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1

Uncertainty in vertically integrated liquid water content due to radar reflectivity observation error  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar reflectivity is used to estimate meteorological quantities such as rainfall rate, liquid water content, and the related quantity, vertically integrated liquid (VIL) water content. The estimation of any of these quantities depends on several assumptions related to the characteristics of the physical processes controlling the occurrence and character of water in the atmosphere. Additionally, there are many sources of error associated with radar observations, such as those due to brighthand, hail, and drop size distribution approximations. This work addresses one error of interest, the radar reflectivity observation error; other error sources are assumed to be corrected or negligible. The result is a relationship between the uncertainty in VIL water content and radar reflectivity measurement error. An example application illustrates the estimation of VIL uncertainty from typical radar reflectivity observations and indicates that the coefficient of variation in VIL is much larger than the coefficient of variation in radar reflectivity.

French, Mark N.; Andrieu, Herve; Krajewski, Witold F.

1995-01-01

2

Vertical System Integration by Using Inter-Chip Vias and Solid-Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for 3D system integration, called Inter Chip Via-Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (ICV-SLID) is introduced. This is a new chip-to-wafer stacking technology which combines the advantages of the Inter Chip Via (ICV) process and the solid-liquid-interdiffusion technique (SLID) of copper and tin. The fully modular ICV-SLID concept allows the formation of multiple device stacks. A test chip was designed

Armin Klumpp; Reinhard Merkel; Peter Ramm; Josef Weber; Robert Wieland

2004-01-01

3

Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking.

Philippacopoulos, A.J.

1985-01-01

4

VERTICAL INTEGRATION IN AGRICULTURE AND CONTRACT FARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely argued recently that agriculture is undergoing a process of vertical integration with allied industries. One of the worldwide ways of vertical integration in agriculture is contract farming. Contract farming is a continually evolving process. Worldwide applications of contract farming have shown that the terms of contracts are shaped by their own conditions and varied from product

Erkan Rehber

1998-01-01

5

Integrated asymmetric vertical coupler pressure sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.

Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Askin; Akcag, Imran; Aydinli, Atilla

2004-08-01

6

Scalable approach for vertical device integration of epitaxial nanowires.  

PubMed

In this letter, we demonstrate the simultaneous vertical integration of self-contacting and highly oriented nanowires (NWs) into airbridge structures, which have been developed into surround gated metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). With the use of conventional photolithography, reactive ion etching (RIE), and low pressure chemical vapor deposition, a suspended vertical NW architecture is formed on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate where the nanodevice will later be fabricated on. The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si-NWs are contacted to prepatterned airbridges by a self-aligned process, and there is no need for postgrowth NW assembly or alignment. Such vertical NW architecture can be easily integrated into existing ICs processes opening the path to a new generation of nonconventional nano devices. To demonstrate the potential of this method, surround gated vertical MOSFETs have been fabricated with a highly simplified integration scheme combining top-down and bottom-up approaches, but in the same way, one can think about the realization of integrated nano sensors on the industrial scale. PMID:19323479

Lugstein, A; Steinmair, M; Henkel, C; Bertagnolli, E

2009-05-01

7

Thermal analysis of vertically integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a thermal analysis of Vertically Integrated Circuits (VIC) is presented for the first time. Based on a 1-D model, temperature differences in VICs of less than 10°C are evaluated for most practical applications. Detailed 3-D investigations show that self-heating of MOSFETs in the upper chip-layers of a VIC is more pronounced than in bulk CMOS and that

M. B. Kleiner; S. A. Kuhn; P. Ramm; W. Weber

1995-01-01

8

2-D magnetic interpretation using the vertical integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic interpretation method is presented which numerically computes the vertical integral of the ob- served total-field anomaly along a profile. This trans- formed field is fitted by the vertical integral (also com- puted numerically) of the total-field anomaly of an interpretation model using a standard, nonlinear, least- squares estimation routine. The vertical integral trans- formation used here is similar

Joa?o B. C. Silva

1996-01-01

9

Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers generating short pulses - referred to as ultrafast lasers - enable many applications in science and technology. Numerous laboratory experiments have confirmed that ultrafast lasers can significantly increase telecommunication data rates [1], improve computer interconnects, and optically clock microprocessors [2, 3]. New applications in metrology [4], supercontinuum generation [5], and life sciences with two-photon microscopy [6] only work with ultrashort pulses but have relied on bulky and complex ultrafast solid-state lasers. Semiconductor lasers are ideally suited for mass production and widespread applications, because they are based on a wafer-scale technology with a high level of integration. Not surprisingly, the first lasers entering virtually every household were semiconductor lasers in compact disk players. Here we introduce a new concept and make the first feasibility demonstration of a new class of ultrafast semiconductor lasers which are power scalable, support both optical and electrical pumping and allow for wafer-scale fabrication. The laser beam propagates vertically (perpendicularly) through the epitaxial layer structure which has both gain and absorber layers integrated. In contrast to edge-emitters, these lasers have semiconductor layers that can be optimized separately by using different growth parameters and with no regrowth. This is especially important to integrate the gain and absorber layers, which require different quantum confinement. A saturable absorber is required for pulse generation and we optimized its parameters with a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot layer at low growth temperatures. We refer to this class of devices as modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting lasers (MIXSEL). Vertical integration supports a diffraction-limited circular output beam, transform-limited pulses, lower timing jitter, and synchronization to an external electronic clock. The pulse repetition rate scales from 1-GHz to 100-GHz by simply changing the laser cavity length. This result holds promise for semiconductor-based high-volume wafer-scale fabrication of compact, ultrafast lasers.

Maas, D. J. H. C.; Bellancourt, A.-R.; Rudin, B.; Golling, M.; Unold, H. J.; Südmeyer, T.; Keller, U.

2007-09-01

10

Vertical integration, exclusive dealing, and ex post cartelization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uncovers an unnoticed connection between exclusive contracts and vertical organization. A vertically integrated …rm can use exclusive dealing to foreclose an equally e¢ cient upstream competitor and to cartelize the downstream industry. Neither vertical integration nor exclusive dealing alone achieves these anticompetitive eects. The cartelization eect of these two practices may be limited when downstream …rms are het-

Yongmin Chen; Michael H. Riordan

2006-01-01

11

Downward bubbly gas–liquid flow in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local characteristics of downward bubbly flow in a 42.3mm i.d. vertical pipe were investigated. An electrochemical technique was used to measure wall shear stress, local void fraction, liquid velocity, wall shear stress and velocity fluctuations. A gas–liquid mixer was used permitting the change in size of gas bubbles for the same gas and liquid flow rates. Special attention was paid

O. N. Kashinsky; V. V. Randin

1999-01-01

12

Gas-liquid bubbly flow in vertical pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas-liquid bubbly flow was investigated in vertical pipes for different flow conditions: fully developed turbulent downward flow in a 42.3 mm diameter pipe and upward flow in a 14.8 mm diameter pipe with liquid of elevated viscosity. Wall shear stress, local void fraction, and liquid velocity profiles, shear stress, and velocity fluctuations were measured using an electrodiffusional method. Results obtained

V. E. Nakoryakov; O. N. Kashinsky; V. V. Randin; L. S. Timkin

1996-01-01

13

The organizational form of vertical relationships: Dimensions of integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that the organizational form of a buying firm's vertical relationship with a supplier can be defined as a configuration of four distinct, but related dimensions of integration. These dimensions pertain to ownership integration (the extent that the firm owns the upstream component supplier), coordination integration (the intensity of information exchange to align the two stages

Ferdinand Jaspers; Jan van den Ende

2006-01-01

14

Yxilon: Designing The Next Generation, Vertically Integrable Statistical Software Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern statistical computing requires smooth integration of new algorithms and quantitative analysis results in all sorts of platforms such as webbrowsers, standard and proprietary application software. Common statistical software packages can often not be adapted to integrate into new environments or simply lack the demands users and especially beginners have. With Yxilon we propose a vertically integrable, modular statistical computing

Uwe Ziegenhagen; Sigbert Klinke; Wolfgang Karl Härdle

2004-01-01

15

Gas-liquid bubbly flow in vertical pipes  

SciTech Connect

Gas-liquid bubbly flow was investigated in vertical pipes for different flow conditions: fully developed turbulent downward flow in a 42.3 mm diameter pipe and upward flow in a 14.8 mm diameter pipe with liquid of elevated viscosity. Wall shear stress, local void fraction, and liquid velocity profiles, shear stress, and velocity fluctuations were measured using an electrodiffusional method. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of universal near-wall velocity distribution in a downward bubbly flow. The reduction of turbulent fluctuations is observed in downward flow as compared to a single-phase turbulent flow. The development of bubble-induced liquid velocity fluctuations in a laminar bubbly flow was studied.

Nakoryakov, V.E.; Kashinsky, O.N.; Randin, V.V.; Timkin, L.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics

1996-06-01

16

Stability of liquid films on a porous vertical cylinder.  

PubMed

The stability of liquid films flowing down a vertical porous cylinder is investigated in this paper. Fluids in the porous medium are assumed to be governed by Darcy's law. The Beaver-Joseph conditions on the liquid-porous surface are applied, and the influence of the porous medium reduces as a slip condition on the cylinder, which leads to the one-sided model. A Benney-type equation governing the interfacial shape is derived to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid films. Linear stability analysis shows that the film flow system on a porous vertical cylinder is more unstable than that on a solid impermeable vertical cylinder and that increasing the permeability of the porous medium enhances the destabilizing effect. Nonlinear studies examine our linear stability analysis. We find that, for Reynolds number Re=0, as the permeability parameter increases, the rupture time of film decreases; for Re>0, Rayleigh-Plateau instability is suppressed, and disturbances evolve to saturated traveling waves. By increasing the permeability parameter, the amplitude of traveling wave increases, and the wave speed increases too. Aside from that, the wave speed increases with increasing Re. PMID:22181261

Ding, Zijing; Liu, Qiusheng

2011-10-01

17

Liquid plug flow in a vertical two-dimensional channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity and pressure driven liquid plug flow in a two-dimensional vertical channel is investigated as a model of instilled liquid transport in the lungs. There are a number of clinical situations in which liquids are instilled into the lungs. Of particular interest is liquid ventilation where perfluorocarbon liquids are delivered to the lung and subsequently used for ventilation in place of gas. Additionally the perfuorocarbon can be used as a carrier for drugs or genetic material. Some other examples of liquid instillation into the lungs include surfactant replacement therapy, lung lavage, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. The desired distribution of liquid depends on the application. Our model is developed using the Stokes equation subject to interfacial and wall boundary conditions, and is solved using the boundary element method. We obtain steady-state and time-dependent solutions. As the plug propagates along the thin-film-lined channel, it takes up liquid from the leading film and deposit liquid in the trailing film. The trailing film thickness, interface shapes and plug speed are determined as functions of the parameters of the problem, Bond number, driving pressure, and leading film thickness and initial plug length for the time-dependent problem. These results are important clinically since the trailing film thickness determines when the plug ruptures affecting the ultimate liquid distribution, and thicker films can result in airway closure. This research was supported by NIH grants HL41126, HL64373, and HL54224-04S1. J.L. Bull is a Parker B. Francis Fellow in Pulmonary Research.

Bull, Joseph; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James

2001-11-01

18

Vertically integrated silicon-germanium nanowire field-effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate in this paper the possibility to vertically integrate SiGe nanowires in order to use them as vertical channel for field-effect transistors (FETs). We report a threshold voltage close to 3.9 V, an ION/IOFF ratio of 104. The subthreshold slope was estimated to be around 0.9 V/decade and explained by a high traps density at the nanowire core/oxide shell interface with an estimated density of interface traps Dit ~ 1.2 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1. Comparisons are made with both vertical Si and horizontal SiGe FETs performances.

Rosaz, G.; Salem, B.; Pauc, N.; Potié, A.; Gentile, P.; Baron, T.

2011-11-01

19

INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

20

Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis II : Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for automatically associating detected waveform features with hypothesized seismic events, and localizing those events, are a critical component of efforts to verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). As outlined in our companion abstract, we have developed a hierarchical model which views detection, association, and localization as an integrated probabilistic inference problem. In this abstract, we provide more details on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods used to solve this inference task. MCMC generates samples from a posterior distribution ?(x) over possible worlds x by defining a Markov chain whose states are the worlds x, and whose stationary distribution is ?(x). In the Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) method, transitions in the Markov chain are constructed in two steps. First, given the current state x, a candidate next state x? is generated from a proposal distribution q(x? | x), which may be (more or less) arbitrary. Second, the transition to x? is not automatic, but occurs with an acceptance probability—?(x? | x) = min(1, ?(x?)q(x | x?)/?(x)q(x? | x)). The seismic event model outlined in our companion abstract is quite similar to those used in multitarget tracking, for which MCMC has proved very effective. In this model, each world x is defined by a collection of events, a list of properties characterizing those events (times, locations, magnitudes, and types), and the association of each event to a set of observed detections. The target distribution ?(x) = P(x | y), the posterior distribution over worlds x given the observed waveform data y at all stations. Proposal distributions then implement several types of moves between worlds. For example, birth moves create new events; death moves delete existing events; split moves partition the detections for an event into two new events; merge moves combine event pairs; swap moves modify the properties and assocations for pairs of events. Importantly, the rules for accepting such complex moves need not be hand-designed. Instead, they are automatically determined by the underlying probabilistic model, which is in turn calibrated via historical data and scientific knowledge. Consider a small seismic event which generates weak signals at several different stations, which might independently be mistaken for noise. A birth move may nevertheless hypothesize an event jointly explaining these detections. If the corresponding waveform data then aligns with the seismological knowledge encoded in the probabilistic model, the event may be detected even though no single station observes it unambiguously. Alternatively, if a large outlier reading is produced at a single station, moves which instantiate a corresponding (false) event would be rejected because of the absence of plausible detections at other sensors. More broadly, one of the main advantages of our MCMC approach is its consistent handling of the relative uncertainties in different information sources. By avoiding low-level thresholds, we expect to improve accuracy and robustness. At the conference, we will present results quantitatively validating our approach, using ground-truth associations and locations provided either by simulation or human analysts.

Arora, N. S.; Russell, S.; Sudderth, E.

2009-12-01

21

Vertically Integrating Professional Skills throughout a Mathematics Major  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a university mandate to include "professional issues" as a component of every major, we have developed a vertically integrated approach to incorporating the study of professional skills and issues into the mathematics curriculum. Beginning in the first year of study, mathematics majors take an inquiry-based course in…

Dziak, Clarice; Leventhal, Brian; Luttman, Aaron; Skufca, Joseph

2014-01-01

22

AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

2014-01-01

23

Supplier Switching Costs and Vertical Integration in the Automobile Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tests a transactions cost theory of vertical integration with data from the U.S. automobile industry. Existing theory is first refined to take into account industrial know-how and the cost of transferring such know-how. A testable model is then developed, which is estimated by using probit techniques. The results support the view that transactions cost considerations surrounding the development

Kirk Monteverde; David J. Teece

1982-01-01

24

Vertical alliance and vertical integration for the inflow of technology and new product development in the pharmaceutical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical firms are increasingly seeking vertical alliance (licensing and joint venture) or bridges and vertical integration (merger and acquisition, M&A) or buffers. However, the question remains whether alliance and integration modes of organisation contribute to the clinical trials activities for a new product development. Using data on 250 pharmaceutical firms, this study examines the linkage between the external technology-sourcing modes

Tariq Malik

2011-01-01

25

Design integration of liquid surface divertors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall

M. E. Rensink; S. S. Smolentsev; T. D. Rognlien; M. Kotschenreuther; Michael Andrew Ulrickson; Donald F. Cowgill; B. E. Nelson; A. Hassanein; Richard Einar Nygren; P. J. Fogarty

2003-01-01

26

Design integration of liquid surface divertors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall

R. E. Nygren; D. F. Cowgill; M. A. Ulrickson; B. E. Nelson; P. J. Fogarty; T. D. Rognlien; M. E. Rensink; A. Hassanein; S. S. Smolentsev; M. Kotschenreuther

2004-01-01

27

Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall

R E Nygren; D F Cowgill; M A Ulrickson; B E Nelson; P J Fogarty; T D Rognlien; M E Rensink; A Hassanein; S S Smolentsev; M Kotschenreuther

2003-01-01

28

STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

29

Terminal velocity of a bubble in a vertically vibrated liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We rigorously derive a formula for the terminal velocity of a small bubble in a vertically vibrated viscous incompressible liquid starting from the full Navier-Stokes equations and the exact boundary conditions at the bubble surface. This formula is derived using a perturbation analysis in which the small parameter is the nondimensional amplitude of the pressure oscillation. The analysis does not assume that the bubble remains spherical but does assume that the bubble is axisymmetric. It is shown that the bubble terminal velocity can be computed to second order while computing the full solution only to first order by applying a compatibility condition on the first-order solution. To second order, the bubble terminal velocity is shown to be the net value from an upward steady term and a rectified term that can be downward or upward. The perturbation formula depends on the vibration frequency nondimensionalized by the bubble radius and the liquid kinematic viscosity. We show that our perturbation formula links two heuristically developed formulas for the rectified component, which we denote the velocity-averaged and force-averaged formulas. Our perturbation formula reproduces the velocity-averaged formula for low frequencies and the forced-averaged formula for high frequencies and varies monotonically between these limits for intermediate frequencies. We furthermore develop a high-resolution spectral code specifically to simulate this type of bubble motion. Results from this code verify that the perturbation formula is correct for infinitesimal oscillating pressure amplitudes and suggest that it provides an upper bound for finite amplitudes of the pressure oscillation.

Romero, L. A.; Torczynski, J. R.; von Winckel, G.

2014-05-01

30

MARKET POWER, VERTICAL INTEGRATION AND THE WHOLESALE PRICE OF GASOLINE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines empirically the relationship between vertical integration and wholesale gasoline prices. We use discrete and differential changes in the extent of vertical integration generated by mergers in West Coast gasoline refining and retailing markets to test for incentives to raise rivals' costs. The research design allows us to test for a relationship between vertical integration and wholesale prices,

JUSTINE S. HASTINGS; RICHARD J. GILBERT

2005-01-01

31

A generic approach for vertical integration of nanowires.  

PubMed

We report on the collective integration technology of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs). Si and ZnO NWs have been used in order to develop a generic technological process. Both mineral and organic planarizations of the as-grown nanowires have been achieved. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) oxides, spin on glass (SOG), and polymer have been investigated as filling materials. Polishing and/or etching of the composite structures have been set up so as to obtain a suitable morphology for the top and bottom electrical contacts. Electrical and optical characterizations of the integrated NWs have been performed. Contacts ohmicity has been demonstrated and specific contact resistances have been reported. The photoconducting properties of polymer-integrated ZnO NWs have also been investigated in the UV-visible range through collective electrical contacts. A small increase of the resistivity in the ZnO NWs under sub-bandgap illumination has been observed and discussed. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 300 K of the as-grown and SOG-integrated ZnO nanowires has shown no significant impact of the integration process on the crystal quality of the NWs. PMID:21730646

Latu-Romain, E; Gilet, P; Noel, P; Garcia, J; Ferret, P; Rosina, M; Feuillet, G; Lévy, F; Chelnokov, A

2008-08-27

32

Metrics of hurricane-ocean interaction: vertically-integrated or vertically-averaged ocean temperature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed the upper Ocean Heat Content (OHC), the vertical integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a vertical average of temperature, in one version from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of vertical mixing by a mature hurricane. OHC and the depth-averaged temperature, dubbed T100, are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, OHC?75 kJ cm-2. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ?50 kJ cm-2, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean temperatures ?26°C. OHC and T100 can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T100 will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative, since there will be little cool water that could be mixed into the surface layer. Some limited evidence is that continental shelves may be regions of comparatively small sea surface cooling during a hurricane passage, but more research is clearly required on this important issue.

Price, J. F.

2009-05-01

33

Solution chemistry approach to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on gold wires: towards vertically integrated electronics.  

PubMed

A monolayer of hexadecyltrichlorosilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was self-assembled onto a p-type silicon (100) substrate to provide a resist for electrochemical anodization with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Silane treatment of the oxide nanostructures created by anodization lithography allowed for the creation of a chemically heterogeneous surface, containing regions of -NH(2) or -SH surrounded by -CH(3) functionality. These patterned regions of -NH(2) or -SH provided the point of attachment for citrate-stabilized gold colloid nanoparticles, which act as 'seed' particles for the electro-less deposition of gold. This has allowed the creation of gold wires on a silicon surface. Carbon nanotubes, with high carboxylic acid functionality, were vertically immobilized on the patterned gold wires with the use of a cysteamine monolayer and a condensation reaction. Such a material may prove useful in the creation of future vertically integrated electronic devices where it is desirable for electron transport to be in three dimensions and this electron transport is demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry. PMID:21832724

Flavel, Benjamin S; Yu, Jingxian; Ellis, Amanda V; Quinton, Jamie S; Shapter, Joseph G

2008-11-01

34

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1990-12-04

35

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

1988-06-17

36

Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

1990-01-01

37

Reduced equations of motion of the interface of dielectric liquids in vertical electric and gravitational fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the interface between two dielectric fluids in the presence of vertical electric and gravitational fields is studied theoretically. It is shown that, in the particular case where the rate of change of the electric field is proportional to the effective gravitational acceleration, a special flow regime can be realized for which the velocity and electric potentials are linearly dependent functions. This means that there exists a frame of reference in which liquids move along the electric field lines. We derive and analyze the corresponding reduced equations of motion of a liquid-liquid interface. For small density ratio, they turn into the equations describing the Laplacian growth. In the case of two spatial dimensions, we show that these equations determine the asymptotic behavior of the system. For arbitrary density ratios, the Laplacian growth equations adequately describe the initial (weakly nonlinear) stage of the interface instability development. The integrability of these equations makes it possible to investigate the evolution of nonlinear waves at the boundary and, in particular, to demonstrate the tendency to the formation of singularities (cusps).

Kochurin, Evgeny A.; Zubarev, Nikolay M.

2012-07-01

38

Liquid flow on a vertical wire in a countercurrent gas flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the wire bundle packing is regarded as a potential alternative to common structured packings in the chemical industry, but until now it is still in prototype stadium and its capability has to be proven. The packing mainly consists of parallel vertical wires that are supplied with liquid separately from a special liquid distributor. To gain insight into

J. Grünig; T. Skale; M. Kraume

2010-01-01

39

Simulation of solid—liquid flows in a vertical pipe by a collision model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional simulation of solid—liquid flows in a vertical pipe was carried out. Trajectories of the particles were obtained using the Lagrangian method with a deterministic interparticle collision model and irregular bouncing of particles off the pipe wall. Local mean velocities of the liquid phase were simulated from the equations of continuity and motion by the SIMPLE scheme taking into account

K. Asakura; T. Asari; I. Nakajima

1997-01-01

40

A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory  

SciTech Connect

Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

2011-11-01

41

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

Bryan, Robert P. (12700 Indian School Rd. NE., Apt. 604, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Esherick, Peter (1105 Sagebrush Trail SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Jewell, Jack L. (12 Timberline Dr., Bridgewater, NJ 08807); Lear, Kevin L. (13713 Vic Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Olbright, Gregory R. (3875 Orange Ct., Boulder, CO 80304)

1997-01-01

42

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

1997-04-29

43

The Dynamic Limits of Specialization: Vertical Integration Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies, largely based in transaction cost economics, approach the issue of vertical scope as the decision of the individual firm about whether to make or buy, given the set of existing markets and well defined vertical segments. However, recent research has shown that the ability to make or buy should not be taken for granted. We argue that this

Eugenia Cacciatori; Michael G. Jacobides

2005-01-01

44

Dry Vertical Alignment Method for Multi-domain Homeotropic Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-domain homeotropic liquid crystal alignment has been recognized as an alignment method to achieve wide viewing angle for thin-film-transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). In the past decade, several types of multi-domain homeotropic TFT-LCDs have been well studied. In all these LCDs, a homeotropic polyimide layer is used to align liquid crystal molecules. In this paper, a new homeotropic alignment method-dry deposition vertical alignment (or vacuum deposition vertical alignment) is introduced. We studied several different vacuum deposited vertical alignment materials and one of them was demonstrated on a high resolution ridge fringe-field multi-domain homeotropic (RFFMH) TFT-LCD@. This new method has advantages over the conventional polyimide alignment method: it simplifies the manufacturing process by avoiding wet chemical processes and improves the viewing angle by reducing light leakage.

Cai, C.; Lien, A.; Andry, P. S.; Chaudhari, P.; John, R. A.; Galligan, E. A.; Lacey, J. A.; Ifill, H.; Graham, W. S.; Allen, R. D.

2001-12-01

45

Surface Instability of Liquid Propellant under Vertical Oscillatory Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid motion in a fuel tank produced during thrust oscillations can circulate sub-cooled hydrogen near the liquid-vapor interface resulting in increased condensation and ullage pressure collapse. The first objective of this study is to validate the capabilities of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, CFD-ACE+, in modeling the fundamental interface transition physics occurring at the propellant surface. The second objective is to use the tool to assess the effects of thrust oscillations on surface dynamics. Our technical approach is to first verify the CFD code against known theoretical solutions, and then validate against existing experiments for small scale tanks and a range of transition regimes. A 2D axisymmetric, multi-phase model of gases, liquids, and solids is used to verify that CFD-ACE+ is capable of modeling fluid-structure interaction and system resonance in a typical thrust oscillation environment. Then, the 3D mode is studied with an assumed oscillatory body force to simulate the thrust oscillating effect. The study showed that CFD modeling can capture all of the transition physics from solid body motion to standing surface wave and to droplet ejection from liquid-gas interface. Unlike the analytical solutions established during the 1960 s, CFD modeling is not limited to the small amplitude regime. It can extend solutions to the nonlinear regime to determine the amplitude of surface waves after the onset of instability. The present simulation also demonstrated consistent trends from numerical experiments through variation of physical properties from low viscous fluid to high viscous fluids, and through variation of geometry and input forcing functions. A comparison of surface wave patterns under various forcing frequencies and amplitudes showed good agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that thrust oscillations can cause droplet formation at the interface, which results in increased surface area and enhanced heat transfer between the liquid and gas phases as the ejected droplets travel well into the warmer gas region.

Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

2011-01-01

46

Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach  

PubMed Central

Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated.

Al Qahtani, Fahd; Abdelaziz, Adel

2014-01-01

47

Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach.  

PubMed

Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated. PMID:24959094

Al Qahtani, Fahd; Abdelaziz, Adel

2014-01-01

48

Effects of Reduced Surface Tension on Liquid Film Structure in Vertical Upward Gas-Liquid Annular Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate experimentally the effects of reduced surface tension on the liquid film structure in vertical-upward air-liquid annular flows in a 19.2 mm i.d. and 5.4 m long circular tube. The test liquid was water and/or a dilute water solution of Polyoxyethylene-Lauryl-Ether, and the surface tension of these liquids ranged from 72 to 45 dyne/cm. The liquid film structure was observed by use of both the still photographs and the maps of time and spatial characteristics of peripheral-mean liquid film thickness detected with a series of 63 liquid holdup sensors each axially 15 mm apart in a constant current method. The parameters studied were the wave heights of the liquid film, the passing frequencies of the waves, the mean value and the standard deviation of the wave velocities, each determined from the liquid film thickness signals through a computer program of signal processing. From the observations of still photographs and the maps of time and spatial characteristics of peripheral-mean liquid film thickness, it was cleared that the liquid film structure depends strongly on the surface tension, i.e., the reduction of surface tension makes the passing of the large waves decrease remarkably, the wave height of the large waves lower like small waves, the passing of the small waves more frequent, and the small wave velocity faster.

Furukawa, Tohru; Matsuyama, Fuminori; Sadatomi, Michio

49

Hydrodynamics of vertical co-current gas-liquid-solid flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A purpose built facility was used to obtain direct measurements of the phase holdups and velocities for gas-liquid-solid mixtures in vertical co-current upflow and downflow. Experiments were carried out by independently varying the flow rates of the gas, liquid and solid phases. The drift flux model was used to describe three-phase flow, and to correlate the data in terms of

R. S. Douek; G. F. Hewitt; A. G. Livingston

1997-01-01

50

Design integration of liquid surface divertors.  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Rensink, M. E. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Smolentsev, S. S. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Rognlien, T. D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Kotschenreuther, M. (University of Texas, Austin, TX); Ulrickson, Michael Andrew; Cowgill, Donald F.; Nelson, B. E. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Hassanein, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Nygren, Richard Einar; Fogarty, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

2003-09-01

51

Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium and sodium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3-D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Nygren, R E; Cowgill, D F; Ulrickson, M A; Nelson, B E; Fogarty, P J; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Hassanein, A; Smolentsev, S S; Kotschenreuther, M

2003-11-13

52

Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

2011-01-01

53

Method of forming vertical gate thin film transistors in liquid crystal array  

SciTech Connect

The patent describes a method of producing an integrated array of liquid crystal pixels and vertical gate think film transistors for charging the pixels. The method comprising the steps of: providing an insulating substrate at least as large as the desired array; forming on the substrate a first layer of a transparent conductive material and a second layer of a semiconducting material; defining and etching the first and second layers to form one element of each liquid crystal pixel with an overlay of semiconducting material. The pixel elements being arranged in a plurality of rows and columns; forming over the substrate and the previously formed elements a third layer, a fourth layer of a semiconducting material, and a fifth layer of a conducting material; defining and etching the second, third, fourth and fifth layers to provide on each pixel element a first element for each transistor formed from the second layer, and a first set of narrow lines from the third, fourth and fifth layers, each narrow line traversing a column of the first transistor elements, each portion of the fifth layer subjacent one of the first transistor elements providing a second transistor element; forming over the substrate and the previously formed elements a sixth layer of at least an insulating material; defining and etching the sixth layer to form insulating areas, each area traversing one of the second transistor elements; forming over the substrate and the previously formed elements a seventh layer of a conductive material insulated from the previously formed elements by the insulating area; defining and etching the seventh layer to form a second set of narrow lines. Wherein each pixel element has an extended portion and the transistor elements are positioned on the respective extended portions.

Busta, H.H.

1989-08-22

54

Undamped inductive switching of integrated quasi-vertical DMOSFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation explores the unclamped inductive switching (UIS) performance and failure mechanisms of 60 V quasi-vertical N-channel DMOSFETs through measurement and numerical device simulation. The non-uniform current distributions that arise inside the DMOS during UIS are analyzed and the effects of local self-heating are investigated

R. Constapel; M. S. Shekar; R. K. Williams

1996-01-01

55

Integrating vertical and horizontal partitioning into automated physical database design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to indexes and materialized views, horizontal and vertical partitioning are important aspects of physical design in a relational database system that significantly impact performance. Horizontal partitioning also provides manageability; database administrators often require indexes and their underlying tables partitioned identically so as to make common operations such as backup\\/restore easier. While partitioning is important, incorporating partitioning makes the

Sanjay Agrawal; Vivek R. Narasayya; Beverly Yang

2004-01-01

56

Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide  

DOEpatents

A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2008-02-26

57

Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR (liquid metal reactor) nuclear reactor units  

SciTech Connect

Seismic isolation has been shown to be able to reduce transmitted seismic force and lower response accelerations of a structure. When applied to nuclear reactors, it will minimize seismic influence on the reactor design and provide a design which is less site dependent. In liquid metal reactors where components are virtually at atmospheric pressure but under severe thermal conditions, thin-walled structures are generally used for primary systems. Thin-walled structures, however, have little inherent seismic resistance. The concept of seismic isolation therefore offers a viable and effective approach that permits the reactor structures to better withstand thermal and seismic loadings simultaneously. The majority of published work on seismic isolation deals with use of horizontal isolation system only. In this investigation, however, local vertical isolation is also provided for the primary system. Such local vertical isolation is found to result in significant benefits for major massive components, such as the reactor cover, designed to withstand vertical motions and loadings. Preliminary estimations on commodity savings of the primary system show that, with additional local vertical isolation, the savings could be twice that estimated for horizontal isolation only. The degree of effectiveness of vertical isolation depends on the diameter of the reactor vessel. As the reactor vessel diameter increases, the vertical seismic effects become more pronounced and vertical isolation can make a significant contribution.

Wu, Ting-shu; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

1988-01-01

58

String field theory vertices, integrability and boundary states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Neumann coefficients of the various vertices in the Witten's open string field theory (SFT). We show that they are not independent, but satisfy an infinite set of algebraic relations. These relations are identified as so-called Hirota identities. Therefore, Neumann coefficients are equal to the second derivatives of tau-function of dispersionless Toda Lattice hierarchy (this tau-function is just the

Alexey Boyarsky; Bogdan Kulik; Oleg Ruchayskiy

2003-01-01

59

Light scattering by surface waves on a vertical layer of liquid toluene.  

