which the influence of internal gravity waves in the mesoscale vertical velocity field is negligible.

  16. Liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T. (Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan)); Tsukube, H. (Okayama Univ. (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    This work describes newer applications of liquid membrane systems which contain molecular and/or ion recognizing carrier compounds and the related characteristic membrane materials. It focuses on the current knowledge about chemistry, biology and related technology of liquid membranes. It reviews the most recent advances in design and characteristics of synthetic liquid membrane transport. Up-to-date topics in the analytical and separation science, plus biomimetic membrane technology are discussed.

  17. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  18. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION, DIEL VERTICAL MIGRATION, AND ABUNDANCE OF SOME MESOPELAGIC FISHES IN

    E-print Network

    VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION, DIEL VERTICAL MIGRATION, AND ABUNDANCE OF SOME MESOPELAGIC FISHES: Stenobrachius leucopsarus and Diaphus theta. which performed diel vertical migrations of300 m vertical extent; andProtomyctophum thompsoni andS. nannochir. which exhibited only slight diel variation in vertical

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Walters; J. B. Fanucci; P. W. Hill; P. G. Migliore

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research accomplished in evaluating an innovative concept for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is described. The concept is that of using straight blades composed of circulation controlled airfoil sections. The theoretical analysis was developed to determine the unsteady lift and moment characteristics of multiple-blade cross-flow wind turbines. To determine the drag data needed as input to the

  20. Vertical Dynamics of Marine Risers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Apiazu; V. N. Nguyen

    1984-01-01

    A study of the vertical dynamics of marine riser-load systems has been performed to determine the amplitude of dynamic forces and displacements caused by heave action. The analysis predicts circumstances under which slackening or compression, and subsequent failure of a riser can occur. Results show that a suitably designed heave compensator can reduce the dynamic stress amplitude to acceptable values

  1. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  2. Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.; Grau, M.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tallerico, T.; McIntyre, G.; Lederle, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.

    2011-03-28

    A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars. The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.

  3. Case study of landfill leachate recirculation using small-diameter vertical wells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Ko, Jae Hac; Kumar, Dinesh; Powell, Jon; Kim, Hwidong; Maldonado, Lizmarie; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra R

    2014-11-01

    A case study of landfill liquids addition using small diameter (5 cm) vertical wells is reported. More than 25,000 m(3) of leachate was added via 134 vertical wells installed 3 m, 12 m, and 18 m deep over five years in a landfill in Florida, US. Liquids addition performance (flow rate per unit screen length per unit liquid head) ranged from 5.6×10(-8) to 3.6×10(-6) m(3) s(-1) per m screen length per m liquid head. The estimated radial hydraulic conductivity ranged from 3.5×10(-6) to 4.2×10(-4) m s(-1). The extent of lateral moisture movement ranged from 8 to 10 m based on the responses of moisture sensors installed around vertical well clusters, and surface seeps were found to limit the achievable liquids addition rates, despite the use of concrete collars under a pressurized liquids addition scenario. The average moisture content before (51 samples) and after (272 samples) the recirculation experiments were 23% (wet weight basis) and 45% (wet weight basis), respectively, and biochemical methane potential measurements of excavated waste indicated significant (p<0.025) decomposition. PMID:25164856

  4. Catalytic hydrogenation process and apparatus with improved vapor liquid separation

    DOEpatents

    Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Trenton, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A continuous hydrogenation process and apparatus wherein liquids are contacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst reaction zone with the liquids and gas flowing vertically upwardly through that zone into a second zone substantially free of catalyst particles and wherein the liquid and gases are directed against an upwardly inclining surface through which vertical conduits are placed having inlet ends at different levels in the liquid and having outlet ends at different levels above the inclined surface, such that vapor-rich liquid is collected and discharged through conduits terminating at a higher level above the inclined surface than the vapor-poor liquid which is collected and discharged at a level lower than the inclined surface.

  5. Liquid pearls

    E-print Network

    Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video reports how to form liquid core capsules having a thin hydrogel elastic membrane named liquid pearls. These fish-egg like structures are initially made of a millimetric liquid drop, aqueous or not, coated with an aqueous liquid film containing sodium alginate that gels once the double drop enters a calcium chloride bath. The creation of such pearls with micrometer thick membrane requires to suppress mixing until gelling takes place. Here, we show that superimposing a two dimensional surfactant precipitation at the interface confers a transient rigidity that can damp the shear induced instability at impact. Based on this, pearls containing almost any type of liquids can be created. The video focuses on the dynamics of the entry of the compound drop into the gelling bath.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  7. Nanopositioning of Individual Vertical Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Reginald C.; Goyal, Amit; Liu, Sheng; Iqbal, Zafar; Thomas, Gordon A.; Fetter, Linus A.

    2008-03-01

    Electrophoresis has been used to deposit single wall carbon nanotubes in arrays of sub-100 nm windows in insulating thin films over metal interconnects. The number of nanotubes that are deposited depends on the electric field and the geometry of the windows and nanotubes. Surface charge on the insulator causes the windows to become nanoscopic electrostatic lenses. Under certain readily achievable conditions only one nanotube will be deposited at the base of a window since each deposited nanotube modifies the electric field. This discovery enables the process integration of vertical aligned carbon-based electronics with more traditional technologies such as complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) using the current generation of lithography and process technology. Devices such as vertical field effect transistors and interconnected nanoprobe arrays may now be fabricated in the metal levels of CMOS integrated circuits to facilitate three-dimensional polylithic circuit architectures.

  8. Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells

    E-print Network

    Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

  9. Multi-band RF and mm-Wave Design Solutions for Integrated RF Functions in Liquid Crystal Polymer System-On-Package Technology

    E-print Network

    Papapolymerou, Ioannis "John"

    platform for low cost, multi-band and reconfigurable RF front-end module integration. LCP's very low water absorption (0.04%), low cost and high electrical performance makes it very appealing for RF applications to be a more feasible and low cost solution than system-on-chip (SOC) approach [1]. Cost, electrical

  10. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  11. Towards a New Vertical Datum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is responsible for maintaining and improving the National Spatial Reference System. This paper particularly focuses on developments leading to a new vertical datum to replace the existing North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). This new model will be developed from a combination of satellite, airborne, and terrestrial gravity data to define a gravimetric geoid height model. In particular, the aerogravity data collected as a part o the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project are intended to help achieve the goal of a cm-level accurate geoid model to serve as the new vertical datum. The different data sources have been melded into a single gravity field model consistent across the entire spectrum to about 2 km resolution. A previous comparison developed a localized model over just the southern Texas region, where the Geoid Slope Validation Study for 2011 (GSVS 11) demonstrated that it was possible to achieve the desired accuracy. This new model was developed using methodology consistent at regional to national scales following techniques used to make USGG2009 and USGG2012, but now incorporating aerogravity. This new model proves out the basic concepts behind GRAV-D in that the aeorgravity bridge the spectral gap between satellite and terrestrial data and provide the requisite improvements to the derived gravimetric geoid height model - all without artificially targeting a solution to a specific test area. Additional comparisons were made to tidal bench mark data observed by GPS in combination with ocean topography models to validate the behavior of the model in the coastal regions.

  12. Liquid holdup distribution in packed columns: gamma ray tomography and CFD simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuhe Yin; Artin Afacan; K Nandakumar; Karl T Chuang

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the liquid (water) holdup distribution was measured in a large scale packed column (0.6 m diameter) filled with 25.4 mm metal Pall rings using noninvasive gamma ray tomography technique. Horizontal scans, at two vertical positions (400 mm apart), were made for two liquid flow rates. Three different designs of liquid distributor were used to examine the

  13. Retrieval Algorithms for Estimating the Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release: Their Applications for TRMM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Kuo Tao; S. Lang; Joanne Simpson; Robert F. Adler

    1993-01-01

    The latent heat release is a consequence of phase change (vapor, liquid and solid) of water. An algorithm has been developed (Tao et al., 1990) to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems as a function of their vertical hydrometeor profiles (termed a hydrometeor\\/heating algorithm). The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm was based on results of

  14. Dynamics and oxygen transfer of a novel vertical tubular biological reactor for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanli Xu; Jiti Zhou; Yuanyuan Qu; Hua Yang; Zhijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    Dynamics and oxygen transfer of a novel vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR) for wastewater treatment were investigated in this paper. It was showed that the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in VTBR is higher than that in the conventional bubble column. When the ratio of gas and liquid flow rates was greater than 6.44, there were no phenomena of deficiency oxygen

  15. Improving the Lateral Resolution of Quartz Tuning Fork-Based Sensors in Liquid by Integrating Commercial AFM Tips into the Fiber End

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Laura; Martínez-Martín, David; Otero, Jorge; de Pablo, Pedro José; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Gómez-Herrero, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The use of quartz tuning fork sensors as probes for scanning probe microscopy is growing in popularity. Working in shear mode, some methods achieve a lateral resolution comparable with that obtained with standard cantilevered probes, but only in experiments conducted in air or vacuum. Here, we report a method to produce and use commercial AFM tips in electrically driven quartz tuning fork sensors operating in shear mode in a liquid environment. The process is based on attaching a standard AFM tip to the end of a fiber probe which has previously been sharpened. Only the end of the probe is immersed in the buffer solution during imaging. The lateral resolution achieved is about 6 times higher than that of the etched microfiber on its own. PMID:25594596

  16. Improving the lateral resolution of quartz tuning fork-based sensors in liquid by integrating commercial AFM tips into the fiber end.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Laura; Martínez-Martín, David; Otero, Jorge; de Pablo, Pedro José; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Gómez-Herrero, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The use of quartz tuning fork sensors as probes for scanning probe microscopy is growing in popularity. Working in shear mode, some methods achieve a lateral resolution comparable with that obtained with standard cantilevered probes, but only in experiments conducted in air or vacuum. Here, we report a method to produce and use commercial AFM tips in electrically driven quartz tuning fork sensors operating in shear mode in a liquid environment. The process is based on attaching a standard AFM tip to the end of a fiber probe which has previously been sharpened. Only the end of the probe is immersed in the buffer solution during imaging. The lateral resolution achieved is about 6 times higher than that of the etched microfiber on its own. PMID:25594596

  17. Differential chemical derivatization integrated with chromatographic separation for analysis of isomeric sialylated N-glycans: a nano-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-MS platform.