PubMed

It is demonstrated that light scattering from surface waves on a vertical liquid layer can be used for the determination of surface tension and kinematic viscosity of the liquid under investigation. In contrast to usual approaches of surface light scattering, a setup is described that enables measurements with the same setup as that with experiments for the determination of other thermophysical properties by light scattering from bulk fluids and without an imposed grating or seed particles. The experiments rely on a heterodyne detection scheme and a signal analysis by photon correlation spectroscopy. First results are presented for toluene over a temperature range from 323 to 483 K at saturation conditions. PMID:18264276

Fröoba, A P; Will, S; Leipertz, A

1997-10-20

60

Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with coupled cavities and with liquid crystal overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perfonn a theoretical linear study of the spectral and polarization threshold characteristics of coupled-cavity Vertical-Surface-E mitting Lasers (CC-VCSEL) and VCSELs with with Liquid Crystal overlay (LC- VCSEL). We show that strong wavelength discrimination can be achieved in CC-VCSELs by slightly detuning the cavities. We also consider the case of reverse-biasing one of the cavities, i.e. using it as a

Krassimir Panajotov; Veena Nair; Mateusz Zujewski; Hugo Thienpont

2011-01-01

61

A features analysis of vertical integration on American television network websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the level of vertical integration on official network television websites. A features analytic method is utilized to assess how the individual television program web pages on these network sites are designed and evaluates the extent to which they integrate various media forms. In this regard, a five item coding scheme is proposed, to draw comparisons across network

Siddhartha Menon

2008-01-01

62

Producibility of Vertically Integrated Photodiode (VIP)tm scanning focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertically integrated photodiode, VIPTM, technology is now being used to produce second generation infrared focal plane arrays with high yields and performance. The VIPTM process employs planar, ion implanted, n on p diodes in HgCdTe which is epoxy hybridized directly to the read out integrated circuits on 100 mm Si wafers. The process parameters that are critical for high performance

Arthur M. Turner; Towfik Teherani; John C. Ehmke; Cindy Pettitt; Peggy Conlon; Jeff D. Beck; Kent McCormack; Luigi Colombo; Tom Lahutsky; Terry Murphy; Robert L. Williams

1994-01-01

63

String Field Theory Vertices for Fermions of Integral Weight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct Witten-type string field theory vertices for a fermionic first order system with conformal weights (0,1) in the operator formulation using delta-function overlap conditions as well as the Neumann function method. The identity, the reflector and the interaction vertex are treated in detail paying attention to the zero mode conditions and the U(1) charge anomaly. The Neumann coefficients for the interaction vertex are shown to be intimately connected with the coefficients for bosons allowing a simple proof that the reparametrization anomaly of the fermionic first order system cancels the contribution of two real bosons. This agrees with their contribution c = -2 to the central charge. The overlap equations for the interaction vertex are shown to hold. Our results have applications in N = 2 string field theory, Berkovits' hybrid formalism for superstring field theory, the etaxi-system and the twisted bc-system used in bosonic vacuum string field theory.

Kling, Alexander; Uhlmann, Sebastian

2003-07-01

64

Vertical integration: hospital ownership of physician practices is associated with higher prices and spending.  

PubMed

We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians-ownership of physician practices-was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured. PMID:24799571

Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

2014-05-01

65

Vertical RF Transition with Mechanical Fit for Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, simulation and measurement of a vertical interconnect with mechanical fit for three-dimensional heterogeneous integration. The mechanical fit is a strategy employing interlocking SU-8 structures to transition between flip-chip style stacked chips through vertical CPW transmission lines. The mechanical fit is introduced in this paper to reduce flip-chip alignment difficulty and increase the reliability of the

Lihan Chen; Joe Wood; Sanjay Raman; N. Scott Barker

2008-01-01

66

Through-Silicon-Via Copper Deposition for Vertical Chip Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through-silicon-via (TSV) interconnection can provide the shortest and most plentiful connections with reduced signal delay and power consumption. Void-free copper filling within high aspect ratio vias is one of the key technologies to make TSV chip integration manufacturable and reliable. After investigating the impacts of varying deposition conditions on the copper filling within high aspect ratio vias, we found that

Bioh Kim

67

Integrated shell approach to vertical position control on PBX-M  

SciTech Connect

The PBX-M device produces highly shaped discharges that, because of the negative external magnetic field decay index required, are vertically unstable. Vertical positional stability in PBX-M has been achieved by directly controlling the n = 0 component of the eddy current in the passive shell instead of the commonly used function of magnetic flux signals. Because the active coil is controlled via currents in the passive shell we call this an ``integrated shell`` approach to vertical position control. We present results of these experiments and make comparisons between the two methods of control.

Hatcher, R.E.; Okabayashi, M.

1995-03-01

68

Experimental investigation of the local heat transfer in a vertical gas-liquid slug unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer mechanism in two-phase flows and particularly in vertical slug flow is of high interest both for basic hydrodynamic research and for industrial applications. Two-phase slug flow is highly complicated and only a limited number of heat transfer studies have been carried out. The flow field around a single Taylor bubble propagating in a vertical pipe can be subdivided into three distinct hydrodynamic regions: the gas bubble surrounded by a thin liquid film, a highly turbulent liquid wake in the vicinity of the bubble bottom, and the far wake region. Experimental and theoretical works were presented during the last decades investigating the hydrodynamic parameters in each region. Due to the complexity and intermittent nature of slug flow the existing data on the heat transfer in slug flow is limited to a narrow range of operational conditions. To improve the understanding of the heat transfer mechanism in slug flow a new experimental setup was constructed. A part of the vertical pipe wall was replaced by a thin metal foil heated by electrical current. An IR video camera was used to determine the temporal variation of the instantaneous temperature field along the foil at two locations: at the thermal entrance region and at the upper part of the foil where thermal boundary is thicker. The video camera was synchronized with a sensor that determined the instantaneous location of the Taylor bubble. The results of the instantaneous heat transfer measurements along the liquid film and in the wake of the Taylor bubble can be correlated with the detailed velocity measurements carried out in the same facility (Shemer et al. 2007)[1]. The effect of the local hydrodynamic parameters on the heat transfer coefficient in each region is examined.

Babin, Valery; Shemer, Lev; Barnea, Dvora

2012-03-01

69

Steady-state design of vertical wells for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills.  

PubMed

The rate at which liquids can be added to a vertical well, the lateral zone of impact of the well, and the liquids volume needed to wet the waste within the zone of impact of the well are the key inputs needed to design a vertical well system. This paper presents design charts that can be used to estimate these inputs as a function of municipal solid waste properties (porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and anisotropy ratio), well dimensions (radius and screen length), and injection pressure. SEEP/W modeling was conducted to estimate the key design inputs for a range of conditions practically encountered for a vertical well installed in landfilled waste. The flow rate, lateral zone of impact of a well, liquids volume added, and injection pressure were normalized with the waste properties and well dimensions to formulate dimensionless variables. A series of design charts were created to present dimensionless steady-state flow rate, lateral zone of impact, and the dimensionless liquid volume needed to reach a steady-state condition, as a function of dimensionless input variables. By using dimensionless variables formulated for this work, these charts permit the user to estimate the steady-state design variables described above for a wide range of configurations and conditions beyond those simulated without the need for further modeling. The results of the study suggest that the lateral extent of the well can be estimated using Darcy's equation and assuming saturated unit-gradient vertical flow regime below the well bottom. An example problem is presented to illustrate the use of the design charts. The scenario described in the example problem was also modeled with SEEP/W, and the results were compared with those obtained from the design charts to demonstrate the validity of design charts for scenarios other than those used for the development of the design charts. The methodology presented in this paper should be thought of as a means to provide a set of bounds that an engineer can use along with their judgment in the design of a system for a specific site. PMID:20304622

Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

2010-11-01

70

COD measurement based on the integrated liquid drop sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measuring method is reported, in which the COD value is measured by an integrated liquid drop monitor sensor without any reagent and chemical treatment. The integrated drop sensor consists of a liquid head, an integrated fiber sensor and a capacitor sensor. The capacitor sensor is composed of a drop head and a ring electrode. As the part of the drop head, the outline of the drop will be changed during the drop forming, which result in the variation of the capacitance. The fiber sensor is composed of two fibers that are positioned into the liquid drop. The light signal goes into the liquid drop from one fiber and out from the other one. A unique fingerprint of the liquid drop can be got by the data processing. The matching between the COD value of a liquid and the codes of the fingerprints in the database are presented and discussed.

Qiu, Zurong; Zhang, Guoxiong; Song, Qing; Xu, Jian

2005-02-01

71

Study on the natural circulation characteristics of the integral type reactor for vertical and inclined conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics during natural circulation in an integral type marine reactor, basic single-phase natural circulation experiments were performed using scaled test facilities of the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), and the RETRAN-03\\/INT code was developed. For both vertical and inclined conditions, the flow distribution through eight steam generator cassettes and thermal mixing in downcomer regions were observed.

Jae-Hak Kim; Tae-Wan Kim; Sang-Min Lee; Goon-Cherl Park

2001-01-01

72

Impact of the capillary fringe in vertically integrated models for CO2 storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates vertically integrated equilibrium models for CO2 storage. We pay particular attention to the importance of including the effect of fine-scale capillary forces in the integrated equations. This aspect has been neglected in previous work, where the fluids are segregated by a sharp interface. Our results show that the fine-scale capillary forces lead to qualitative and quantitative alterations

J. M. Nordbotten; H. K. Dahle

2011-01-01

73

Solid-liquid-vapor metal-catalyzed etching of lateral and vertical nanopores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etching is an essential tool for the creation of nanostructures, where patterned metal structures can be used as masks. Here, we investigate HCl gas etching of InP substrates decorated with Au nanoparticles, and find that the etch rate is strongly increased at the Au-InP interfaces. The {111}A facets of the InP are preferentially etched. The metal nanoparticles follow in the etch direction, thereby creating nanopores. The size and position of the pores is controlled by the Au nanoparticles, and we measure nanopores as thin as 20 nm with an aspect ratio of 25:1. The direction of the nanopores is influenced by the temperature and the substrate orientation, which we use to demonstrate lateral, vertical and inclined nanopores. We explain the process by a solid-liquid-vapor model, in which the liquid metal particle catalyzes the dissolution of the solid InP.

Wallentin, Jesper; Deppert, Knut; Borgström, Magnus T.

2013-10-01

74

A complementary bipolar technology family with a Vertically Integrated PNP for high-frequency analog applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon complementary bipolar processes offer the possibility of realizing high-performance circuits for a variety of analog applications. This paper presents a summary of silicon complementary bipolar process technology reported in recent years. Specifically, an overview of a family of silicon complementary bipolar process technologies, called Vertically Integrated PNP (VIPTMI) which have been used for the realization of high-frequency analog circuits

Rashid Bashir; François Hébert; Joseph DeSantis; Joel M. McGregor; Wipawan Yindeepol; Kevin Brown; Farhood Moraveji; Thomas B. Mills; Alexei Sadovnikov; James McGinty; Peter Hopper; Robert Sabsowitz; Mohamed Khidr; Tracey Krakowski; Linda Smith; Reda Razouk

2001-01-01

75

Measuring the impact of vertical integration on response times in ethernet fieldbuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of Ethernet and Internet technologies in the fieldbuses of automation systems widely facilitates vertical integration. Control functions can coexist more easily with higher level functions such as supervision, production reporting or maintenance. But what does the response time of the control function become when architecture components -e.g. controllers, remote input-output modules or fieldbuses -are requested in parallel by

Bruno Denis; Silvain Ruel; Jean-Marc Faure; G. Marsal; Georg Frey

2007-01-01

76

VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

77

Milk and milk processing industry in Lithuania: an analysis of horizontal and vertical integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant progress in recent years, horizontal and vertical integration of the Lithuanian milk sector is not very much advanced. The primary sector is characterised by small-scale farming, the fragmentation of farmland and a low number of livestock per farms. These features cause severe problems regarding the restructuring and modernisation of agricultural production since only a few farmers possess the

Angele Kedaitiene; Heinrich Hockmann

2002-01-01

78

Analysing pollution by way of vertically integrated coefficients, with an application to the water sector in Aragon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we adopt Pasinetti's approach of vertically integrated sectors in order to disaggregate pollution into its most significant components. Vertical integration allows us to obtain five components (and at least five measurement indices) corresponding to each sector and each type of pollution. These indices overcome some of the deficiencies of the traditional Rasmussen-type coefficients. The empirical application is

R. Duarte

2003-01-01

79

Integrated Photoelectrochemical Cell and System Having a Liquid Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC syst...

L. Xu Y. Deng

2005-01-01

80

Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. PMID:24965261

Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yue, Weisheng; Guo, Zaibing; Li, Liang; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xianbin; Abutaha, Anas I; Alshareef, H N; Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, X X

2014-07-10

81

Fast Evaluating the Electromagnetic Fields Generated by a Vertical Electric Dipole Over the Lossy Ground Using Sommerfeld Integral Without Truncation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic fields generated by a vertical electric dipole, expressed in the form of the Sommerfeld integral, are important in the study of lightning. In this paper, an algorithm, which can analytically approximate the Sommerfeld tail integral, is proposed. Due to the fact that the tail integral is expressed by a sum of several error functions, the tail integral of

Jaebok Lee; Jun Zou; Jing Wan; Sughun Chang

2011-01-01

82

Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis.

Thompson, H.G. [Christensen Associates, Madison, WI (United States); Islam, M.; Rose, K.

1996-01-01

83

Intra-industry differences in vertical integration, heterogeneous costs and pricing: the case of web hosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many differentiated product industries, both traditional and “new economy” activities, vertically integrated firms also\\u000a supply inputs to apparent rivals in the downstream business. This generates heterogeneity between low- and high-sunk cost\\u000a suppliers with implications for entry and competitive conduct. The web hosting market is typical with primary suppliers operating\\u000a alongside resellers who rent server space from them. We explore

Michael S. Thompson; Steve Thompson

2008-01-01

84

A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.  

PubMed

A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity. PMID:24863393

Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

2014-07-01

85

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Liquid Drop Dynamics Within Unsaturated Vertical Hele-Shaw Cells  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional, multiphase fluid flow model with volume of fluid-interface tracking was developed and applied to study the multiphase dynamics of moving liquid drops of different sizes within vertical Hele-Shaw cells. The simulated moving velocities are significantly different from those obtained from a first-order analytical approximation, based on simple force-balance concepts. The simulation results also indicate that the moving drops can exhibit a variety of shapes and that the transition among these different shapes is largely determined by the moving velocities. More important, there is a transition from a linear moving regime at small capillary numbers, in which the capillary number scales linearly with the Bond number, to a nonlinear moving regime at large capillary numbers, in which the moving drop releases a train of droplets from its trailing edge. The train of droplets forms a variety of patterns at different moving velocities.

Hai Huang; Paul Meakin

2008-03-01

86

Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children.

2010-01-01

87

The mechanism for the formation of slug flow in vertical gas liquid two-phase flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the mechanism for the formation of a slug flow in vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow. By analyzing void fraction waves and their instability, it is proved that the formation of a slug flow regime is due to the increase of void fraction waves, which causes the conglomeration of gas bubbles and the coalescence of bubble clusters in unstable bubbly flow. Experiments and analysis show that intense turbulence can restrain the formation of Taylor bubbles. Therefore, in a large diameter vertical pipe, a Taylor bubble can form under a condition of low continuous volume flux due to the action of void fraction waves. However, the coalescence effect of void fraction waves as it affects bubbles is suppressed in high continuous volume flux, and therefore, a slug flow regime cannot be observed in the evolution of flow patterns. Under a condition of high continuous volume flux ( VL=0.15 m/s) described in the paper, the flow pattern evolution is from cap bubbly flow to cap churn flow, and then gradually to churn flow with the increase of void fraction.

Sun, Baojiang; Wang, Ruihe; Zhao, Xinxin; Yan, Dachun

2002-12-01

88

Vertical alignment of liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropy on an inorganic thin film with a hydrophilic surface.  

PubMed

The vertical alignment of liquid crystals having negative dielectric anisotropy on an amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO(x)) thin film is the consequence of the anisotropic interaction between liquid crystals and a-SiO(x) thin films. To investigate the mechanism of the vertical alignment, we changed the physicochemical characteristics of alignment layers by controlling the composition, since the anisotropic interaction depends on the nature of both liquid crystals and an alignment layer. The variation of composition gives rise to a change in the polarizability, which is a simple measure of induced-dipole strength at the surface of the alignment layer. There is a critical transition point from planar to vertical alignment of liquid crystals, and it is the long-range van der Waals interaction that is responsible for the vertical alignment. The competition between long-range van der Waals interaction and short-range dipolar interaction were investigated and analyzed in terms of the interfacial energy between liquid crystals and an alignment layer. PMID:19415912

Hwang, Byoung Har; Ahn, Han Jin; Rho, Soon Joon; Chae, Soo Sang; Baik, Hong Koo

2009-07-21

89

Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (V(out)) versus input (V(in)) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately 45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. PMID:19940239

Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M

2009-12-15

90

Integral transformations of deflections of the vertical onto satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of geodetic satellite missions mapping almost globally the Earth's gravitational field, new methods and theoretical approaches have been developed and investigated to fully exploit the potential of their new observables. Besides estimating values of numerical coefficients in harmonic series of the gravitational potential, new applications emerged such as data validation and combination. In this contribution, new integral transformations are presented which transform principal components of the terrestrial deflection of the vertical onto disturbing satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data at altitude. Using spherical approximation, necessary integral kernel functions are derived in both spectral and closed forms. The behaviour of isotropic kernel functions is studied and the new integral transformations are tested in a closed-loop simulation using synthetic terrestrial and satellite data synthesized from a global gravitational model. New integral transformations can be used for data validation and combination purposes.

Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

2014-03-01

91

Integral transformations of deflections of the vertical onto satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of geodetic satellite missions mapping almost globally the Earth's gravitational field, new methods and theoretical approaches have been developed and investigated to fully exploit the potential of their new observables. Besides estimating values of numerical coefficients in harmonic series of the gravitational potential, new applications emerged such as data validation and combination. In this contribution, new integral transformations are presented which transform principal components of the terrestrial deflection of the vertical onto disturbing satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data at altitude. Using spherical approximation, necessary integral kernel functions are derived in both spectral and closed forms. The behaviour of isotropic kernel functions is studied and the new integral transformations are tested in a closed-loop simulation using synthetic terrestrial and satellite data synthesized from a global gravitational model. New integral transformations can be used for data validation and combination purposes.

Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

2014-07-01

92

A study of gas bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality observations of mesoscopic gas bubbles in liquid metal are vital for a further development of pyrometallurgical gas injection reactors. However, the opacity of metals enforces the use of indirect imaging techniques with limited temporal or spatial resolution. In addition, accurate interface tracking requires tomography which further complicates the design of a high-temperature experimental setup. In this paper, an alternative approach is suggested that circumvents these two main restrictions. By injecting gas in a thin layer of liquid metal entrapped between two flat and closely spaced plates, bubbles in a Hele-Shaw flow regime are generated. The resulting quasi-2D multiphase flow phenomena can be fully captured from a single point of view and, when using a non-wetted transparent plate material, the bubbles can be observed directly. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by observations on buoyancy-driven nitrogen bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. By using a moving high-speed camera to make continuous close up recordings of individual bubbles, the position and geometry of these bubbles are quantified with a high resolution along their entire path. After a thorough evaluation of the experimental accuracy, this information is used for a detailed analysis of the bubble expansion along the path. While the observed bubble growth is mainly caused by the hydrostatic pressure gradient, a careful assessment of the volume variations for smaller bubbles shows that an accurate bubble description should account for significant dynamic pressure variations that seem to be largely regime dependent.

Klaasen, B.; Verhaeghe, F.; Blanpain, B.; Fransaer, J.

2014-01-01

93

Demonstration of heterogeneous III-V/Si integration with a compact optical vertical interconnect access.  

PubMed

Heterogeneous III-V/Si integration with a compact optical vertical interconnect access is fabricated and the light coupling efficiency between the III-V/Si waveguide and the silicon nanophotonic waveguide is characterized. The III-V semiconductor material is directly bonded to the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and etched to form the III-V/Si waveguide for a higher light confinement in the active region. The compact optical vertical interconnect access is formed through tapering a III-V and an SOI layer in the same direction. The measured III-V/Si waveguide has a light coupling efficiency above ~90% to the silicon photonic layer with the tapering structure. This heterogeneous and light coupling structure can provide an efficient platform for photonic systems on chip, including passive and active devices. PMID:24322256

Ng, Doris Keh Ting; Wang, Qian; Pu, Jing; Lim, Kim Peng; Wei, Yongqiang; Wang, Yadong; Lai, Yicheng; Ho, Seng Tiong

2013-12-15

94

Path Integral Simulations of Liquid Helium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monte Carlo path integral methods have now been used to reproduce most of the non-dynamic properties of normal and superfluid helium in two and three dimensions in good agreement with experiment. Most of these properties can be related to simple geometric...

R. Pollock

1989-01-01

95

Post-acute care and vertical integration after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.  

PubMed

The anticipated changes resulting from the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act-including the proposed adoption of bundled payment systems and the promotion of accountable care organizations-have generated considerable controversy as U.S. healthcare industry observers debate whether such changes will motivate vertical integration activity. Using examples of accountable care organizations and bundled payment systems in the American post-acute healthcare sector, this article applies economic and sociological perspectives from organization theory to predict that as acute care organizations vary in the degree to which they experience environmental uncertainty, asset specificity, and network embeddedness, their motivation to integrate post-acute care services will also vary, resulting in a spectrum of integrative behavior. PMID:23424816

Shay, Patrick D; Mick, Stephen S

2013-01-01

96

Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

2012-01-01

97

Effects of three-dimensional polymer networks in vertical alignment liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field.  

PubMed

Polymer network in vertical alignment liquid crystal cell driven by in-plane field (VA-IPS) is formed in three dimensions to achieve fast response time and to keep the liquid crystal alignment even when an external pressure is applied to the cell. The network formed by UV irradiation to vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with reactive mesogen does not disturb a dark state while exhibiting very fast decaying response time less than 2ms in all grey scales and almost zero pooling mura. The proposed device has a strong potential to be applicable to field sequential display owing to super-fast response time and flexible display owing to polymer network in bulk which supports a gap between two substrates. PMID:24921764

Lim, Young Jin; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Gi-Dong; Komitov, Lachezar; Lee, Seung Hee

2014-05-01

98

Incomplete vertical integration in the health care industry: pseudomarkets and pseudopolicies.  

PubMed

Most economic relationships are either arm's-length exchange transactions, each party seeking his or her own interest, or command structures, such as a firm or public agency, integrating joint efforts toward a common goal. The health care industry, however, displays a pattern of incomplete vertical integration--relationships which are neither truly arm's-length nor completely hierarchical. The doctor-patient relationship is archetypical. Physicians appear to sell services in private markets; yet they reach through the exchange process to direct the consumer-patient's utilization decisions, implicity undertaking to act in the patient's interest, and thus integrate forward. But they also integrate backward to control the public regulatory process--self-government--and some forms of insurance. The health care systems of different countries--Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States--can be interpreted as different patterns of incomplete integration among five basic classes of transactors: consumer-patients, first-line providers, second-line providers, insurers, and governments. Each system of linkage has characteristic strengths and weaknesses. Nowhere, however, do we find a predominance of arm's-length market relationships. Where they exist, markets in health care are usually pseudomarkets dominated by one side of the transaction. The rhetoric of market relationships serves principally to obscure political struggles over shifting patterns of integration. PMID:10261430

Evans, R G

1983-07-01

99

Treatment efficiency of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland for saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) was simulated with three suits of designed experiment columns planted\\u000a with Kandelia candel. Units A, B and C were irrigated with sewage of different salinity (A: 10‰ B: 20‰, C: 30‰), respectively. The removal rates\\u000a of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), NH3-N and NO3\\u000a ?-N dropped 90.4%–48.6%, 80.2%–40.3% and 84.8%–60.9%, respectively, when salinity increases from

Qishuo Wang; Lei Yang; Zhenbin Wu

2010-01-01

100

Performance and Transient Behavior of Vertically Integrated Thin-film Silicon Sensors  

PubMed Central

Vertical integration of amorphous hydrogenated silicon diodes on CMOS readout chips offers several advantages compared to standard CMOS imagers in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range and dark current while at the same time introducing some undesired transient effects leading to image lag. Performance of such sensors is here reported and their transient behaviour is analysed and compared to the one of corresponding amorphous silicon test diodes deposited on glass. The measurements are further compared to simulations for a deeper investigation. The long time constant observed in dark or photocurrent decay is found to be rather independent of the density of defects present in the intrinsic layer of the amorphous silicon diode.

Wyrsch, Nicolas; Choong, Gregory; Miazza, Clement; Ballif, Christophe

2008-01-01

101

Path Integral Monte Carlo Simulation of Isotopic Liquid Helium Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results of a path integral Monte Carlo simulation of a liquid 3He- 4He mixture at low temperature. In the limit of low 3He concentration, a kinetic energy of 17 K is found for the 3He atoms; the 3He effective mass is m* = 2.3m. The restricted path integral Monte Carlo method was utilized to investigate the separation of

Massimo Boninsegni; David M. Ceperley

1995-01-01

102

Image positions of a vertical rod in a liquid-filled cylindrical container  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a rather simple optical experiment, which many students can easily carry out, but the theoretical explanation of which requires far-from-simple mathematical analysis and application of numerical methods. A thin vertical rod, partially immersed in a liquid-filled transparent cylindrical container, is moved from the centre toward the wall and observed laterally. As it moves, the part seen through the air and the part seen through the water start to separate, so that at a certain distance from the centre the lower part of the rod becomes invisible. We show that this happens at the distance for which the refracted ray that reaches the observer's eye is along the tangent to the surface of a cylinder. We derive the expression for this distance as a function of the index of refraction and ratio d/r, where d is the distance of the observer from the surface and r is the radius of the container. The locus of image positions is determined by evaluating the intersections of pairs of close rays from the rod which reach the observer's eye after refraction at the surface of the container.

Davidovi?, Milena; Boži?, Mirjana; Sliško, Josip; Gaji?, Radoš; Dragovi?, Magdalena

2014-03-01

103

Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

2006-01-01

104

Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte  

DOEpatents

An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Xu, Liwei (Sylvania, OH)

2010-07-06

105

Sensing Liquids with an Integrated Silica Fiber THz Resonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our integrated silica fiber resonator was developed as a very effective way to perform X-Y sex discrimination for spermatozoa bovine semen, but it can also perform as a general purpose device for THz permittivity measurements on very small liquid samples or water dispersed cell material, thus covering a very wide range of applications ranging from biosensing to organic and inorganic

F. Voltolina; A. Khromova; P. H Bolívar

2012-01-01

106

Vertical transitions between transmission lines and waveguides in multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present two vertical transitions, in multilayer LCP substrates for millimeter wave (mmW) imaging application. The first transition is from conductor-backed co-planar waveguide (CBCPW) to strip line, and the second one connects CBCPW to substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). The multilayer structure consists of three LCP layers and four metal claddings. The CBCPW is designed on the top LCP layer, the strip line is sandwiched by the top and middle layers, and the SIW is built within the middle and bottom layers. Micro vias construct the side wall for the SIW, and electrically connect the transmission lines and waveguides. Both of the transitions perform low loss and low reflection at 77 GHz. They can efficiently connect the passive and active components in the front-end RF module of our mmW imager. Additionally, they may have promising application in high-performance systems, requiring high density, low size, weight, and power (SWaP).

Zhang, Yifei; Shi, Shouyuan; Martin, Rick D.; Prather, Dennis W.

2014-03-01

107

Development of long-wavelength avalanche photodiodes and vertical-cavity lasers for epitaxial integration as a vertical-cavity photon number amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research was to develop technology for building a vertical-geometry photon number amplifier (vertical PNA) that operates at a wavelength in the low-absorption window for optical fibers near 1.55 mum. An optical amplifier of this design would provide electrically-tappable low-noise polarization-independent optical amplification of laser pulses and serve as a stepping stone toward development of a tunable amplifying wavelength converter. The vertical PNA design consists of a multiple active region (MAR) VCSEL integrated with an avalanche photodiode of the separate absorption, charge, and multiplication layer design (SACM APD): the VCSEL is intended to operate continuous wave (CW), modulated by the APD. Both components were selected for their high gain: in excess of 10 electrons out per photon in for the APD, and slightly more than 1 photon out per electron in for the MAR VCSEL under ideal circumstances. In working toward the vertical PNA, significant technical challenges were addressed: (1) Development of a long-wavelength MAR VCSEL capable of high-temperature CW operation. Although this goal was never achieved, efforts directed to this end resulted in an investigation of basic material science issues that are vital to future improvements of the device. Better DBR and active region designs were developed, the overall thermal impedance of the structure was reduced significantly, a rudimentary optical aperture compatible with InP-based materials was tested, and loss estimates for the device were put on solid ground. (2) Development of a low-noise SACM APD capable of modulating the MAR VCSEL at high speed. Here the vital relationships between growth conditions, material quality, and APD performance were established. Other achievements include demonstration of highly uniform arrays of these devices, extremely low-noise operation, and the largest area long-wavelength APDs ever reported. (3) Successful demonstration of the epitaxial integration of these two components as a functional vertical PNA. Without a MAR VCSEL capable of CW operation, a functional vertical PNA cannot be built. Nonetheless, functional APDs and VCSELs (under pulsed operation) were separately demonstrated on vertical PNA wafers, as was a basic integration scheme.

Huntington, Andrew Sumika

108

Experimental investigation of inclined liquid water jet flow onto vertically located superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the behaviour of an inclined water jet, which is impinged onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, has been investigated experimentally. Water jet was impinged with different inclination angles (15°-45°) onto five different hydrophobic surfaces made of rough polymer, which were held vertically. The water contact angles on these surfaces were measured as 102°, 112°, 123°, 145° and 167° showing that the last surface was superhydrophobic. Two different nozzles with 1.75 and 4 mm in diameters were used to create the water jet. Water jet velocity was within the range of 0.5-5 m/s, thus the Weber number varied from 5 to 650 and Reynolds number from 500 to 8,000 during the experiments. Hydrophobic surfaces reflected the liquid jet depending on the surface contact angle, jet inclination angle and the Weber number. The variation of the reflection angle with the Weber number showed a maximum value for a constant jet angle. The maximum value of the reflection angle was nearly equal to half of the jet angle. It was determined that the viscous drag decreases as the contact angle of the hydrophobic surface increases. The drag force on the wall is reduced dramatically with superhydrophobic surfaces. The amount of reduction of the average shear stress on the wall was about 40%, when the contact angle of the surface was increased from 145° to 167°. The area of the spreading water layer decreased as the contact angle of the surface increased and as the jet inclination angle, Weber number and Reynolds number decreased.

Kibar, Ali; Karabay, Hasan; Yi?it, K. Süleyman; Ucar, Ikrime O.; Erbil, H. Y?ld?r?m

2010-11-01

109

Transmitted Light Enhancement of Electric-Field-Controlled Multidomain Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal Displays Using Circular Polarizers and a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed two new optical configurations to improve the light transmittance of a fringing-field-controlled multidomain vertically aligned liquid crystal display (FEF-MVA-LCD). We show that, by using a MVA-LC panel sandwiched between two circular polarizers, improvement of the maximum transmittance by more than 30% is achieved in comparison to the transmittance of a conventional panel configuration using two linear polarizers.

Yoshihisa Iwamoto; Yasufumi Iimura

2003-01-01

110

Vertical Disintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

With economies of scale, a vertically integrated firm can lower its upstream cost by supplying downstream competitors. The competitors may strategically choose not to purchase from the integrated firm, unless the latter's price for the intermediate good is sufficiently lower than those of alternative suppliers. In a simple model of dynamic scale economies through learning by doing, equilibrium vertical disintegration

Yongmin Chen

2005-01-01

111

Analysis of Annular Liquid-Gas Flow with Entrainment: Cocurrent Vertical Flow in an Annulus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two-phase (gas-liquid) flow in complex geometries is of great importance to nuclear reactors. Predictions of the gas-liquid velocity and distributions are lacking for such complex flow channels. Solutions have been developed for gas-liquid flow in an annu...

J. M. Healzer S. Levy

1980-01-01

112

Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, we report all-silicon, integrated optofluidic microsystems (OFMs) fabricated by electrochemical micromachining (ECM) technology, in which high aspect-ratio (HAR) photonic crystal (PhC) devices (i.e. micromirrors, optical cavities) are integrated by one-etching-step, together with microfluidic reservoirs/channels, for the infiltration of liquids in the PhC air gaps, and with fiber grooves for alignment/positioning of readout optical fibers in front of the PhC, on the same silicon die. This has not previously been reported in the literature, and opens up new ground in, though not limited to, the optofluidics field, due to the low-cost and high-flexibility of the ECM technology that allows optofluidic microsystem fabrication to be performed in any lab. Optofluidic characterization of PhC-OFMs by both capillary-action and pressure-driven operations is carried out through the measurement of the reflectivity spectra of HAR-PhCs upon injection of liquids featuring different refractive index values in the HAR-PhC air gaps, by using readout optical fibers positioned in the on-chip fiber grooves. High sensitivity and good limit of detection of PhC-OFMs are obtained for both capillary-action and pressure-driven operations. A best sensitivity value of 670 nm/RIU and a worst-case limit of detection of the order of 10(-3) RIU are measured, the former being comparable to state-of-the-art integrated refractive index sensors and the latter being limited by constraints of the experimental setup. The proof of concept about the biosensing potential of PhC-OFMs is given by successfully carrying out a sandwich assay based on antigen-antibody interactions for the detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP) at a concentration value of 10 mg L(-1), which represents the boundary level between physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:22930245

Surdo, S; Merlo, S; Carpignano, F; Strambini, L M; Trono, C; Giannetti, A; Baldini, F; Barillaro, G

2012-11-01

113

GAS-LIQUID-PHASE HEAT TRANSFER ON VERTICAL-TUBE BAFFLES IN MECHANICALLY-AGITATED VESSELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of heat transfer coefficients has been carried out in mechanically agitated air-water dispersions to and from vertical tubes acting as baffles in addition to heat exchange surface in a vertical cylindrical tank. Air was dispersed into water, which served as a two-phase fluid. Agitation was provided by a dual, 4-blade turbine impeller. A modified Reynolds number has

MAJID SALIM

1983-01-01

114

From puddling to heaping to cracking - ordered and disordered reliefs in vertically vibrated liquid-saturated granular material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical vibrations are known to induce patterning instabilities in various fluid and fluid-like systems. Well known examples include the Faraday instability in viscous and nonviscous fluids and the patterned relief observed in dry granular systems. We study the instabilities of flat layers of granular material saturated with interstitial liquid and bounded above by an air interface. Increasing acceleration amplitude leads first to the accumulation of puddles of liquid on the surface as the grains compact, followed by a transition to a convection-driven heaping relief. This heaping phenomenon bears similarity to that observed in a granular system in a completely aqueous environment.^1 However, our system is quite different due to the air interface and because we study relatively thin layers of granular material, 20-50 diameters high, rather than hundreds of diameters in thickness. While the heaping relief we observe is generally disordered, under some conditions heaps arrange themselves into a robust and regular pattern. Heaps break up at higher drive accelerations, and the hilly relief gives way to cracking and violent breakup. We report on the phase portrait in critical acceleration versus frequency for the transitions to heaping and to cracking. ^1 V.G. Kozlov, A.A. Ivanova, and P. Evesque. Sand behavior in a cavity with incompressible liquid under vertical vibrations. Europhysics Lett. 42, 413-418 (1998).

Schleier-Smith, J. M.; Stone, H. A.

1999-11-01

115

Vertical Liquid Crystal Orientation on Amorphous Tantalum Pentoxide Surfaces Depending on Anisotropic Dipole--Dipole Interaction via Ion Beam Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We achieved vertically aligned (VA) liquid crystals (LCs) on amorphous tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) alignment films deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering using ion beam (IB) irradiation. By analyzing measurements by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we confirmed the bond breaking, as detected from the O 1s spectra, which caused an isotropic dipole--dipole interaction between the LC molecules and the Ta2O5 alignment film to uniformly align the vertical LC molecular orientation as a function of IB energy density. Moreover, by examining the electro-optical (EO) characteristics of the Ta2O5 surfaces compared with those of the polyimide (PI) alignment layer, we confirmed that Ta2O5 has a low threshold voltage and a low power consumption when used as an LC alignment layer.

Lee, Jong-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kang, Young-Gu; Kim, Young-Hwan; Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Seo, Dae-Shik

2011-03-01

116

Fabrication of high-efficiency heterogeneous Si/III-V integration with short optical vertical interconnect access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon nanophotonic platform based on a silicon-on-insulator substrate enables dense photonic integration due to transparency for light propagation and ultra-high refractive index contrast for light confinement. Here, we integrate silicon together with III-V for high-efficiency heterogeneous Silicon/III-V and short vertical optical interconnect access. The fabrication involves 3 critical processes: 1) obtaining more than 80% maximum bonded areas of Si with III-V, 2) precise alignment of III-V nano-devices on top of the passive devices and 3) vertical sidewall etch profile of Si and III-V devices. The measurement results show around 90% coupling efficiency. The realization of this heterogeneous Si/III-V integration platform will open up enormous opportunities for photonic system on silicon through integrating various devices.

Ng, Doris K. T.; Pu, Jing; Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim-Peng; Wei, Yongqiang; Wang, Yadong; Lai, Yicheng; Ho, Seng-Tiong

2013-03-01

117

Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of ?-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

118

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

1982-01-01

119

Vertical dipole antenna above a lossy half-space: Efficient and accurate two-image approximation for the Sommerfeld's integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, simple and general model for near field numerical calculation of the Sommerfeld's integral kernel (SIK) that corresponds to introduction of two fictitious images is proposed in this paper. Applying this model, the unknown current distribution (UCD) and input impedance of the vertical dipole antenna (VDA) placed above linear, isotropic and homogenous lossy half-space are determined. For this purpose,

Milica P. Ran?i?; Predrag D. Ran?i?

2006-01-01

120

Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a pilot study conducted with last year occupational and physical therapy students. The study tested the benefits of vertical integration with anatomy courses and case studies in this population. Improvements in knowledge and retention were identified. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Suresh Parmar (Christian Medical College Anatomy); Bertha Rathinam (Christian Medical College Anatomy)

2011-05-10

121

Tight integration of GPS observations and persistent scatterer InSAR for detecting vertical ground motion in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for tightly integrating GPS observations and the persistent scatterer (PS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is proposed to detect vertical ground motion in Hong Kong, China. The tropospheric zenith wet delays (ZWD) derived from GPS observations at sites in the SAR scenes are used first to model and correct for the tropospheric effects in the interferograms generated from

Qiang Chen; Guoxiang Liu; Xiaoli Ding; Jyr-Ching Hu; Linguo Yuan; Ping Zhong; M. Omura

2010-01-01

122

Vertically Aligned InP Nanowires Grown via the Self-Assisted Vapor--Liquid--Solid Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the growth of vertical InP nanowires via the self-assisted vapor--liquid--solid mode on an InP(111) substrate. Single nanowires exhibit a highly uniform diameter along the axial direction despite their 15 ?m length. We show direct evidence of the self-assisted growth mode by performing a compositional analysis of the NW tip. We demonstrated that the In particle at the NW tip could be removed by modifying the V/III source material ratio during growth. Single InP nanowires exhibit a distinct TO phonon peak and show the luminescence of the excitonic emission at 4 K.

Zhang, Guoqiang; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

2012-05-01

123

Monitoring reactor vessel liquid level with a vertical string of self-powered neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in in-core self-powered neutron detector signals, recorded during a nuclear loss of coolant accident (LOCA) simulation, have been correlated with liquid level changes that occurred during the core uncovery and recovery events. The correlations indicate that these detectors can be used to monitor reactor vessel liquid level during a LOCA. A display and alarm system using these detectors to

J. P. Adams; V. T. Berta

1984-01-01

124

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the executive summary of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

125

Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

126

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

127

Study on effect of liquid level on the heat leak into vertical cryogenic vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diminishing of heat leak into cryogenic vessels can prolong the storage time of cryogenic liquid. With the storage of cryogenic liquid reducing, the heat leak decreases, while the actual storage time increases. Compared with the theoretical analysis, the numerical simulation can more accurately calculate the heat transfer and temperature distribution in the vessel with complex structure. In this paper the steady state heat leak into cryogenic vessels with different liquid level height is analyzed using a finite element model. And liquid nitrogen boil-off method was adopted in experiments to validate the result of numerical simulation. Experimental results indicate favorable agreement with numerical simulation by ANSYS software. The effect of liquid level on heat leak into the cryogenic vessel can be considered in calculation of storage time and structure design.

Li, Yang; Wang, Rongshun; Wang, Caili

2010-06-01

128

Light-control of liquid crystal alignment from vertical to planar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous or discontinuous transition from vertical to planar alignment was found in nematic cells, containing polyimide alignment layer exposed to linear polarized UV light, depending on whether the alignment layer was mechanically rubbed or not prior the illumination. The polyimide material is designed originally to promote vertical alignment when deposited onto the inner cell substrates' surface. The mechanism behind these observations is complicated. It includes inclination of the alkyl side chains of the polyimide alignment layer towards the rubbing direction and the bond breaking process due to UV illumination which are considered as the key factors for occurrence of such alignment transition.

Ata Alla, Rasha; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

2013-06-01

129

Vertically integrated pixel microbolometers for IR imaging using high-resistivity VOx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncooled IR bolometers form an integral part of thermal imaging cameras. Vanadium oxide material currently used for IR imaging has a resistivity between 0.1 and 1 ohm-cm and a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between -1.4%K-1 to -2.4%K-1. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials inevitably have higher resistivity and therefore higher electrical resistance in a lateral resistor configuration. A high resistance leads to an increase in the Johnson-Nyquist noise of the bias-induced current, thereby limiting the performance of bolometers using high resistivity material. In this work, we demonstrate high resistivity, high TCR VOx and propose the use of a vertically integrated resistor configuration an alternate pixel structure design with lower Johnson noise when compared with the conventional lateral pixel design. Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition was used to deposit high resistivity vanadium oxide thin-films (~85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivities ranging from 2 × 103 ohm-cm to 2.1 × 104 ohm-cm, TCR varying from -2.6%K-1 to -5%K-1, Johnson noise (pixel resistance of 1.3G?) of 4.7 to 6?V/?Hz and 1/f noise (normalized Hooge's parameter (?/n)) of 5 × 10-21 to 5 × 10-18 cm-3. In contrast, the through-film resistor structures showed significantly higher resistivities at 3 × 104 Ohm-cm to 1.55 × 105 Ohm-cm, TCR similar to lateral resistive structure between -2.6%K-1 to -5.1%K-1, immeasurably low Johnson noise (pixel resistance of 48K?) and normalized Hooge's parameter ranging from to 5×10-21 to 1×10-18 cm-3. These results indicate the possible use of through-film resistors as an alternative to the conventional lateral-resistor design currently used in uncooled imaging microbolometers.

Basantani, Hitesh A.; Shin, Hang-Beum; Jackson, T. N.; Horn, Mark W.

2013-06-01

130

Physician opinions about an anatomy core curriculum: A case for medical imaging and vertical integration.  

PubMed

Pre-clinical anatomy curricula must provide medical students with the knowledge needed in a variety of medical and surgical specialties. But do physicians within specialties agree about what anatomical knowledge is most important in their practices? And, what is the common core of anatomical knowledge deemed essential by physicians in different specialties? Answers to these questions would be useful in designing pre-clinical anatomy courses. The primary aim of this study was to assess the importance of a human gross anatomy course by soliciting the opinions of physicians from a range of specialties. We surveyed 93 physicians to determine the importance of specific anatomical topics in their own practices. Their responses were analyzed to assess variation in intra- and inter-departmental attitudes toward the importance of anatomy. Nearly all of the topics taught in the course were deemed important by the clinicians as a group, but respondents showed little agreement on the rank order of importance of anatomical topics. Overall, only medical imaging received high importance by nearly all respondents, and lower importance was attached to embryology and lymphatic anatomy. Our survey data, however, also suggested distinct hierarchies in the importance assigned to anatomical topics within specialties. Given that physicians view the importance of anatomy differently, we suggest that students revisit anatomy through a vertically integrated curriculum tailored to provide specialty-specific anatomical training to advanced students based on their areas of clinical interest. Integration of medical imaging into pre-clinical anatomy courses, already underway in many medical schools, is of high clinical relevance. Anat Sci Educ 7: 251-261. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24022941

Orsbon, Courtney P; Kaiser, Rebecca S; Ross, Callum F

2014-07-01

131

Single cavity Fabry-Perot modulator enhancements and integrated vertically coupled cavity light-emitting diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabry-Perot modulators with Multi-Quantum Wells (MQWs) cavities have been studied with great interest during recent years. Usually operating as intensity modulators, these devices have very high modulation contrast ratios, can be operated at very high speed, can be easily made into two dimensional arrays and can be integrated with silicon ICs. They are thus very promising for optical interconnects, optical switching and image processing applications. But before these modulators are to be used in real applications, there are several issues that need to be solved, including the parasitic phase modulation, the bandwidth of such modulators and the alignment of modulator operation wavelength with the wavelength of lasers or light emitting diodes. In this work, the phase properties of Fabry-Perot reflection modulators will be discussed first and an experimental method using a modified Michelson interferometer to characterize the exact phase change will be demonstrated. It is demonstrated that the phase of the reflection light beam from a Fabry-Perot modulator is determined not only by the refractive index change inside the cavity but also by the absorption change inside the cavity. With the purpose of expanding the limited bandwidth of such modulator, devices with short passive cavities are designed and fabricated, the results are described and trade-offs between modulation depth and bandwidth will be discussed. In order to solve the problem of alignment and expand the functionality of Fabry-Perot modulators further, vertically coupled cavity devices with each cavity being electrically controlled independently have been developed. Both a coupled cavity modulator and an integrated light emitting diode with a transmission Fabry-Perot modulator are demonstrated; the first device enhances the modulation bandwidth while the second device has the potential of combining the advantage of high speed operation of MQWs modulators with the long lifetime and low cost of light emitting diodes.

Liu, Daxin

132

Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

2014-03-01

133

An integrated model of substrate clogging in vertical flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

This paper presents an integrated model of substrate clogging in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW). The model simulates the reduction of pore space in the wetland substrate due to combined influences of various physical, biogeochemical and plant-related processes. A series of experiments based on laboratory-scale VFCWs were conducted to examine and measure key parameters related to clogging of the wetland substrate during operation under different conditions. The model was then validated using data collected from the experiments. The results showed that the model was able to replicate the clogging phenomenon as observed in the experiments, in particular, the characteristic clogging time. The model also predicted well individual contributions to clogging by accumulated inert suspended solids, microbial biomass and plant root materials during the wetland operation. Although the validation was based on the laboratory data, the results indicated that the model describes well the processes underlying the clogging and has the potential to become a tool for assessing the performance of prototype CWs in relation to clogging at both the design and operation stages. PMID:23454415

Hua, G F; Li, L; Zhao, Y Q; Zhu, W; Shen, J Q

2013-04-15

134

VISTA (Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications) user interface software study  

SciTech Connect

The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) project is an initiative to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective application of basic research results by end users. Developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, VISTA's purpose is to develop and deploy information systems (software or software/hardware products) to broad segments of various markets. Inherent in these products would be mechanisms for accessing PNL-resident information about the problem. A goal of VISTA is to incorporate existing, commercially available user interface technology into the VISTA UIMS. Commercial systems are generally more complete, reliable, and cost-effective than software developed in-house. The objective of this report is to examine the current state of commercial user interface software and discuss the implications of selections thereof. This report begins by describing the functionality of the user interface as it applies to users and application developers. Next, a reference model is presented defining the various operational software layers of a graphical user interface. The main body follows which examines current user interface technology by sampling a number of commercial systems. Both the window system and user interface toolkit markets are surveyed. A summary of the current technology concludes this report. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Chin, G.

1990-04-01

135

InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated and vertically coupled with silicon-on-insulator waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous integration of III-V materials with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuitry by an adhesive die-to-wafer bonding process has been proposed as a solution to Si-based lasers and photodetectors. Here, we present the design and optimization of an InGaAs PIN photodetector vertically coupled with the underlying SOI waveguide, which could be readily fabricated using this bonding process. With the help of grating couplers, a thick bonding layer of 2.5 ?m is applied, which inherently avoids the risk of low-bonding yield suffering in the evanescent coupling counterpart. An anti-reflection layer is also introduced between the bonding layer and the III-V layer stack to relieve the accuracy requirement for the bonding layer thickness. Besides, by optimizing the structure parameters, a high-absorption efficiency of 82% and a wide optical 1dB-bandwidth of 220nm are obtained. The analysis shows that the detection bandwidth of the present surface-illuminated photodetector is generally limited by transit-time in the i-InGaAs layer. The relationship of the detection bandwidth and the absorption efficiency versus the i-InGaAs layer thickness is presented for the ease of choosing proper structure parameters for specific applications. With the results presented here, the device can be readily fabricated.

Wang, Zhiqi; Qiu, Chao; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

2014-05-01

136

Lateral integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and slow light Bragg reflector waveguide devices.  

PubMed

We present the modeling and the experiment on the lateral integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and slow light Bragg reflector waveguide devices. The modeling shows an efficient direct-lateral coupling from a VCSEL to an integrated slow light waveguide. The calculated result shows a possibility of 13 dB chip gain and an extinction ratio over 5 dB for a compact slow light semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and electroabsorption modulator integrated with a VCSEL, respectively. We demonstrate an SOA-integrated VCSEL, exhibiting the maximum output power over 6 mW. Also, we fabricate a sub-50-?m long electroabsorption modulator laterally integrated with a VCSEL. An extinction ratio of over 15 dB for a voltage swing of 2.0 V is obtained without noticeable change of threshold. In addition, we demonstrate an on-chip electrothermal beam deflector integrated with a VCSEL. PMID:24663452

Shimada, Toshikazu; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

2014-03-20

137

Analytical description of liquid slug flow in small- diameter vertical conduits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of intermittent gas-lift tests was conducted in a 1,500-ft experimental well through 1-1\\/4 in. and 1-1\\/2 in. nominal size tubing. For each tubing size, tests were conducted varying the slug length, gas volume injected and liquid viscosity and surface tension. From these tests, an empirical ''fallback'' or liquid loss correlation has been developed. A conceptual model has

J. P. Brill; T. C. Jr. Doerr; K. E. Brown

1966-01-01

138

Sensitivity of a mesoscale model to initial specification of relative humidity, liquid water and vertical motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of synoptic scale initial conditions on the accuracy of mesoscale precipitation modeling is investigated. Attention is focused on the relative importance of the water vapor, cloud water, rain water, and vertical motion, with the analysis carried out using the Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The fully moist primitive equation model has 15 levels and a terrain-following sigma coordinate system. A K-theory approach was implemented to model the planetary boundary layer. A total of 15 sensitivity simulations were run to investigate the effects of the synoptic initial conditions of the four atmospheric variables. The absence of synoptic cloud and rain water amounts in the initialization caused a 2 hr delay in the onset of precipitation. The delay was increased if synoptic-scale vertical motion was used instead of mesoscale values. Both the delays and a choice of a smoothed moisture field resulted in underestimations of the total rainfall.

Kalb, M. W.; Perkey, D. J.

1985-01-01

139

Pressure drop characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow in vertical miniature triangular channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented for the gas velocity, the void fraction, and the pressure drop of upward co-current air–water two-phase flow through vertical miniature triangular channels having hydraulic diameters of 0.866, 1.443 and 2.886 mm, with superficial air velocity ranging from jg=0.1 to 100 m\\/s and superficial water velocity ranging from jl=0.08 to 6 m\\/s. A correlation is developed for

T. S Zhao; Q. C Bi

2001-01-01

140

Tight integration of GPS observations and persistent scatterer InSAR for detecting vertical ground motion in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for tightly integrating GPS observations and the persistent scatterer (PS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is proposed to detect vertical ground motion in Hong Kong, China. The tropospheric zenith wet delays (ZWD) derived from GPS observations at sites in the SAR scenes are used first to model and correct for the tropospheric effects in the interferograms generated from the SAR images. The vertical motion rates (VMR) of the GPS sites determined based on the continuous GPS observations obtained at the sites are then used as constraints in the PS InSAR solutions to further enhance the quality of the solutions. Data from 12 continuous tracking GPS sites in Hong Kong and 8 ENVISAT ASAR images acquired during 2006-2007 are used to demonstrate the application of the proposed method. The results from the example show that the method is capable of detecting accurately the vertical ground motion.

Chen, Qiang; Liu, Guoxiang; Ding, Xiaoli; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Yuan, Linguo; Zhong, Ping; Omura, M.

2010-12-01

141

Fabrication of thin vertical mirrors through plasma etch and KOH:IPA polishing for integration into MEMS electrostatic actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a process for the fabrication of thin vertical mirrors as integrated structures of MEMS electrostatic actuators. The mirrors can be implemented as a vertical extension of the actuator sidewall, or can be positioned at any movable part of the actuator. The process involves the fabrication of a mesa structure on the handle layer of a silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafer through deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The etch/passivation cycles of the DRIE process were optimized to achieve vertical etch profiles with a depth of up to 200 ?m with an aspect ratio of 10:1. The DRIE process introduced typical etch scallops with peak-to-valley and rms roughnesses on the order of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A mask layer was used to pattern a 2.1 ?m sacrificial oxide layer for the mesa structure. A second mask layer allowed us to define a large etch cavity for handle layer back-etch. The DRIE etched mesa structure was then etched with diluted potassium hydroxide (KOH) in isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Temperature and etch concentration were optimized for the removal of etch scallops without the formation of <111> etch facets. The etch scallops were almost completely removed and mirror quality surfaces were achieved. The developed mesa structures are suitable for integration into actuators that are patterned in the device layer. A third masking layer, aligned through infrared camera, was used to position the thin vertical mirror at the actuator sidewall. The process provides design flexibility in integrating vertical mirrors of adjustable dimensions to movable elements of MEMS structures.

Huda, M. Q.; Amin, T. M. F.; Ning, Y.; McKinnon, G.; Tulip, J.; Jäger, W.

2013-03-01

142

Transformation of the integral integral F(r, r ', vertical bar(r)over-right-arrow-(r)over-right-arrow vertical bar) d(r)over-right-arrow d(r)over-right-arrow ' using Hylleraas coordinates in N-dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integral integral F(r, r', vertical bar r - r'vertical bar) dr dr' where r and r' are N-dimensional position vectors can be transformed into a simple three-dimensional integral using Hylleraas coordinates. A simple derivation of this result is presented.

Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chatterjee, A.

2006-09-01

143

Integrated Design Methodology for Highly Reliable Liquid Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Design Methodology is strongly required at the conceptual design phase to achieve the highly reliable space transportation systems, especially the propulsion systems, not only in Japan but also all over the world in these days. Because in the past some catastrophic failures caused some losses of mission and vehicle (LOM/LOV) at the operational phase, moreover did affect severely the schedule delays and cost overrun at the later development phase. Design methodology for highly reliable liquid rocket engine is being preliminarily established and investigated in this study. The sensitivity analysis is systematically performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology, and to clarify and especially to focus on the correlation between the combustion chamber, turbopump and main valve as main components. This study describes the essential issues to understand the stated correlations, the need to apply this methodology to the remaining critical failure modes in the whole engine system, and the perspective on the engine development in the future.

Kuratani, Naoshi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Yasui, Masaaki; Kure, Hirotaka; Masuya, Goro

144

TID and Displacement Damage Effects in Vertical and Lateral Power MOSFETs for Integrated DC-DC Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

TID and displacement damage effects are studied for vertical and lateral power MOSFETs in five different technologies in view of the development of radiation-tolerant fully integrated DC-DC converters. Investigation is pushed to the very high level of radiation expected for an upgrade to the LHC experiments. TID induces threshold voltage shifts and, in n-channel transistors, source-drain leakage currents. Wide variability

Federico Faccio; B. Allongue; G. Blanchot; C. Fuentes; S. Michelis; S. Orlandi; R. Sorge

2010-01-01

145

TID and displacement damage effects in vertical and lateral power MOSFETs for integrated DC-DC converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

TID and displacement damage effects are studied for vertical and lateral power MOSFETs in five different technologies in view of the development of radiation-tolerant fully integrated DC-DC converters. Investigation is pushed to the very high level of radiation expected for an upgrade to the LHC experiments. TID induces threshold voltage shifts and, in n- channel transistors, source-drain leakage currents. Wide

F. Faccio; B. Allongue; G. Blanchot; C. Fuentes; S. Michelis; S. Orlandi; R. Sorge

2009-01-01

146

Fabrication and performance of two-dimensional matrix addressable arrays of integrated vertical-cavity lasers and resonant cavity photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massively parallel interconnects and scannerless imaging are applications that would benefit from high-density two-dimensional arrays of lasers. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are uniquely suited for these applications due to their small size and high efficiency. We have successfully fabricated 64 × 64 element arrays containing alternating rows of selectively-oxidized 850 nm VCSELs and resonant-cavity photodetectors (RCPDs) monolithically integrated on semi-insulating

Kent M. Geib; Kent D. Choquette; Darwin K. Serkland; Andrew A. Allerman; Terry W. Hargett

2002-01-01

147

A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 mum and 150 mum has been produced using a thinning

M. Beimforde; L. Andricek; A. Macchiolo; H.-G. Moser; R. Nisius; R. H. Richter; P. Weigell

2010-01-01

148

Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup

Kitti Nilpueng; Somchai Wongwises

2006-01-01

149

Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas–liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air–water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0°, 90° and

Kitti Nilpueng; Somchai Wongwises

2006-01-01

150

Flow pattern changes influenced by variation of viscosities of a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture flow in a vertical channel  

SciTech Connect

In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)

Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette (United States)

2011-02-15

151

Vertically integrated shared learning models in general practice: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The numbers of learners seeking placements in general practice is rapidly increasing as an ageing workforce impacts on General Practitioner availability. The traditional master apprentice model that involves one-to-one teaching is therefore leading to supervision capacity constraints. Vertically integrated (VI) models may provide a solution. Shared learning, in which multiple levels of learners are taught together in the same session, is one such model. This study explored stakeholders’ perceptions of shared learning in general practices in northern NSW, Australia. Methods A qualitative research method, involving individual semi-structured interviews with GP supervisors, GP registrars, Prevocational General Practice Placements Program trainees, medical students and practice managers situated in nine teaching practices, was used to investigate perceptions of shared learning practices. A thematic analysis was conducted on 33 transcripts by three researchers. Results Participants perceived many benefits to shared learning including improved collegiality, morale, financial rewards, and better sharing of resources, knowledge and experience. Additional benefits included reduced social and professional isolation, and workload. Perceived risks of shared learning included failure to meet the individual needs of all learners. Shared learning models were considered unsuitable when learners need to: receive remediation, address a specific deficit or immediate learning needs, learn communication or procedural skills, be given personalised feedback or be observed by their supervisor during consultations. Learners’ acceptance of shared learning appeared partially dependent on their supervisors’ small group teaching and facilitation skills. Conclusions Shared learning models may partly address supervision capacity constraints in general practice, and bring multiple benefits to the teaching environment that are lacking in the one-to-one model. However, the risks need to be managed appropriately, to ensure learning needs are met for all levels of learners. Supervisors also need to consider that one-to-one teaching may be more suitable in some instances. Policy makers, medical educators and GP training providers need to ensure that quality learning outcomes are achieved for all levels of learners. A mixture of one-to-one and shared learning would address the benefits and downsides of each model thereby maximising learners’ learning outcomes and experiences.

2013-01-01

152

Vertical photoionization of liquid-to-supercritical ammonia: thermal effects on the valence-to-conduction band gap.  

PubMed

We recently reported first femtosecond pump–probe experiments on the geminate recombination dynamics of solvated electrons in fluid ammonia (Urbanek et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 2223–2233). The electrons were generated through a vertical two-photon ionization at a total energy of 9.3 eV. Here, we present a full Monte Carlo analysis of the time-resolved data to determine the solvated electron’s thermalization distance from the ionization hole, NH(3)(+). The simulations are compared with the experiment over wide thermodynamic conditions to obtain insight into the dependence of the vertical ionization mechanism on the electronic properties of the solvent network. The simulations reveal that the average thermalization distance, , decreases strongly with both increasing temperature, T, and decreasing density, ?, from 3.2 nm in the cryogenic fluid down to roughly 0.5 nm in the dilute supercritical phase with almost gas-like densities. We combine our results with the current understanding of the T,?-dependence of the electronic structure of the liquid phase and discuss in detail the role of thermally induced energy level shifts for the valence-to-conduction band gap. The observed changes of the thermalization distance can be well attributed to a gradual decrease of the excess energy initially imparted on the ejected electron as gas-like conditions are progressively approached. PMID:23815751

Urbanek, Janus; Vöhringer, Peter

2013-07-25

153

HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

2010-10-01

154

Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)  

SciTech Connect

Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

2011-04-13

155

The electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal device in multi-component liquid crystal mixture system with non-contact photo-induced vertical alignment mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous studies, we mixed photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer into negative dielectric anisotropy nematic type liquid crystal (N-type LC, NLC) to obtain a NLC/photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer mixture solution (NLC mixture system). After irradiation with UV light of fixed intensity, we successfully fabricated copolymer films with vertical alignment effect among the LC molecules. In this study, we propose a new type of multi-component LC mixture system by mixing chiral smectic type (SmA*) LC with homeotropic texture into NLC/photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer mixture system (NSLC mixture system). Our experimental results revealed that this SmA* LC exhibited the vertical alignment effect associated with LC molecules in the auxiliary LC mixture system. Moreover, we also discovered that altering the main chain type biphenol acrylic pre-polymer had drastic impact on the contrast ratio (CR) of the LC mixture system, with an increase of as much as 73%. More importantly, adding the SmA* LC can evidently increase the anchoring energy of the alignment film surface. We also further performed measurements, analyses, and discussions of electro-optical properties of devices fabricated from the new LC mixture systems.

Lin, Fa-Hsin; Ho, Czung-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Yih

2012-05-01

156

Thermo-optical coefficient determination of index liquids used for optimization of optical integrated components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization procedure for designing silica integrated components (specially in the telecommunication infrared spectrum, around wavelength 1550 nm) uses specific index liquids as a core top layer. These liquids consist of transparent silicone oils which present a very low vapor pressure. In this paper we present an accurate method to measure the thermo-optical coefficient of these liquids. We determine that, for liquid based silicone, this coefficient is -4.5×10 -4 K-1. By the way, this technique also enable us to know the behavior of integrated directional coupler as thermo-optical switch. These experiments are useful to design such kind of integrated components.

Bosc, D.

2001-07-01

157

Numerical modelling of temperature fields in the flow boiling liquid through a vertical minichannel with an enhanced heating surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents results of heat transfer research on flow boiling in a rectangular minichannel positioned vertically, with an enhanced surface. One of the channel walls was made of thin foil powered by direct current. This foil is enhanced on the side contacting fluid in the minichannel. It is possible to observe both surfaces of the minichannel through two openings covered with glass panes. One allows detecting temperature of the plain side of the foil by liquid crystal thermography. The opposite surface of the minichannel (from the enhanced side of the foil) can be observed through the other glass pane. The observations of the flow structures allowed to calculate the void fraction for some cross-sections of selected two phase flow images. In mathematical modelling of the considered process stationary heat transfer in a glass pane, heating foil and boiling liquid can be described with Laplace equation, Poisson equation and energy equation, respectively. For completeness of the model a corresponding system of boundary conditions was given. The two-dimensional temperature fields of glass pane, heating foil and fluid was computed with the Trefftz method. The equalizing calculus used to smooth the measured data has reduced errors.

Ho?ejowska, Sylwia; Piasecka, Magdalena

2014-03-01

158

Remote measurements of ozone, water vapor and liquid water content, and vertical profiles of temperature in the lower troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several advanced atmospheric remote sensing systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were demonstrated under various field conditions to determine how useful they would be for general use by the California Air Resources Board and local air quality districts. One of the instruments reported on is the Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS). It has a pair of carbon dioxide lasers with a transmitter and receiver and can be flown in an aircraft to measure the column abundance of such gases as ozone. From an aircraft, it can be used to rapidly survey a large region. The LAS is usually operated from an aircraft, although it can also be used at a fixed location on the ground. Some tests were performed with the LAS to measure ozone over a 2-km horizontal path. Another system reported on is the Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing System (MARS). It is tuned to microwave emissions from water vapor, liquid water, and oxygen molecules (for atmospheric temperature). It can measure water vapor and liquid water in the line-of-sight, and can measure the vertical temperature profile.

Grant, W. B.; Gary, B. L.; Shumate, M. S.

1983-01-01

159

A vertically integrated, embedded curriculum enhances the information literacy skills of science undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information literacy is often cited as a key graduate attribute. The literature strongly suggests that embedding information literacy into the curriculum is the most effective means of supporting student learning. Within this framework, academics and librarians must share responsibility for teaching information literacy. The School of Zoology has worked in partnership with the Science Library to devise an embedded, vertically

Susan M. Jones; Christine Evans; Regina Magierowski

160

Integrated polymer waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel vertical taper structure fabricated at the ends of polymer optical waveguide devices to improve the coupling between channel waveguides and single-m,ode fibers. The taper smoothly converts a highly elliptical waveguide mode into a bigger and more circular mode for low loss coupling and relaxed fiber alignment tolerances. A vertical taper 0.5-2 mm in length is made in the low index upper cladding to reduce its thickness from several micrometers to zero, followed by the coating of a second upper cladding with index higher than that of the previous upper cladding but slightly lower than that of waveguide core. In the taper, the channel waveguide mode gradually loses confinement by the upper cladding so that the mode size grows bigger a light propagates, whereas the confinement by the lower cladding and lateral confinement are hardly affected. The waveguide mode grows in the vertical direction away from the lossy ground electrode and substrate; therefore no compromise between mode size and propagation loss is involved. Two special but simple reactive ion etching techniques, shadow masked etching and tapered photoresist etching mask, are develop for making this vertical taper. Mode expansion and a 1.8 dB reduction in coupling los, which is not sensitive to waveguide width and polarization, is obtained in our preliminary experiment.

Chen, Antao; Chuyanov, Vadim; Marti-Carrera, Felix I.; Garner, Sean M.; Steier, William H.; Chen, Jinghong; Sun, Sam-Shajing; Dalton, Larry R.

1997-04-01

161

Filter-less vertical integrated RGB color sensor for light monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BiCMOS RGB color sensor for ambient light monitoring is presented. It can be used in applications like white balancing, color measurement and TFT monitor backlight control. The effect of different penetration depths in silicon for different wavelengths is used to determine the color of the incident light. The sensor is formed by three vertically stacked photodiodes - a shallow

A. Polzer; W. Gaberl; H. Zimmermann

2011-01-01

162

Application of the fast Fourier transform to the computation of the Sommerfeld integral for a vertical electric dipole above a half-space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used in conjunction with analytical techniques to obtain an approximate expression for the Sommerfeld integral associated with a vertical electric dipole above a half-space. The resulting expression, which is an analytic function of the source and observation locations, can be used in lieu of a numerical integration of the Sommerfeld integral. It can be

Steven L. Dvorak

1992-01-01

163

Unsteady mass transfer in mixed convective heat flow from a vertical plate embedded in a liquid-saturated porous medium with melting effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper numerically studies the transient mass transfer in mixed convective heat flow with melting effect from a vertical plate in a liquid saturated porous medium in the presence of aiding external flow. The governing equations are transformed into the non-dimensional form by using pseudo similarity coordinate (?) and dimensionless time (?). The resulting two dimensional boundary value problem (BVP)

W. T. Cheng; C. H. Lin

2008-01-01

164

Reduced operating voltage and grey-to-grey response time in a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of two polyimide alignment materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a method to reduce the operating voltage and the grey-to-grey switching time of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of planar and vertical polyimide alignment materials. The surface anchoring energy of the two-polyimide mixture was smaller than that of the pure vertical polyimide and consequently, liquid crystal molecules were easily switched to a planar state with an electric field, resulting in a greater maximum retardation than that of the pure polyimide at the same applied voltage. Rising time was also significantly reduced due to the suppressed optical bouncing effect in the mixed planar polyimide, and the decaying time showed negligible change. With the proposed approach, we can reduce the cell gap to obtain half-wave retardation allowing for faster response time while keeping a low operating voltage.