    PubMed

    Tousi, Fateme; Bones, Jonathan; Hancock, William S; Hincapie, Marina

    2013-09-01

    MS analysis of sialylated glycans is challenging due to their low ionization efficiency in positive ion mode as well as the possibility of in-source fragmentation. Chemical derivatization strategies have been developed to address this issue focused on removal of the labile acidic proton prior to MS analysis. Highly sialylated negatively charged glycans also exhibit high retention and unsatisfactory separation efficiency when analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) due to their high polarity. Here, we combined linkage specific derivatization of sialic acids by reaction with the condensation reagent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) in methanol with nanoscale liquid chromatographic separation prior to accurate mass Orbitrap MS analysis. Coupling DMT-MM charge neutralization of sialic acids with nano-HILIC-Orbitrap-MS not only allows for linkage specific characterization of sialylated glycans directly from the precursor mass but also improves the preceding HILIC separation by increasing the hydrophobicity and altering the selectivity of the oligosaccharide analytes. We focused on the trisialylated N-glycan fraction from haptoglobin and human plasma, enriched using weak anion exchange chromatography, as this trisialylated fraction has been linked with cancer associated changes in the serum N-glycome. The developed methodology was applied to investigate whether structural alterations in this oligosaccharide pool, enriched from the sera of pathological stage and sex matched patients bearing lung, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, or gastric cancer, demonstrate any degree of cancer specificity or whether changes in expression levels are purely cancer associated. The results of this pilot study indicate limited degrees of cancer specificity, particularly for pancreatic cancer, based on alterations in the relative abundance of specific trisialylated isomers. PMID:23901877

  18. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  19. Exploring Liquids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Young learners investigate and observe the properties of three liquids -- water, vegetable oil, and corn syrup. They use their senses to collect data and ask and answer questions. This lesson for young learners introduces the scientific process.

  20. Thermosyphon boiling in vertical channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bar-Cohen; H. Schweitzer

    1983-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of ebullient cooling systems for VHSIC and VLSI microelectronic component thermal control are studied by experimentally and analytically investigating boiling heat transfer from a pair of flat, closely spaced, isoflux plates immersed in saturated water. A theoretical model for liquid flow rate through the channel is developed and used as a basis for correlating the rate of

  1. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  2. Dual-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Arrays Fabricated by Nonplanar Wafer Bonding

    E-print Network

    Bowers, John

    Dual-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Arrays Fabricated by Nonplanar Wafer Bonding active regions integrated on a common mirror by nonplanar wafer bonding. WDM systems and next and electrical functionality. Fabricating these highly versatile chips requires wafer-scale integration

  3. Radar based remote sensing of cloud liquid water—application of various techniques—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meywerk, J.; Quante, M.; Sievers, O.

    2005-05-01

    During the BALTEX BRIDGE Campaign (BBC) of CLIWA-NET, conducted at Cabauw, The Netherlands, from 1 August through 31 September 2001, cloud radar parameters like reflectivity, linear depolarization ratio and Doppler velocities have been observed using a 95 GHz cloud radar. These observations along with other remotely sensed parameters from the ground, have been used to derive the liquid water content of clouds which is one of the most important parameters to be known when the radiative transfer of clouds needs to be calculated. Simultaneously a multi-channel passive microwave radiometer and a lidar ceilometer have been operated close to the radar. While drizzle could be ruled out to have a significant impact on the return signal, corrections due to atmospheric absorption (gaseous) and attenuation due to clouds (mainly loss of signal due to absorption) had to be applied to the radar data. The corrections will be discussed in detail and have been applied to the radar reflectivity profiles before estimating cloud liquid water profiles. After the liquid water content profile has been calculated (for a fixed integrated liquid water path) the maximum in liquid water content of the cloud increased by about 14% and shifted upward within the cloud. The applied corrections bring the liquid water profile closer to adiabatic in the middle and upper part of the cloud. Examples of time series of corrected vertical profiles and average profiles are shown and are discussed. The ground based remotely sensed liquid water profiles show, on average, excellent agreement with simultaneously in situ measured liquid water content from aircraft measurements.

  4. The vertical variability of hyporheic fluxes inferred from riverbed temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranswick, Roger H.; Cook, Peter G.; Shanafield, Margaret; Lamontagne, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    We present detailed profiles of vertical water flux from the surface to 1.2 m beneath the Haughton River in the tropical northeast of Australia. A 1-D numerical model is used to estimate vertical flux based on raw temperature time series observations from within downwelling, upwelling, neutral, and convergent sections of the hyporheic zone. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to derive error bounds for the fluxes based on temperature measurement error and uncertainty in effective thermal diffusivity. Vertical fluxes ranged from 5.7 m d-1 (downward) to -0.2 m d-1 (upward) with the lowest relative errors for values between 0.3 and 6 m d-1. Our 1-D approach provides a useful alternative to 1-D analytical and other solutions because it does not incorporate errors associated with simplified boundary conditions or assumptions of purely vertical flow, hydraulic parameter values, or hydraulic conditions. To validate the ability of this 1-D approach to represent the vertical fluxes of 2-D flow fields, we compare our model with two simple 2-D flow fields using a commercial numerical model. These comparisons showed that: (1) the 1-D vertical flux was equivalent to the mean vertical component of flux irrespective of a changing horizontal flux; and (2) the subsurface temperature data inherently has a "spatial footprint" when the vertical flux profiles vary spatially. Thus, the mean vertical flux within a 2-D flow field can be estimated accurately without requiring the flow to be purely vertical. The temperature-derived 1-D vertical flux represents the integrated vertical component of flux along the flow path intersecting the observation point. This article was corrected on 6 JUN 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  5. Vertical variation of vertical hydraulic conductivity in channel sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Song, J.; Cheng, C.; Wang, D.; Lackey, S.; Burbach, M.

    2007-12-01

    Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of streambed is of great importance in the analysis of stream-aquifer interactions. We used two methods to estimate the Kv in three rivers of Nebraska. The first method was in-situ permeameter test in river channels. We investigated streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) in two depths, one incumbent to the other, immediately beneath the channel surface. Our results demonstrated that streambed Kv in the upper sediment layer was much higher than that in the sediment just beneath the upper layer at each test location. We speculate that hyporheic processes can result in a larger streambed Kv in the upper part of channel sediments. Specifically, water exchange through upwelling and downwelling zones can lead to bigger pore spaces and a more unconsolidated structure of sediments in the upper layer. The upward movement of gas produced by redox processes can loosen sediments and further enlarge pore spaces in the upper layers. Bio- activity in the upper part of the streambed can also expand pore space and thus increase hydraulic conductivity. In-situ permeameter tests penetrated the sediment to depth as much as 90 cm. We then used Geoprobe direct- push technique to generate electrical conductivity log and collect sequences of sediment cores from larger depths. Permeameter tests were conducted on these cores to determine Kv. Our results suggest that Kv values have a decrease tendency with the depth for sediments in these rivers.

  6. Cloud Vertical and Horizontal Structure from ICESat/GLAS and MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Chiu, Christine; Davis, Anthony; Wiscombe, Warren

    2007-01-01

    To accurately model radiative fluxes at the surface and within the atmosphere, we need to know both vertical and horizontal structures of cloudiness. While MODIS provides accurate information on cloud horizontal structure, it has limited ability to estimate cloud vertical structure. ICESat/GLAS on the other hand, provides the vertical distribution and internal structure of clouds as deep as the laser beam can penetrate and return a signal. Having different orbits, MODIS and GLAS provide few collocated measurements; hence a statistical approach is needed to learn about 3D cloud structures from the two instruments. In the presentation, we show the results of the statistical analysis of vertical and horizontal structure of cloudiness using GLAS and MODIS cloud top(s) data acquired in October-November 2003. We revisit the (H1, C1) plot, previously used for analyzing cloud liquid water data, and illustrate cloud structure for single and multiple-layer clouds.

  7. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  8. Neighbourly polytopes with few vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Devyatov, Rostislav A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    A family of neighbourly polytopes in R{sup 2d} with N=2d+4 vertices is constructed. All polytopes in the family have a planar Gale diagram of a special type, namely, with exactly d+3 black points in convex position. These Gale diagrams are parametrized by 3-trees (trees with a certain additional structure). For all polytopes in the family, the number of faces of dimension m containing a given vertex A depends only on d and m. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  9. Vertical dynamics of marine risers

    SciTech Connect

    Apiazu, W.R.; Nguyen, V.N.

    1984-05-01

    A study of the vertical dynamics of marine riser-load systems has been performed to determine the amplitude of dynamic forces and displacements caused by heave action. The analysis predicts circumstances under which slackening or compression, and subsequent failure of a riser can occur. Results show that a suitably designed heave compensator can reduce the dynamic stress amplitude to acceptable values under all operating modes including hangoff, by increasing compliance at the riser vessel interface. Finally, recommendations for the design of heave compensation equipment intended to limit the dynamic force amplitude on riser-load systems hanging in deeper waters and harsher environments are presented.

  10. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    T. Brown

    1999-11-01

    The FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) configuration has been designed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF (toroidal-field) boundary. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged-shaped TF coils that surround a free-standing central solenoid (CS), a double-wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma-facing components. A center tie rod is used to help support the vertical magnetic loads and a compression ring is used to maintain wedge pressure in the inboard corners of the TF coils. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double-wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. The FIRE configuration development and integration process has evolved from an early stage of concept selection to a higher level of machine definition and component details. This paper describes the status of the configuration development and the integration of the major subsystem components.

  11. Liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Aussillous, P; Quéré, D

    2001-06-21

    The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting 'liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates. PMID:11418851

  12. Integral aircraft passenger seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Human-engineering approach was used to design integral seat which provides all the safety, comfort, and protective features that can possibly be afforded airline passengers. Results of dynamic impact testing indicated that seat can withstand and attenuate gravity loads of 21-g horizontal and 45-g vertical; by design, seat will withstand lateral g's as well.

  13. Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence Ian Appelbauma

    E-print Network

    Russell, Kasey

    in a semiconductor p-i-n heterostructure, emitting band-edge luminescence.1 When the source of hot electrons possible. The AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor heterostructure col- lector design used in this work was based directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL heterostructure, just below a luminescent

  14. Exploration into technical procedures for vertical integration. [information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, R. J.; Maw, K. D.