Lee, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Song, Won Il; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Gi-Dong; Lee, Seung Hee

2013-12-01

165

Vertically integrated simulation tools for self-consistent tracking and analysis  

SciTech Connect

A modeling, simulation and analysis code complex, the Gemini Package, was developed for the study of single-particle dynamics in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now being built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the philosophy behind the package, with special emphasis on our vertical approach. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Forest, E.; Nishimura, H.

1989-03-01

166

Development of system level integration of compact RF components on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to optimize compactness for reconfigurable wireless communication systems by integrating Radio Frequency (RF) components on a multilayer Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) package while minimizing the size and interconnection of each component. To achieve this goal, various RF/microwave components have been integrated on LCP with the design, fabrication, and testing results to explore the feasibility of the designs for RF applications. The first chapter of this research focuses on the characterization of via interconnects for 3D system designs. As a crucial component for achieving compact multilayer designs, various transition designs are explored from DC to 110 GHz. In particular, High Density Interconnects (HDI) are investigated to achieve low loss performance at mm-wave frequencies. An example of accessing the input and output of a LCP packaged device using via interconnects is included. In addition, a heat sink using via technology is presented for active cooling of heat generating embedded devices. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 demonstrate the results of RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) switches integrated on LCP to create compact reconfigurable devices. RF MEMS switches are essential for designing compact multi-functional devices. A pattern reconfigurable antenna with monolithically integrated RF MEMS switches is presented. In addition, a compact 3D phase shifter using RF MEMS switches for a 2 x 2 phased antenna array is also presented in this work. To create a phased antenna array that is more compatible with Integrated Circuits (IC), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) RF MEMS switches are used to make a low voltage phase shifter. The actuation voltage is under 10 V, which is more easily achievable in a integrated system compared to commonly used electrostatic actuated RF MEMS switches that required at least 30 V. In Chapter 6, an expandable, low cost, and conformal multilayer phased antenna array is presented. Starting with a 4 x 8 element antenna array, the concept of beam steering is shown. Using this antenna array as a building block, an 8 x 8 element antenna array is shown with the measured results when conformed around a cylinder. Further expanding the antenna array, a 16 x 16 element antenna array is designed, fabricated, and measured. All of these antenna arrays use LCP as a platform for lightweight and low cost satellite communication applications. Finally, using the integration technology and expertise developed from the previous work, a 60 GHz transceiver front end is designed on LCP for high speed wireless communication applications. Two dual mode filters and high-gain vertical dipoles are integrated at the packaging level on LCP to create a low cost system. A PA and LNA are included in the system to increase the system gain. The measurements of the dual mode filters are presented as well as the fully integrated transceiver pattern measurements and gain measurements of each of the transmitting and receiving mode. This research contributes to LCP integration technology with more compact and higher frequency multilayer applications while focusing on integration of the components at the system packaging level to achieve optimal compactness. The highlight of this work is in developing key technologies for multilayer integration on organic LCP such as HDI interconnects and RF MEMS; applying the technology to create reconfigurable RF components such as reconfigurable antennas and compact low voltage phase shifters; and integrating the components to create compact low cost multilayer RF front end systems.

Chung, David

167

Optical AND/OR gates based on monolithically integrated vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure.  

PubMed

Latching optical switches and optical logic gates with AND and OR functionality are demonstrated for the first time by the monolithic integration of a vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor structure. The thyristors have a low threshold current of 0.65 mA and a high on/off contrast ratio of more than 50 dB. By simply changing a reference switching voltage, this single device operates as two logic functions, optical logic AND and OR. The thyristor laser fabricated by using the oxidation process and has achieved high optical output power efficiency and a high sensitivity to the optical input light. PMID:19529606

Choi, Woon-Kyung; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Do-Gyun; Choi, Young-Wan; Choquette, Kent D; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok-Ha

2006-11-27

168

Two-dimensional integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and photodetectors for position sensing.  

PubMed

Noncontact long-range position sensing is desirable for a number of applications. We have designed and fabricated a monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and p-type/intrinsic/n-type (PIN) photodetectors for optical position sensing. Calculations using the reflection from a periodic metallic corrugation as a position gauge indicate resolution in the submicron regime. High device uniformity is obtained using novel fabrication techniques. We observe a threshold current of 0.52 mA for the VCSELs and a detector responsivity of 0.38 A/W at 840 nm. The optical cross talk between VCSELs and detectors is also quantified. PMID:18758525

Giannopoulos, Antonios V; Kasten, Ansas M; Long, Christopher M; Chen, Chen; Choquette, Kent D

2008-09-01

169

Improvement in device performance from a mixture of a liquid crystal and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer with the photoinduced vertical alignment method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a multicomponent nematic liquid crystal (NLC) mixture of a liquid crystal (negative-type NLC) and a photosensitive acrylic prepolymer, photopolymerization upon UV irradiation induces the separation of the LC and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer layers, thereby leading to a vertical arrangement of LC molecules. In this study, we propose a simple vertical alignment method for LC molecules, by adding a chiral smectic A (SmA*) liquid crystal having homeotropic texture characteristics to an NLC mixture solution. Measurements of electro-optical properties revealed that the addition of the SmA* LC not only strengthened the anchoring force of the copolymer alignment film surface, but also significantly enhanced the contrast ratio (~73%), response time and grayscale switching performance of the device.

Ho, Czung-Yu; Lin, Fa-Hsin; Tao, Yu-Tai; Lee, Jiunn-Yih

2011-12-01

170

Optimal integration of gravity in trajectory planning of vertical pointing movements.  

PubMed

The planning and control of motor actions requires knowledge of the dynamics of the controlled limb to generate the appropriate muscular commands and achieve the desired goal. Such planning and control imply that the CNS must be able to deal with forces and constraints acting on the limb, such as the omnipresent force of gravity. The present study investigates the effect of hypergravity induced by parabolic flights on the trajectory of vertical pointing movements to test the hypothesis that motor commands are optimized with respect to the effect of gravity on the limb. Subjects performed vertical pointing movements in normal gravity and hypergravity. We use a model based on optimal control to identify the role played by gravity in the optimal arm trajectory with minimal motor costs. First, the simulations in normal gravity reproduce the asymmetry in the velocity profiles (the velocity reaches its maximum before half of the movement duration), which typically characterizes the vertical pointing movements performed on Earth, whereas the horizontal movements present symmetrical velocity profiles. Second, according to the simulations, the optimal trajectory in hypergravity should present an increase in the peak acceleration and peak velocity despite the increase in the arm weight. In agreement with these predictions, the subjects performed faster movements in hypergravity with significant increases in the peak acceleration and peak velocity, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the movement duration. This suggests that movement kinematics change in response to an increase in gravity, which is consistent with the hypothesis that motor commands are optimized and the action of gravity on the limb is taken into account. The results provide evidence for an internal representation of gravity in the central planning process and further suggest that an adaptation to altered dynamics can be understood as a reoptimization process. PMID:19458149

Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Philippe

2009-08-01

171

Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays  

PubMed Central

Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy)-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs).

Tsuda, Yusuke; OH, Jae Min; Kuwahara, Renpei

2009-01-01

172

Dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in vertical fractures: Effect of finger residuals and dead-end pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dissolution behavior of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in rock fractures under different entrapment conditions is important for remediation activities and any related predictive modeling. This study investigates DNAPL dissolution in variable aperture fractures under two important entrapment configurations, namely, entrapped residual blobs from gravity fingering and pooling in a dead-end fracture. We performed a physical dissolution experiment of residual DNAPL blobs in a vertical analog fracture using light transmission techniques. A high-resolution mechanistic (physically-based) numerical model has been developed which is shown to excellently reproduce the experimentally observed DNAPL dissolution. We subsequently applied the model to simulate dissolution of the residual blobs under different water flushing velocities. The simulated relationship between the Sherwood number Sh and Peclet number Pe could be well fitted with a simple power-law function (Sh = 1.43Pe0.43). To investigate mass transfer from dead-end pools, another type of trapping in rock fractures, entrapment and dissolution of DNAPL in a vertical dead-end fracture was simulated. As the entrapped pool dissolves, the depth of the interface between the DNAPL and the flowing water increases linearly with decreasing DNAPL saturation. The interfacial area remains more or less constant as DNAPL saturation decreases, unlike in the case of residual DNAPL blobs. The decreasing depth of the contact interface changes the flow field and causes decreasing water flow velocity above the top of the DNAPL pool, suggesting the dependence of the mass transfer rate on the depth of the interface, or alternatively, the remaining mass percentage in the fracture. Simulation results show that the resultant Sherwood number Sh is significantly smaller than in the case of residual blobs for any given Peclet number, indicating slower mass transfer. The results also show that the Sh can be well fitted with a power-law function of Pe and remaining mass percentage. The obtained relationships of dimensionless groups concerning the mass transfer characteristics at the level of individual fractures can be further used in predictive modeling of dissolution at a larger (fracture network) scale.

Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Illangasekare, Tissa; Detwiler, Russell L.

2013-06-01

173

Dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in vertical fractures: effect of finger residuals and dead-end pools.  

PubMed

Understanding the dissolution behavior of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in rock fractures under different entrapment conditions is important for remediation activities and any related predictive modeling. This study investigates DNAPL dissolution in variable aperture fractures under two important entrapment configurations, namely, entrapped residual blobs from gravity fingering and pooling in a dead-end fracture. We performed a physical dissolution experiment of residual DNAPL blobs in a vertical analog fracture using light transmission techniques. A high-resolution mechanistic (physically-based) numerical model has been developed which is shown to excellently reproduce the experimentally observed DNAPL dissolution. We subsequently applied the model to simulate dissolution of the residual blobs under different water flushing velocities. The simulated relationship between the Sherwood number Sh and Peclet number Pe could be well fitted with a simple power-law function (Sh=1.43Pe?·?³). To investigate mass transfer from dead-end pools, another type of trapping in rock fractures, entrapment and dissolution of DNAPL in a vertical dead-end fracture was simulated. As the entrapped pool dissolves, the depth of the interface between the DNAPL and the flowing water increases linearly with decreasing DNAPL saturation. The interfacial area remains more or less constant as DNAPL saturation decreases, unlike in the case of residual DNAPL blobs. The decreasing depth of the contact interface changes the flow field and causes decreasing water flow velocity above the top of the DNAPL pool, suggesting the dependence of the mass transfer rate on the depth of the interface, or alternatively, the remaining mass percentage in the fracture. Simulation results show that the resultant Sherwood number Sh is significantly smaller than in the case of residual blobs for any given Peclet number, indicating slower mass transfer. The results also show that the Sh can be well fitted with a power-law function of Pe and remaining mass percentage. The obtained relationships of dimensionless groups concerning the mass transfer characteristics at the level of individual fractures can be further used in predictive modeling of dissolution at a larger (fracture network) scale. PMID:23608741

Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Illangasekare, Tissa; Detwiler, Russell L

2013-06-01

174

Engaged Learning across the Curriculum: The Vertical Integration of Food for Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a relatively new and decidedly healthy educational movement emerging across the United States, from grade schools to high schools, from community colleges to graduate programs at the nation's most prestigious universities. The movement goes by the name of "engaged learning." The authors describe two experiments to integrate…

Duster, Troy; Waters, Alice

2006-01-01

175

A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal mode to obtain a higher transmittance and lower driving voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) mode for solving low transmittance and high driving voltage problems in conventional in-plane-switching (IPS) PS-BPLC modes. By controlling the ray directions of incident beams by means of two prism sheets attached to the top and bottom substrates, continuous grayscale properties can be achieved with a vertical field, where the transmittance of the proposed structure can be increased to become twice as high as that of a IPS PS-BPLC cell, and its driving voltage can also be lowered by about 20 V. With the vertical-field-driven PS-BPLC mode, the hysteresis problem of the IPS PS-BPLC mode can also be solved due to a reduction of the electric field required to achieve sufficient field-induced retardation.

Kim, Yong-Hun; Hur, Sung-Taek; Park, Chang-Sub; Park, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Suk-Won; Kang, Shin-Won; Kim, Hak-Rin

2011-08-01

176

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder.  

PubMed

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. Fluids 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. Fluids 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations. PMID:23767631

Mayo, Lisa C; McCue, Scott W; Moroney, Timothy J

2013-05-01

177

Difficulties in applying laser technique to measure drop sizes in vertical and inclined Annular gas-liquid flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annular two phase flow is one of the most common regimes of gas\\/liquid flow found in industrial equipment. In this regime, the liquid flows in part as a film on the channel walls while the rest of the liquid is carried as drops by the gas flowing in the center of the channel. Detailed knowledge of the liquid drops particularly

Sohail H. Zaidi

1996-01-01

178

Positive and negative Coulomb drag in vertically integrated one-dimensional quantum wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron interactions in and between wires become increasingly complex and important as circuits are scaled to nanometre sizes, or use reduced-dimensional conductors such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires and gated high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems. This is because the screening of the long-range Coulomb potential of individual carriers is weakened in these systems, which can lead to phenomena such as Coulomb drag, where a current in one wire induces a voltage in a second wire through Coulomb interactions alone. Previous experiments have demonstrated Coulomb electron drag in wires separated by a soft electrostatic barrier of width >~80 nm (ref. 12), which was interpreted as resulting entirely from momentum transfer. Here, we measure both positive and negative drag between adjacent vertical quantum wires that are separated by ~15 nm and have independent contacts, which allows their electron densities to be tuned independently. We map out the drag signal versus the number of electron sub-bands occupied in each wire, and interpret the results both in terms of momentum-transfer and charge-fluctuation induced transport models. For wires of significantly different sub-band occupancies, the positive drag effect can be as large as 25%.

Laroche, D.; Gervais, G.; Lilly, M. P.; Reno, J. L.

2011-12-01

179

Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

1987-01-01

180

A thermally-aware performance analysis of vertically integrated (3-D) processor-memory hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits have emerged as promising candidates to overcome the interconnect bottlenecks of nanometer scale designs. While they offer several other advantages, it is expected that the benefits from this technology can potentially be off-set by thermal considerations which impact chip performance and reliability. The work presented in this paper is the first attempt to study the performance

Gian Luca Loi; Banit Agrawal; Navin Srivastava; Sheng-chih Lin; Timothy Sherwood; Kaustav Banerjee

2006-01-01

181

Vertically integrated metal-clad/silicon dioxide-shell microtube arrays for high-spatial-resolution light stimuli in saline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microdevices composed of integrated microscale light source arrays are powerful tools in optogenetic applications. Herein, we prepared vertically aligned 3-?m inner diameter silicon dioxide (SiO2) tube-based optical light waveguide arrays. To increase the locality of the light stimuli through the tube, we also fabricated metal-cladded SiO2 tubes using iridium (Ir). After filling the tube with a saline solution, the saline-core/Ir-clad/SiO2-shell waveguide exhibited light stimuli without spreading. With a 532-nm wavelength, the half-power width of the light intensity measured 10 ?m above the tube tip was 3 ?m, while that of the saline/SiO2-shell waveguide was 9.6 ?m, which was more than three times wider. Such high-spatial-resolution optical light stimuli will offer a new class of optogenetic applications, including light stimuli for specific regions of a neuron (e.g., axons or dendrites).

Sakata, M.; Nakamura, T.; Matsuo, T.; Goryu, A.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

2014-04-01

182

A path integral Monte Carlo study of liquid neon and the quantum effective pair potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method is used to simulate liquid neon at T=40 K. It is shown that quantum effects are not negligible and that when the quantum effective pair potential is used in a classical molecular dynamics simulation the results obtained for the radial distribution function agrees with that predicted by a full path integral Monte Carlo

D. Thirumalai; Randall W. Hall; B. J. Berne

1984-01-01

183

Identification of flow regimes in vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow using differential pressure fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential pressure fluctuations are used to estimate flow regimes of nitrogen gas-water mixtures in a vertical pipe because the fluctuations seem to be closely connected with the flow configuration. The regimes of vertical two-phase flow are classified by the peculiar features of statistical properties of the fluctuations, which are calculated from the data of static pressures measured at four locations

G MATSUI

1984-01-01

184

Integrated Liquid-Frozen Blood Banking System for Operational Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second generation Liquid-Frozen Blood Bank System is capable of providing frozen red cells, frozen platelets, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate. Red cell concentrates can be frozen after after storage at 4 C for 3 to 6 days in CPD or CPDA-1 ant...

C. R. Valeri K. L. Sims J. F. Bates D. Reichman J. R. Lindberg

1982-01-01

185

Application of integral equation theory to polyolefin liquids and blends  

SciTech Connect

The ability to model the packing of polymers in melts and blends is important in many polymer applications. One significant application is the development of new polymer blends. It would be exceedingly helpful to the materials chemist if molecular modeling could be employed to predict the thermodynamics and phase behavior of hypothetical polymer alloys before embarking on a time consuming and expensive synthesis program. The well known Flory-Huggins theory has been remarkably successful in describing many aspects of polymer mixing from a qualitative point of view. This theory is known, however, to suffer from several deficiencies which can be traceable to the fact that: (1) it is a lattice model requiring both monomer components to have the same volume; and (2) a mean field or random mixing approximation is made which effectively ignores chain connectivity. Because of these limitations the Flory-Huggins theory does not include packing effects and cannot be used to make quantitative molecular engineering calculations. Recently Curro and Schweizer developed a new approach for treating polymer liquids and mixtures which the authors call PRISM theory. This is an extension to polymers of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM Theory) developed by Chandler and Andersen to describe the statistical mechanics of small molecule liquids. The PRISM theory is a continuous space description of a polymer liquid, which includes chain connectivity and nonrandom mixing effects in a computationally tractable manner. The primary output from PRISM calculations is the average structure or packing of the amorphous liquid given by the radial distribution function denoted as g(r). This radial distribution function is employed to deduce thermodynamic or structural properties of interest. Here, the authors describe the theoretical approach and demonstrate its application to polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, and polyisobutylene liquids and blends.

Curro, J.G.; Weinhold, J.D.

1997-11-01

186

Wavelength-division multiplexed optical integrated circuit with vertical diffraction grating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semiconductor optical integrated circuit for wave division multiplexing has a semiconductor waveguide layer, a succession of diffraction grating points in the waveguide layer along a predetermined diffraction grating contour, a semiconductor diode array in the waveguide layer having plural optical ports facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a first direction, respective semiconductor diodes in the array corresponding to respective ones of a predetermined succession of wavelengths, an optical fiber having one end thereof terminated at the waveguide layer, the one end of the optical fiber facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a second direction, wherein the diffraction grating points are spatially distributed along the predetermined contour in such a manner that the succession of diffraction grating points diffracts light of respective ones of the succession of wavelengths between the one end of the optical fiber and corresponding ones of the optical ports.

Lang, Robert J. (inventor); Forouhar, Siamak (inventor)

1994-01-01

187

CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino County study phases 1-A, 1-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User needs, data types, data automation, and preliminary applications are described for an effort to assemble a single data base for San Bernardino County from data bases which exist at several administrative levels. Each of the data bases used was registered and converted to a grid-based data file at a resolution of 4 acres and used to create a multivariable data base for the entire study area. To this data base were added classified LANDSAT data from 1976 and 1979. The resulting data base thus integrated in a uniform format all of the separately automated data within the study area. Several possible interactions between existing geocoded data bases and LANDSAT data were tested. The use of LANDSAT to update existing data base is to be tested.

Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

188

Investigation on silicon oxynitride optical waveguides and optical devices integrated with liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes a detailed study of the step-index optical channel waveguides fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and a novel waveguide based integrated liquid crystal (LC) optical switch utilizing total internal reflection (TIR) and the large birefringence of liquid crystal. The major contributions presented in this thesis are summarized below. One of the contributions from the research work presented in this thesis is the design and fabrication of step-index channel optical waveguides and characterization of their propagation properties. From the characteristic equations of step-index slab waveguide, the requirements for single mode propagation in step-index channel waveguides are obtained by the effective index method. Starting from the deposition of silicon oxynitride films, two cases of single mode step-index optical channel waveguides are designed and fabricated. Their propagation parameters such as propagation loss, polarization dependent loss and modal birefringence are characterized and analyzed. In addition, the waveguides parameters affected by annealing are also measured and analyzed. At the same time, bending losses of the curved waveguides are also investigated. Results show that the fabricated channel waveguides have acceptable quality and are suitable to be applied in the investigation on integrated liquid crystal optical switches. Integrated liquid crystal optical switches are another major contribution made in this research study. A novel integrated LC optical switch is proposed, which is predicted to have high integration density compared with the semiconductor TIR optical switch and to have high stability compared with the bubble TIR optical switch. The working principle is described and the simulation results show that integrated liquid crystal optical switches do really work. Then, the optical waveguide structures of the integrated liquid crystal optical switches with different incident angles are fabricated and investigated. The factors affecting the reflection of the optical switch structures are analyzed and compared with experimental results. Lastly, the optical switch structure chips are integrated with liquid crystal. The switching performance of the optical switches are measured and analyzed. The optical switches do demonstrate the switch function even though the switch performance is not very good. Comparing with simulation result, the poor performance of the optical switches can be explained by the insufficient refractive index change in liquid crystal. The optical switch performance can be improved by choosing a liquid crystal with large birefringence and by adjusting correctly the liquid crystal molecular orientation direction in the etched groove of the switch structure.

Zhang, Ailing

189

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3633530 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3428753 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations.

Mayo, Lisa C.; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.

2013-05-01

190

Fabrication techniques for multiscale 3D-MEMS with vertical metal micro- and nanowire integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents different low-temperature and high-throughput LIGA-like processes for the batch fabrication of metal micro systems that use long nano- or microwires perpendicularly rising from a substrate. First, circuit paths and seed layers are fabricated applying standard UV lithography and PVD. Second, three lithography techniques are used, namely ion track lithography, enhanced UV lithography and aligned x-ray lithography, to structure 20-400 µm thick polymer films. Ion track lithography is only used to fabricate extremely high aspect ratio cylindrical pores with 0.1-1 µm diameter and 20-100 µm length. The aligned UV and x-ray lithographies are employed to structure templates for various micro system components. Third, these polymer templates are filled using low-temperature electroplating processes transferring the polymer openings into metal structures. Finally, the polymer is dry etched to release all metal structures. These structures are applicable in future accelerometers and gas flow sensors. Using five configurations to define five different functional structures, we demonstrate fabrication processes applying the three different types of lithography. The main aspects concern the combination of both standard lithography techniques and especially developed lithography techniques. Furthermore, these aspects comprise the use of structures created by lithography for high aspect ratio polymer templates and multilayer electroplating with varying aspect ratios. The growth in place of nanowire arrays and micropillars along with surrounding structures is the key feature for low-temperature large-scale micro-nano integration technology without harmful transfer technologies.

Greiner, F.; Quednau, S.; Dassinger, F.; Sarwar, R.; Schlaak, H. F.; Guttmann, M.; Meyer, P.

2013-02-01

191

Development of vertical SU-8 microtubes integrated with dissolvable tips for transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Polymer-based microneedles have drawn much attention in the transdermal drug delivery resulting from their flexibility and biocompatibility. Traditional fabrication approach deploys various kinds of molds to create sharp tips at the end of needles for the penetration purpose. This approach is usually time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we developed an innovative fabrication process to make biocompatible SU-8 microtubes integrated with biodissolvable maltose tips as novel microneedles for the transdermal drug delivery applications. These microneedles can easily penetrate the skin's outer barrier represented by the stratum corneum (SC) layer. The drug delivery device of mironeedles array with 1000??m spacing between adjacent microneedles is proven to be able to penetrate porcine cadaver skins successfully. The maximum loading force on the individual microneedle can be as large as 7.36 ± 0.48N. After 9?min of the penetration, all the maltose tips are dissolved in the tissue. Drugs can be further delivered via these open biocompatible SU-8 microtubes in a continuous flow manner. The permeation patterns caused by the solution containing Rhodamine 110 at different depths from skin surface were characterized via a confocal microscope. It shows successful implementation of the microneedle function for fabricated devices. PMID:24404018

Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakanksha; Pastorin, Giorgia; Lee, Chengkuo

2013-01-01

192

Development of vertical SU-8 microtubes integrated with dissolvable tips for transdermal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Polymer-based microneedles have drawn much attention in the transdermal drug delivery resulting from their flexibility and biocompatibility. Traditional fabrication approach deploys various kinds of molds to create sharp tips at the end of needles for the penetration purpose. This approach is usually time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we developed an innovative fabrication process to make biocompatible SU-8 microtubes integrated with biodissolvable maltose tips as novel microneedles for the transdermal drug delivery applications. These microneedles can easily penetrate the skin's outer barrier represented by the stratum corneum (SC) layer. The drug delivery device of mironeedles array with 1000??m spacing between adjacent microneedles is proven to be able to penetrate porcine cadaver skins successfully. The maximum loading force on the individual microneedle can be as large as 7.36 ± 0.48N. After 9?min of the penetration, all the maltose tips are dissolved in the tissue. Drugs can be further delivered via these open biocompatible SU-8 microtubes in a continuous flow manner. The permeation patterns caused by the solution containing Rhodamine 110 at different depths from skin surface were characterized via a confocal microscope. It shows successful implementation of the microneedle function for fabricated devices.

Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakanksha; Pastorin, Giorgia; Lee, Chengkuo

2013-01-01

193

Strategic decisions regarding the vertical integration of human resource organizations: evidence for an integrated HR model for the financial services and non-financial services industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the drivers of vertical integration for an integrated and unified HR-process model for 42 large companies from the financial services (13 companies) and the non-financial services sector (29 companies). The basis of this paper is formed by the results of a survey analysing the structures, processes and sourcing activities of human resource organizations. We sent the survey to

Mark Wahrenburg; Andreas Hackethal; Lars Friedrich; Tom Gellrich

2006-01-01

194

Integration of polymer and metal microstructures using liquid-phase photopolymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate, using a fabrication technique, liquid-phase photopolymerization (LP3) for the relatively fast and low-cost integration of thick polymers and electroformed metal microstructures to develop a range of microfluidic components and systems. Liquid-phase UV-photosensitive polymers, similar to negative-tone photoresists, are used to create both polymer microstructures and molds to define electroformed metal (here, nickel---Ni) microstructures. This fabrication

Abhishek K. Agarwal; David J. Beebe; Hongrui Jiang

2006-01-01

195

Integration of polymer and metal microstructures using liquid-phase photopolymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate, using a fabrication technique, liquid-phase photopolymerization (LP3) for the relatively fast and low-cost integration of thick polymers and electroformed metal microstructures to develop a range of microfluidic components and systems. Liquid-phase UV-photosensitive polymers, similar to negative-tone photoresists, are used to create both polymer microstructures and molds to define electroformed metal (here, nickel—Ni) microstructures. This fabrication

Abhishek K Agarwal; David J Beebe; Hongrui Jiang

2006-01-01

196

Integrated model development for liquid fueled rocket propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As detailed in the original statement of work, the objective of phase two of this research effort was to develop a general framework for rocket engine performance prediction that integrates physical principles, a rigorous mathematical formalism, component level test data, system level test data, and theory-observation reconciliation. Specific phase two development tasks are defined.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-01-01

197

Studies of neutron-? pulse shape discrimination in EJ-309 liquid scintillator using charge integration method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse shape discrimination capability based on the charge integration has been investigated for liquid scintillator EJ-309. The effectiveness of neutron-? discrimination in 4-in. diameter and 3-in. thick EJ-309 cells coupled with 3-in. photomultiplier tubes has been carefully studied in the laboratory environment and compared to the commonly used EJ-301 liquid scintillator formulation. Influences of distortions in pulse shape caused by 13.7-m long cables necessary for some remote operations have been examined. The parameter space for an effective neutron-? discrimination for these assays, such as position and width of a gate used for integration of the delayed light, has been explored.

Pawe?czak, I. A.; Ouedraogo, S. A.; Glenn, A. M.; Wurtz, R. E.; Nakae, L. F.

2013-05-01

198

An investigation of heat exchange of liquid metal during flow in a vertical tube with non-uniform heating in the transverse magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental investigations of heat exchange during the downflow of liquid metal in a vertical tube with non-uniform heating in the transverse magnetic field are presented. The experiment was more realistic in terms of conditions of the blanket of a fusion reactor of the tokamak type. Profiles of the average temperature, distribution of local and mean heat transfer coefficients (Nusselt numbers), and the intensities and spectra of temperature pulsations have been measured. On certain combinations of operating parameters in the strong magnetic field low-frequency temperature pulsations with abnormal intensity were found.

Mel'nikov, I. A.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sviridov, E. V.; Shestakov, A. A.

2013-05-01

199

A path integral Monte Carlo study of quantum solutes in liquid ammonia and ammonia clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path integral Monte Carlo method is applied to some solvation problems involving quantum solutes. Thermodynamics quantities like partial molar volume and entropy change associated with the electron solvaton process are calculate. The ionization of alkali atoms in liquid ammonia and the electron attachment to ammonia clusters are investigated.\\u000aPath integral MC simulations at constant pressure lead to an expansion

Massimo Marchi

1988-01-01

200

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 4: Reviews and presentation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid rocket booster integration study is presented. Volume 4 contains materials presented at the MSFC/JSC/KSC Integrated Reviews and Working Group Sessions, and the Progress Reviews presented to the KSC Study Manager. The following subject areas are covered: initial impact assessment; conflicts with the on-going STS mission; access to the LRB at the PAD; the activation schedule; transition requirements; cost methodology; cost modelling approach; and initial life cycle cost.

1988-01-01

201

Tiny surface plasmon resonance sensor integrated on silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into finite metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide.  

PubMed

We propose a tiny surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor integrated on a silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into a finite thickness metal-insulator-metal (f-MIM) plasmonic waveguide structure acting as a Fabry-Perot resonator. The resonant characteristics of vertically coupled f-MIM plasmonic waveguides are theoretically investigated and optimized. Numerical results show that the SPR sensor with a footprint of ~0.0375 ?m2 and a sensitivity of ~635 nm/RIU can be designed at a 1.55 ?m transmission wavelength. PMID:21996997

Lee, Dong-Jin; Yim, Hae-Dong; Lee, Seung-Gol; O, Beom-Hoan

2011-10-10

202

Integration of microfluidic and cantilever technology for biosensing application in liquid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcantilever based oscillators have shown the possibility of highly sensitive label-free detection by allowing the transduction of a target mass into a resonant frequency shift. Most of such measurements were performed in air or vacuum environment, since immersion in liquid dramatically deteriorates the mechanical response of the sensor. Besides, the integration of microcantilever detection in a microfluidic platform appears a

Carlo Ricciardi; Giancarlo Canavese; Riccardo Castagna; Ivan Ferrante; Alessandro Ricci; Simone Luigi Marasso; Lucia Napione; Federico Bussolino

2010-01-01

203

Integral equation theory of hard sphere liquids on two-dimensional cylindrical surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral equation theory has been developed to elucidate the structure of hard sphere liquids on the two dimensional (2D) surface of a cylinder. The 2D cylindrical coordinate breaks the spherical symmetry. Hence, the pair correlation function is reformulated as a function of two variables to account for particles packing along and around the cylinder. Both Percus–Yevick (PY) and Hypernetted

Takafumi Iwaki; Chwen-Yang Shew; Godfrey Gumbs

2006-01-01

204

Comparison of integral equations for correlations in liquid metallic hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dharma-Wardana and Perrot (DWP, 1982) calculated the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of hydrogen plasma by using an integral equation derived from the density-functional formalism with the local density approximation. The contribution from the electron-proton correlation was neglected in the effective electron-proton and proton-proton interactions, and the exchange-correlation effect of the electrons in the presence of ions was approximated by that of the jellium model. Here, the DWP equation is improved to include the contribution of electron-proton correlation, and the conventional pseudopotential theory is extended to take account of the nonlinear effect. This leads to extension of the method of Ichimaru et al. (IMTY, 1985) for calculating the RDFs of dense plasmas to include the effect of electron-proton local field correction. The extended and original equations are solved, and the results from the equations are compared with those from the quantal hypernetted chain equation.

Chihara, J.

1986-04-01

205

Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.  

PubMed

In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission. PMID:21348530

Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

2011-03-01

206

Critical heat flux during natural convective boiling on uniformly heated inner tubes in vertical annular tubes submerged in saturated liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made of critical heat flux (CHF) of natural convective boiling on uniformly heated inner tubes in vertical annular tubes. The experiment was performed at a pressure ofP=0.1 to 3.1 MPa for the clearance of 0.4 to 4.0 mm, the heated tube diameter of 5 to 10.6 mm, the annular tube length ofL=58 to 840 mm

Masanori Monde; Yuichiro Mitutake; Shinji Kubo

1994-01-01

207

Vertical mammaplasty.  

PubMed

Current criticisms regarding vertical mammaplasty include problems with poor immediate postoperative appearance, nipple-areola complex malposition, and excessive lower pole length. These problems can be avoided by proper patient selection, by utilizing correct concepts of skin design, and by observing correct glandular resection and closure concepts. Vertical mammaplasty also can result in other problems, such as hypertrophic circumareolar scars and lower pole deformities, including notching, boxy shape, infra-areolar depression, and flatness. These problems are also largely avoidable by using correct technique. Several basic concepts described previously have not proven necessary to achieve good results. Abandoning some of these principles has contributed to the ability to establish an aesthetically ideal breast shape intraoperatively as well as to a decrease in morbidity. This includes eliminating liposuction as a major integral component of the procedure, eliminating suturing the gland to the pectoralis muscle, not undermining the lower pole skin, and avoiding overly wide skin resection and tight wound closure that produces significant lower pole distortion in the early postoperative period. An important concept that has proven reliable is to use a "closed" design that does not predetermine the areolar opening whenever circumstances permit. When this is not possible, a modification that utilizes the smallest possible circumference as an open design is better than a large "mosque." These alternatives allow greater flexibility in determining final nipple position and also reduce the risk of hypertrophic circumareolar scars. Important glandular resection concepts include creating pillars that are attached to both the skin and the chest wall; making them of adequate dimension to avoid postoperative lower pole shape problems, such as flattening; resecting closer to the skin lateral to the pillars to avoid a boxy breast shape; and using a drain both to assist in accurately determining the endpoint of resection and to avoid postoperative seromas. Key closure concepts include approximation of the superior surfaces of the pillars at their base to maintain vertical height and thereby prevent lower pole flattening; approximation of the inferior surfaces of the pillars to the base of the breast to prevent notching; and proper management of the vertical incision by restricting the purse-string suture effect to only the inferior portion of the incision, where there may be skin excess present. Inclusion of these concepts leads to predictable and improved aesthetic results in vertical mammaplasty. This allows full realization of the purported advantages of vertical mammaplasty and allows this method to be utilized with a level of confidence similar to that seen with inverted-T techniques. PMID:15793463

Hidalgo, David A

2005-04-01

208

Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

1985-01-01

209

Integration of Twenty-Bladed Cross-Flow Fan into Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research presented is dedicated to determining an efficient rotor and housing system that will generate a sufficient thrust-to-weight ratio for vertical take-off and landing through computational modeling, implementation and experimentation. To accomp...

A. M. Jones

2013-01-01

210

Monitoring Reactor-Vessel Liquid Level with a Vertical String of SPNDs, (Self-Powered Neutron Detectors).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in in-core self-powered neutron detector signals, recorded during a nuclear loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation, have been correlated with liquid level changes which occurred during the core uncovery and recovery events. The correlations in...

J. P. Adams V. T. Berta

1983-01-01

211

Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship With Respect to Cervical and Cranial Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Methods: Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009–2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. Results: In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and “muscle” adjustments. Conclusion: There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction

Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle

2012-01-01

212

Development of converter to change gas-liquid two-phase slug flow to bubbly flow in a vertical tube  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical and/or the thermal fatigue fracture of pipelines due to the pulsating characteristics of slug flow will be prevented if slug flow is changed to bubbly flow. Then kinds of flow pattern converters were developed and tested in a vertical tube of 30.3 mm I.D. This paper reports that the converter composed of five stages of porous plates is useful. The sintered porous plates of spherical particles made acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin and bronze are selected from 76 kinds of porous plates.

Sakaguchi, T.; Minagawa, H.; Hamaguchi, H. (Faculity of Engineering, Kobe Univ. (JP)); Shakutusi, H. (Kobe Technical College (JP)); Ono, M. (Sumitomo Electric Co. Ltd. (JP)); Mizuta, H. (Grad School, Kobe Univ. (JP))

1989-07-01

213

Non-reactive and reactive trace gas fluxes: Simultaneous measurements with ground based and vertically integrating methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The footprint area, i.e. the source region of a flux measured at a certain location, increases with increasing height above ground of the flux measurements. For non-reactive trace gases and horizontally homogeneous terrain (particularly with respect to deposition and emission processes), an increase in height should not alter the actual measured flux (constant flux layer assumption). For reactive trace gases, with chemical life times of about 30 s - 300 s, chemical production and loss processes within the measuring layer lead to vertical flux divergence. The magnitude of the flux divergence can be determined directly by comparing fluxes of reactive trace gases being affected by chemistry with fluxes of the same species being not altered by chemistry. In August 2006, the field experiment LIBRETTO (LIndenBerg REacTive Trace gas prOfiles) was carried out in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD) at the field site of the Richard Aßmann Observatory in Lindenberg. At a 99 m mast, profiles of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were measured. The mast is equipped with an elevator, where sensors for trace gases (CO2, H2O, O3), air temperature and relative humidity have been installed. During the experiment, the elevator system was run continuously, providing scanned profiles of trace gas concentrations from 2 m to 99 m a.g.l. of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approx. every 10 minutes. Between 0.15 m and 2.0 m, concentration differences of the trace gases CO2, H2O, O3, NO and NO2 were measured. Applying the modified Bowen ration (MBR) method to the measured concentration differences and directly measured sensible heat flux (eddy covariance data from DWD) yields surface fluxes of the trace gases. Integral fluxes of CO2, O3 and sensible heat were computed simultaneously by applying the nocturnal boundary layer budget method to the scanned elevator profiles. A direct comparison showed little deviations between the two methods for the passive CO2 and sensible heat. This demonstrates the validity of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. However, the fluxes of the reactive O3 deviated significantly, with apparently higher deposition fluxes derived from the boundary layer budget method. We will present simultaneously measured fluxes of CO2, O3 and sensible heat. Furthermore, we will discuss the reasons for the observed deviations between the two methods. Particularly the attempt will be made to explain these deviations with the measured quantities.

Mayer, J.-C.; Rummel, U.; Andreae, M. O.; Foken, T.; Meixner, F. X.

2009-04-01

214

An Integrated Study of Geoelectric Vertical Sounding and Hydrogeochemistry in the Riverside Alluvium around Buyeo Area, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water quality of alluvial aquifers in agricultural areas is sensitive to the behaviour of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and lime) and, also, to the geologic conditions. It is important to know the characteristics of the aquifers (e.g., depth, spatial distribution, and soil types) and the relationship between subsurface geology and the groundwater contamination for its effective use and management in the future. In order to provide the subsurface information of the lithology and the groundwater zone for hydrogeologic interpretations, an integrated study using twenty vertical electric soundings (VES), direct observation of lithology from two boreholes and hydrochemical data from irrigation well has been conducted in the riverside alluvium near Buyeo area, Korea. Main results of this study are as follows. The depth of main groundwater table is getting slightly deeper toward the river. The boundary between surface sandy and silty soils extends to the subsurface at depth of groundwater table. The vestige of an ancient river channel, such as an oxbow lake, can be identified by a lateral continuation of perched aquifer parallel to the river on the resistivity profiles. This perched aquifer materials are composed of clay-rich silt soils, which prohibit the infiltration of oxygen and nitrate from the land surface. Therefore, the groundwater of the main aquifer below the oxbow lake shows the very low NO3 level and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. Surface resistivity contour map indicates that the resistivity varies with a NW-SE trending zonal distribution and increases toward the river. This result shows an agreement with the spatial distribution of surface soils, implying that the variation of surface resistivity is mainly controlled by surface lithology or soil type. On the other hand, the distribution of water resistivities is correlated with that of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, while the earth resistivity of aquifer shows a different spatial distribution from those of water resistivity and TDS. It is interpreted that the earth resistivity of aquifer might represent the variations of soil type rather than water chemistry in the study area. The present study shows that the geoelectric sounding survey with the complement of borehole lithology and hydrochemical data can provide an inexpensive and useful method for delineating the subsurface hydrogeology in the riverside alluvial aquifer.

Doh, S.; Park, Y.; Yun, S.

2005-12-01

215

Low-temperature metallic liquid hydrogen: an ab-initio path-integral molecular dynamics perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and computer simulations have shown that the melting temperature of solid hydrogen drops with pressure above about 65 GPa, suggesting that a low temperature liquid state might exist. It has also been suggested that this liquid state might be non-molecular and metallic, although evidence for such behaviour is lacking. Using a combination of ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics and the two-phase methods, we have simulated the melting of solid hydrogen under finite temperatures. We found an atomic solid phase from 500 to 800 GPa which melts at 200 K. Beyond this and up to pressures of 1,200 GPa a metallic atomic liquid is stable at temperatures as low as 50 K. The quantum motion of the protons is critical to the low melting temperature in this system as ab initio simulations with classical nuclei lead to a considerably higher melting temperature of ˜300 K across the entire pressure range considered.

Chen, Ji; Li, Xin-Zheng; Zhang, Qianfan; Probert, Matthew; Pickard, Chris; Needs, Richard; Michaelides, Angelos; Wang, Enge

2013-03-01

216

Simulation studies of liquid ammonia by classical ab initio, classical, and path-integral molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of liquid ammonia at T=273 K has been studied using classical ab initio molecular dynamics, classical molecular dynamics, and the path-integral molecular dynamics methods. The three different types of calculation are employed to generate new insights into the ability of theoretical methods to model liquid ammonia effectively. Thus, the limitations of using classical nuclei, simple point charge models, small systems, and gradient corrected density functional theory are assessed through a comparison of the results of the different types of calculations to each other and recent experiments in a consistent manner. Briefly, the experimental intermolecular quantum structure is very well reproduced by the classical approximation while the intramolecular classical and quantum structures exhibit large deviations. The intermolecular ab initio partial radial structure factors of liquid ammonia and the associated radial distribution functions are in better agreement with experiment than the empirical models. However, the empirical models also perform reasonably well.

Diraison, M.; Martyna, G. J.; Tuckerman, M. E.

1999-07-01

217

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon.  

PubMed

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides. No top sealing of the channels is required. Surface accessible fluid input ports are formed in a BPSG layer, with no additional steps, by appropriate design of template layers. By tightly controlling the refractive index of the waveguide layer and the microchannel-forming layer, fully integrated structures facilitating optical coupling between solid waveguides and liquids segments in various geometries are demonstrated. Applications in liquid-filled photonic device elements for novel nonlinear optical devices and in optical sensors and on-chip spectroscopy are outlined. PMID:17151758

Dumais, Patrick; Callender, Claire L; Ledderhof, Christopher J; Noad, Julian P

2006-12-20

218

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides. No top sealing of the channels is required. Surface accessible fluid input ports are formed in a BPSG layer, with no additional steps, by appropriate design of template layers. By tightly controlling the refractive index of the waveguide layer and the microchannel-forming layer, fully integrated structures facilitating optical coupling between solid waveguides and liquids segments in various geometries are demonstrated. Applications in liquid-filled photonic device elements for novel nonlinear optical devices and in optical sensors and on-chip spectroscopy are outlined.

Dumais, Patrick; Callender, Claire L.; Ledderhof, Christopher J.; Noad, Julian P.

2006-12-01

219

Two-phase flow characteristics of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward 0.5 and 1.0 mm micro-tubes: Visualization studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of liquid nitrogen to cooling is widely employed in many fields, such as cooling of the high temperature superconducting devices, cryosurgery and so on, in which liquid nitrogen is generally forced to flow inside very small passages to maintain good thermal performance and stability. In order to have a full understanding of the flow and heat transfer characteristics of liquid nitrogen in micro-tube, high-speed digital photography was employed to acquire the typical two-phase flow patterns of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward micro-tubes of 0.531 and 1.042 mm inner diameters. It was found from the experimental results that the flow patterns were mainly bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow. And the confined bubble flow, mist flow, bubble condensation and flow oscillation were also observed. These flow patterns were characterized in different types of flow regime maps. The surface tension force and the size of the diameter were revealed to be the major factors affecting the flow pattern transitions. It was found that the transition boundaries of the slug/churn flow and churn/annular flow of the present experiment shifted to lower superficial vapor velocity; while the transition boundary of the bubbly/slug flow shifted to higher superficial vapor velocity compared to the results of the room-temperature fluids in the tubes with the similar hydraulic diameters. The corresponding transition boundaries moved to lower superficial velocity when reducing the inner diameter of the micro-tubes. Time-averaged void fraction and heat transfer characteristics for individual flow patterns were presented and special attention was paid to the effect of the diameter on the variation of void fraction.

Zhang, P.; Fu, X.

2009-10-01

220

Wavelength tunable infrared light source based on semiconductor-integrated liquid crystal filter.  

PubMed

This work proposes an electrically tunable infrared light source based on a new compact structure, i.e., an AlGaInAs semiconductor multiple quantum well (MQW) integrated with a liquid crystal Fabry-Pérot filter. The AlGaInAs MQW is used as a luminance layer that emits broadband light. By sandwiching the AlGaInAs and LC material with two conducting mirrors, the active light source with an optical filter can be tuned with a wide wavelength range. The filter filled with nematic liquid crystal enables continuous tuning of emission along the extraordinary mode and provides a 58 nm tuning range with a bias of 14 V. The simulation results of wavelength and tunability are consistent with the experimental results. Cholesteric liquid crystal with a planar texture is also used to examine the properties of the tunable light source. Under an electric field, all the helical liquid crystal molecules tend to be aligned parallel to the field. The variation of the refractive index is normal to the substrate surface, and the polarization-independent tuning range is 41 nm. The wide tuning range and the polarization properties observed when NLC and CLC are respectively incorporated into the AlGaInAs based Fabry-Pérot cavity suggest that this integration scheme has potential for applying to optical communication system. PMID:23037436

Yao, Yu-Hsin; Wang, Chun-Ta; Chen, Rui-Ren; Jau, Hung-Chang; Chiu, Yi-Jen; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

2012-09-24

221

An integrated test method for high-temperature liquid lubricants: Dynamic test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-ball-on-disk (TBOD) bench test has been developed to evaluate high-temperature liquid lubricants such as the polyphenyl ethers. The TBOD test method is capable of generating an integrated set of tribo-measurements including friction, wear, lubricant consumption, and lubricant tribochemistry. Unlike the four-ball wear test, well-defined wear scars of circular and elliptical shapes are exclusively produced, which is critical for precise wear volume calculation.

Chao, Kenneth K.; Toth, Douglas K.; Saba, Costandy S.

1994-04-01

222

Evaluation of Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystals by measuring off-axis retardation in vertical electric field cells.  

PubMed

Because of the nonuniform electric field of the in-plane-switching cell in the thickness direction, an accurate and efficient way for evaluating the Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) needs to be developed. This study demonstrates a method for evaluating the Kerr constant by measuring the off-axis-induced retardation (R(th)) change in normal vertical field cells using a commercial polarimeter. The angle-dependent behavior of the R(th) change is observed as an electric-tunable positive C retarder. In this paper, a sigmoid fitting model has been chosen for calculating the Kerr constant for considering the very small intrinsic birefringence of the BPLC. PMID:21947049

Hsieh, Pao-Ju; Chen, Huang-Ming Philip

2011-09-20

223

Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electrooptical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of liquid crystal (LC) alignment characteristics on a SiOx thin films of various thicknesses deposited at an oblique angle of 45° by RF magnetic sputtering. A uniform LC alignment characteristic was achieved on the SiOx thin film, and the pretilt angle was about 90°. The thermal stability of the SiOx thin film was sustained until 200

Sung-Ho Choi; Jeoung-Yeon Hwang; Sungyeon Kim; Byeong-Yun Oh; Jae-Min Myoung; Dae-Shik Seo

2006-01-01

224

Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides toward integrated optofluidic light sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waveguides and light sources are essential building blocks in optofluidics. Here, we have developed the new approach to fabricate efficient waveguides and light sources by using two-phase stratified flow of dye containing liquid and air. The liquid-core/air-cladding (LA) waveguide can overcome some of major drawbacks of the liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguide without losing its unique advantages. Specifically, stronger optical confinement, originated from the large refractive index contrast between core and cladding, enable us to achieve lower propagation losses and larger captured fractions (the amount of light to be coupled into the liquid core). In addition, the LA waveguides are free from diffusional mixing of the core and cladding fluids. The fluorescent LA waveguides can be fabricated by conventional poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) based soft lithography, which is compatible with the other parts of optofluidic devices. Therefore, the fluorescent LA waveguide can be easily integrated with precise alignment as an internal light source of optofluidic devices.

Lim, Jong-Min; Kim, Se-Heon; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Yang, Seung-Man

2008-08-01

225

Defining Vertical Permeability Distribution to Support SAGD Operations: An Integrated Multi-Scale Approach to Modelling a Bitumen Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural bitumen deposits in Alberta, Canada, comprise about 1,700 billion bbls of bitumen in place with an estimated 174 billion bbls recoverable. They are deemed critical to the future security of North American energy supplies. The primary extraction method for these deposits will be steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), a method dependent on vertical reservoir permeability. The Lower Cretaceous

Peter Phillips

226

Vertical stream curricula integration of problem-based learning using an autonomous vacuum robot in a mechatronics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in teaching a multi-disciplinary subject such as the mechatronics system design module in Departments of Mechatronics Engineering at Temasek Polytechnic arise from the gap in experience and skill among staff and students who have different backgrounds in mechanical, computer and electrical engineering within the Mechatronics Department. The departments piloted a new vertical stream curricula model (VSCAM) to enhance student

Cheng Chin; Keng Yue

2011-01-01

227

Integrative responses of neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius to visceral afferent stimulation and vestibular stimulation in vertical planes  

PubMed Central

Anatomical studies have demonstrated that the vestibular nuclei project to nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), but little is known about the effects of vestibular inputs on NTS neuronal activity. Furthermore, lesions of NTS abolish vomiting elicited by a variety of different triggering mechanisms, including vestibular stimulation, suggesting that emetic inputs may converge on the same NTS neurons. As such, an emetic stimulus that activates gastrointestinal (GI) receptors could alter the responses of NTS neurons to vestibular inputs. In the present study, we examined in decerebrate cats the responses of NTS neurons to rotations of the body in vertical planes before and after the intragastric administration of the emetic compound copper sulfate. The activity of more than one-third of NTS neurons was modulated by vertical vestibular stimulation, with most of the responsive cells having their firing rate altered by rotations in the head-up or head-down directions. These responses were aligned with head position in space, as opposed to the velocity of head movements. The activity of NTS neurons with baroreceptor, pulmonary, and GI inputs could be modulated by vertical plane rotations. However, injection of copper sulfate into the stomach did not alter the responses to vestibular stimulation of NTS neurons that received GI inputs, suggesting that the stimuli did not have additive effects. These findings show that the detection and processing of visceral inputs by NTS neurons can be altered in accordance with the direction of ongoing movements.

Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; DeStefino, Vincent J.

2011-01-01

228

Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

2011-01-01

229

Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

1993-01-01

230

Enrichment of Integral Membrane Proteins for Proteomic Analysis Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Currently, most proteomic studies rely on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect and identify constituent peptides of enzymatically digested proteins obtained from various organisms and cell types. However, sample preparation methods for isolating membrane proteins typically involve the use of detergents, chaotropes, or reducing reagents that often interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI). To increase the identification of integral membrane proteins by LC-ESI-MS/MS, a sample preparation method combining carbonate extraction and surfactant-free organics solvent-assisted solubilization and proteolysis was developed and used to target the membrane subproteome of Deinococcus radiodurans. Out of 503 proteins identified, 135 were recognized as hydrophobic based on their positive grand average of hydropathicity values that covers 15% of the theoretical hydrophobic proteome. Using the PSORT algorithm, 268 identified proteins were recognized as integral membrane proteins covering 21% and 43% of the predicted integral cytoplasmic and outer membrane proteins, respectively. Of the integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins containing four or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs), 65% were identified by detecting at least one peptide spanning a TMD using LC-MS/MS. The extensive identification of highly hydrophobic proteins containing multiple TMDs confirms the efficacy of the described sample preparation protocol to isolate and solubilize integral membrane proteins and validates the method for large-scale analysis of bacterial membrane subproteomes using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

Blonder, Josip; Goshe, Michael B.; Moore, Ronald J.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Masselon, Christophe D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

2002-04-01

231

An integrated test method for high-temperature liquid lubricants: Static test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel thin-film oxidation technique, by means of a sealed tube test, has been developed. The analytical method based on this technique is capable of measuring lubricant liquid-phase reaction rate, gas-phase reaction rate, evaporation rate, etc. Because all of these measurements originate from a single test condition, they are intrinsically related to each other, thus providing an integrated frame in data interpretation. A 5P4E polyphenyl ether is used in this preliminary study, and its experimental results are presented and discussed.

Chao, Kenneth K.; Saba, Costandy S.

1995-01-01

232

Fabrication and characterization of the Si-photonics-integrated vertical resonant-cavity light-emitting diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and fabricated a 1.3-um hybrid vertical Resonant-Cavity Light-Emitting Diode for optical interconnect by using direct III-V wafer bonding on silicon on insulator (SOI). The device included InP based front distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), InGaAlAs based active layer, and SOI-based high-contrast-grating (HCG) as a back reflector. 42-uW continuous wave optical power was achieved at 20mA at room temperature.

Kong, Duanhua; Kim, Taek; Kim, Sihan; Hong, Hyungi; Shcherbatko, Igor; Park, Youngsoo; Shin, Dongjae; Ha, Kyoung-Ho; Jeong, Gitae

2014-03-01

233

An integrated control panel utilizing a programmable varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the conflicting demands of modern aircraft for increased systems/sensors and the decrease in cockpit panel size, weight, volume, and power, conventional discrete/dedicated methods of display and control are fast becoming obsolete. A means is sought to integrate the control and display into multifunctional programmable devices, thus giving the ability to increase system functions and yet conserve panel space. A potential solution to the control portion of the problem has come to be known as the Integrated Control Panel (ICP) approach. Flat panel display technology and controls using programmable flat panel displays with transparent capacitive touch control overlays offer the largest potential advantages. The flat panel display made of varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal (LCD) developed by GE in recent years appears to offer the ideal monochrome solution.

Whitton, I. J.

1981-01-01

234

Multispectral integral imaging acquisition and processing using a monochrome camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter.  

PubMed

This paper presents an acquisition system and a procedure to capture 3D scenes in different spectral bands. The acquisition system is formed by a monochrome camera, and a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (LCTF) that allows to acquire images at different spectral bands in the [480, 680]nm wavelength interval. The Synthetic Aperture Integral Imaging acquisition technique is used to obtain the elemental images for each wavelength. These elemental images are used to computationally obtain the reconstruction planes of the 3D scene at different depth planes. The 3D profile of the acquired scene is also obtained using a minimization of the variance of the contribution of the elemental images at each image pixel. Experimental results show the viability to recover the 3D multispectral information of the scene. Integration of 3D and multispectral information could have important benefits in different areas, including skin cancer detection, remote sensing and pattern recognition, among others. PMID:23187411

Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Sánchez-Ortiga, Emilio; Xiao, Xiao; Pla, Filiberto; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Navarro, Héctor; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

2012-11-01

235

Integrated ionic liquid-based electrofluidic circuits for pressure sensing within polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic systems.  

PubMed

This paper reports a novel pressure sensor with an electrical readout based on electrofluidic circuits constructed by ionic liquid (IL)-filled microfluidic channels. The developed pressure sensor can be seamlessly fabricated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic systems using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography (MSL) technique without additional assembly or sophisticated cleanroom microfabrication processes. Therefore, the device can be easily scaled up and is fully disposable. The pressure sensing is achieved by measuring the pressure-induced electrical resistance variation of the constructed electrofluidic resistor. In addition, an electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuit is designed for accurate and stable resistance measurements. The pressure sensor is characterized using pressurized nitrogen gas and various liquids which flow into the microfluidic channels. The experimental results demonstrate the great long-term stability (more than a week), temperature stability (up to 100 °C), and linear characteristics of the developed pressure sensing scheme. Consequently, the integrated microfluidic pressure sensor developed in this paper is promising for better monitoring and for characterizing the flow conditions and liquid properties inside the PDMS microfluidic systems in an easier manner for various lab on a chip applications. PMID:21451820

Wu, Chueh-Yu; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

2011-05-21

236

Integration of microfluidic and cantilever technology for biosensing application in liquid environment.  

PubMed

Microcantilever based oscillators have shown the possibility of highly sensitive label-free detection by allowing the transduction of a target mass into a resonant frequency shift. Most of such measurements were performed in air or vacuum environment, since immersion in liquid dramatically deteriorates the mechanical response of the sensor. Besides, the integration of microcantilever detection in a microfluidic platform appears a highly performing technological solution to exploit real time monitoring of biomolecular interactions, while limiting sample handling and promoting portability and automation of routine diagnostic tests (Point-Of-Care devices). In the present paper, we report on the realization and optimization of a microcantilever-based Lab-on-Chip, showing that microplates rather than microbeams exhibit largest mass sensitivity in liquid, while pirex rather than polymers represents the best choice for microfluidic channels. Maximum Q factor achieved was 140 (for fifth resonance mode of Pirex prototype), as our knowledge the highest value reported in literature for cantilever biosensors resonating in liquid environment without electronic feedback. Then, we proved the successfully detection of Angiopoietin-1 (a putative marker in tumor progression), showing that the related frequency shifts coming from non-specific interactions (negative controls) are roughly one order of magnitude lower than typical variations due to specific protein binding. Furthermore, we monitored the formation of antibody-antigen complex on MC surface in real-time. The proposed tool could be extremely useful for the comprehension of complex biological systems such as angiogenic machinery and cancer progression. PMID:20843676

Ricciardi, Carlo; Canavese, Giancarlo; Castagna, Riccardo; Ferrante, Ivan; Ricci, Alessandro; Marasso, Simone Luigi; Napione, Lucia; Bussolino, Federico

2010-12-15

237

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Light-current characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with external optical feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of external optical feedback (OFB) on the light-current characteristics of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was investigated theoretically and experimentally. By calculating the OFB sensitivity parameter, the OFB sensibility of the VCSELs was compared with the edge emitting lasers. Based on the compound cavity theory, the light-current characteristic parameters of the VCSELs with external OFB, such as the threshold current and the slope efficiency, were calculated. The experimental results indicated that the threshold current of the VCSELs with different DBR reflectivities decreased to different degrees, accompanied with a decrease of slope efficiency when under 10% feedback ratio of the external OFB, which is in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

Xing, Zhang; Yongqiang, Ning; Yanfang, Sun; Yan, Zhang; Guangyu, Liu; Hangyu, Peng; Zaijin, Li; Li, Qin; Yun, Liu; Lijun, Wang

2010-03-01

238

Electronic and atomic structure of liquid potassium via path integral molecular dynamics with non-local quantum exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a novel first-principle molecular dynamics method based on the discretized path integral formalism of quantum mechanics. This method which includes quantum exchange is used to simulate the behavior of liquid potassium at high temperature. We compute the energy as well as the electronic and atomic structural properties of the liquid metal. These results compare favorably with previous calculations and experimental results.

Deymier, P. A.; Jabbour, G. E.; Weinberg, J. D.; Cherne, F. J.

1996-03-01

239

Light efficient parallel interconnect using integrated planar free-space optics and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar optics is an approach to monolithically integrate free-space optical system. Diffractive microoptical elements are etched into a transparent substrate which serves as a medium for light propagation as well as a board for optoelectronic or electronic components. Mirrors and imaging optics are sued to keep the light traveling within the substrate along a zigzag path. Arrays of VCSEL devices can be integrated on the substrate by means of flip-chip bonding. Among the interesting applications of that technology are optical interconnections for VLSI systems where the optics can provide a large number of parallel channels. A critical issue of the practical realization is the light efficiency of the optical interconnect. Here, we propose a planar-optical implementation of the interconnect using analog grey-scale lithography resulting in a light- efficiency optical system.

Jahns, Juergen; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Sinzinger, Stefan

1998-04-01

240

Ferroelectric properties of vertically aligned nanostructured BaTiO3-CeO2 thin films and their integration on silicon.  

PubMed

Epitaxial (BaTiO3)0.5(CeO2)0.5 films have been deposited in vertically aligned nanocomposite form on SrTiO3/TiN buffered Si substrates to achieve high-quality ferroelectrics on Si. The thin TiN seed layer promotes the epitaxial growth of the SrTiO3 buffer on Si, which in turn is essential for the high-quality growth of the vertically aligned nanocomposite structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterization show that the films consist of distinct c-axis oriented BaTiO3 and CeO2 phases. Polarization measurements show that the BaTiO3-CeO2 films on Si are actually ferroelectric at room temperature, and the ferroelectric response is comparable to pure BaTiO3 as well as the BaTiO3-CeO2 films on SrTiO3 single-crystalline substrates. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that, instead of decreasing, the Curie temperature increases to 175 and 150 °C for the samples on SrTiO3 and Si substrates, respectively. This work is an essential step towards integrating novel nanostructured materials with advanced functionalities into Si-based devices. PMID:24266680

Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chen, Aiping; Lee, Joon Hwan; Zhang, Wenrui; Abdel-Raziq, Haron; Wang, Haiyan

2013-12-11

241

Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of a Rigid Rotating Shaft Supported by the Magnetic Bearing (Influence of the Integral Feedback in the PID Control of the Vertical Shaft)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active magnetic bearing (AMB) becomes to be widely used in various kinds of rotating machinery. However, as the magnetic force is nonlinear, nonlinear phenomena may occur when the rotational speed becomes higher and the delay of control force relatively increases. In this paper, the magnetic force is modeled by considering both the second order delay of the electric current and the first order delay of the magnetic flux. The AMB force is represented by a power series function of the electric current and shaft displacement. The nonlinear theoretical analysis of the vertical rigid rotor supported by the AMB with the PID control theory is demonstrated. The effects of the gain of the integral feedback on the nonlinear phenomena are clarified theoretically and experimentally.

Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko

242

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOEpatents

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01

243

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

244

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

245

Raman-induced frequency shift in CS2-filled integrated liquid-core optical fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an optically tunable frequency shift in an all-fiber based system using a carbon disulfide (CS2) filled integrated liquid-core optical fiber (i-LCOF) and co-propagating pulses of comparable temporal lengths. In 1 m of i-LCOF we were able to shift 18 ps pulses, a full spectral bandwidth at low pump peak powers, using the Raman-induced frequency shift and slow light effects. Numerical simulations of the pulse-propagation equations agree well with the observed shifts. We also analyze the contributions of both the Raman cross-frequency shift and slow light effects to the overall frequency shift. The system is all-fiber based and compact, making it suitable for applications such as a low power wavelength converter.

Herrera, Oscar D.; Schneebeli, L.; Kieu, K.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.

2014-05-01

246

A compact optofluidic cytometer with integrated liquid-core/PDMS-cladding waveguides.  

PubMed

We developed a simple method to construct liquid-core/PDMS-cladding optical waveguides through pressurized filling of dead-ended micro-channels with optical fluids. The waveguides are in the same layer as microfluidic channels which greatly simplifies device fabrication. With proper contrast between the refractive index of the core and cladding, the transmission loss of the waveguides is less than 5 dB cm(-1). We also developed a method to create flat and optically clear surfaces on the sides of PDMS devices in order to couple light between free-space and the waveguides embedded inside the chip. With these newly developed techniques, we make a compact flow cytometer and demonstrate the fluorescence counting of single cells at a rate of up to ~50 cell s(-1) and total sample requirement of a few microlitres. This method of making liquid-core optical waveguides and flat surfaces has great potential to be integrated into many PDMS-based microsystems. PMID:22699406

Fei, Peng; Chen, Zitian; Men, Yongfan; Li, Ang; Shen, Yiran; Huang, Yanyi

2012-10-01

247

Hybrid two-chain simulation and integral equation theory : application to polyethylene liquids.  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a hybrid simulation and integral equation approach to the calculation of polymer melt properties. The simulation consists of explicit Monte Carlo (MC) sampling of two polymer molecules, where the effect of the surrounding chains is accounted for by an HNC solvation potential. The solvation potential is determined from the Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) as a functional of the pair correlation function from simulation. This hybrid two-chain MC-PRISM approach was carried out on liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 CH{sub 2} units. The results are compared with MD simulation and self-consistent PRISM-PY theory under the same conditions, revealing that the two-chain calculation is close to MD, and able to overcome the defects of the PRISM-PY closure and predict more accurate structures of the liquid at both short and long range. The direct correlation function, for instance, has a tail at longer range which is consistent with MD simulation and avoids the short-range assumptions in PRISM-PY theory. As a result, the self-consistent two-chain MC-PRISM calculation predicts an isothermal compressibility closer to the MD results.

Huimin Li, David T. Wu (Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO.); Curro, John G.; McCoy, John Dwane (New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology Socorro, NM.)

2006-02-01

248

An integrated system for wireless capsule endoscopy in a liquid-distended stomach.  

PubMed

The design and development of a functional integrated system for gastroscopy is reported in this paper. The device takes advantage of four propellers enabling locomotion in a liquid environment and generating a maximum propulsive force of 25.5 mN. The capsule has been equipped with a miniaturized wireless vision system that acquires images with a frame rate of 30 fps (frames per second). The overall size of the capsule is 32 mm in length and 22 mm in diameter, with the possibility of decreasing the diameter to swallowable dimensions. The capsule is remotely controlled by the user who can intuitively drive the device by looking at the video streaming on the graphical interface. The average speed of the device is 1.5 cm/s that allows for a fine control of the capsule motion as demonstrated in experimental tasks consisting of passing through circular targets. The video system performances have been characterized by evaluating the contrast, the focus, and the capability of acquiring and perceiving different colors. The usability of the device has been tested on bench and on explanted tissues by three users in real time target-identification tasks, in order to assess the success of the integration process. The lifetime of the capsule with active motors and vision system is 13 min, that is, a timeframe consistent with traditional gastroscopic examinations. PMID:24216631

De Falco, Iris; Tortora, Giuseppe; Dario, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna

2014-03-01

249

On Vertical Mergers and Their Competitive Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that vertical integration cats change the pricing incentive of an upstream producer. However, it has not been noticed that vertical integration may also change the pricing incentive of downstream producer and the incentive of a competitor in choosing input suppliers. I develop an equilibrium theory of vertical merger that incorporates these additional strategic considerations. Under fairly

Yongmin Chen

2001-01-01

250

Integration of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal composites with conducting polymer thin films toward the fabrication of flexible display devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short review on the current development in all-organic PDLC (Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal) “light valves” using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes is presented in this article. Due to conducting polymers’ better mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates, integration of driving electrodes based on conducting polymer thin films in display devices can have some advantages over

Pen-Cheng Wang; Alan G. MacDiarmid

2007-01-01

251

A bioreporter bioluminescent integrated circuit for very low-level chemical sensing in both gas and liquid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a compact biosensor using genetically engineered whole-cell bioreporters on a CMOS based integrated circuit, also called the microluminometer, for accurately sensing low concentrations of a wide range of toxic substances in both gas and liquid environments. The bioluminescent bioreporters are bacteria that can be genetically altered to achieve bioluminescence when in contact with a targeted substance. The bioreporters

R. Vijayaraghavan; S. K. Islam; M. Zhang; S. Ripp; S. Caylor; Nora D. Bull; S. Moser; S. C. Terry; B. J. Blalock; G. S. Sayler

2007-01-01

252

Improved vertical scanning interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical scanning interferometers are routinely used for the measurement of optical fiber connectors. There are increasing needs for measurements of such items as machined surfaces, contact lenses, paint texture, cell structure, and integrated circuit devices, to name a few. These structures have too much depth, or are too rough, to measure with standard interferometry methods. Phase- measurement interferometry methods are

Akiko Harasaki; Joanna Schmidt; James C. Wyant

2000-01-01

253

Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control  

DOEpatents

A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA)

2012-04-24

254

Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range.  