    1979-01-01

    Issues in the design and use of a digital geographic information system incorporating landuse, zoning, hazard, LANDSAT, and other data are discussed. An eleven layer database was generated. Issues in spatial resolution, registration, grid versus polygonal structures, and comparison of photointerpreted landuse to LANDSAT land cover are examined.

  15. Vertical Integration: Corporate Strategy in the Information Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1986-01-01

    Profiles the corporate strategies of three sectors of the information industry and the trend toward consolidation in electronic publishing. Three companies' acquisitions are examined in detail using qualitative data from information industry columns and interpreting it on the basis of game theory. (EM)

  16. An Industry Equilibrium Analysis of Downstream Vertical Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. McGuire; Richard Staelin

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of product substitutability on Nash equilibrium distribution structures in a duopoly where each manufacturer distributes its goods through a single exclusive retailer, which may be either a franchised outlet or a factory store. Static linear demand and cost functions are assumed, and a number of rules about players' expectations of competitors' behavior are examined. It

  17. An Industry Equilibrium Analysis of Downstream Vertical Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. McGuire; Richard Staelin

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of product substitutability on Nash equilibrium distribution structures in a duopoly where each manufacturer distributes its goods through a single exclusive retailer, which may be either a franchised outlet or a factory store. Static linear demand and cost functions are assumed, and a number of rules about players' expectations of competitors' behavior are examined. It

  18. Vertical Integration: Results from a Cross-Course Student Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Thomas; Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of a cross-class project involving sophomore-level students in an Operations Analysis (OA) class with junior-level students in an Operations Management (OM) class. The students formed virtual teams and developed a simulation model of a call center. The OM students provided the management expertise, while the OA…

  19. Fabrication of Annealed Proton-Exchanged Waveguides for Vertical Integration 

    E-print Network

    Webb, Jacob Douglas

    2011-08-08

    There is a drive for improving the surface uniformity of optical waveguide devices in the photonics lab. This report focuses on the exploration of annealed proton exchange (APE) waveguide fabrication on lithium niobate crystal as a method...

  20. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration Jon Geske,a)

    E-print Network

    Bowers, John

    regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality a differing lattice constant. We can remove the original growth substrate leaving the epitax- ial layers

  1. Vertical and Lateral Heterogeneous Integration , Vijay Jayaraman2

    E-print Network

    Bowers, John

    , the InP substrate was removed and the excess epitaxial layers and the deformation accommodation regions- quantum well (MQW) active-regions grown lattice-matched on InP (Fig. 1). The MQW active-regions consisted (3 MPa) was in the same range used in the planar bonding of InP to GaAs in the fabrication of 1.55µm

  2. Vertically aligned rolled-up SiO2 optical microcavities in add-drop configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2013-06-01

    A significant step towards integrated vertically rolled-up microcavities is demonstrated by interfacing an as-fabricated SiO2 microtube optical ring resonator with tapered fibers. In this transmission configuration, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is shown in subwavelength thick walled microcavities. Moreover, we present a four-port add-drop filter based on a lifted doubly interfaced vertically rolled-up microcavity. Our work opens opportunities for vertical resonant light transfer in 3D multi-level optical data processing as well as for massively parallel optofluidic analysis of biomaterials in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  3. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short-Takeoff and Vertical-Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. Three configurations (a lift plus lift/cruise concept, a hybrid fan vectored thrust concept, and a mixed flow vectored thrust concept) were initially investigated with one configuration selected for further design analysis. The selected configuration, the lift plus lift/cruise concept, was successfully integrated to accommodate the powered lift short takeoff and vertical landing requirements as well as the demanding supersonic cruise and point performance requirements. A supersonic fighter aircraft with a short takeoff and vertical landing capability using the lift plus lift/cruise engine concept seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  4. Wear reduction systems liquid piston ring

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R.J.; Chen, T.N.; DiNanno, L.

    1990-09-01

    The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving an acceptable wear rate for the cylinder liner, piston, and piston rings in a coal/water-slurry-fueled engine that utilized the concept of a liquid piston ring above the conventional piston rings and to identify technical barriers and required research and development. The study included analytical modeling of the system, a bench study of the fluid motion in the liquid piston ring, and a single-cylinder test rig for wear comparison. A system analysis made on the different variations of the liquid supply system showed the desirability of the once-through version from the standpoint of system simplicity. The dynamics of the liquid ring were modeled to determine the important design parameters that influence the pressure fluctuation in the liquid ring during a complete engine cycle and the integrity of the liquid ring. This analysis indicated the importance of controlling heat transfer to the liquid ring through piston and liner to avoid boiling the liquid. A conceptual piston design for minimizing heat transfer is presented in this report. Results showed that the liquid piston ring effectively reduced the solid particles on the wall by scrubbing, especially in the case where a surfactant was added to the water. The wear rates were reduced by a factor of 2 with the liquid ring. However, leakage of the contaminated liquid ring material past the top ring limited the effectiveness of the liquid ring concept. 8 refs., 33 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Aplin, K. L.

    2014-11-01

    Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kg m-3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neutron monitor data from Oulu. Model ionisation rates agree well with the observed cosmic ray ionisation below 20 km altitude. Above 10 km, the measured ionisation rates also correlate well with simultaneous neutron monitor data, although, consistently with previous work, measured variability at the ionisation maximum is greater than that found by the neutron monitor. However, in the lower atmosphere (below 5 km altitude), agreement between the measurements and simultaneous neutron monitor data is poor. For studies of transient lower atmosphere phenomena associated with cosmic ray ionisation, this indicates the need for in situ ionisation measurements and improved lower atmosphere parameterisations.

  6. [Architectural analysis of vertical dimension].

    PubMed

    Danguy, M; Danguy, C

    2003-09-01

    Laude and the Lille orthodontic department describe the trigeminal nerve as the main architect of the face. Using the points where it emerges into the cranium, the authors propose an analysis, which they base on four concepts: --the stability of the pterygoid base, --the interaction between two activities, prehensile and masticatory, of the oral cavity, --the cranio-mandibular entity, --the importance of the paired fifth cranial nerve. This study deals with vertical dimension of both alveolar and basal bone, as well as global, ramal, and maxillary growth directions, which they conceptualize as three parallel, convergent, or divergent lines. This analysis can be carried out quickly and easily because it requires only four simple measurements. PMID:15301369

  7. Plasma vertical stabilisation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, Y.; Kavin, A.; Lukash, V.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Snipes, J. A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the progress in analysis of the ITER plasma vertical stabilisation (VS) system since its design review in 2007–2008. Two indices characterising plasma VS were studied. These are (1) the maximum value of plasma vertical displacement due to free drift that can be stopped by the VS system and (2) the maximum root mean square value of low frequency noise in the dZ/dt measurement signal used in the VS feedback loop. The first VS index was calculated using the PET code for 15 MA plasmas with the nominal position and shape. The second VS index was studied with the DINA code in the most demanding simulations for plasma magnetic control of 15 MA scenarios with the fastest plasma current ramp-up and early X-point formation, the fastest plasma current ramp-down in a divertor configuration, and an H to L mode transition at the current flattop. The studies performed demonstrate that the VS in-vessel coils, adopted recently in the baseline design, significantly increase the range of plasma controllability in comparison with the stabilising systems VS1 and VS2, providing operating margins sufficient to achieve ITER's goals specified in the project requirements. Additionally two sets of the DINA code simulations were performed with the goal of assessment of the capability of the PF system with the VS in-vessel coils: (i) to control the position of runaway electrons generated during disruptions in 15 MA scenarios and (ii) to trigger ELMs in H-mode plasmas of 7.5 MA/2.65 T scenarios planned for the early phase of ITER operation. It was also shown that ferromagnetic structures of the vacuum vessel (ferromagnetic inserts) and test blanket modules insignificantly affect the plasma VS.

  8. Liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  9. Layered Liquids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-30

    This activity involves an exploration of density. Why does oil float on water? How does drain cleaner sink down into the clogged pipe right through standing water? These questions will be answered as students make a layered "parfait" of colored liquids ba

  10. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  11. An experimental study of horizontal barrier formation and containment of NAPLs by gelling liquids 

    E-print Network

    Durmusoglu, Ertan

    1997-01-01

    by injecting gelling liquids through horizontal and vertical pipes will be conducted in this study. Before the barrier formation in the two-dimensional studies, pre-and post-injection hydraulic conductivity measurements to quantify hydraulic conductivity...

  12. Vertical motion requirements for landing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the significance of vertical acceleration cues in the simulation of the visual approach and landing maneuver. Landing performance measures were obtained for four subject pilots operating a visual landing simulation device which provides up to plus or minus 40 feet of vertical motion. Test results indicate that vertical motion cues are utilized in the landing task, and that they are particularly important in the simulation of aircraft with marginal longitudinal handling qualities. To assure vertical motion cues of the desired fidelity in the landing tasks, it appears that a simulator must have excursion capabilities of at least plus or minus 20 feet.

  13. Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Jong; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    The layered materials such as graphene have attracted considerable interest for future electronics. Here we report the vertical integration of multi-heterostructures of layered materials to enable high current density vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs). An n-channel VFET is created by sandwiching few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the semiconducting channel between a monolayer graphene and a metal thin film. The VFETs exhibit a room temperature on-off ratio >103, while at same time deliver a high current density up to 5,000 A/cm2, sufficient for high performance logic applications. This study offers a general strategy for the vertical integration of various layered materials to obtain both p- and n-channel transistors for complementary logic functions. A complementary inverter with larger than unit voltage gain is demonstrated by vertically stacking the layered materials of graphene, Bi2Sr2Co2O8 (p-channel), graphene, MoS2 (n-channel), and metal thin film in sequence. The ability to simultaneously achieve high on-off ratio, high current density, and logic integration in the vertically stacked multi-heterostructures can open up a new dimension for future electronics to enable three-dimensional integration. PMID:23241535

  14. Liquid breeder materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, H.; Malang, S.; Reiter, F.; Sannier, J.

    1988-07-01

    The potential and limitations of a particular breeder material for application in a fusion reactor device depend to a large extent upon the ability of the research community to generate suitable designs, develop efficient tritium extraction systems and solve the major materials problems. In this paper, design, tritium extraction and material compatibility issues are discussed for blankets based on the eutectic Pb-17Li, pure lithium and to a lesser extent molten salts and aqueous salt solutions. In spite of the relatively limited research effort evolved, liquid breeder blankets continue to be attractive solutions for tritium generation. However, the experimental programs need to be extended and include more integrated experiments.