PubMed

Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range. PMID:24029688

Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

2013-10-11

255

Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

Winden, A.; Mikulics, M.; Grützmacher, D.; Hardtdegen, H.

2013-10-01

256

THE VERTICAL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

1994-01-01

257

On the impact of large-amplitude fluctuations in deep integrated transports over sloping bathymetry on the vertical structure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-variable barotropic flow over the continental rises of the eastern and western boundaries of the Atlantic projects on the vertical structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) streamfunction. This AMOC component is invisible to density measurements, and is therefore difficult to quantify by observations. The RAPID/MOCHA array has provided daily estimates of the vigor of the AMOC at 26.5°N since April 2004, based on simultaneous observations of (i) Gulf Stream transports using cable measurements across the Straits of Florida, (ii) Ekman transports inferred from satellite scatterometry, and (iii) mid-ocean baroclinic transports derived from density profiles taken at the Moroccan and Bahamas continental slopes. Time-variable reference transports for the baroclinic mid-ocean transports - required to estimate the daily strength of the AMOC - have previously been estimated indirectly, via the imposition of a physically plausible, integral zero-net-transport constraint at each time step (Cunningham et al., 2007). This constraint has been implemented in the form of a spatially uniform compensation velocity field. Using geostrophic reference transports inferred from deep bottom pressure measurements carried out on the eastern and western boundaries at 26.5°N, Kanzow et al. (2007) showed that the AMOC strength was highly correlated with that using the integral transport constraint. At the same time AMOC related abyssal, basin-wide integrated meridional rms transport fluctuations using the former approach exceeded those relying on the transport constraint by a factor 3. Based on an analysis of bottom pressure records collected between April 2004 and October 2007 we show that abyssal, zonally integrated transport variations at 5000 m show pronounced seasonal variability, and that the amplitude of the observed fluctuations exceeds that at any other level below the thermocline, in contrast to the transport constraint solution. The reason for this are intense time-variable flows over the eastern continental rise, as revealed by the bottom pressure records, that vary out of phase with the integrated transports over the remaining part of zonal extent of the 6000 km wide section, thereby reducing basin-wide integrated transport on shallower levels. The presence of the large-amplitude abyssal transport variability is puzzling from an energetics point of view, as it clearly exceeds the level of variability required for a barotopic compensation of Gulf Stream and Ekman transports. Overall, our results reveal that the external mode exhibits a pronounced zonal structure. This suggests that a modification of the spatially invariant compensation flow field (required to estimate mid-ocean reference transports) to incorporate a simple approximation to the zonal structure inferred from the bottom pressure measurements, yields a much more realistic representation of the deep, time-variable, vertical structure of the AMOC.

Kanzow, T.; Cunningham, S. A.

2009-04-01

258

Disruption of E. coli amyloid-integrated biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by a polysorbate surfactant  

PubMed Central

Functional amyloid fibers termed curli contribute to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in E. coli. We discovered that the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 inhibits biofilm formation by uropathogenic E. coli at the air-liquid interface, referred to as pellicle formation, and at the solid-liquid interface. At Tween 20 concentrations near and above the critical micelle concentration, the interfacial viscoelastic modulus is reduced to zero as cellular aggregates at the air-liquid interface are locally disconnected and eventually eliminated. Tween 20 does not inhibit the production of curli, but prevents curli-integrated film formation. Our results support a model in which the hydrophobic curli fibers associated with bacteria near the air-liquid interface require access to the gas phase to formed strong physical entanglements and to form a network that can support shear stress.

Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G.; Cegelski, Lynette

2013-01-01

259

Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

2013-01-01

260

Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

2013-01-01

261

Functions and Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

2010-01-01

262

Integration of pre-aligned liquid metal electrodes for neural stimulation within a user-friendly microfluidic platform.  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation of nervous tissue is used clinically for the treatment of multiple neurological disorders and experimentally for basic research. With the increase of optical probes to record neuronal activity, simple and user-friendly methods are desired to stimulate neurons and their subcellular compartments for biological experimentation. Here we describe the novel integration of liquid metal electrodes with microfluidic culture platforms to accomplish this goal. We integrated electrode and cell channels into a single poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip, eliminating entirely the need to align electrodes with microchannels. We designed the electrode channels such that the metal can be injected by hand and when the device is non-covalently bound to glass. We demonstrated the biocompatibility of the electrodes for long-term cultures (12 days) using hippocampal neurons. We demonstrated the use of these electrodes to depolarize neurons and recorded neuronal activity using the calcium indicator dye, Fluo-4. We established optimal stimulation parameters that induce neuronal spiking without inducing damage. We showed that the liquid metal electrode evoked larger calcium responses in somata than bath electrodes using the same stimulus parameters. Lastly we demonstrated the use of these liquid metal electrodes to target and depolarize axons. In summary, the integration of liquid metal electrodes with neuronal culture platforms provides a user-friendly and targeted method to stimulate neurons and their subcellular compartments, thus providing a novel tool for future biological investigations. PMID:23232866

Hallfors, Nicholas; Khan, Asif; Dickey, Michael D; Taylor, Anne Marion

2013-02-21

263

Fluorescent liquid-core\\/air-cladding waveguides toward integrated optofluidic light sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waveguides and light sources are essential building blocks in optofluidics. Here, we have developed the new approach to fabricate efficient waveguides and light sources by using two-phase stratified flow of dye containing liquid and air. The liquid-core\\/air-cladding (LA) waveguide can overcome some of major drawbacks of the liquid-core\\/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguide without losing its unique advantages. Specifically, stronger optical confinement,

Jong-Min Lim; Se-Heon Kim; Jae-Hoon Choi; Seung-Man Yang

2008-01-01

264

Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

Brumbaugh, W. G.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Manahan, S. E.

2002-01-01

265

IL-GLOBO (1.0) - integrated Lagrangian particle model and Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO: development of the vertical diffusion module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and validation of the vertical diffusion module of IL-GLOBO, a Lagrangian transport model coupled online with the Eulerian General Circulation Model GLOBO, is described. The module simulates the effects of turbulence on particle motion by means of a Lagrangian Stochastic Model (LSM) consistent with the turbulent diffusion equation used in GLOBO. The implemented LSM integrates particle trajectories, using the native ?-hybrid coordinates of the Eulerian component, and fulfills the Well Mixed Condition (WMC) in the general case of a variable density profile. The module is validated through a series of 1-D numerical experiments by assessing its accuracy in maintaining an initially well mixed distribution. A dynamical time-step selection algorithm with constraints related to the shape of the diffusion coefficient profile is developed and gives accurate results, even for strongly peaked diffusivity profiles. Finally, the skills of a linear interpolation and a modified Akima spline interpolation method are compared, showing that the former generally introduces deviations from the WMC, due to the inconsistency between the local value of the diffusion coefficient and its derivatives. The Akima interpolation algorithm, for which the model satisfies the WMC rigorously, has a computational cost within 120% of the linear interpolation algorithm, making it a reasonable option for implementation in the 3-D model.

Rossi, D.; Maurizi, A.

2014-04-01

266

Integrated Bragg reflectors in low-index media: enabling strategies for wavelength tunability in electro-optic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports two configurations of Bragg reflectors based on liquid crystals confined between two small glass plates. Both approaches employ the efficient electro-optic effect in liquid crystals, which allows tunability of the reflectors by using low voltages. The molecular reorientation induced by an applied electric field implies a refractive index modulation seen by polarized light propagating into the liquid crystal. We show design criteria and profile optimization of the electrodes to induce a liquid crystal refractive index periodic modulation, providing a wavelength selective propagation of confined light in the liquid crystal. The two proposed device configurations differ for the top-bottom electrode configuration in one case and coplanar electrodes in the other case. Modeling of both configurations has been carried by calculating the applied electric field distribution and its interaction with the liquid crystal elastic properties taking into account the boundary conditions due to the alignment layer on the inner faces of the glass substrates. The calculated performance in terms of high wavelength selectivity and ultrawide spectral tuning range indicate that the two designed structures can be proposed for both optical filtering and to produce novel low power integrated distributed feedback resonators in dense wavelength division multiplexed fiber optic systems.

Asquini, Rita; Gilardi, Giovanni; D'Alessandro, Antonio; Assanto, Gaetano

2011-07-01

267

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07

268

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to ?2H and ?18O measurement errors (??2H and ??18O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, mBB, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, mNB. These metrics are used to correct for ??2H and ??18O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and ??18O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while ??2H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with mNB. Using the isotope error versus mNB and mBB curves, ??2H and ??18O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 ‰ and 0.25 ‰ respectively, while ??2H and ??18O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 ‰ and 0.22 ‰. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

2012-04-01

269

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes.  

PubMed

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to ?(2)H and ?(18)O measurement errors (??(2)H and ??(18)O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m(BB), and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m(NB). These metrics are used to correct for ??(2)H and ??(18)O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and ??(18)O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while ??(2)H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m(NB). Using the isotope error versus m(NB) and m(BB) curves, ??(2)H and ??(18)O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 [per thousand] and 0.25 [per thousand] respectively, while ??(2)H and ??(18)O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 [per thousand] and 0.22 [per thousand]. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors. PMID:22559556

Brian Leen, J; Berman, Elena S F; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

2012-04-01

270

67 FR 2136 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Integrity Management in High Consequence Areas (Hazardous Liquid...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...written integrity management program that addresses the risks of those segments...standard using a risk-based approach to integrity management. The rule has...written integrity management program that addresses the risks on each...

2002-01-16

271

Monolithically integrated, flexible display of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal driven by rubber-stamped organic thin-film transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter describes the monolithic integration of rubber-stamped thin-film organic transistors with polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) to create a multipixel, flexible display with plastic substrates. We report the electro-optic switching behavior of the PDLCs as driven by the organic transistors, and we show that our displays operate robustly under flexing and have a contrast comparable to that of newsprint.

P. Mach; S. J. Rodriguez; R. Nortrup; P. Wiltzius; J. A. Rogers

2001-01-01

272

Monolithically integrated, flexible display of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal driven by rubber-stamped organic thin-film transistors  

SciTech Connect

This letter describes the monolithic integration of rubber-stamped thin-film organic transistors with polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) to create a multipixel, flexible display with plastic substrates. We report the electro-optic switching behavior of the PDLCs as driven by the organic transistors, and we show that our displays operate robustly under flexing and have a contrast comparable to that of newsprint. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Mach, P.; Rodriguez, S. J.; Nortrup, R.; Wiltzius, P.; Rogers, J. A.

2001-06-04

273

Liquid-phase chemical and biochemical detection using fully integrated magnetically actuated complementary metal oxide semiconductor resonant cantilever sensor systems.  

PubMed

A novel resonant cantilever sensor system for liquid-phase applications is presented. The monolithic system consists of an array of four electromagnetically actuated cantilevers with transistor-based readout, an analog feedback circuit, and a digital interface. The biochemical sensor chip with a size of 3 mm x 4.5 mm is fabricated in an industrial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with subsequent CMOS-compatible micromachining. A package, which protects the electrical components and the associated circuitry against liquid exposure, allows for a stable operation of the resonant cantilevers in liquid environments. The device is operated at the fundamental cantilever resonance frequency of approximately 200 kHz in water with a frequency stability better than 3 Hz. The use of the integrated CMOS resonant cantilever system as a chemical sensor for the detection of volatile organic compounds in liquid environments is demonstrated. Low concentrations of toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene in deionized water have been detected by coating the cantilevers with chemically sensitive polymers. The liquid-phase detection of analyte concentrations in the single-ppm range has been achieved. Furthermore, the application of this sensor system to the label-free detection of biomarkers, such as tumor markers, is shown. By functionalizing the cantilevers with anti-prostate-specific antigen antibody (anti-PSA), the corresponding antigen (PSA) has been detected at concentration levels as low as 10 ng/mL in a sample fluid. PMID:17297968

Vancura, Cyril; Li, Yue; Lichtenberg, Jan; Kirstein, Kay-Uwe; Hierlemann, Andreas; Josse, Fabien

2007-02-15

274

Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors.  

PubMed

The experimental optical interconnection module of the Free-Space Accelerator for Switching Terabit Networks (FAST-Net) project is described and characterized. Four two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) and photodetectors (PD's) were designed, fabricated, and incorporated into a folded optical system that links a 10 cm x 10 cm multichip smart pixel plane to itself in a global point-to-point pattern. The optical system effects a fully connected network in which each chip is connected to all others with a multichannel bidirectional data path. VCSEL's and detectors are arranged in clusters on the chips with an interelement spacing of 140 microm. Calculations based on measurements of resolution and registration tolerances showed that the square 50-microm detector in a typical interchip link captures approximately 85% of incident light from its associated VCSEL. The measured optical transmission efficiency was 38%, with the losses primarily due to reflections at the surfaces of the multielement lenses, which were not antireflection coated for the VCSEL wavelength. The overall efficiency for this demonstration is therefore 32%. With the measured optical confinement, an optical system that is optimized for transmission at the VCSEL wavelength will achieve an overall efficiency of greater than 80%. These results suggest that, as high-density VCSEL-based smart pixel technology matures, the FAST-Net optical interconnection concept will provide a low-loss, compact, global interconnection approach for high bisection-bandwidth multiprocessor applications in switching, signal processing, and image processing. PMID:18324143

Haney, M W; Christensen, M P; Milojkovic, P; Ekman, J; Chandramani, P; Rozier, R; Kiamilev, F; Liu, Y; Hibbs-Brenner, M

1999-10-10

275

A numerical analysis of solid-liquid phase change heat transfer around a single and two horizontal, vertically spaced cylinders in a rectangular cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a new numerical model is proposed to analyze solid-liquid phase change heat transfer in a complicated geometry. The present model can treat the solid\\/liquid phase change heat transfer with\\/without porous media, as well as conventional transient natural convection with\\/without porous media. Solidification calculations of pure water (without porous media) around a single cylinder and two cylinders

R. Viskanta

1997-01-01

276

Infrared intensities of liquids. Part XXIII. Infrared optical constants and integrated intensities of liquid benzene-d 1 at 25°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first absolute infrared absorption intensities of liquid benzene-d 1, C 6H 5D, at 25°C. It also presents what, surprisingly, seems to be the first complete assignment of an infrared spectrum of liquid benzene-d 1 recorded with post-1950 instrumentation. The spectra of the real and imaginary refractive indices are given as graphs and tables between 6200 and 500 cm -1, and a table is given of the peak wavenumbers, absolute integrated intensities and vibrational assignments between 4800 and 500 cm -1. Errors in the imaginary refractive index, k, values are estimated to be 5-7% for peaks and 5-20% for the baseline between 6200 and 4700 cm -1, 0.3-2.0% for both peaks and baseline between 4700 and 825 cm -1, 3-4% for both peaks and baseline between 825 and 620 cm -1, and 40-50% between 620 and 500 cm -1 where the very strong peak near 600 cm -1 was too intense for us to measure accurately. Errors in the real refractive indices, n, are estimated to be 0.25% at 8000 cm -1 increasing to 0.5% near 800 cm -1 and, due to the uncertain intensity of the peak near 600 cm -1, to range up to 10% between 710 and 500 cm -1. The refractive index spectra were converted to spectra of the real and imaginary dielectric constants, ?' and ??, the molar absorption coefficient, Em, and the real and imaginary molar polarizabilities under the Lorentz local field, ?' m and ?? m. The peak heights and wavenumbers in the spectra of the different absorption quantities are compared for the most intense bands. Integrated intensities were determined as C j, the area under bands in the ?˜?? m spectrum, for all bands between 4800 and 500 cm -1. The contributions from the different bands were separated by fitting the spectrum with classical damped harmonic oscillator bands. The estimated errors in the integrated intensities range from 2 to 10% for most bands, although they may reach 100% for very weak bands and shoulders. The integrated intensities of the fundamentals and the corresponding transition dipole moments are summarized and compared with literature values for the gas. Crawford's F-sum rule shows that the measured integrated intensities of C 6H 5D are nicely consistent with those reported recently for C 6H 6 and C 6D 6. The total integrated intensity of the first overtone of the CH stretches is ˜20 times smaller than that of the fundamentals.

Bertie, J. E.; Apelblat, Y.; Keefe, C. D.

2000-09-01

277

65 FR 75378 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Integrity Management in High Consequence Areas (Hazardous Liquid...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigations and risk management and system integrity...information analysis and risk factors specific...cracking (SCC), fatigue cracks, narrow axial...of its integrity management program. The performance...program to control risk on pipeline...

2000-12-01

278

Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a variety of factors that influence the determination of precipitable water vapor (V) and integrated cloud liquid (L) by dual-channel microwave radiometers (MWRs). These factors include radiometric calibration; dry, water vapor, and liquid absorption coefficients; and physical versus statistical retrieval methods. We then applied the analysis to the MWR that was operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

Ed R. Westwater; Yong Han; Matthew D. Shupe; Sergey Y. Matrosov

2001-01-01

279

Passively aligned hybrid integration of 8×1 micromachined micro-Fresnel lens arrays and 8×1 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays for free-space optical interconnect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface micromachining technique has been successfully applied to the fabrications of a three-dimensional 8×1 micro-Fresnel lens array and other novel three-dimensional alignment structures. With the help of these three-dimensional structures, self-aligned integration of the micro-Fresnel lens array and an 8×1 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array is realized for the first time with passive alignment. Individual addressing of the VCSEL\\/micro-lens element

S. S. Lee; L. Y. Lin; K. S. J. Pister; M. C. Wu; H. C. Lee; P. Grodzinski

1995-01-01

280

A novel liquid plasma AOP device integrating microwaves and ultrasounds and its evaluation in defluorinating perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous media.  

PubMed

A simplified and energy-saving integrated device consisting of a microwave applicator and an ultrasonic homogenizer has been fabricated to generate liquid plasma in a medium possessing high dielectric factors, for example water. The microwave waveguide and the ultrasonic transducer were interconnected through a tungsten/titanium alloy stick acting both as the microwave antenna and as the horn of the ultrasonic homogenizer. Both microwaves and ultrasonic waves are simultaneously transmitted to the aqueous media through the tungsten tip of the antenna. The microwave discharge liquid plasma was easily generated in solution during ultrasonic cavitation. The simple device was evaluated by carrying out the degradation of the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a system highly recalcitrant to degradation by conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). PFOA is 59% degraded in an aqueous medium after only 90 s of irradiation by the plasma. Intermediates were identified by electrospray mass spectral techniques in the negative ion mode. PMID:21317014

Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Susumu; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

2011-09-01

281

Panel-size component integration (PCI) with molded liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future product development in microelectronics requires low-cost, high-speed, high-reliability, good manufacturability, and environmental compatibility. Recently developed DCA techniques, such as flip-chip and CSP on high-density microvia substrates, are believed to be able to satisfy such needs. Further integration of passive devices has been realized recently in the Single Level Integrated Module (SLIM). The integration of active devices into a planar

J. Kivilahti; J. Liu; J. E. Morris; T. Suga; C. P. Wong

2002-01-01

282

Fully integrated L-phenylalanine separation and concentration using reactive-extraction with liquid-liquid centrifuges in a fed-batch process with E. coli.  

PubMed

A novel in situ product recovery (ISPR) approach for the (fully) integrated separation of L-phenylalanine (L-phe) from a 20 l fed-batch process with the recombinant L-tyrosine auxotrophic strain E. coli F-4/pF81 is presented. The strain was rationally constructed for the production of the aromatic amino acid. Glucose and tyrosine control is used. A reactive extraction system consisting of kerosene, the cation-selective carrier D(2)EHPA and sulphuric acid, all circulating in liquid-liquid centrifuges, is applied for the on-line L-phe separation from cell- and protein-free permeate. Permeate is drained off from the bioreactor bypass. Using the novel ISPR approach, a significantly extended product formation period at 0.25 mmol/(g*h) together with a reduced by-product formation and a 28% relative glucose/L-phe yield increase is observed. Thus, the ISPR approach is superior to the reference non-ISPR process and even offers extraction rates approximately three times higher than the published membrane-based process. PMID:15045576

Rüffer, N; Heidersdorf, U; Kretzers, I; Sprenger, G A; Raeven, L; Takors, R

2004-07-01

283

Probing the pair structure of supercooled fluids by integral equations: Evidence for an equilibrium liquid-ideal glass transition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations for the pair structure of a system of two weakly coupled replicæ of a soft-sphere fluid, in order to detect signatures of an equilibrium transition to an “ideal glass”. Both integral equations predict, in addition to the supercooled-liquid branch, the appearance of a new disordered state characterized by different pair correlations, over a range of temperatures. The ideal-glass transition temperature T_{{DJ}} , identified by a discontinuous jump in the inter-replica pair correlation function, is predicted to be substantially higher with RY compared to HNC theory. The internal energy is predicted to undergo a weak discontinuity at T_{{DJ}} .

Bomont, Jean-Marc; Pastore, Giorgio; Hansen, Jean-Pierre

2014-02-01

284

Dielectric Characterization of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal in Microwave Range – Material Integration in Specific Electronic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an original way to obtain reconfigurable microwave devices, filled with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC). We study the dielectric parameters of the material in the microwave range, using an original cell. Then, we manufacture a microwave tunable device using the PDLC.The purpose of our work is to cancel the polymer alignment layer used in microwave devices filled

Freddy Krasinski; Bertrand Splingart; Frédéric Dubois; Ulrich Maschke; Christian Legrand

2011-01-01

285

Criticality of a liquid-vapor interface from an inhomogeneous integral equation theory.  

PubMed

A microscopic theory is developed to study the liquid-vapor interfacial properties of simple fluids with ab initio treatment of the inhomogeneous two-body correlation functions, without any interpolation. It consists of the inhomogeneous Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Duh-Henderson-Verlet closure and the Lovett-Mou-Buff-Wertheim equation. For the liquid-vapor interface of the Lennard-Jones fluid, we obtained the density profile and the surface tension, as well as their critical behaviour. In particular, we identified non-classical critical exponents. The theory accurately predicts the phase diagram and the interfacial properties in a very good agreement with simulations. We also showed that the method leads to true capillary-wave asymptotics in the macroscopic limit. PMID:16474878

Omelyan, Igor; Hirata, Fumio; Kovalenko, Andriy

2005-12-21

286

Integral test of a boron-10 loaded liquid scintillator for neutron detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neutron detection system using a boron loaded liquid organic scintillator is presented. Double photomultipliers and a coincidence circuitry are used to enhance light collection and noise rejection. The neutron\\/gamma separation is based on pulse shape discrimination. Evaluations on time resolution, gamma rejection, MeV neutron response, and slow neutron counting efficiency are performed using standard neutron\\/gamma sources and a Van

H. P. Chou; C. Y. Horng

1993-01-01

287

Effective vertical beam patterns for ocean acoustic reverberation calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a concept for using effective vertical beam patterns to perform reverberation calculations in underwater acoustics when the source or receiver has both horizontal and vertical directivity. The concept involves integrating the 3-D beam pattern B (?, ?) over azimuthal angles ? to obtain an effective vertical beam pattern that depends only on the vertical angle

Dale D. Ellis

1991-01-01

288

A new look at vertical motion around the San Andreas Fault in the Southern California from Integrated GPS and InSAR measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report on a new analysis of GPS and space-based InSAR-estimated vertical motions in the vicinity of the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) near the eastern Transverse Ranges. We consider GPS data from all of the available high precision geodetic networks in southern California such as the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and SCIGN networks. We analyze raw GPS observations using the GIPSY-OASIS software, and align the solutions to the newly updated NA12 reference frame, derived from ITRF2008. Vertical data are considered if the station has at least 4 years of data, have time series that are fit well by a linear plus seasonal terms plus steps from known equipment changes and earthquakes. We supplement the data with rates from time series analyses of ERS and ENVISAT radar data between 1992 and 2009, obtained from the WinSAR archive. We use 532 scenes from 7 track/frames to form 7476 interferograms, providing line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for overlapping descending (6) and ascending (1) frames. To separate the vertical from the horizontal signals, we align the InSAR LOS rates to the GPS LOS rates using a bilinear transformation and subtract the LOS signal of horizontal deformation estimated from a strain rate map constructed from horizontal GPS velocities. The result is an InSAR LOS rate map aligned to NA12, which we unproject into the vertical direction. InSAR and GPS motions track one another well, with RMS difference in vertical rate of 1.0 mm/yr, where the signal of vertical rate varies between -5.0 and 2.6 mm/yr. Aligning the InSAR to GPS reduces errors in InSAR attributable to long wavelength effects from the atmosphere and orbit uncertainties. The vertical rates show both basin-scale pockets of subsidence and regional wavelength variations in uplift rate. We detect previously reported signals in the San Bernadino, San Jacinto, Pomona, and LA basins with both the GPS and InSAR. Near the coast uplift patterns are similar to those from repeated leveling tied to tide gauges, and efforts are underway to extend this comparison farther inland. A longer wavelength uplift feature of between 1 to 2 mm/yr spans the southern SAF near its junction with the San Jacinto fault and eastern Transverse Ranges. Geodetic measurements of interseismic crustal deformation show north-south contraction and east-west extension, recording net contraction. We hypothesize that uplift is balancing the observed strain accumulation. Our model of elastic flexure and viscoelastic response in the lithosphere suggests that vertical data can improve estimates of SAF slip rate that currently vary depending on analysis method and dataset considered. However, attributing the vertical signal to fault strain accumulation requires accounting for the lingering effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, for which global models predict a down to the west trend, consistent with some features of the observed signals.

Hammond, W. C.; Johnson, K. M.; Weldon, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Burgette, R. J.

2013-12-01

289

Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

Wild, R. L.

1988-01-01

290

Influence of the Pipe Diameter on the Structure of the Gas-Liquid Interface in a Vertical Two-Phase Pipe Flow  

SciTech Connect

Air-water two-phase flow tests in a large vertical pipe of 194.1-mm inner diameter (i.d.) are reported. Close to the outlet of a 9-m-tall test section, two wire-mesh sensors are installed that deliver instantaneous void fraction distributions over the entire cross section with a resolution of 3 mm and 2500 Hz used for fast-flow visualization. Void fraction profiles, gas velocity profiles, and bubble-size distributions were obtained. A comparison to a small pipe of 52.3-mm i.d. (DN50) revealed significant scaling effects. Here, the increase of the airflow rate leads to a transition from bubbly via slug to churn-turbulent flow. This is accompanied by an appearance of a second peak in the bubble-size distribution. A similar behavior was found in the large pipe; though the large bubbles have a significantly larger diameter at identical superficial velocities, the peak is less high but wider. These bubbles move more freely in the large pipe and show more deformations. The shapes of such large bubbles were characterized in three dimensions. They can be rather complicated and far from ideal Taylor bubbles. Also, the small bubble fraction tends to bigger sizes in the large pipe.

Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Boettger, A.; Carl, H.; Lucas, D.; Schaffrath, A.; Schuetz, P.; Weiss, F.-P.; Zschau, J. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)

2005-10-15

291

20. INTEGRATION OF VERTICAL SEISMIC PROFILING, LOGGING, AND SEISMIC DATA IN THE VICINITY OF THE DÉCOLLEMENT, NORTHERN BARBADOS RIDGE ACCRETIONARY PRISM 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and downhole logging carried out on Ocean Drilling Program Leg 156 provide ties to the regional three-dimensional seismic reflection data as well as velocity data near the décollement. Two thin, low-density, high- porosity zones appear on logs within the décollement zone at Site 948, but the seismic signature of the zone is positive. The low-density zones

G. F. Moore; Z. Zhao; T. H. Shipley

292

Vertical Feedthroughs for Millimeter-Wave LTCC Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on novel types of vertical interconnects to be incorporated inside highly integrated LTCC Modules (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics). RF-transitions vertically interconnecting the top and bottom side of the LTCC are studied using alternatively CPW (coplanar waveguide) or microstrip feedlines. Vertical DC supply and control lines with integrated RF blocking capacitors are also demonstrated. LTCC test modules were

Johann Heyen; Andriy Gordiyenko; Patric Heide; Arne F. Jacob

2003-01-01

293

Integration of modeling and simulation of warm pressurization and feed systems of liquid propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new approach for simultaneous simulation of warm pressurization systems and an engine feed system is developed. The governing equations of the pressurization system are also derived. The simulation results of gas generator pressure, ullage pressure, and pressure at the inlet of the fuel and oxidizer pumps are compared with experimental results. This comparison reveals that the developed approach may successfully be used to determine the interaction effects of an engine feed system and an engine pressurization system. At present, the approach and results are limited to single stage to orbit liquid engines that use the gas generator gases for pressurization.

Karimi, Hassan; Nassirharand, Amir; Zanj, Amir

2011-09-01

294

Path-integral computation of the low-temperature properties of liquid ⁴He  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discretized path-integral computations of the energy and radial distribution function of ⁴He in good accord with experiment are presented for temperatures down to 1 K at saturated vapor pressure. Results for the single-particle density matrix, momentum distribution, and condensate fraction agree at the lowest temperature with previous ground-state calculations.

D. M. Ceperley; E. L. Pollock

1986-01-01

295

INTEGRATION OF FILTRATION AND ADVANCED OXIDATION: DEVELOPMENT OF A MEMBRANE LIQUID-PHASE PLASMA REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A tiered approach will be undertaken to achieve the overall project goal of demonstrating the integrated membrane/plasma process as an innovative, affordable, sustainable and effective treatment technology for small treatment systems. The team will first use a regimented ap...

296

High-performance liquid chromatography separation and intact mass analysis of detergent-solubilized integral membrane proteins  

PubMed Central

We have developed a method for intact mass analysis of detergent-solubilized and purified integral membrane proteins using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) with methanol as the organic mobile phase. Membrane proteins and detergents are separated chromatographically during the isocratic stage of the gradient profile from a 150-mm C3 reversed-phase column. The mass accuracy is comparable to standard methods employed for soluble proteins; the sensitivity is 10-fold lower, requiring 0.2–5 ?g of protein. The method is also compatible with our standard LC–MS method used for intact mass analysis of soluble proteins and may therefore be applied on a multiuser instrument or in a high-throughput environment.

Berridge, Georgina; Chalk, Rod; D'Avanzo, Nazzareno; Dong, Liang; Doyle, Declan; Kim, Jung-In; Xia, Xiaobing; Burgess-Brown, Nicola; deRiso, Antonio; Carpenter, Elisabeth Paula; Gileadi, Opher

2011-01-01

297

Chromosomal integration of sfp gene in Bacillus subtilis to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis C9 effectively degrades aliphatic hydrocarbons up to a chain length of C19 and produces a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant, surfactin, yet it has no genetic competency. Therefore, to obtain a transformable surfactin producer, the sfp gene cloned from B. subtilis C9 was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis 168, a non-surfactin producer, by homologous recombination. The transformants reduced the

Young-Ki Lee; Seong-Bin Kim; Chan-Sun Park; Jong-Guk Kim; Hee-Mock Oh; Byung-Dae Yoon; Hee-Sik Kim

2005-01-01

298

Refractive index-based detection of gradient elution liquid chromatography using chip-integrated microring resonator arrays.  

PubMed

Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as nondestructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution, a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and, in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviates extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well-characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of postcolumn (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also make it an attractive potential detection technology that could be integrated within lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic separation devices. PMID:24328221

Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

2014-01-01

299

Integration of self-assembled vertically aligned nanocomposite (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)(1-x):(ZnO)x thin films on silicon substrates.  

PubMed

Epitaxial (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)(1-x):(ZnO)x (LSMO:ZnO) in vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) form was integrated on STO/TiN-buffered silicon substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. Their magnetotransport properties have been investigated and are systematically tuned through controlling the ZnO concentration. The composite film with 70% ZnO molar ratio exhibits a maximum magnetoresistance (MR) value of 55% at 70 K and 1 T. The enhanced tunable low-field MR properties are attributed to structural and magnetic disorders and spin-polarized tunneling through the secondary ZnO phase. The integration of LSMO:ZnO VAN films on silicon substrates is a critical step enabling the application of VAN films in future spintronic devices. PMID:23618080

Zhang, Wenrui; Chen, Aiping; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Tsai, Chen-Fong; Su, Qing; Jiao, Liang; Zhang, Xinghang; Wang, Haiyan

2013-05-22

300

Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface for High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and the control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are n0t va lid during all stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid now equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob

2012-01-01

301

The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers with superconducting electronic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of many of the superconducting circuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a serious disadvantage. This paper discusses the process of refrigerating superconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers. Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency and reliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. A comparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load and using heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed for monitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

Green, Michael A.

2003-12-01

302

Comparison of path integral molecular dynamics methods for the infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water.  

PubMed

The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics (PA-CMD) methods are compared and contrasted in an application to the infrared absorption spectrum of a recently parametrized flexible, polarizable, Thole-type potential energy model for liquid water. Both methods predict very similar spectra in the low-frequency librational and intramolecular bending region at wavenumbers below 2500 cm(-1). However, the RPMD spectrum is contaminated in the high-frequency O-H stretching region by contributions from the internal vibrational modes of the ring polymer. This problem is avoided in the PA-CMD method, which adjusts the elements of the Parrinello-Rahman mass matrix so as to shift the frequencies of these vibrational modes beyond the spectral range of interest. PA-CMD does not require any more computational effort than RPMD and it is clearly the better of the two methods for simulating vibrational spectra. PMID:19044777

Habershon, Scott; Fanourgakis, George S; Manolopoulos, David E

2008-08-21

303

Comparison of path integral molecular dynamics methods for the infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics (PA-CMD) methods are compared and contrasted in an application to the infrared absorption spectrum of a recently parametrized flexible, polarizable, Thole-type potential energy model for liquid water. Both methods predict very similar spectra in the low-frequency librational and intramolecular bending region at wavenumbers below 2500 cm-1. However, the RPMD spectrum is contaminated in the high-frequency O-H stretching region by contributions from the internal vibrational modes of the ring polymer. This problem is avoided in the PA-CMD method, which adjusts the elements of the Parrinello-Rahman mass matrix so as to shift the frequencies of these vibrational modes beyond the spectral range of interest. PA-CMD does not require any more computational effort than RPMD and it is clearly the better of the two methods for simulating vibrational spectra.

Habershon, Scott; Fanourgakis, George S.; Manolopoulos, David E.

2008-08-01

304

High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions Using an Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and th e control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are not valid during aU stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid flow equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Dr. Paul; Roth, Jacob

2012-01-01

305

Simulation of crystal and liquid potassium via restricted path-integral molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The path-integral molecular-dynamics method is employed to study the effect of temperature on a simple metal (potassium) model system. The simple metal undergoes a phase transformation upon heating. Calculated dynamic properties indicate that the atomic motion changes from a vibrational to a diffusive character identifying the transformation as melting. Calculated structural properties further confirm the transformation. Ionic vibrations in the crystal state and the loss of long-range order during melting modify the electronic structure and in particular localize the electrons inside and at the border of the ion core.

Oh, Ki-Dong; Deymier, P. A.

1999-05-01

306

Quantitative determination of saccharides in dietary glyconutritional products by anion-exchange liquid chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

A new technique for the assay of carbohydrates is described in which separation and quantification of neutral saccharides, aminosaccharides, glycuronic acids, and disaccharides may be accomplished in less than 50 min of total run time. This method involves optimized anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulse amperometric detection. Complex carbohydrates from various sources, including dietary supplements, were hydrolyzed in a dilute solution of trifluoroacetic acid, freeze-dried, and reconstituted in water containing 2-deoxygalactose as the internal standard. The solution was filtered and separated on CarboPac PA20 column. The eluted saccharides were detected by oxidation on a gold electrode with quadruple-pulsed integrated amperometry. The calibration plots for the saccharides were linear with an average correlation coefficient of 0.999. Method precision regarding peak retention time and resolution used in the peak identifications was verified. With this method, previously difficult-to-separate saccharides, such as galactosamine, glucosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine, were successfully resolved from the neutral saccharides rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose. Mannose was also resolved from xylose, and de-acetylation of aminosaccharides prior to separation was not necessary. This technique provides an accurate and efficient means to assay carbohydrates in dietary supplements, which new federal regulations will soon mandate. PMID:16152914

Eberendu, Alexis R; Booth, Christy; Luta, Gabriela; Edwards, Joshua A; McAnalley, Bill H

2005-01-01

307

Convection in vertical Bridgman configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are interested in tracing the convective profiles of vertical Bridgman growth in two configurations, the pure Rayleigh convective mode and the combined Rayleigh-Marangoni mode. In order to do so, we conducted a numerical investigation that involved a finite volume calculation. The governing equations were integrated about a cell volume, using the Gauss Theorem and the volume variables like temperature and velocity were related to the surface variables. In order to solve for the pressure field, we employed the continuity equation and the residuals resulted in a Poisson equation. Results and comments for the Rayleigh and Marangoni problems in a vertical cylinder or Bridgman configuration are given.

Narayanan, Ranga

1991-01-01

308

Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Sun with Microlens Array and Liquid Crystal Retarders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous spectrographic observations over extended solar structures, at a high spatial resolution and temporal cadence, are important to track and understand the physics of transient phenomena such as Ellerman bombs, flare kernels, prominences/filaments and spicules. With two-dimensional (2-D) field spectral data, we can make monochromatic images at a given wavelength in a designed passband and line profile analysis to derive 2-D distribution of atmospheric parameters. One technique to produce a spectrum of each spatial elements in an extended two-dimensional field is to use a micro-lens array. Replacing a slit of a conventional spectrograph with a micro-lens array then helps to capture two-dimensionally distributed short spectra from 2-D field using additional optics inserted, a bandpass filter and a large format detector. For observations of magnetic field, we can add polarization modulator made of liquid crystal retarders which give a sequence of alternative orthogonal polarization states with time. We describe a design concept and limitations for observations with the micro-lens array spectrograph and an initial result applied for a few existing solar telescopes at NAOJ and Hida Observatory, Kyoto University.

Suematsu, Y.; Shinoda, K.; Sano, I.; Kobiki, T.

2011-12-01

309

Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

NONE

1995-09-01

310

[Quantitative identification Qijudihuang pill by integrating overall information method based on parallel five wavelength high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints].  

PubMed

Parallel five wavelength high performance liquid chromatographic (PFW-HPLC) fingerprints of Qijudihuang Pill (QJDHP) were established. The quality of QJDHP was identified based on systematically quantified fingerprint method (SQFM) by the integrating overall information method (IOIM). The chromatographic fingerprints (CFPs) were developed by reversed-phase (RP) HPLC, in which 51, 49, 52, 49 and 47 co-existing peaks were marked at 203, 228, 265, 280 and 326 nm, respectively, by choosing paeonol (POL) peak as the reference peak. The natural weighted method (NWM), average method (AM) and project parameter method (PPM) were separately used to integrate the different chemical qualitative and quantitative information from different PFW-HPLC fingerprints. By using the IOIM based on SQFM, the qualities of DMS2, DMS4, DMS5 and DMS6 (2 grade) were identified as very good; DMS1, DMS3 and DMS10, DMS11 (3 grade) as good; DMS9 (4 grade) as fine; DMS7 (6 grade) as common, in which DMS8 was regarded as moderate (5 grade) by the AM and as common (6 grade) by PPM. The qualities of 11 batches of QJDHP were identified, in which 8 batches were above the good level, 1 batch was fine level and two batches were common level. Therefore AM was the most accurate and simple method to integrate all the information. The experimental results indicated that the IOIM based on the PFW-HPLC can be effectively used to identify qualitatively and quantitatively the quality of Chinese traditional medicine from overall information, which is a reliable method and also can quantitatively simplify the bountiful information of HPLC-DAD (diode array detection) fingerprints. In fact, the comprehensive identification ability of IOIM is the most reliable and effective one. PMID:21171286

Sun, Guoxiang; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kaishun

2010-09-01

311

POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

312

1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Wit...

1996-01-01

313

Test Results of the RS-44 Integrated Component Evaluator Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

1993-01-01

314

On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated large, two-dimensional (2D) arrays of optically pumped, phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers that emit more than 50% of their light in a central on-axis lobe. The emission of the arrays was modified from the usual four-lobed far-field of 2D coupled arrays by incorporation of a binary phase-shift mask on the surface of the array. The array consists of Fabry--Perot resonators comprising GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells surrounded by AlAs/AlGaAs quarterwave mirrors with a multiple order AlGaAs phase-delay layer on the top mirror stack. The phase-shift layer was etched away on alternating elements of the array. The resulting on-axis emission had an angular width of 2{degree} for an array of approximately 100 elements.

Warren, M.E.; Gourley, P.L.; Hadley, G.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Lear, K.L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States))

1992-09-28

315

Volatile liquid storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid

R. J. Laverman; P. J. Winters; J. K. Rinehart

1992-01-01

316

X-33 Liquid Hydrogen Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The liquid hydrogen tank is a multi-lobe graphite/epoxy tank with integrally bonded, woven composite joints. The tanks are broken down into three major subgroups: aft dome/bulkhead, mid barrel section, and the forward dome/bulkhead. The vehicle uses two tanks (a left and right hand tank) as the "aft fuselage" of the vehicle, to react all body bending loads, landing gear loads, canted and vertical fin loads and air loads, as well as being used as the cryogenic fuel cells.

Adams, Andrew J.; Buck, P.; Franklin, W.; Yu, T.

1999-01-01

317

Molecular structure and elastic properties of thermotropic liquid crystals: Integrated molecular dynamics--Statistical mechanical theory vs molecular field approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between the molecular structure of liquid crystals and their elastic properties, which control the director deformations relevant for electro-optic applications, remains a challenging objective for theories and computations. Here, we compare two methods that have been proposed to this purpose, both characterized by a detailed molecular level description. One is an integrated molecular dynamics-statistical mechanical approach, where the bulk elastic constants of nematics are calculated from the direct correlation function (DCFs) and the single molecule orientational distribution function [D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1973)]. The latter is obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, together with the radial distribution function, from which the DCF is then determined by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation. The other approach is based on a molecular field theory, where the potential of mean torque experienced by a mesogen in the liquid crystal phase is parameterized according to its molecular surface. In this case, the calculation of elastic constants is combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of single molecule conformations. Using these different approaches, but the same description, at the level of molecular geometry and torsional potentials, we have investigated the elastic properties of the nematic phase of two typical mesogens, 4'-n-pentyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl and 4'-n-heptyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl. Both methods yield K3(bend) >K1 (splay) >K2 (twist), although there are some discrepancies in the average elastic constants and in their anisotropy. These are interpreted in terms of the different approximations and the different ways of accounting for the structural properties of molecules in the two approaches. In general, the results point to the role of the molecular shape, which is modulated by the conformational freedom and cannot be fully accounted for by a single descriptor such as the aspect ratio.

Capar, M. Ilk; Nar, A.; Ferrarini, A.; Frezza, E.; Greco, C.; Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.

2013-03-01

318

Constant pressure path integral molecular dynamics studies of quantum effects in the liquid state properties of n-alkanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer simulation study of quantum effects in methane, butane, and octane is presented. Each molecular system is examined at three state points in the liquid region using novel extended system, multiple time step, constant pressure, path integral molecular dynamics methodology. In addition, the results of classical calculations are reported to provide a useful reference. Liquid butane is used as a test case on which to compare the predictions of two empirical force fields, CHARMM22 and AMBER95. Comparisons are made to experiment. Briefly, the models predict that quantum effects lead to an increase in molar volume of approximately 2 cm3/mole (i.e., relative to a classical calculation). However, a slight unphysical hydrogen-deuterium isotope effect is, also, observed. This may be caused by an incorrect parametrization of the anisotropy of the potential or by a reduction in the magnitude of the intermolecular induced dipole-induced dipole dispersion coefficient with increasing isotope mass that has not been parametrized in the force fields. In addition, the results show an interesting zero-point energy effect. The intramolecular regions of the radial distribution function exhibit less structure at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. This is the inverse of the prediction of the model in the classical limit. The quantum effect occurs because the bulk density decreases faster than the intramolecular degrees of freedom lose zero-point energy as temperature increases in the highly harmonic intramolecular potential model employed in the calculations. Nonetheless, the phenomena is not likely to be an artifact and careful experiments could observe it. Finally, the efficiency of the path molecular dynamics methods employed in the studies are demonstrated on both serial and parallel computers.

Balog, E.; Hughes, A. L.; Martyna, G. J.

2000-01-01

319

Effects of fish bioturbation on the vertical distribution of water temperature and dissolved oxygen in a fish culture-integrated waste stabilization pond system in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of wastewater stabilization with fish culture in a single-pond system is a double-benefit both due to the reclamation of the wastewater and fish production. In conventional fish ponds, it is known that fish activities (bioturbation) result in ecological benefits as they stir the sediment layer, improving aerobic conditions and, enhancing the oxidation of detritus in this layer. However,

Minh Phan-Van; Diederik Rousseau; Niels De Pauw

2008-01-01

320

Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

Kalyn, Brenda

2006-01-01

321

High-performance vertically stacked bottom-gate and top-gate polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors for three-dimensional integrated circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional CMOS inverter with top-gate (TG) poly-Si thin film transistors (TFTs) vertically stacked on the bottom-gate (BG) poly-Si TFTs have been proposed to achieve high-performance characteristics via excimer laser crystallization (ELC) for the first time. Under an appropriate laser irradiation energy density, the silicon grain growth could be controlled from the sidewalls of the bottom-gate structure and thus the high-quality laterally grown poly-Si film with single perpendicular grain boundary in the channel would be formed for the BG TFTs. In addition, a simple ELC method was also utilized to the top-layered poly-Si film for TG TFTs as compared with solid-state-crystallized (SPC) ones. As a result, the field-effect mobilities of the proposed n-type BG and p-type TG TFTs could be significantly increased to be 390 and 131 cm2/V s, respectively, in contrast to 32.3 and 14.7 cm2/V s for the SPC ones, accordingly. Furthermore, such three-dimensional (3-D) TFT have also been employed to demonstrate the inverter devices and is suitable for future 3-D ICs as well as system-on-panel applications.

Lee, I.-Che; Tsai, Tsung-Che; Tsai, Chun-Chien; Yang, Po-Yu; Wang, Chao-Lung; Cheng, Huang-Chung

2012-11-01

322

Timing of HAART defines the integrity of memory B cells and the longevity of humoral responses in HIV-1 vertically-infected children  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 infection induces a progressive disruption of the B cell compartment impairing long-term immune responses to routine immunizations. Depletion of specific memory B cell pools occurs during the 1st stages of the infection and cannot be reestablished by antiretroviral treatment. We reasoned that an early control of viral replication through treatment could preserve the normal development of the memory B cell compartment and responses to routine childhood vaccines. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of different highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) schedules in 70 HIV-1 vertically-infected pediatric subjects by B cell phenotypic analyses, antigen-specific B cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) and ELISA for common vaccination and HIV-1 antigens. Initiation of HAART within the 1st year of life permits the normal development and maintenance of the memory B cell compartment. On the contrary, memory B cells from patients treated later in time are remarkably reduced and their function is compromised regardless of viral control. A cause for concern is that both late-treated HIV-1 controllers and noncontrollers loose protective antibody titers against common vaccination antigens. Timing of HAART initiation is the major factor predicting the longevity of B cell responses in vaccinated HIV-1-infected children.

Pensieroso, Simone; Cagigi, Alberto; Palma, Paolo; Nilsson, Anna; Capponi, Claudia; Freda, Elio; Bernardi, Stefania; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Chiodi, Francesca; Rossi, Paolo

2009-01-01

323

Integration of Active Optical Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of active optical components typically serves five goals: enhanced performance, smaller size, lower power dissipation, higher reliability, and lower cost. We can differentiate between horizontal and vertical integration schemes. Horizontal integration combines many elements of the same functionality, like laser arrays. Vertical integration combines different functionality into a single element. Hybrid integration exhibits advantages over monolithic integration, if incompatible

Torsten Wipiejewski; Yuliya A. Akulova; Greg A. Fish; Clint Schow; Ping Koh; Adil Karim; Shigeru Nakagawa; Anders Dahl; Peter Kozodoy; Alex Matson; Brad Short; Chuck Turner; Steve Penniman; Mike Larson; Chris Coldren; Larry A. Coldren

324

Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of continuous coherent THz radiation by mixing two cw Ti:Sa laser beams with a well-controlled frequency separation for a new scheme of vertically integrated low temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) spiral photomixer is reported. For this new photomixer device used in THz emission, the LTG-GaAs active layer is sandwiched between the two parallel metal plates of a high-speed photodetector loaded by a broadband spiral antenna. We have exploited the advantage of a higher delivered power in the low part of the spectrum (<2000 GHz), while a low RC time constant planar interdigitated detector was used at the upper frequency. The performances of the spectroscopic setup in terms of spectral resolution (5 MHz), tunability and frequency capability are assessed by measurements of the pure rotational spectra of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) up to 3000 GHz.

Mouret, G.; Matton, S.; Bocquet, R.; Hindle, F.; Peytavit, E.; Lampin, J. F.; Lippens, D.

2004-10-01

325

Vertically integrated approaches to large scale CO2 storage: Evaluating long-term storage security of CO2 injection in saline aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. During the injection and early post-injection periods, CO2 leakage may occur along faults and leaky wells, but this risk may be partly managed by proper site selection and sensible deployment of monitoring and remediation technologies. On the other hand, long-term storage security is an entirely different risk management problem—one that is dominated by a mobile CO2 plume that may travel over very large spatial and temporal scales before it is trapped by different physical and chemical processes. The primary trapping mechanisms are capillary and solubility trapping, which evolve over thousands to tens of thousands of years and can immobilize a significant portion of the mobile, free-phase CO2 plume. However, these processes are complex, involving a combination of small and large spatial scales over varying time scales. Solubility trapping is a prime example of this complexity, where small-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO2 region leads to convective mixing that has that has a significant effect on the large-scale dissolution process over very long time scales. Using appropriate models that can capture both large and small-scale effects is essential for understanding the role of dissolution and convective mixing on the long-term storage security of CO2 sequestration operations. There are several approaches to modeling long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms. One modeling option is the use of traditional numerical methods, which are often highly sophisticated models that can handle multiple complex phenomena with high levels of accuracy. However, these complex models quickly become prohibitively expensive for the type of large-scale, long-term modeling that is necessary for risk assessment applications such as the late post-injection period. We present an alternative modeling option, the VESA model, that combines vertically-averaged governing equations with an upscaled representation of the dissolution-convective mixing process. CO2 injection is solved numerically on a coarse grid, capturing the large-scale injection problem and the post-injection capillary trapping, while the upscaled dissolution model captures large-scale solubility trapping without the need for expensive grid refinement to capture the subscale instabilities associated with convective mixing. With this modeling approach, we demonstrate the effect of different modeling choices associated with dissolution for typical large-scale geological systems.

Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J.; Celia, M. A.

2009-12-01

326

Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

Cross, Rod

2007-11-01

327

Vertical axis wind turbines  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU) [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU) [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU) [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA) [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU) [Miass, RU

2011-03-08

328

Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, we become familiar with integrals, both by understanding them as sums of areas under plots of functions, and by understanding them as anti-derivatives. We present the u-substitution rule, which is the analog of the chain rule for differentiating composite functions.

Liao, David

329

Integrating qualitative and quantitative characterization of traditional Chinese medicine injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present study aims to describe and exemplify an integrated strategy of the combination of qualitative and quantitative characterization of a multicomponent mixture for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections with the example of Danhong injection (DHI). The standardized chemical profile of DHI has been established based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray multistage tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry have been developed to identify the major constituents in DHI. The structures of 26 compounds including nucleotides, phenolic acids, and flavonoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized. Meanwhile, the simultaneous determination of seven marker constituents, including uridine, adenosine, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B, in DHI was performed by multiwavelength detection based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The integrated qualitative and quantitative characterization strategy provided an effective and reliable pattern for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex traditional Chinese medicine system. PMID:24723550

Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Xue; Luo, Juan-Min; Fu, Chan; Wang, Qiao-Wei; Wang, Yi-Ming; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Luo, Guo-An

2014-06-01

330

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Supplied by Highly Integrated Dual-Side Dual-Output Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter With Only Two Flying Capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a highly integrated dual-side dual-output (DSDO) switched-capacitor (SC) converter with only two flying capacitors. Generally, a dual-phase voltage doubler and an inverter are used to supply positive and negative voltages for thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) gate drivers, respectively. Four flying capacitors, eight pin-outs for the four flying capacitors, and 16 power switches are necessary for

Yang-Ching Lin; Yean-Kuo Luo; Ke-Horng Chen; Wei-Chou Hsu

2012-01-01

331

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT) [Vernon, CT

1986-01-01

332

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

333

On vertical profile of ozone at Syowa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The difference in the vertical ozone profile at Syowa between 1966-1981 and 1982-1988 is shown. The month-height cross section of the slope of the linear regressions between ozone partial pressure and 100-mb temperature is also shown. The vertically integrated values of the slopes are in close agreement with the slopes calculated by linear regression of Dobson total ozone on 100-mb temperature in the period of 1982-1988.

Chubachi, Shigeru

1994-01-01

334

Strategic choice along the vertical coordination continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the generalized notion of a vertical coordination continuum introduced by Williamson and others, the article more specifically defines the nature of the continuum, especially the array of hybrid strategies. The continuum as presented includes five distinct groups of strategy–spot markets, specification contracts, relation-based alliances, equity-based alliances, and vertical integration. The article then presents a decision making framework that

H. Christopher Peterson; Allen F. Wysocki; Stephen B. Harsh

2001-01-01

335

Odour abatement in the integrated reactor concept for simultaneous treatment of liquid and solid pig manure fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies are needed for manure treatment that can capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odours, and kill harmful pathogens. A reactor concept was developed for simultaneous treatment of separately collected liquid and solid fractions of pig manure. The liquid fraction is concentrated by evaporating the water using energy from the composting system and at the same time

A. H. M. Veeken; Wilde de V; H. C. Willers; H. V. M. Hamelers

2004-01-01

336

Vertical axis windmill  

SciTech Connect

A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

Campbell, J.S.

1980-04-08

337

Vertical axis wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine is disclosed which includes a vertically extending rotor tube mounted on a support structure with two or three rotor blades of troposkein configuration on the rotor tube for rotating the tube in response to wind energy and thereby drive a generator to produce electrical power. The turbine includes an erection hinge which permits assembly

Kutcher

1984-01-01

338

Three dimensional metallization for vertically integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mainstream planar technology is marked by physical and technological limitations, which have a severe impact on system characteristics. The performance, the multi-functionality and the reliability of microelectronic systems will be mainly limited by the wiring between the ICs and subsystems. The “on-chip” wiring also leads to a critical performance bottleneck for future IC generations which can be solved only

P. Ramm; D. Bollmann; R. Braun; R. Buchner; U. Cao-Minh; M. Engelhardt; G. Errmann; T. Graßl; K. Hieber; H. Hübner; G. Kawala; M. Kleiner; A. Klumpp; S. Kühn; C. Landesberger; H. Lezec; W. Muth; W. Pamler; R. Popp; E. Renner; G. Ruhl; A. Sänger; U. Scheler; A. Schertel; C. Schmidt; S. Schwarzl; J. Weber; W. Weber

1997-01-01

339

Secure vertical integration for building automation networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, building automation systems have become a widely accepted technology with dedicated but stand-alone solutions existing for a variety of application domains. Data exchange across domain borders is - if at all - realized by interconnecting these networks at the management level. Thus, the next step is to realize end-to-end data exchange already at the device level. The

Christian Reinisch; Wolfgang Granzer; Wolfgang Kastner

2008-01-01

340

Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of…

Gregor, Robert J.

2008-01-01

341

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

2003-04-01

342

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

343

Flow patterns in vertical two-phase flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the flow patterns which occur in upwards gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical tubes. The basic flow patterns are described and the use of flow patter maps is discussed. The transition between plug flow and churn flow is modelled under the assumption that flooding of the falling liquid film limits the stability of plug flow. The

K. W. McQuillan; P. B. Whalley

1985-01-01

344

Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

345

CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The simulations show that the helium gas is trapped inside the grooves. The predicted time-averaged gas coverage is in good qualitative agreement with the measured gas coverage.

Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

2009-01-01

346

Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator  

DOEpatents

A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-10-19

347

Paroxysmal Vertical Ocular Dyskinesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Paroxysmal vertical ocular dyskinesia of a previously undescribed nature is reported in a 42-year old woman with demyelinating disease, who was affected with a myelopathy, bilateral amblyopia, and a modified sylvian aqueduct syndrome. Electroencephalograp...

J. B. MacLean J. F. Sassin

1973-01-01

348

In vitro effects of l-carnitine and glutamine on motility, acrosomal abnormality, and plasma membrane integrity of rabbit sperm during liquid-storage.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of l-carnitine and glutamine (Gln) on the sperm quality parameters of liquid-stored rabbit semen maintained up to 24 h at 5°C. Pooled and extended ejaculates were divided into two equal portions. l-Carnitine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2mM were added to the first portion, and glutamine was added at the same doses to the second portion. All samples were cooled to 5°C and examined at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h of liquid storage. Supplementation of the semen extender with three different doses of l-carnitine provided significant increases in the percentage of motile sperm at 12 h (P<0.01), and 24h (P<0.001) and enabled significant protection of the sperm plasma membrane (P<0.01) at 12 and 24h of cool-storage, in comparison to the control samples. Only the 2mM dose of l-carnitine significantly (P<0.01) decreased the rate of acrosomal damage when compared to the control group. Furthermore, all doses of Gln caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in acrosomal damage at 6h, and provided significant improvement (P<0.01) in sperm motility, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrities at 12 and 24h of liquid storage, when compared to the controls. In conclusion, the supplementation of liquid-stored rabbit semen with l-carnitine and Gln provided a protection for sperm against cool storage-induced functional and structural damages. PMID:24759298

Sar?özkan, Serpil; Ozdamar, Saim; Türk, Gaffari; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu

2014-06-01

349

Thermochemical production of liquid fuels from biomass: Thermo-economic modeling, process design and process integration analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed thermo-economic model combining thermodynamics with economic analysis and considering different technological alternatives for the thermochemical production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. Energetic and economic models for the production of Fischer–Tropsch fuel (FT), methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) by means of biomass drying with steam or flue gas, directly or indirectly heated fluidized bed or

Laurence Tock; Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

2010-01-01

350

Countercurrent Nuclear-Fuel Liquid-Liquid Extraction Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solvent extraction apparatus is utilized in the processing of nuclear reactor fuel and blanket materials such as spent fuel rods from a nuclear reactor. The apparatus includes an elongated, cylindrical, vertical column. A heavy liquid inlet at the top...

J. P. Duckworth

1965-01-01

351

Quantitative Analysis of Amyloid-Integrated Biofilms Formed by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli at the Air-Liquid Interface  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms are complex multicellular assemblies, characterized by a heterogeneous extracellular polymeric matrix, that have emerged as hallmarks of persistent infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative data are needed to elucidate the composition and architecture of biofilms, and such data need to be correlated with mechanical and physicochemical properties that relate to function. We performed a panel of interfacial rheological measurements during biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by the Escherichia coli strain UTI89, which is noted for its importance in studies of urinary tract infection and for its assembly of functional amyloid fibers termed curli. Brewster-angle microscopy and measurements of the surface elasticity (Gs?) and stress-strain response provided sensitive and quantitative parameters that revealed distinct stages during bacterial colonization, aggregation, and eventual formation of a pellicle at the air-liquid interface. Pellicles that formed under conditions that upregulate curli production exhibited an increase in strength and viscoelastic properties as well as a greater ability to recover from stress-strain perturbation. The results suggest that curli, as hydrophobic extracellular amyloid fibers, enhance the strength, viscoelasticity, and resistance to strain of E. coli biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface.

Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G.; Cegelski, Lynette

2012-01-01

352

Verticality in hydroelectric machines  

SciTech Connect

Everyone who erects a vertical hydroelectric machine makes an effort to put the machine together so that its elements are vertical. A plumb line (or its optical equivalent) is a practical starting point for aligning the stationary parts of the machine - the generator stator, turbine case, and bearings. This does not mean, though, that the machine parts must be in near-perfect vertical orientation for the machine to perform well. Verticality is sometimes over-emphasized when procedures are undertaken to achieve good machine alignment. If the generator rotor, the connecting shaft, and the turbine runner are centered in stationary parts that are well-aligned along the same axis angle, this angle can depart from true vertical by a significant amount without ill effect. Mechanical balance does not often play a large part in determining how well a generator rotor is centered in the air gap. Magnetic forces are much more important. This is why it is desirable to maintain air gap variations around the machine to less than 5 percent from the average. However, this is sometimes difficult, especially if bearing clearances are large.

O'Kelly, F.

1991-12-01

353

Real-time cross-sectional averaged void fraction measurements in vertical annulus gas-liquid two-phase flow by neutron radiography and X-ray tomography techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Real-Time Neutron Radiography (RTNR) system and a high speed X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT) system are used to determine the flow regime, the instantaneous cross-sectional averaged void fraction, and the time averaged void fraction in a vertical annulus flow channel. A standard optical video system is also used to observe the flow regime. The annulus flow channel is operated as

G. D. Harvel; K. Hori; K. Kawanishi; J. S. Chang

1996-01-01

354

Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.  

PubMed

Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

2012-05-01

355

Vertical breast reduction.  

PubMed

The vertical approach to breast reduction surgery has achieved increasing popularity. The learning curve can be a problem for surgeons starting to incorporate vertical techniques into their practices; the medial pedicle approach is outlined in detail. Designing and creating the medial pedicle is straightforward and rotating it into position is easy. An elegant curve to the lower pole of the reduced breast can thus be created. Current concepts related to the skin brassiere, breast sutures, and the longevity of results are reviewed. It is important for the surgeon to understand that the skin resection pattern and the pedicle design are separate issues when discussing breast reduction surgery. PMID:20574477

Hall-Findlay, Elizabeth J

2004-08-01

356

Flow of a thin liquid film coating a horizontal stationary cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and theoretical study of the flow of liquid films around a stationary horizontal cylinder is reported. The film presents two different behaviors: The flow is stable in the upper zone (up to ˜150? with the vertical) and Rayleigh-Taylor-like instabilities appear in the lower zone. For the stable region, film thickness evolution could be described by numerically integrating an evolution equation obtained using a lubrication approximation. For the unstable region, a linear stability analysis allows us to determine the maximum growth wavelength for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Approximate analytical solutions were obtained for generatrices at an angle with the vertical ?=0 (stable region) and ?=? (where the instability appears).

Cachile, M.; Aguirre, M. A.; Lenschen, M.; Calvo, A.

2013-12-01

357

The asymptotic motion of an accelerating, thick layer of inviscid liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most studies of a gravitationally unstable interface between a liquid and a gas by boundary integral techniques prescribe the motion of the liquid in the far field. The mean gas pressure at the interface is then irrelevant in its motion. On the other hand, when a pressure jump is applied to a liquid column in a vertical duct, its acceleration is determined by the pressure jump no matter how tall the column. Previous studies of accelerating liquid layers [G. R. Baker, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon, and S. A. Orszag, ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability of fluid layers,'' J. Fluid Mech. 178, 161 (1987)] show that the motion of the gravitationally unstable interface depends on the reciprocal of the mean layer thickness H. In this paper, we derive an asymptotic boundary integral method that captures the O(1/H) effects on the motion of the unstable interface with a correction that is exponentially small in H. The validity of the asymptotic approach is confirmed by comparison with numerical simulations of the liquid layer. The success of the approach relies on expansions of the kernels in the boundary integrals, indicating that the procedure for deriving the asymptotic equations is more general than just for vertical ducts or periodic geometry. In a subsequent paper, we use our approach to derive the equations for the formation of a bubble at a submerged orifice that is driven by an increase in gas pressure.

Baker, Greg; Nie, Qing

1998-01-01

358

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The first step in the integrated, mufti-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal is the production of ultra low-ash coal. Subsequent steps convert low-ash coal to high-value, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-08-01

359

Estimating the Gibbs energy of hydration from molecular dynamics trajectories obtained by integral equations of the theory of liquids in the RISM approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of integral equations of the theory of liquids in the reference interaction site model (RISM) approximation is used to estimate the Gibbs energy averaged over equilibrium trajectories computed by molecular mechanics. Peptide oxytocin is selected as the object of interest. The Gibbs energy is calculated using all chemical potential formulas introduced in the RISM approach for the excess chemical potential of solvation and is compared with estimates by the generalized Born model. Some formulas are shown to give the wrong sign of Gibbs energy changes when peptide passes from the gas phase into water environment; the other formulas give overestimated Gibbs energy changes with the right sign. Note that allowance for the repulsive correction in the approximate analytical expressions for the Gibbs energy derived by thermodynamic perturbation theory is not a remedy.

Tikhonov, D. A.; Sobolev, E. V.

2011-04-01

360

Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.  

PubMed

A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Pr<0.0001) proved that the model matched the experimental data, and had a high predictive ability. The optimal technological parameters were: 81.5°C reaction temperature, 51.7cm fill height of catalyst KF/CaO and 105.98kPa system pressure. Under these conditions, the average yield of triplicate experiments was 93.7%, indicating the continuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. PMID:22940350

Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

2012-11-01

361

Vertical axis windmill  

SciTech Connect

A vertical axis windmill has a blade pivotally connected to a rotatable support structure on an axis passing through its center of gravity which is arranged to lie forward of its aerodynamic center whereby the blade automatically swings outwardly and inwardly when moving on the windward and leeward sides respectively of the axis of rotation of said support means.

Zheug, Y.K.

1984-03-06

362

Vertical shaft windmill  

SciTech Connect

A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted thereon. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

Grana, D.C.; Inge, S.V. Jr.