  15. Polymer Crystallization at Curved Liquid/Liquid Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenda

    Liquid/liquid interface, either flat or curved, is a unique template for studying self-assembly of a variety of nanomaterials such as nanoparticles and nanorods. The resultant monolayer films can be ordered or disordered depending on the regularity of the nanomaterials. Integration of nanoparticles into two-dimensional structure leads to intriguing collective properties of the nanoparticles. Crystallization can also be guided by liquid/liquid interface. Due to the particular shape of the interface, crystallization can happen in a different manner comparing to the normal solution crystallization. In this dissertation, liquid/liquid interface is employed to guide the crystallization of polymers, mainly focusing on using curved liquid/liquid interface. Due to the unique shape of the interface and feasibility to control the curvature, polymer crystallization can take place in different manner and lead to the formation of curved or vesicular crystals. Curved liquid/liquid interface is typically created through o/w emulsions. With the presence of surfactant, the emulsions are controlled to be stable at least for the polymer crystallization periods. The difference to normal solution crystallization is: the nuclei will diffuse to the curved interface due to the Pickering effect and guide the crystallization along the curved liquid/liquid interface. If the supercooling can be controlled to be very small, crystal growth in the bulk droplets can be avoided. The advantages of this strategy are: 1) the formation process of vesicular type crystals can be monitored by controlling the polymer supply; 2) curved crystals, bowl-like structures and enclosed capsules can be easily obtained comparing to the self-assembly method for vesicle formation; 3) the obtained vesicles will be made of polymer crystals, which will possess the extraordinary mechanical properties. Based on the nucleation type, this dissertation is divided into two parts. The first part is focused on the self-assembly behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at curved liquid/liquid interface and the crystallization behavior of polymers at curved liquid/liquid interface while SWCNTs in presence. A few crystalline polymers, such as polyethylene (PE), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), and water/oil systems were used to study the behavior. The formation of nano speckle structure is a crystallization-driven process due to heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth of polymers at curved liquid/liquid interface. The second part deals with the homogeneous nucleation and crystal growth at curved liquid/liquid interface. Both PE and PLLA were used to conduct the study. For PE, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB), water, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were used for the emulsion system. The emulsification system for PLLA is p-xylene, water, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Surfactant concentration can be employed to control the droplet size, thus controlling the final crystal vesicle's size. By controlling the initial polymer concentration, crystal shells with different morphology, such as curved crystal, bowl-like crystals, and crystal vesicles (named lamellaesome) can be obtained. The formation of these unique structures was templated by the curved interface. The formation process and detailed crystal structure are analyzed based on electron diffraction data from different sized lamellaesomes. Mechanical properties of the crystal vesicles and their encapsulation abilities will be discussed. At the end of this dissertation, a summary of my work and future outlook will be given.

  16. A hybrid framework of first principles molecular orbital calculations and a three-dimensional integral equation theory for molecular liquids: Multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent field approach.

    PubMed

    Kido, Kentaro; Kasahara, Kento; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple SN2 reaction (Cl(-) + CH3Cl ? ClCH3 + Cl(-)) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF. PMID:26156461

  17. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of shot points and receiver points in the field include the errors. We use these data as initial guesses, we invert iteratively shot and receiver positions to match the travel time data. After several iterations we could finally estimate the most probable positions. Integration of the constraint of VCS hydrophone positions, such as the spacing is 10m, can accelerate the convergence of the iterative inversion and improve results. The accuracy of the estimated positions from the travel time date is enough for the VCS data processing.

  18. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Integrated system for temperature-controlled fast protein liquid chromatography comprising improved copolymer modified beaded agarose adsorbents and a travelling cooling zone reactor arrangement.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tobias K H; Cao, Ping; Ewert, Stephanie; Wohlgemuth, Jonas; Liu, Haiyang; Willett, Thomas C; Theodosiou, Eirini; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias

    2013-04-12

    An integrated approach to temperature-controlled chromatography, involving copolymer modified agarose adsorbents and a novel travelling cooling zone reactor (TCZR) arrangement, is described. Sepharose CL6B was transformed into a thermoresponsive cation exchange adsorbent (thermoCEX) in four synthetic steps: (i) epichlorohydrin activation; (ii) amine capping; (iii) 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) immobilization; and 'graft from' polymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-tert-butylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide). FT-IR, (1)H NMR, gravimetry and chemical assays allowed precise determination of the adsorbent's copolymer composition and loading, and identified the initial epoxy activation step as a critical determinant of 'on-support' copolymer loading, and in turn, protein binding performance. In batch binding studies with lactoferrin, thermoCEX's binding affinity and maximum adsorption capacity rose smoothly with temperature increase from 20 to 50 °C. In temperature shifting chromatography experiments employing thermoCEX in thermally jacketed columns, 44-51% of the lactoferrin adsorbed at 42 °C could be desorbed under binding conditions by cooling the column to 22 °C, but the elution peaks exhibited strong tailing. To more fully exploit the potential of thermoresponsive chromatography adsorbents, a new column arrangement, the TCZR, was developed. In TCZR chromatography, a narrow discrete cooling zone (special assembly of copper blocks and Peltier elements) is moved along a bespoke fixed-bed separation columnfilled with stationary phase. In tests with thermoCEX, it was possible to recover 65% of the lactoferrin bound at 35 °C using 8 successive movements of the cooling zone at a velocity of 0.1mm/s; over half of the recovered protein was eluted in the first peak in more concentrated form than in the feed. Intra-particle diffusion of desorbed protein out of the support pores, and the ratio between the velocities of the cooling zone and mobile phase were identified as the main parameters affecting TCZR performance. In contrast to conventional systems, which rely on cooling the whole column to effect elution and permit only batch-wise operation, TCZR chromatography generates sharp concentrated elution peaks without tailing effects and appears ideally suited for continuous operation. PMID:23481470

  20. Hydrodynamic effects in tanks containing layered liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Veletsos, A.; Shivakumar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1994-03-01

    As a supplement to a recently reported study, the hydrodynamic wall pressures and the associated tank forces induced by horizontal ground shaking in a rigid, vertical, circular cylindrical tank containing liquid layers of different thickness and mass densities are examined, and comprehensive numerical solutions are presented for two-layered and some three-layered systems which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects of the various parameters involved. Both the impulsive and convective actions are studied. Additionally, solutions are presented for multi-layered systems approximating liquid wit an exponential, continuous variation in density, and the interrelationship of the solutions for the continuous system and its discretized, layered approximation is discussed.

  1. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  2. Chiral liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. I.

    2015-05-01

    We review briefly properties of chiral liquids, or liquids with massless fermionic constituents. We concentrate on three effects, namely, the low ratio of viscosity ? to entropy density s, chiral magnetic and vortical effects. We sketch standard derivations of these effects in the hydrodynamic approximation and then concentrate on possibile unifying approach which is based on consideration of the (anomalously) conserved axial current. The point is that the conservation of chirality is specific for the microscopic, field-theoretic description of massless fermions and their interactions. On the macroscopic side, the standard hydrodynamic equations are not consistent, generally speaking, with conservation of a helical macroscopic motion. Imposing extra constraints on the hydrodynamics might resolve this "clash-of-symmetries" paradox.

  3. Overspeed spoilers for vertical axis wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Rangi; P. South

    1978-01-01

    An overspeed spoiler is described for vertical axis wind turbines of the type having straight or curved airfoil blades attached to a vertical shaft formed by a relatively thin flat blade shaped spoiler element hinge mounted on the trailing edge, leading edge, or at a central position of a portion of the airfoil section. The element has two portions one

  4. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  5. A method for quantifying vertical forest structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope A Latham; Hans R Zuuring; Dean W Coble

    1998-01-01

    Vertical forest structure is an attribute of forests that is of interest to many disciplines and is consistently discussed in the context of ecosystem management. The vertical stratification of tree crowns is a forest attribute that influences both tree growth and understory community structure. Therefore, it should be considered when making management decisions that affect the structure of stands. However,

  6. Some empirical regularities on vertical restraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xulia González

    2006-01-01

    Vertical restraints most often arise when an upstream firm wants to restrict the choices of a downstream distributor in order to increase profits. The aim of this paper is to analyze some empirical regularities in the motivations for vertical restraints. Firstly a simple theoretical framework is developed in which an upstream monopoly decides on the intermediate price and an effort

  7. The “vertical effect” in human squint amblyopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sireteanu; W. Singer

    1980-01-01

    Grating acuity was tested in seven squint amblyopes as a function of orientation. In the squinting eyes of six unilateral amblyopes, the resolution for vertical gratings was much lower (by about 1\\/2 octave) than that of horizontal gratings. The non-amblyopic eyes of these subjects showed a normal “oblique effect”. In one bilateral amblyope the selective loss of resolution for vertical

  8. Lunar and Vertical Distribution of Myctophidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tsarin

    2002-01-01

    The Myctophidae are the most numerous of the mesopelagic fishes in all oceans. Daily vertical migrations which connected with nutrition and energy exchange, are charac- teristic feature of the myctophids behavior. Myctophidae in main during the nighttime basic feed. There are two ecological groups of Myctophidae on the type of vertical migrations. (Some scientists select the third intermediate group). Superficial

  9. Theory of orientation, the visual vertical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schröer

    2002-01-01

    The book deals with the direction of orientation and the total acceleration in space. First in the book the visual vertical is explained. Then the direction of orientation on the earth's surface is determined. In the second chapter two planets are viewed. The observer is in the outer space, the visual vertical is calculated. The next chapter presents what happens

  10. Vertical Junction Type Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouji Suemori; Takahiro Miyata; Masahiro Hiramoto; Masaaki Yokoyama

    2004-01-01

    Vertical junction type organic photovoltaic cells having a pn junction formed perpendicularly to a light irradiated surface were fabricated. Short-circuit photocurrent density of 8.5 mA\\\\cdotcm-2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.54% were observed under simulated solar illumination. The large photocurrent density is attributed to the light collection effect via the transparent vertical layer.