1983-11-15

363

Vertical shaft windmill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

1983-01-01

364

Developing Vertical File Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to develop vertical file resources for school libraries. Discusses the importance of having primary sources that are not available in other formats; sources for obtaining materials, including the Internet and printed sources; how to organize the materials; providing access; and promoting the collection. (LRW)

Smallwood, Carol

1998-01-01

365

Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

1998-01-01

366

Effect of liquid storage on membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity: a new diagnostic method of evaluating boar sperm quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine sperm membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity, to quantify possible apoptosis, and to investigate relationship between these parameters. Apoptotic-like changes were evaluated using a combination of YO-PRO-1\\/PI staining, and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated using JC-1. Gel-free ejaculates collected from fi ve boars were extended in BTS diluent and stored for

M. Trzci?ska; M. Bry?a; Z. Smor?g

367

Inhibition-based determination of metrifonate in liquid and solid samples using the triple integration chemical hydrolysis-pervaporation-enzymic derivatisation.  

PubMed

An innovative continuous flow approach consisting of the triple integration of chemical hydrolysis, analytical pervaporation and enzyme inhibition-based reaction for the determination of metrifonate is presented. The method is based on chemical degradation of the pesticide, a separation step consisting of analytical pervaporation of its volatile metabolite and inhibition action of this on the acetylcholinesterase catalysis. The subsequent derivatisation reaction is a two-step reaction involving choline oxidase (ChOD) and horseradish peroxidase (POD) with fluorimetric detection (lambda (ex )=310 nm and lambda (em )=415 nm ) of the dimer formed by the action of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of the inhibitory effect was increased using an open-closed flow system. Applied to liquid samples, the method has a linear determination range of 0.0025-0.15 g l(-1)(n=8, r=0.9993) with a precision, expressed as RSD, of 3.2-6.7% and a sampling frequency of 3 h(-1). When applied to solid samples the method shows a linear determination range of 0.0026-0.13 g kg(-1) (n=5, r(2)=0.9981, RSD 2.7-7.7%) and a sampling frequency of 2h(-1). The approach has been applied to the determination of metrifonate in natural water and spiked soil samples with recoveries ranging between 94.3 and 107.8% for liquid samples and between 86.5 and 99.6% for solid samples. PMID:18968186

Delgado Reyes, F; Fernández Romero, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

2001-01-26

368

Vertical Bargraph Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was divided into three separate technical efforts, (1) the mechanical packaging, (2) the electronic circuitry and (3) the liquid crystal plates. The packaging and circuitry efforts proceeded quite smoothly. There were some modifications in bot...

G. F. Ingle

1974-01-01

369

Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase  

DOEpatents

By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

370

Development of a one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction and cleanup method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.  

PubMed

A rapid and accurate one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and cleanup method was developed and validated for 34 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments, giving an extract that could be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without further cleanup. Marine sediment (5g) was loaded into the stainless-steel extraction cell above activated copper (5g) and activated silica gel (5g). An extraction temperature of 100°C and two 5min extraction cycles using a 4:1 (v/v) hexane-dichloromethane mixture gave a good extraction efficiency. The integrated method gave extracts that were as clean as those obtained using PLE, followed by separate activated copper and silica gel cleanups. The method was validated, in terms of its accuracy, precision, and application using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1944), marine sediments spiked at low and high concentrations, and contaminated harbor sediments. The mean recoveries were 92% and 94% for the low and high spike concentrations, respectively, and the accuracy was good (giving a mean of 86% of the certified reference material concentrations). The method developed gave a precision and accuracy equal to or better than the precision and accuracy found using PLE with separate cleanups. The method developed gives a shorter sample preparation time and uses much less solvent than PLE and separate cleanups. PMID:24671040

Choi, Minkyu; Kim, Ye-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Hee-Gu

2014-05-01

371

Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines the potential of using the near-surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chla]surf), as it can be derived from ocean color observation, to infer the column-integrated phytoplankton biomass, its vertical distribution, and ultimately the community composition. Within this context, a large High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment database was analyzed. It includes 2419 vertical pigment profiles, sampled in case 1 waters with various trophic states (0.03-6 mg Chla m-3). The relationships between [Chla]surf and the chlorophyll a vertical distribution, as previously derived by Morel and Berthon (1989), are fully confirmed. This agreement makes it possible to go further and to examine if similar relationships between [Chla]surf and the phytoplankton assemblage composition along the vertical can be derived. Thanks to the detailed pigment composition, and use of specific pigment biomarkers, the contribution to the local chlorophyll a concentration of three phytoplankton groups can be assessed. With some cautions, these groups coincide with three size classes, i.e., microplankton, nanoplankton and picoplankton. Corroborating previous regional findings (e.g., large species dominate in eutrophic environments, whereas tiny phytoplankton prevail in oligotrophic zones), the present results lead to an empirical parameterization applicable to most oceanic waters. The predictive skill of this parameterization is satisfactorily tested on a separate data set. With such a tool, the vertical chlorophyll a profiles of each group can be inferred solely from the knowledge of [Chla]surf. By combining this tool with satellite ocean color data, it becomes possible to quantify on a global scale the phytoplankton biomass associated with each of the three algal assemblages.

Uitz, Julia; Claustre, Hervé; Morel, André; Hooker, Stanford B.

2006-08-01

372

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

373

Vertical vector face lift.  

PubMed

Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. PMID:21276163

Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

2011-01-01

374

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

375

Integrity of chromatin and replicating DNA in nuclei released from fission yeast by semi-automated grinding in liquid nitrogen  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei. Findings Here we present a useful method for nuclear isolation from the important model organism, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To preserve in vivo molecular configurations, we flash-froze the yeast cells in liquid nitrogen. Then we broke their tough cell walls, without damaging their nuclei, by grinding in a precision-controlled motorized mortar-and-pestle apparatus. The cryo-ground cells were resuspended and thawed in a buffer designed to preserve nuclear morphology, and the nuclei were enriched by differential centrifugation. The washed nuclei were free from contaminating nucleases and have proven well-suited as starting material for genome-wide chromatin analysis and for preparation of fragile DNA replication intermediates. Conclusions We have developed a simple, reproducible, economical procedure for large-scale preparation of endogenous-nuclease-free, morphologically intact nuclei from fission yeast. With appropriate modifications, this procedure may well prove useful for isolation of nuclei from other organisms with, or without, tough cell walls.

2011-01-01

376

Mixed Convective Boiling Heat Transfer in a Vertical Capillary Structure Heated Asymmetrically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed convective boiling heat transfer in a vertically oriented capillary porous structure with asymmetric heating of opposing walls is numerically investigated using a multiphase mixture model. Liquid saturation distributions, isotherms, as well as liquid and vapor velocity fields subjected to both superimposed aiding and opposing flows are analyzed and presented. The liquid velocity distributions for both aiding and opposing flows

T. S. Zhao; Q. Liao

1999-01-01

377

STRATEGIC CHOICE ALONG THE VERTICAL COORDINATION CONTINUUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental changes are underway in the U.S. agri-food system, changes that are altering traditional marketing relationships. Parts of the food system are becoming tightly integrated, such as the poultry subsector and, increasingly, the pork subsector. The tightening of vertical linkages has been characterized by movement from open markets to various forms of managed coordination, e.g. contracting, strategic alliances, and single

H. Christopher Peterson; Allen F. Wysocki

1998-01-01

378

Nanoelectromechanical switches with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanical switching devices have been fabricated successfully employing vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from the prepatterned catalyst dots on the patterned device electrodes. The devices show various interesting switching characteristics depending on the length and the number of MWCNTs used. The device design not only simplifies the fabrication process, but also improves the integration density greatly. The device has a great potential in realizing technically viable nanoelectromechanical systems, such as switch, memory, fingers, or grippers.

Jang, J. E.; Cha, S. N.; Choi, Y.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Kang, D. J.; Hasko, D. G.; Jung, J. E.; Kim, J. M.

2005-10-01

379

Vertical Fluxes of Potential Vorticity and the Structure of the Thermocline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new framework for understanding the vertical structure of ocean gyres is developed based on vertical fluxes of potential vorticity. The key ingredient is an integral constraint that in a steady state prohibits a net flux of potential vorticity through any closed contour of Bernoulli potential or density. Applied to an ocean gyre, the vertical fluxes of potential vorticity associated

DAVID P. M ARSHALL

2000-01-01

380

Dissolution of a Carbon Dioxide Bubble in a Vertical Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolution of single carbon dioxide (CO2) bubbles in a vertical pipe of 25 mm diameter is measured to examine the effects of the ratio lambda of the sphere-volume equivalent bubble diameter to the pipe diameter, the liquid Reynolds number and surfactants on mass transfer. The bubble diameter and liquid Reynolds number are varied from 5.0 to 26 mm (0.20 <

Satoru Abe; Hideaki Okawa; Shigeo Hosokawa; Akio Tomiyama

2008-01-01

381

Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

Pruess, K.

2011-05-15

382

Vertical blind assembly  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vertical blind assembly includes an elongate header casing and two sets of louvers movably supported in adjacent channels within the header casing, including a first set of plain louvers structured to be moved horizontally along the length of the first channel, and a second set of louvers which are molded and configured in a decorative, three-dimensional pattern and structured to be moved horizontally along the length of the second channel so that they are positioned in front of the first set of louvers.

1997-01-28

383

'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

2004-01-01

384

Vertical Motion Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

385

Tensile failure of liquids under dynamic stressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains an account of various experiments associated with the propagation of a pressure pulse up a vertical column of liquid. When such a pulse reaches the upper free surface of the liquid it is reflected downwards as a pulse of tension. This method therefore provides a means of subjecting the liquid to tension under dynamic conditions of stressing.

D C F Couzens; D H Trevena

1974-01-01

386

Structural design and test capability of an integrated stiffened CFRP panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper's aim is to focus on the design, manufacture and test of a stiffened panel in composite material with integrated longitudinal foam-filled stiffeners, spar and rib caps, using one-shot liquid infusion (LI) process, reducing weight and number of subparts respect to metallic reference baseline P180 Avanti vertical fin. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Extensive activities in computational applications in order

Fulvio Romano; Josè Fiori; Umberto Mercurio

2010-01-01

387

Instability of two-phase flow in vertical cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of two-phase flow in a vertical cylinder is considered. The liquid phase is assumed to flow past the cylinder surface in a thin layer, assuming no mixing with the core gas flow. The complete system of Navier–Stokes and continuity equations for both phases is treated analytically, using a perturbation procedure based on expansion in powers of small wavenumbers.

M. Nabil Esmail; Richard L. Hummel; J. W. Smith

1975-01-01

388

Vertical transport processes in unconfined aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive simple two-dimensional mathematical models describing the unsteady transport of conservative contaminants through an unconfined aquifer with a gently sloping aquiclude subject to advection, recharge, and vertical dispersion. The inclusion of vertical transport terms permits the proper nonreactive analysis of closed and open chemical systems, with the latter allowing dispersion of volatile constituents across the water table. These systems exhibit conservative and pseudoreactive behavior respectively when the pollution is analyzed on a depth-integrated basis, as is common in present one-dimensional models of groundwater contamination. Vertical and longitudinal chloride and total inorganic carbon observations at the well-documented Babylon, Long Island sanitary landfill plume are used to calibrate and test the analyses with a modest level of accuracy, using the vertical dispersivity as a calibration factor in this testing process. The parameter is important in the determination of reaeration rates across the water table and nutrient mixing from below in the related problem of biological transformations near the free surface.

Ostendorf, David W.; Reckhow, David A.; Popielarczyk, David J.

1989-02-01

389

Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation  

SciTech Connect

The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

Lee, A. P., LLNL

1997-07-10

390

High pressure liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry are advantageously integrated into a two-levels approach to detection and identification of haemoglobin variants.  

PubMed

Detecting and correctly identifying haemoglobin (Hb) variants is typically achieved by a two-levels laboratory approach. We report our experience in dealing with 91 Hb variants, including a number of frequent and a few rare variants. Screening included akaline agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE), ion-exchange automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a test for deoxyhaemoglobin solubility. Identification was based on electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Our results confirmed the advantages of HPLC over AGE for screening, because of the occurrence of some electrophoretically 'silent' variants. ESI-MS permitted the definitive identification of 90 of the 91 variants included in the study, in some cases (e.g. HbS) through the application of a simple protocol (direct injection of the sample), in other cases requiring the application of more demanding procedures (purification of the variant chain and peptide analysis after enzymatic or chemical cleavage). In an additional case (Hb J-Oxford), ESI-MS assay did not lead to definitive identification, but gave indications for designing the appropriate primers to focus DNA sequence analysis on the specific region of the gene. Deoxyhaemoglobin solubility test was positive only in the presence of HbS. We conclude that HPLC and ESI-MS are advantageously integrated into a two-level analytical system for the detection and confirmation of variant Hbs. PMID:15784126

Caruso, D; Crestani, M; Mitro, N; Da Riva, L; Mozzi, R; Sarpau, S; Merlotti, C; Franzini, C

2005-04-01

391

Validation and use of an enzymic time-temperature integrator to monitor thermal impacts inside a solid/liquid model food.  

PubMed

Heat denaturation kinetics of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase, equilibrated at 81% equilibrium relative humidity at 4 degrees C (BLA81), was studied with help of isothermal and nonisothermal conditions by monitoring the decrease in enthalpy associated with the heat denaturation of the enzyme. Due to its low water content, BLA81 denaturation could be studied in the range of 118-124 degrees C. Two batches of BLA81 were successfully validated under nonisothermal conditions allowing the determinations of process values (reference temperature of 121.1 degrees C) in the range of 1-15 min. In a second step, BLA81 was used as a time-temperature integrator (TTI) to investigate potential differences of process values received by freely moving spherical particles as compared to a centrally fixed particle (single-position impact) inside cans containing water as brine. Results showed that the process value received by freely moving particles can be from 5.6% (4 rpm) to 19.7% (8 rpm) smaller than the process value received by the centrally fixed sphere. This means that evaluating the process value by means of a particle fixed at the critical point in a package can lead to potentially overestimations of the actual process value with possible hazardous quality/safety implications. These results highlight the potentials of the TTI technology to monitor the safety of heat-processed agitated solid/liquid foodstuffs. PMID:12363362

Guiavarc'h, Yann P; Dintwa, Edward; Van Loey, Ann M; Zuber, François T; Hendrickx, Marc E

2002-01-01

392

An integrated multiphase flow sensor for microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow regimes of microscale multiphase flows affect the yield and selectivity of microchemical systems, and the heat transfer properties of micro heat exchangers. We describe an integrated optical sensor that uses total internal reflection to detect the structure of multiphase flows in microchannels. The non-intrusive sensor enables detection of individual slugs, bubbles, or drops, and can be used to continuously determine their number and velocity. The sensor performance is modeled using ray-tracing techniques, and tested for several channel geometries. Both gas-liquid and liquid-liquid flows are investigated in microchannels with rectangular and triangular cross-sections. Statistical properties of the flow, derived from the sensor signal, compare favorably to commonly-used dynamic pressure measurements. We demonstrate the integration of the sensor into a planar multichannel microreactor. An existing glass layer used as a waveguide allows us to monitor flows in optically inaccessible channels. This sensor configuration can be integrated into layers of vertically-stacked multichannel microreactors.

Kraus, Tobias; Günther, Axel; de Mas, Nuria; Schmidt, Martin A.; Jensen, Klavs F.

393

Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner  

SciTech Connect

Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

SUTTER, C.S.

1999-08-16

394

The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders.  

PubMed

Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation. PMID:22738759

Cooray, Himantha; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

2012-07-18

395

Baroclinic instability in vertically discrete systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Charney-Phillips (1953) standard vertical grid for quasi-geostrophic models is compared with the Lorenz (1960) vertical grid (which departs from the standard grid by carrying horizontal velocity and potential temperature at same levels) in the framework of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity equation and baroclinic instability. It is demonstrated that the Charney-Phillips grid makes it possible to maintain important dynamical constraints on quasi-geostrophic flow, such as the conservation of quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity through horizontal advection and resulting integral constraints. The Lorenz grid, on the other hand, is not straightforward even to define quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity. Moreover, due to an extra degree of freedom in potential temperature, the Lorenz grid can falsely satisfy the necessary condition for baroclinic instability near the lower and the upper boundaries.

Arakawa, Akio; Moorthi, Shrinivas

1988-01-01

396

Investigation of vertical slug flow with advanced two-phase flow instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive experiments of vertical slug flow were carried out with an electromagnetic flowmeter and an impedance void-meter in an air–water two-phase experimental loop. The basic principles of these instruments in vertical slug flow measurements are discussed. Time series of the liquid velocity and the impedance were separated into two parts corresponding to the Taylor bubble and the liquid slug. Characteristics

Y. Mi; M. Ishii; L. H. Tsoukalas

2001-01-01

397

Plasma break-down and re-build: same functional vertical graphenes from diverse natural precursors.  

PubMed

Plasmas, the 4(th) state of matter, uniformly transform natural precursors with different chemical composition in solid, liquid, and gas states into the same functional vertical graphenes in a single-step process within a few minutes. Functional vertical graphenes show reliable biosensing properties, strong binding with proteins, and improved adhesion to substrates. PMID:24002820

Seo, Dong Han; Rider, Amanda Evelyn; Han, Zhao Jun; Kumar, Shailesh; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

2013-10-18

398

Vertical Velocities in a Thunderstorm Gust Front and Outflow.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous vertically pointing measurements of a thunderstorm outflow, including its gust front, were obtained with a Doppler radar near New Salem, North Dakota. The measurements provide a high-resolution depiction of the vertical structure of reflectivity and vertical velocity within the gust front, the outflow, and the parent storm. Earlier gust front remote sensing studies have used Doppler observations obtained with low-elevation-angle scans to accurately measure the horizontal flow pattern from which vertical velocities were subsequently estimated by integrating the continuity equation. In contrast, the New Salem case provides direct, rather than derived, Doppler measurement of vertical velocities with better vertical resolution and vastly superior temporal resolution. The gust front's vertical structure is in general agreement with earlier observations and numerical simulations, except that the transition from strong upward to strong downward motion was more abrupt. The maximum updraft, of almost 10 m s1, was measured in the gust front at 1.35 km above ground level and was followed by equally strong downward motion only 1 min later at a slightly higher altitude.The observations support the earlier use of the continuity method for deriving the basic pattern of vertical motions in density currents from quasi-horizontal scan data.

Martner, Brooks E.

1997-05-01

399

Vertical Dimension in Complete Dentures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video demonstrates proportional and functional methods to establish a tentative vertical dimension for the edentulous patient. It emphasizes the correlation of this dimension with the centric relation.

1994-01-01

400

Vertical quantum dot with a vertically coupled charge detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated a vertical quantum dot equipped with a charge detector. The dot current flows vertically between the top and bottom contacts. The charge detector is formed at the bottom contact layer with a current channel constricted to the region just under the dot. This channel current is reduced by addition of an extra electron onto the dot due to

Koichiro Zaitsu; Yosuke Kitamura; Keiji Ono; Seigo Tarucha

2008-01-01

401

The Development of Novel Radioisotope Inspection Techniques to allow Determination of Liquid Levels within Submerged Tankers and the Integrity of Subsea Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe the development of Neutron Backscatter Scans, a widely recognized technique in the processing industry for use in novel subsea applications. Neutron Backscatter has been widely used for over 40 years to define tank inventories, gas\\/liquid interfaces, liquid\\/liquid interfaces and solid accumulations. The technique works by sweeping the outside of the vessel and non-intrusively bombarding the process

D. Benson

2007-01-01

402

Application of the contour transformation method to a vertical electric dipole over Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contour transformation method is applied to the computation of the Sommerfeld integral associated with a vertical electric dipole above Earth. In this method the slowly varying part of the transformed Sommerfeld integrand is approximated by a few exponential terms using Prony's method. The resulting integrals are then carried out analytically, thereby, yielding incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals. Therefore numerical integration of

Steven L. Dvorak; Mehdi M. Mechaik

1993-01-01

403

Liquid-Hydrogen Polygeneration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polygeneration system uses existing technology in integrated process to produce liquid hydrogen space-vehicle propellant and secondary products as gaseous nitrogen, electrical energy, and thermal energy. Makes commercial launch services economical. Lowers expected cost of liquid hydrogen by utilizing relatively cheap coal feedstocks and by reducing electrical costs associated with producing liquid hydrogen.

Minderman, P.; Gutkowski, G.; Manfredi, L.; King, J.; Howard, F.

1986-01-01

404

Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

Briggs, Derek C.

2013-01-01

405

Vertical strabismus in monofixation syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The manifest angle of the horizontal deviation in monofixation syndrome (MFS) has been reported to reach a maximum of 8 to 10 PD. Review of the literature, however, revealed no studies about the vertical deviation associated with MFS. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the range of the angle of the vertical deviation in MFS. Methods: Forty

Dong Gyu Choi; Sherwin J. Isenberg

2001-01-01

406

The Gains from Vertical Scaling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

2013-01-01

407

Volatile liquid storage system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere.

Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

1992-09-15

408

Liquid crystal optofluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, A. E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-01

409

Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

410

Vertical quantum dot with a vertically coupled charge detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a vertical quantum dot equipped with a charge detector. The dot current flows vertically between the top and bottom contacts. The charge detector is formed at the bottom contact layer with a current channel constricted to the region just under the dot. This channel current is reduced by addition of an extra electron onto the dot due to the electrostatic coupling to the dot. The charge state of the vertical dot was detected, starting from zero electrons. The sensitivity of the charge detector was comparable to that previously reported for lateral dots with nearby quantum point contacts.

Zaitsu, Koichiro; Kitamura, Yosuke; Ono, Keiji; Tarucha, Seigo

2008-01-01

411

An experimental study of subcooled film boiling on a vertical surface - Hydrodynamic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is: (1) To determine the physical characteristics of the interfacial waves for different wall superheats and liquid subcoolings. (2) To determine the velocity field adjacent to the interface at different locations along the interface. Interface and liquid velocities near the leading edge of a vertical wall 6.3 cm wide and 10.3 cm high were

R. Vijaykumar; V. K. Dhir

1992-01-01

412

A capacity model for vertical pipes and packed columns based on entrainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study bridges flooding correlations in vertical pipes and packed towers. It is shown that the frictional forces of the gas on the liquid interface can either directly carry the liquid film upwards or induce droplet formation and, therefore, entrainment of the gas phase. A model is presented that estimates the entrainment flood point. The model does not fully explain

Geert F. Woerlee; Joop Berends

2001-01-01

413

Critical heat flux prediction for saturated flow boiling of water in vertical tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a new analytical model for the prediction of the critical heat flux (CHF) in water saturated flow boiling in round vertical and uniformly heated pipes. The CHF is assumed to occur in annular flow when the liquid film vanishes at the exit section of the heated channel. Channel pressure drop is calculated using the Friedel correlation. Liquid

Gian Piero Celata; Kaichiro Mishima; Giuseppe Zummo

2001-01-01

414

Modeling multifrequency eddy current sensor interactions during vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic finite element modeling methods have been used to analyze the responses of two (``absolute'' and ``differential'') eddy current sensor designs for measuring liquid-solid interface location and curvature during the vertical Bridgman growth of a wide variety of semiconducting materials. The multifrequency impedance changes due to perturbations of the interface's location and shape are shown to increase as the liquid\\/solid

Kumar P. Dharmasena; Haydn N. G. Wadley

1999-01-01

415

Modelling the Effect of Passive Vertical Suspensions on the Dynamic Behaviour of Sprayer Booms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical products for crop protection are usually distributed on the field as liquids by field sprayers. Unwanted horizontal and vertical sprayer boom movements create local under- and over-applications of spray liquid. A non-linear finite element model of a tractor and a mounted sprayer is developed to simulate these unwanted boom vibrations during field operations. Representative disturbance signals at the hitch

Patrik Kennes; Herman Ramon; Josse De Baerdemaeker

1999-01-01

416

New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the R&D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m3 helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; de Rijk, G.; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Hanzelka, P.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.

2014-01-01

417

Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

Johns, Pat

2003-01-01

418

Vertical Electromagnetic Pulse (VEMP) Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TOP provides methods for planning, providing instrumentation, and execution of testing of Army/DOD Materiel to determine the effects of Vertical Component High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (VHEMP) Environment on the safety and/or reliability of the...

2009-01-01

419

Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

2012-12-18

420

Vertical Reactor Coolant Pump Instabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes...

1985-01-01

421

Strategic Motives for Vertical Separation: Evidence from Retail Gasoline Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers can choose to remain separate from their retailers for both incentive and strategic reasons. In this article, strategic motives for vertical separation are examined empirically. Two datasets are used for the assessment. The first is a cross section of all contracts between private, integrated oil companies and their branded service stations in the city of Vancouver, whereas the second

Margaret E Slade

1998-01-01

422

Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner  

SciTech Connect

Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

SUTTER, C.S.

1999-08-31

423

PARAMETRIC METHODOLOGIES OF CLOUD VERTICAL TRANSPORT FOR ACID DEPOSITION MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

A CUmulus VENTing (CUVENT) cloud module has been developed that calculates the vertical flux of mass from the boundary layer to the cloud layer by an ensemble of nonprecipitating subgrid-scale air mass clouds. This model will be integrated into the Regional Acid Deposition Model ...

424

CMOS Vertical Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfectly self aligned vertical multiple independent gate field effect transistor (MIGFET) CMOS devices have been fabricated. The unique process used to fabricate these devices allow them to be integrated with FinFET devices. Device and circuit simulations have been used to explain the device and explore new applications using this device. A novel application of the MIGFET as a signal mixer

L. Mathew; Y. Du; A. V.-Y. Thean; M. Sadd; A. Vandooren; C. Parker; T. Stephens; R. Mora; R. Rai; M. Zavala; D. Sing; S. Kalpat; J. Hughes; R. Shimer; S. Jallepalli; G. Workman; W. Zhang; J. G. Fossum; B. E. White; B.-Y. Nguyen; J. Mogab

2004-01-01

425

Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The vertical action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of vertical performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by

Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos

1997-01-01

426

Theoretical analysis of vertical colloidal deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have modeled the dynamics of a relatively new deposition technique, vertical colloidal deposition (VCD), for preparing nanoparticle thin films. In this process, the substrate is placed vertically in a nanoparticle suspension and is gradually exposed by evaporation or other slow solvent removal. During the film's formation, we observe that the colloidal particles are deposited only at the solid-liquid-gas interface. In contrast with the horizontal geometry, treated elsewhere, where the meniscus is pinned, we observe qualitatively different deposition behaviors. In particular, uniform films rather than rings or lines are produced. Thus, we are led to model a diffusion-driven rather than a convection-driven film growth kinetics, and we are able to predict, consistent with our experimental observations, that the film's areal density is inversely proportional to the descent speed of the suspension surface. Additionally, we find that for submonolayer films, the areal density is proportional to the square of the suspension concentration, converting to a linear dependence once monolayer coverage is attained.

Diao, J. J.; Hutchison, J. B.; Luo, Guanghong; Reeves, M. E.

2005-05-01

427

Correlation of entrainment for annular flow in vertical pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation for entrainment in vertical gas–liquid annular flows is presented. The experiments cover pipe diameters of 1.06–5.72 cm, superficial gas velocities of 20–119 m\\/s, superficial liquid velocities of 0.012–1.35 m\\/s, gas densities of 0.27–35 kg\\/m3 and surface tensions of 0.01–0.073 N\\/m. Entrainment is considered to result from a balance between the rate of atomization of the wall layer and

Lei Pan; Thomas J. Hanratty

2002-01-01

428

Loss of exploratory vertical saccades after unilateral frontal eye field damage.  

PubMed

Despite their relevance for locomotion and social interaction in everyday situations, little is known about the cortical control of vertical saccades in humans. Results from microstimulation studies indicate that both frontal eye fields (FEFs) contribute to these eye movements. Here, we present a patient with a damaged right FEF, who hardly made vertical saccades during visual exploration. This finding suggests that, for the cortical control of exploratory vertical saccades, integrity of both FEFs is indeed important. PMID:21686684

Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nyffeler, Thomas; von Wartburg, Roman; Hess, Christian W; Müri, René M

2009-01-01

429

Integral Drawings of Planar Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integral drawing of a graph G is such a realization of G in the plane that the vertices of G are mapped into distinct points, also called vertices, and the edges of G are mapped into straight line segments of integer length, also called edges, which co...

A. Kemnitz

1991-01-01

430

Towards an Integrated Spatial Planning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of “spatial planning” has emerged as something of a new planning orthodoxy. Underpinning it lie various notions of integration—of policy communities and agendas, for example. This paper considers the evolution of integrated spatial planning in the various UK territories, focusing particularly on the experiences of Scotland. It analyses horizontal and vertical forms of integration using the notion of

Geoff Vigar

2009-01-01

431

Vertically Stacked and Independently Controlled Twin-Gate MOSFETs on a Single Si Nanowire  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, we demonstrate the fabrication of two independently controlled gate-all-around MOSFETs on a single vertical silicon nanowire using CMOS process technology. The second gate is vertically stacked on top of the first gate without occupying additional area and thereby achieving true 3-D integration. The fabricated devices exhibit very low leakage, tunability in drain current, as well as

Xiang Li; Zhixian Chen; Nansheng Shen; Deblina Sarkar; Navab Singh; Kaustav Banerjee; Guo-Qiang Lo; Dim-Lee Kwong

2011-01-01

432

Cumulus Convection in the Atmosphere with Vertical Wind Shear : Numerical Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of cumulus convection in a prevailing wind with vertical shear is studied by integrating a set of dynamic equations numerically. The motion is considered under the solenoidal condition in a vertical two dimensional plane. Aside from the eddy exchange, the pseudo-adiabatic process is assumed in which the motion is moist adiabatic in saturated ascending air and dry adiabatic

Tomio Asai

1964-01-01

433

Effects of vertical wind shear, radiation, and ice clouds on a torrential rainfall event in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vertical wind shear, radiation, and ice clouds on surface rainfall processes associated with the torrential rainfall event over Jinan, China, during July 2007 are investigated through a series of sensitivity experiments. All experiments are integrated with an imposed large-scale vertical velocity and zonal wind from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Data Assimilation System for 36

Yushu Zhou

2011-01-01

434

Vertical single nanowire devices based on conducting polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple scheme for single conducting polymer nanowire fabrication and device integration is presented. We discuss a combined top-down and bottom-up approach for the sequential, precise manufacture of vertical polyaniline nanowires. The method is scalable and can be applied on rigid as well as on flexible substrates. The kinetics of the template-confined growth is presented and discussed. We further study the electrical behavior of single vertical polyaniline nanowires and address the fabrication of crossbar latches using a criss-cross arrangement of electrodes. The as-synthesized polyaniline nanowires display electric conductivities reaching values as high as 0.4 S cm-1.

Vlad, A.; Dutu, C. A.; Jedrasik, P.; Södervall, U.; Gohy, J. F.; Melinte, S.

2012-01-01

435

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

436

Investigation of Factors Affecting Vertical Drain Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some influencing factors on vertical drain behavior were investigated by laboratory tests as well as by back-analyses of test embankments on vertical drain improved subsoil at Saga Airport, Saga, Japan. Based on the results from this study, suggestions are made on determining the design parameters for vertical drain improvement. For the discharge capacity test of a prefabricated vertical drain, confining

Jun-Chun Chai; Norihiko Miura

1999-01-01

437

Vertical velocity in mesoscale geophysical flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the vertical velocity field using the full generalized {omega} equation (omega-equation) in a single mesoscale baroclinic oceanic gyre is carried out. The evolution of the gyre over 20 inertial periods is simulated using a new three-dimensional numerical model which directly integrates the horizontal ageostrophic vorticity, explicitly conserves the potential vorticity (PV) via contour advection on isopycnal surfaces, and inverts the nonlinear PV definition via the solution of a three-dimensional Monge Ampère equation. In this framework the omega-equation comes simply from the horizontal divergence of the horizontal ageostrophic vorticity prognostic equation. The ageostrophic vorticity is written as the Laplacian of a vector potential varphib, from which both the velocity and the density fields are recovered, respectively, from the curl and divergence of varphib. A new initialization technique based on the slow, progressive growth of the PV field during an initial time interval is used to avoid the generation of internal gravity waves during the initialization of the gyre. This method generates a nearly balanced baroclinic gyre for which the influence of internal gravity waves in the mesoscale vertical velocity field is negligible.

Viúdez, Álvaro; Dritschel, David G.

2003-05-01

438

Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

2004-01-01

439

Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

2014-01-01

440

Vertical Discretization of Hydrostatic Primitive Equations with Finite Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertical finite element (VFE) discretization of hydrostatic primitive equations is developed for the dynamical core of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) system at KIAPS, which is horizontally discretized by a spectral element on a cubed-sphere grid. The governing equations are discretized on a hybrid pressure-based vertical coordinate [1]. Compared with a vertical finite difference (VFD) discretization, which is only first order accurate for non-uniform grids, the VFE has many advantages such that it gives more accurate results, all variables are defined in the same full level, the level of vertical noise might be reduced [2], and it is easily coupled with existing physics packages, developed for a Lorentz staggering grid system. Due to these reasons, we adopted the VFE scheme presented by Untch [2] for the vertical discretization. Instead of using semi-Lagrangian and semi-implicit schemes of ECMWF, we use the Eulerian equations and second-order Runge-Kutta scheme as the first step in implementing the VFE for the dynamical core of the KIAPS's NWP model. Since the Eulerian hydrostatic equations are used in this study, both integral and derivative operators are required to implement the VFE using the Galerkin method with b-splines as basis functions. To compare the accuracy of the VFE with the VFD, the two-dimensional test case of mountain waves is used where physical configuration and initial conditions are the same as that of Durran [3]. In this case, the horizontal and vertical velocities obtained by the analytical solution, VFD, VFE-linear and VFE-cubic are compared to understand their numerical features and the vertical flux of horizontal momentum is also presented as the measurement of solution accuracy since it is sensitive to errors in a solution [3]