  11. Thermosyphon boiling in vertical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Schweitzer, H.

    The thermal characteristics of ebullient cooling systems for VHSIC and VLSI microelectronic component thermal control are studied by experimentally and analytically investigating boiling heat transfer from a pair of flat, closely spaced, isoflux plates immersed in saturated water. A theoretical model for liquid flow rate through the channel is developed and used as a basis for correlating the rate of heat transfer from the channel walls. Experimental results for wall temperature as a function of axial location, heat flux, and plate spacing are presented. The finding that the wall superheat at constant imposed heat flux decreases as the channel is narrowed is explained with the aid of a boiling thermosiphon analysis which yields the mass flux through the channel.

  12. Dynamic response of rigid tanks with inhomogeneous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, P.; Veletsos, A.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1994-04-01

    A study of the free vibrational characteristics and of the response to horizontal ground shaking of a rigid cylindrical tank containing an inviscid liquid with a continuous vertical variation in density is presented. The response quantities examined include the vertical sloshing motions of the liquid at its free-surface, and the impulsive and convective components of the hydrodynamic wall pressures and associated tank forces. The equations of motion for the system are formulated for an arbitrary variation in liquid density but the solutions presented are for a density that increases exponentially from top to bottom. Comprehensive numerical data are included which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. The solution for the continuous density variation considered herein is also compared with a previously reported solution in which the liquid was modeled as a multi-layered, discrete system.

  13. Sloshing displacements in a tank containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1993-06-01

    A study on the sloshing displacements in a tank containing two different liquids under a seismic excitation is presented. The gravitational effect at the interface of two liquids is considered. The problem is solved analytically. The response quantities examined include the sloshing wave height, the natural frequencies of the sloshing motion, and the vertical displacement at the interface of two liquids. It is found that there are two sloshing frequencies associated with each surface sloshing mode; the higher value of the two frequencies that associate with the fundamental sloshing mode is the dominant frequency of the surface sloshing motion, and the lower one is the dominant frequency of the interface vertical displacement. It is further shown that the maximum sloshing wave height increases significantly, and the fundamental frequency of the sloshing motion is smaller than that in an identical tank containing one liquid. The data presented are compared with those obtained by neglecting the gravitational effect at the interface to elucidate this effect.

  14. Origami Multistabilty: From Single Vertices to Metasheets

    E-print Network

    Scott Waitukaitis; Rémi Menaut; Bryan Gin-ge Chen; Martin van Hecke

    2014-09-09

    We explore the surprisingly rich energy landscape of origami-like folding planar structures. We show that the configuration space of rigid-paneled degree-4 vertices, the simplest building blocks of such systems, consists of at least two distinct branches meeting at the flat state. This suggests that generic vertices are at least bistable, but we find that the nonlinear nature of these branches allows for vertices with as many as five distinct stable states. In vertices with collinear folds and/or symmetry, more branches emerge leading to up to six stable states. Finally, we introduce a procedure to tile arbitrary 4-vertices while preserving their stable states, thus allowing the design and creation of multistable origami metasheets.

  15. Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. S.; O'sullivan, T.; Sarmiento, T.; Lee, M. M.; Vo, S.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 850 nm have experienced explosive growth in the past decade because of their many attractive optical features and incredibly low-cost manufacturability. This review reviews the foundations for GaAs-based VCSEL technology as well as the materials and device challenges to extend the operating wavelength to both shorter and longer wavelengths. We discuss some of the applications that are enabled by the integration of VCSELs with both active and passive semiconductor elements for telecommunications, both in vivo and in vitro biosensing, high-density optical storage and imaging at wavelengths much less than the diffraction limit of light.

  16. Vertical regolith shield wall construction for lunar base applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplicky, Jan; Nixon, David; Wernick, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Lunar bases located on the lunar surface will require permanent protection from radiation and launch ejecta. This paper outlines a method of providing physical protection using lunar regolith that is constructed in situ as a modular vertical wall using specially devised methods of containment and construction. Deployable compartments, reinforced with corner struts, are elevated and filled by a moving gantry. The compartments interlock to form a stable wall. Different wall heights, thicknesses, and plan configurations are achieved by varying the geometry of the individual compartments, which are made from woven carbon fibers. Conventional terrestrial structural engineering techniques can be modified and used to establish the structural integrity and performance of the wall assembly.

  17. Mixed convection in parallel channels with application to the liquid-metal reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Iannello, V. (Creare Inc., Etna Road, Hanover, NH (US)); Todreas, N.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1989-04-01

    In this paper mixed convection flow for parallel vertical channels connected at upper and lower plenums is studied. The one-dimensional conservation equations are formulated in dimensionless form using channel integral parameters. Based on this formulation, expressions are derived for stable flow and reversal of channel flow. The equations are then used to calculate the flow redistribution within a liquid-metal reactor core during natural circulation primary loop flow. A channel/plenum interaction phenomenon, which limits the applicability of using one-dimensional formulations, is modeled, and a correlation is formulated utilizing measured results to predict the onset of this behavior. Finally, the reversal of a heated channel from upflow to downflow, which cannot be predicted with a one-dimensional analysis, is described, and the channel/plenum interaction previously modeled is proposed as the mechanism that initiates this flow reversal.

  18. Liquid air mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

  19. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    T. Brown

    2000-10-17

    This paper describes the current status of the FIRE configuration and the integration of the major subsystem components. FIRE has a major radius of 2 m, a field on axis of 10T, a plasma current of 6.4 MA. It is capable of 18 second pulses when operated with DT and 26 s when operated with DD. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged TF coils that surround a free standing central solenoid, a double wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma facing components that are segmented for maintenance through horizontal ports. Large rings located outside the TF coils are used to obtain a load balance between wedging of the intercoil case structure and wedging at the upper/lower inboard corners of the TF coil winding. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. Within the vacuum vessel, plasma-facing components frame the plasma. First wall tiles are attached directly to inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls. The divertor is designed for a high triangularity, double-null plasma with a short inner null point-to-wall distance and near vertical outer divertor flux line. The FIRE configuration has been developed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF boundary.

  20. The effect of distributors on two-phase and three-phase flows in vertical columns 

    E-print Network

    Ouyang, Chie-Jan Paul

    1982-01-01

    tracers. Hold-up was measured over a wide range of liquid and gas flow rates. They found that gas hold-up increased with increasing gas velocity for all solids used. The gas hold-up decreased with increasing liquid flow rate on beds of' 3 and 6 mm... been investigated in a 15. 2-centimeter internal diameter vertical column. Pressure drop across the dis- tributor and average phase hold-up were measured for two- phase and three-phase flows over flow ranges of' superficial gas velocity, 0 ? 25. 9...

  1. Falling Liquid Films in Absorption Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko

    The absorption machines of the lithium bromide-water type have recently been established as heat source equipments for residential and industrial use, which include refrigerating machines, heat pumps, and heat transformers. Several advanced cycle machines have also been proposed and tested. All of the absorption machines consist fundamentally of four kinds of heat exchangers, i.e. evaporator, absorber, generator, and condenser. The horizontal or vertical falling film system is usually applied to these heat exchangers, since the pressure drop which causes an undesirable change in the fluid temperature is relatively small in either system. The horizontal system is popular for the present, while the vertical system is going to be developed promisingly. This may save an installation space and also fit a plan for the Lorentz cycle. The purpose of this paper is to survey the available information for increasing heat and mass transfer rates in the heat exchangers of absorption machines. Emphasis is placed on the hydrodynamic characteristics of falling liquid films in absorbers and generators. The following topics are covered in this paper: 1. Characteristics of thin liquid films over horizontal tubes 2. Characteristics of wavy thin liquid films flowing down the vertical or inclined wall surface 3. Effect of the artificial surface roughness on the heat and mass transfer rates 4. Enhancement in the heat and mass transfer rates by the Marangoni convection 5. Conditions of film breakdown and the minimum wetting rates.

  2. Study of multi-level characteristics for 3D vertical resistive switching memory.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wu, Riga; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Ning; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration and multi-level cell (MLC) are two attractive technologies to achieve ultra-high density for mass storage applications. In this work, a three-layer 3D vertical AlO?/Ta2O5-x/TaOy resistive random access memories were fabricated and characterized. The vertical cells in three layers show good uniformity and high performance (e.g. >1000X HRS/LRS windows, >10(10) endurance cycles, >10(4) s retention times at 125°C). Meanwhile, four level MLC is demonstrated with two operation strategies, current controlled scheme (CCS) and voltage controlled scheme (VCS). The switching mechanism of 3D vertical RRAM cells is studied based on temperature-dependent transport characteristics. Furthermore, the applicability of CCS and VCS in 3D vertical RRAM array is compared using resistor network circuit simulation. PMID:25047906

  3. Study of Multi-level Characteristics for 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wu, Riga; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Ning; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration and multi-level cell (MLC) are two attractive technologies to achieve ultra-high density for mass storage applications. In this work, a three-layer 3D vertical AlO?/Ta2O5-x/TaOy resistive random access memories were fabricated and characterized. The vertical cells in three layers show good uniformity and high performance (e.g. >1000X HRS/LRS windows, >1010 endurance cycles, >104?s retention times at 125°C). Meanwhile, four level MLC is demonstrated with two operation strategies, current controlled scheme (CCS) and voltage controlled scheme (VCS). The switching mechanism of 3D vertical RRAM cells is studied based on temperature-dependent transport characteristics. Furthermore, the applicability of CCS and VCS in 3D vertical RRAM array is compared using resistor network circuit simulation. PMID:25047906

  4. Forced convection in vertical Bridgman configuration with the submerged heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Ostrogorsky, A. G.

    1997-02-01

    Ga-doped Ge single crystals were grown in vertical Bridgman configuration, using the submerged heater method (SHM). When used without rotation, the submerged heater drastically reduces convection at the solid-liquid interface. When the submerged heater is set in to rotation or oscillatory rotation, it acts as a centrifugal viscous pump, inducing forced convection (radial-inward flow) along the interface. The flow produced by a rotation and oscillatory rotation of the submerged heater was visualized using a 1 : 1 scale model. The vigorous mixing produced by the oscillatory rotation creates a nearly perfectly stirred melt, and yields a uniform lateral distribution of the dopant. The crystals were free of unintentionally produced striae.

  5. Patterns, Instabilities, Colors, and Flows in Vertical Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Wojcik, Ewelina; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Foams find use in many applications in daily life, industry and biology. Examples include beverages, firefighting foam, cosmetics, foams for oil recovery and foams formed by pollutants. Foams are collection of bubbles separated by thin liquid films that are stabilized against drainage by the presence of surfactant molecules. Drainage kinetics and stability of the foam are strongly influenced by surfactant type, addition of particles, proteins and polymers. In this study, we utilize the thin film interference colors as markers for identifying patterns, instabilities and flows within vertical foam films. We experimentally study the emergence of thickness fluctuations near the borders and within thinning films, and study how buoyancy, capillarity and gravity driven instabilities and flows, are affected by variation in bulk and interfacial physicochemical properties dependent on the choice of constituents.

  6. Vertical three-terminal structures in semiconductor heterostructure quantum wells using a novel sidewall gating technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Kolagunta; D. B. Janes; G. L. Chen; K. J. Webb; M. R. Melloch

    1995-01-01

    We present the application of a self-aligned sidewall gating technique in the fabrication of gated resonant tunneling devices with active mesa areas in the sub-micron regime. This technique should prove useful for the fabrication of variable area, vertical quasi one- and two-dimensional structures. We present current-voltage curves of gated devices at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperatures for conduction in

  7. Evaluation of a New Prototype Geodetic Astrolabe for Measuring Deflections of the Vertical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Slater; N. Thompson; L. E. Angell; M. S. Belenkii; D. G. Bruns; D. O. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    During the last three years, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), with assistance from the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO), sponsored the development of a new electronic geodetic astrolabe for measuring deflections of the vertical (DoV). NGA's current operational astrolabes, built in 1995, have a number of undesirable features including the need for a pool of liquid mercury as a reflecting surface.

  8. An experimental study on characteristics of two-phase flows in vertical pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo Gun Sim; B. M. Bae; N. W. Mureithi

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of two-phase flow in a vertical pipe are investigated to provide information for understanding the excitation\\u000a mechanisms of flow-induced vibration. An analytical model for two-phase flow in a pipe was developed by Sim et al. (2005),\\u000a based on a power law for the distributions of flow parameters across the pipe diameter, such as gas velocity, liquid velocity\\u000a and

  9. Effect of surfactant concentration on saturated flow boiling in vertical narrow annular channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hetsroni; M. Gurevich; A. Mosyak; R. Rozenblit

    2007-01-01

    Saturated flow boiling of environmentally acceptable nonionic surfactant solutions of Alkyl (8–16) was compared to that of pure water. The concentration of surfactant solutions was in the range of 100–1000ppm. The liquid flowed in an annular gap of 2.5 and 4.4mm between two vertical tubes. The heat was transferred from the inner heated tube to two-phase flow in the range

  10. Numerical simulation of flow boiling for organic fluid with high saturation temperature in vertical porous coated tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Yang; Jie Pan; Yanhua Wu; Tingkuan Chen; Chenn Q. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    A semi-analytical model is developed for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer inside vertical porous coated tubes. The model assumes that the forced convection and nucleate boiling coexist together in the annular flow regime. Conservations of mass, momentum, and energy are used to solve for the liquid film thickness and temperature. The heat flux due to nucleate boiling consists

  11. Liquid Rainbow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    In this density activity, students determine the relative densities of five liquids and layer them atop one another in a straw. Directions for conducting the activity are included in addition to lists of the science process skills, complex reasoning strategies, and National Science Education Standards that relate to it. A brief explanation of the activity's science content and an assessment idea are also provided. This activity is part of a set called Whelmers that were designed to inspire students to think about science concepts.

  12. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  13. An automatic versatile system integrating solid-phase extraction with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a dual-dilution strategy for direct analysis of auxins in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qisheng; Qiu, Xiongxiong; Lin, Caiyong; Shen, Lingling; Huo, Yin; Zhan, Song; Yao, Jinting; Huang, Taohong; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Hashi, Yuki; Xiao, Langtao; Zhou, Ting

    2014-09-12

    An automatic versatile system which integrated solid phase extraction (SPE) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Diverse commercial SPE columns can be used under an ambient pressure in this online system realized by a dual-dilution strategy. The first dilution enabled the direct injection of complex samples with minimal pretreatment, and the second dilution realized direct introduction of large volume of strong eluent into the UHPLC column without causing peak broadening or distortion. In addition, a post-column compensation mode was also designed for the matrix-effects evaluation. The features of the online system were systematically investigated, including the dilution effect, the capture of desorption solution, the column-head stacking effect and the system recovery. Compared with the offline UHPLC system, this online system showed significant advantages such as larger injection volume, higher sensitivity, shorter analysis time and better repeatability. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated by the direct analysis of three auxins from different plant tissues, including leaves of Dracaena sanderiana, buds and petals of Bauhinia. Under the optimized conditions, the whole analysis procedure took only 7min. All the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9987, the limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.560-0.800ng/g and 1.80-2.60ng/g, respectively. The recoveries of the real samples ranged from 61.0 to 117%. Finally, the post-column compensation mode was applied and no matrix-effects were observed under the analysis conditions. The automatic versatile system was rapid, sensitive and reliable. We expect this system could be extended to other target analytes in complex samples utilizing diverse SPE columns. PMID:25082523

  14. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  15. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  16. Vertical transmission of Salmonella paratyphi A.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, R; Wattal, C; Sharma, A; Kler, N; Garg, P; Gujral, K; Khera, N

    2007-08-01

    Neonatal enteric fever is a rare but life-threatening illness. Patients may present with varying severity, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi causing more severe illness than Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is considered to cause milder infection with fewer complications. We report a rare case of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with severe complications and high mortality. Even though there are case reports of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, to our knowledge, this is the first case report of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype ParatyphiA. The role of blood culture in accurate diagnosis and treatment is also discussed. PMID:17785907

  17. Dominant vertices in regulatory networks dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Beatriz; Ugalde, Edgardo

    2008-11-01

    Discrete-time regulatory networks are dynamical systems on directed graphs with a structure that is inspired on natural systems of interacting units. Using a notion of determination between vertices, we define sets of dominant vertices, and we prove that in the asymptotic regime, the projection of the dynamics on a dominant set allows us to determine the state of the whole system at all times. We provide an algorithm to find sets of dominant vertices, and we test its accuracy on several examples. We also explore the possibility of using the dominant set characteristics as a measure of the structural complexity of networks.

  18. Rapid and cost-effective analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soil, fly ash and sediment certified reference materials using pressurized liquid extraction with an integrated carbon trap.

    PubMed

    Spinnel, Erik; Danielsson, Conny; Haglund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction with an integrated carbon trap (PLE-C) has recently been developed for fast and efficient analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in food and feed. The method has also been tested, but not verified, for use on more complex soil samples, such as soil, sediment and fly ash. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to verify that PLE-C can produce reliable data for PCDDs/PCDFs in various abiotic matrixes. A second aim was to find a replacement for the previously used AX21 active carbon that is currently not commercially available. The performance of the PLE-C was evaluated using both single congener concentrations and toxic equivalency potentials (TEQ-pot) of three (soil, sediment and fly ash) certified reference materials. The results clearly show that PLE-C can be used for abiotic samples and that a commercially available carbon (Norit SA 4PAH HF) can replace the AX-21 carbon in the carbon trap. The TEQ-pot values obtained for the soil and sediment samples were within the uncertainty limits of the corresponding certified values, as were the determinations of single congener concentrations. PLE-C therefore has great potential for determination of PCDDs/PCDFs in soil and sediment samples. The TEQ-pot result for the fly ash was slightly lower than the certified TEQ-pot value, but it is still within the uncertainty limits of the certified value. Out of the single congener concentrations all but four (out of 17) agreed well with the values. Hence, PLE-C may potentially be used also for fly ash--after slight modifications. The integrated PLE-C and cleanup procedure is less labour-intensive than traditional methods such as Soxhlet extraction followed by a multistep cleanup, and consumes smaller quantities of ultrapure solvents than the commonly used Power-Prep system. In addition, PLE-C is capable of larger sample throughputs than the conventional methods. Thus, PLE-C is a promising alternative to the currently used sample preparation procedures for dioxins in abiotic samples. [figure: see text] PLE with integraded carbon trap for rapid PCDD/Fs analysis. PMID:17994226

  19. CCMR: Vertical Coupling Grating Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Estelle, Adam

    2007-08-29

    Since the conception of fiber-optic communication, much research has been focused on creating a more efficient and less costly means of transporting information using light signals. Photonic integrated circuits (PIC), which are analogous to electronic integrated circuits used in everyday electronics, combine numerous optical principles to facilitate the transfer of light information. A specific setback in optical information transfer is the joining of optical fibers to the PICs. Light is directed in the PIC through small channels known as waveguides which are considerably smaller than the optical fibers. Many methods have been suggested for joining fibers and PICs. Loss of light caused by reflection, scattering, and other phenomena must be minimized at the junction. Numerous suggested methods make it difficult and expensive to package the final combination of fiber and chip. One such method uses a grating that can direct light into the waveguide from a fiber aligned perpendicular to the PIC without the need for additional optical devices or cumbersome fastening methods. By altering the grating dimensions with the help of an evolutionary algorithm, coupling efficiency could potentially be very high. This simple coupling method would greatly cut packaging costs making the design very appealing for mass market applications.

  20. Thermal protection with liquid film in turbulent mixed convection channel flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jer-Huan Jang; Wei-Mon Yan

    2006-01-01

    In this numerical study, a channel flow of turbulent mixed convection of heat and mass transfer with film evaporation has been conducted. The turbulent hot air flows downward of the vertical channel and is cooled by the laminar liquid film on both sides of the channel with thermally insulated walls. The effect of gas–liquid phase coupling, variable thermophysical properties and

  1. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-print Network

    are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different oxygen could produce an oxygen-rich atmosphere which could accelerate combustion of other materials cryogenic liquid. But materials such as carbon steel, plastic and rubber become brittle and may fracture

  2. Far-region electromagnetic radiation with a vertical magnetic dipole in sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunliang Long; Hongyan Jiang; Bernhard Rembold

    2001-01-01

    Great attention has been paid to conveniently calculating the electromagnetic (EM) field due to a vertical magnetic dipole (VMD) buried in stratified media. It is quite difficult because this topic involves the computation of Sommerfeld (1949) type integrals (SI). In this paper closed-form expressions for the far field of a VMD embedded below the sea surface are obtained easily by

  3. Radiation absorbed by a vertical cylinder in complex outdoor environments under clear sky conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Krys; R. D. Brown

    1990-01-01

    Research was conducted into the estimation of radiation absorbed by a vertical cylinder in complex outdoor environments under clear sky conditions. Two methods of estimation were employed: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT) and model developed by Brown and Gillespie (1986), and the weather station model. The CRT produced an integrated temperature reading from which the radiant environment could be estimated

  4. Modeling the vertical distributions of downwelling plane irradiance and diffuse attenuation coefficient in optically deep waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoju Pan; Richard C. Zimmerman

    2010-01-01

    The diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) is critical to understand the vertical distribution of underwater downwelling irradiance (Ed). Theoretically Ed is composed of the direct solar beam and the diffuse sky irradiance. Applying the statistical results from Hydrolight radiative transfer simulations, Kd is expressed into a mathematical equation (named as PZ06) integrated from the contribution of direct solar beam and diffuse

  5. Blooming suppression mechanism for an interline CCD image sensor with a vertical overflow drain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Oda; Yasuo Ishihara; Nobukazu Teranishi

    1983-01-01

    The blooming suppression mechanism for a vertical overflow drain (VOD) structure for an interline CCD image sensor(1) was quantitatively analyzed. An analytical formula, describing photodiode potential VPDchange as a function of integration time and light intensity, was obtained using VOD structure punch-through characteristics. Calculated results at strong light intensity, for which blooming suppression is required, indicate that (1) at a

  6. Vertical Glider Robots for Subsea Equipment Delivery

    E-print Network

    Reed, Brooks L.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an underwater vehicle that offers significant performance improvements over existing sub sea elevators. Our Vertical Glider Robot falls under its own weight to a precise location on the seafloor, employing ...

  7. Vertical-axis wind-turbine program

    SciTech Connect

    Braasch, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    During the interval since the Fourth Biennial Wind Energy Conference, the vertical axis wind turbine program has experienced significant progress. The purpose of this paper is to review that progress in aerodynamics research, structural dynamics research, and machine development.

  8. Vertical wind estimation from horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of simple vertical wind models to improve the hazard prediction capability of an airborne Doppler sensor in a realistic microburst environment. The results indicate that in the altitude region of interest (at or below 300 meters), both the linear and empirical vertical wind models improved the hazard estimate. The radar simulation study showed that the magnitude of the performance improvement was altitude dependent. The altitude of maximum performance improvement occurred at about 300 meters. At the lower altitudes the percent improvement was minimized by the diminished contribution of the vertical wind. The vertical hazard estimate errors from flight tests were less than those of the radar simulation study.

  9. Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles

    E-print Network

    Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

  10. Stability of Granular Materials under Vertical Vibrations

    E-print Network

    Deng, Rensheng

    The influence of periodic vibrations on the granular flow of materials is of great interests to scientists and engineers due to both theoretical and practical reasons. In this paper, the stability of a vertically vibrated ...

  11. Laminar Free Convection from Vertical Thin Needles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai P. Narain; Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1972-01-01

    A similarity solution is obtained for the problem of free-convection heat transfer over a thin vertical needle with uniform heat flux at the surface. A few errors in previous papers on “isothermal” needles have been modified.

  12. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposites in Magnetic Thin Films 

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Raziq, Haron

    2013-02-11

    With the advent of ferromagnetic materials for magnetic memory among other applications, increased attention has been given to understanding the properties of these ferromagnets. Here, a vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) system is examined...

  13. 23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL BRACING DETAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  14. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  15. Seismic vertical array analysis for phase decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kunikazu; Sasatani, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    We propose a vertical array analysis method that decomposes complex seismograms into body and surface wave time histories by using a velocity structure at the vertical array site. We assume that the vertical array records are the sum of vertically incident plane P and S waves, and laterally incident Love and Rayleigh waves. Each phase at the surface is related to that at a certain depth by the transfer function in the frequency domain; the transfer function is obtained by Haskell's matrix method, assuming a 1-D velocity structure. Decomposed P, S and surface waves at the surface are estimated from the vertical array records and the transfer functions by using a least-squares method in the frequency domain; their time histories are obtained by the inverse Fourier transform. We carried out numerical tests of this method based on synthetic vertical array records consisting of vertically incident plane P and S waves and laterally incident plane Love and Rayleigh waves. Perfect results of the decomposed P, S, Love and Rayleigh waves were obtained for synthetic records without noise. A test of the synthetic records in which a small amount of white noise was added yielded a reasonable result for the decomposed P, S and surface waves. We applied this method to real vertical array records from the Ashigara valley, a moderate-sized sedimentary valley. The array records from two earthquakes occurring at depths of 123 and 148 km near the array (epicentral distance of about 31 km) exhibited long-duration later phases. The analysis showed that duration of the decomposed S waves was a few seconds and that the decomposed surface waves appeared a few seconds after the direct S-wave arrival and had very long duration. This result indicated that the long-duration later phases were generated not by multireflected S waves, but by basin-induced surface waves.

  16. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Krishnan; Michael Riley; Sabrina Lee; Toh-Ming Lu

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85º with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation.

  17. a Newtonian liquid surface Matthew Thrasher, Sunghwan Jung,

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin. University of

    In these images, silicone of rate viscosity falling from height H to a bath same liquid, which moving right a lubricating layer air. Figure 2 shows rebound nearly vertical small velocities and becomes more oblique larger viscosity, velocity, radius, bath velocity. This ex­ periment easily done home pouring mineral

  18. High-Speed Tube Gas-Liquid Apparatuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Novozhilov; A. M. Kutepov

    2001-01-01

    Tube process apparatuses are well known and used extensively in chemical and other branches of the industry. Film-type heat- and mass-exchange tube apparatuses [1], employed primarily for countercurrent processes, in which the gas flows from the bottom up in the opposite direction (countercurrent) to the liquid film flowing down the inner surface of the vertical working tubes, constitute a special

  19. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  20. Nonlinear modeling of liquid sloshing in a moving rectangular tank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Serdar Celebi; Hakan Akyildiz

    2002-01-01

    A nonlinear liquid sloshing inside a partially filled rectangular tank has been investigated. The fluid is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, viscous, Newtonian and exhibit only limited compressibility. The tank is forced to move harmonically along a vertical curve with rolling motion to simulate the actual tank excitation. The volume of fluid technique is used to track the free surface.

  1. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  2. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  3. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-print Network

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  4. Lacerations - liquid bandage

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin adhesives; Tissue adhesive ... the cut is minor, a liquid bandage (liquid adhesive) can be used on the cut to close ... bandage is quick and painless to apply. Skin adhesives, or liquid bandages, seal the cut closed after ...

  5. Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle. PMID:23429528

  6. Competitive co-existence of vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites

    E-print Network

    Lively, Curt

    of vertically transmitted bacteria within the female reproductive organs of many arthropods, especially blood by systemic fungal endophytes that are vertically transmitted through seeds (Schardl, 1996). Theory suggests

  7. Ice-Crystal Fallstreaks from Supercooled Liquid Water Parent Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; O'C. Starr, David; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ferrare, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    On 31 December 2001, ice-crystal fallstreaks (e.g., cirrus uncinus, or colloquially "Mare's Tails") from supercooled liquid water parent clouds were observed by ground-based lidars pointed vertically from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility near Lamont, Oklahoma. The incidence of liquid phase cloud with apparent ice-phase precipitation is investigated. Scenarios for mixed-phase particle nucleation, and fallstreak formation and sustenance are discussed. The observations are unique in the context of the historical reverence given to the commonly observed c h s uncinus fallstreak (wholly ice) versus this seemingly contradictory coincidence of liquid water begetting ice-crystal streaks.

  8. Sloshing response in a tank containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Ma, D.C.; Chang, Y.W.

    1991-01-01

    A study on the sloshing response in a tank containing two different liquids under seismic excitation is presented. Both analytical and numerical (FEM) methods are employed in the analysis. The results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement. The response quantities examined include the sloshing wave height, the natural frequencies of the sloshing motion, and the vertical displacement at the interface of the two liquids. It is shown that the maximum sloshing wave height may increase significantly, and the fundamental period of the sloshing motion is longer than that in an identical tank containing only one liquid. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Performance investigations of liquid-metal heat pipes for space and terrestrial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Kemme; E. S. Keddy; J. R. Phillips

    1978-01-01

    The high heat transfer capacity of liquid-metal heat pipes is demonstrated in performance tests with mercury, potassium, sodium, and lithium working fluids and wick structures which serve to minimize liquid pressure losses and vapor\\/liquid interactions. Appropriate wicks for horizontal and vertical operation are described. It is shown that heat-transfer with these wicks is limited by vapor flow effects. Examples are

  10. Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Hailong; Yin, Anxiang; Li, Zheng; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-12-01

    Layered materials of graphene and MoS?, for example, have recently emerged as an exciting material system for future electronics and optoelectronics. Vertical integration of layered materials can enable the design of novel electronic and photonic devices. Here, we report highly efficient photocurrent generation from vertical heterostructures of layered materials. We show that vertically stacked graphene-MoS?-graphene and graphene-MoS?-metal junctions can be created with a broad junction area for efficient photon harvesting. The weak electrostatic screening effect of graphene allows the integration of single or dual gates under and/or above the vertical heterostructure to tune the band slope and photocurrent generation. We demonstrate that the amplitude and polarity of the photocurrent in the gated vertical heterostructures can be readily modulated by the electric field of an external gate to achieve a maximum external quantum efficiency of 55% and internal quantum efficiency up to 85%. Our study establishes a method to control photocarrier generation, separation and transport processes using an external electric field. PMID:24162001

  11. Vertical incidence backscatter and surface forward scattering from near-surface bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, S. O.; Dahl, P. H.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents results of acoustic measurements of vertical incidence backscattering and surface forward scattering from near-surface bubbles. Applications of this work are directed toward torpedo guidance control, and countermeasure technologies, such as detection and signal-processing constraints imposed by the near-surface environment. Acoustic measurements of the concentration and vertical extent of near-surface bubbles generated by breaking waves were made in the frequency range 15 to 50 kHz. The vertical incidence measurements, which were interspersed with the surface forward scattering measurements, produced a vertical profile of volume scattering cross section due to bubbles that decreased exponentially with depth. By integrating this profile in depth, a direct estimate of integrated volume scattering strength sigma(sub I) was made, which is a measure of total bubble concentration. The surface forward scattering measurements show a loss for a single interaction. This loss, attributable to bubbles, is referred to as the surface bubble loss (SBL), and an infrared estimate of sigma(sub I) was obtained from the SBL through a transfer function that incorporates the total extinction cross section from bubbles. The vertical incidence backscattering data and the forward scattering data, interpreted in terms of scattering and absorption by resonant bubbles, did not produce comparable trends in frequency and wind speed functional dependence, and differed significantly in overall level.

  12. Application for smart skin technologies to the development of a conformal antenna installation in the vertical tail of a military aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin H. Alt; Allen J. Lockyer; Christopher A. Martin; Jayanth N. Kudva; Allan C. Goetz

    1995-01-01

    Recent developments in smart skins technology at Northrop Grumman have paved the way toward incorporating avionics communication functions, previously provided by blade antennas, into the vertical tail of a military aircraft. Radio frequency communication link ranges can be significantly improved by structurally integrating the antenna radiating element into the tail region. Excitation of the large vertical tail surface improves radiation

  13. 1374 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 9, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2003 Carrier-Confined Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor

    E-print Network

    Bowers, John

    by the Defense Advanced research Projects Agency (DARPA) via the Center for Chips with Heterogeneously Integrated--Fabry­Perot (FP) resonators, laser amplifiers, op- tical filters, optical resonators, semiconductor optical amplifiers, surface-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity devices, vertical-cavity semiconductor optical

  14. A liquid crystal model for friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkoller, S.; Cheng, C.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Rate-and-state-friction is an empirical approach to the behavior of a frictional surface. Here, we use a model of a liquid crystal fluid in a channel between two planes to model frictional sliding. Liquid crystals are extensively studied and have applications to a wide variety of engineered systems, including systems that rapidly switch between states. The liquid crystal is characterized by a directional field, d(z,t) where z is the distance from the fixed plane and t is time. The viscosity of the liquid is a function of the director field, with a minimum viscosity ?0 corresponding to the viscosity if the director field pointed in the horizontal direction, and a maximum ?_1 corresponding to the viscosity when the director field is pointing in the vertical direction. A third parameter ? is the relaxation coefficient of the director field. The viscosity is given by ?=?(?)?_1+(1-?(?))?0 where ? is the angle of the director field d with respect to vertical. The choice of the viscosity function ?(?) determines the behavior of the system. In response to sliding of the moving plate, the fluid undergoes a rapid increase in resistance followed by relaxation. The directional field is deflected from vertical and strain is localized within the channel. The directional field plays a role analogous to the state variable in rate and state friction. Reducing the relaxation coefficient of the director field ? produces a sharper increase in the traction change with velocity, but too small ? can cause instability in the simulation. Reducing ?0 to 0 produces stick-slip-like behavior but restricts the choice of the viscosity function; the choice of the viscosity function, in turn, controls both the size of the traction jump associated with changes in velocity and the resulting relaxation back to the equlibrium state.

  15. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste. PMID:24973866

  16. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  17. Magnetic stabilization and vorticity in submillimeter paramagnetic liquid tubes

    PubMed Central

    Coey, J. Michael D.; Aogaki, Ryoichi; Byrne, Fiona; Stamenov, Plamen

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to suppress convection and dispersion of a paramagnetic liquid by means of a magnetic field. A tube of paramagnetic liquid can be stabilized in water along a ferromagnetic track in a vertical magnetic field, but not in a horizontal field. Conversely, an “antitube” of water can be stabilized in a paramagnetic liquid along the same track in a transverse horizontal field, but not in a vertical field. The stability arises from the interaction of the induced moment in the solution with the magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of the track. The magnetic force causes the tube of paramagnetic liquid to behave as if it were encased by an elastic membrane whose cross-section is modified by gravitational forces and Maxwell stress. Convection from the tube to its surroundings is inhibited, but not diffusion. Liquid motion within the paramagnetic tube, however, exhibits vorticity in tubes of diameter 1 mm or less—conditions where classical pipe flow would be perfectly streamline, and mixing extremely slow. The liquid tube is found to slide along the track almost without friction. Paramagnetic liquid tubes and antitubes offer appealing new prospects for mass transport, microfluidics, and electrodeposition. PMID:19416873

  18. Liquid bipropellant engines for large telecommunications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    As telecommunications satellites become larger and longer-lived as a result of the launch capability provided by Titan 34D, Space Shuttle and Ariane, integrated liquid bipropellant propulsion systems will replace solid propellant motor/liquid monopropellant thruster propulsion systems for apogee and on-orbit maneuvers. On going programs, e.g. INSAT and L-SAT, are representative of this trend. The Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company has two liquid bipropellant engines (NTO/MMH) for use on large telecommunications satellites, i.e. AJ10-181, 22 N Thrust Reaction Control Thruster and AJ10-210, 445 N Thrust Liquid Apogee Engine. Extensive hot-fire and other testing has been accomplished with these engines over a period of several years. Such issues as engine design, delivered performance (steady state and pulse), and durability and life are discussed. A design, including envelope, is presented for each engine.

  19. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference.

    PubMed

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N

    2012-06-27

    The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference (LMC8) was held at the Universität Wien from 6-10 September 2011. Initiated in 1990, the conferences of this series cover a broad range of highly interdisciplinary topics, ranging from simple liquids to soft matter and biophysical systems. The vast spectrum of scientific subjects presented and discussed at the LMC8 is reflected in the themes of the ten symposia: Ionic and quantum liquids, liquid metals Water, solutions and reaction dynamics Liquid crystals Polymers, polyelectrolytes, biopolymers Colloids Films, foams, surfactants, emulsions, aerosols Confined fluids, interfacial phenomena Supercooled liquids, glasses, gels Non-equilibrium systems, rheology, nanofluids Biofluids, active matter This special issue contains scientific papers, authored by participants of the LMC8, which provide a cross-section of the scientific activities in current liquid matter science, as discussed at the conference, and demonstrate the scientific as well as methodological progress made in this field over the past couple of years. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference contents The Eighth Liquid Matter ConferenceChristoph Dellago, Gerhard Kahl and Christos N Likos Comparing light-induced colloidal quasicrystals with different rotational symmetriesMichael Schmiedeberg and Holger Stark Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperatureS Sarti, D Truzzolillo and F Bordi Equilibrium concentration profiles and sedimentation kinetics of colloidal gels under gravitational stressS Buzzaccaro, E Secchi, G Brambilla, R Piazza and L Cipelletti The capillary interaction between two vertical cylindersHimantha Cooray, Pietro Cicuta and Dominic Vella Hydrodynamic and viscoelastic effects in polymer diffusionJ Farago, H Meyer, J Baschnagel and A N Semenov A density-functional theory study of microphase formation in binary Gaussian mixturesM Carta, D Pini, A Parola and L Reatto Microcanonical determination of the interface tension of flat and curved interfaces from Monte Carlo simulationsA Tröster and K Binder Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctionsJ M Tavares and P I C Teixeira The unbearable heaviness of colloids: facts, surprises, and puzzles in sedimentationRoberto Piazza, Stefano Buzzaccaro and Eleonora Secchi Exploring water and other liquids at negative pressureFrédéric Caupin, Arnaud Arvengas, Kristina Davitt, Mouna El Mekki Azouzi, Kirill I Shmulovich, Claire Ramboz, David A Sessoms and Abraham D Stroock The configurational space of colloidal patchy polymers with heterogeneous sequencesIvan Coluzza and Christoph Dellago Repeated sorption of water in SBA-15 investigated by means of in situ small-angle x-ray scatteringM Erko, D Wallacher, G H Findenegg and O Paris Transition of the hydration state of a surfactant accompanying structural transitions of self-assembled aggregatesM Hishida and K Tanaka The effects of topology on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of network-forming materialsMark Wilson Surface tension of an electrolyte-air interface: a Monte Carlo studyAlexandre Diehl, Alexandre P dos Santos and Yan Levin Water and other tetrahedral liquids: order, anomalies and solvationB Shadrack Jabes, Divya Nayar, Debdas Dhabal, Valeria Molinero and Charusita Chakravarty Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water modelsSami Tazi, Alexandru Bo?an, Mathieu Salanne, Virginie Marry, Pierre Turq and Benjamin Rotenberg Phase behaviour of colloidal assemblies on 2D corrugated substratesSamir El Shawish, Emmanuel Trizac and Jure Dobnikar Structural properties of dendrimer-colloid mixturesDominic A Lenz, Ronald Blaak and Christos N Likos Fluid-fluid demixing of off-critical colloid-polymer systems confined between parallel platesE A G Jamie, R P A Dullens and D G A L Aarts Simulations of nematic homopolymer melts using particle-based models with interactions expressed through collective variablesKostas Ch Daoulas, Victor Rühle and Kurt Kremer Smectic shellsTeresa Lopez-Leon, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Mauri

  20. IMU: inertial sensing of vertical CoM movement.

    PubMed

    Esser, Patrick; Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken

    2009-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to use a quaternion rotation matrix in combination with an integration approach to transform translatory accelerations of the centre of mass (CoM) from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) during walking, from the object system onto the global frame. Second, this paper utilises double integration to determine the relative change in position of the CoM from the vertical acceleration data. Five participants were tested in which an IMU, consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers was attached on the lower spine estimated centre of mass. Participants were asked to walk three times through a calibrated volume at their self-selected walking speed. Synchronized data were collected by an IMU and an optical motion capture system (OMCS); both measured at 100 Hz. Accelerations of the IMU were transposed onto the global frame using a quaternion rotation matrix. Translatory acceleration, speed and relative change in position from the IMU were compared with the derived data from the OMCS. Peak acceleration in vertical axis showed no significant difference (p> or =0.05). Difference between peak and trough speed showed significant difference (p<0.05) but relative peak-trough position between the IMU and OMCS did not show any significant difference (p> or =0.05). These results indicate that quaternions, in combination with Simpsons rule integration, can be used in transforming translatory acceleration from the object frame to the global frame and therefore obtain relative change in position, thus offering a solution for using accelerometers in accurate global frame kinematic gait analyses. PMID:19442978