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1

Vertical Integration and Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many possible motives for vertical integration, the one emphasized here is uncertainty in the supply of the upstream good and the consequent need for information by downstream firms. The basic conclusion is that, even when the initial conditions are of the type usually thought of as competitive, the upshot will be a tendency to imperfect competition.

Kenneth J. Arrow

1975-01-01

2

Vertical integration, collusion, and tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a link between tariff rates and industry structure in a dynamic setting. We examine the role of tariffs\\u000a on final-goods in a firm’s decision to integrate and collude in the presence of competitive imports. It is shown that, under\\u000a some conditions, the upstream firm has an incentive to engage in vertical integration to introduce profitably a wholesale

Pedro Mendi; Rafael Moner-Colonques; José J. Sempere-Monerris

2011-01-01

3

Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

4

Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence  

E-print Network

We study the determinants of vertical integration. We first derive a number of predictions regarding the relationship between technology intensity and vertical integration from a simple incomplete contracts model. Then, ...

Acemoglu, Daron

5

Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

Brennan, Timothy J.

6

Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration Gilles Chemla ¤ July 8, 2002 and Management Strategy 12, 2 (2003) 261-289." #12;Downstream Competition, Forclosure, and Vertical Integration Abstract This paper analyzes the impact of competition among downstream ¯rms on an upstream ¯rm's payo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Gas-liquid annular flow in vertical circular tubes with liquid penetrated in nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semi-analytical model is proposed for fully developed upward gas-liquid annular flow inside vertical circular tubes, by utilizing well known turbulence algebraic models for single-phase flows, within both streams, combined with empirical correlations for the gas-liquid interface friction factor. Direct integration of the associated momentum equations provide the velocity distribution for each phase, as well as overall quantities of practical interest such as liquid film thickness and pressure gradient. The effects of liquid droplets entrainment in the gas is specialized empirical correlations. Extensive comparisons with experimental results are made in order to demonstrate the consistency of the proposed model.

Nogueira, E.; Brum, N. C. L.; Cotta, R. M.

1990-05-01

8

Photoaligned Vertical Aligned Nematic Mode in Liquid Crystals Viktor KONOVALOV  

E-print Network

of liquid crystal (LC) aligning in liquid crystal display (LCD) cells is widely used and providesPhotoaligned Vertical Aligned Nematic Mode in Liquid Crystals Viktor KONOVALOV Ã? , Vladimir; published January 13, 2004) The photoaligned vertical aligned nematic (VAN) mode in liquid crystals (LC

Kwok, Hoi S.

9

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY  

E-print Network

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY Yeon SukChoi \\ Steven W. Van to measure the natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen between two vertical plates has been performed power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath

Chang, Ho-Myung

10

Dopant-Enhanced Vertical Alignment of Negative Liquid Crystals  

E-print Network

Dopant-Enhanced Vertical Alignment of Negative Liquid Crystals Chien-Hui Wen Benjamin Wu Sebastian, Florida, USA A simple method for achieving high-contrast vertical alignment of high birefringence (Dn$0 tolane liquid crystal host, an excellent vertical alignment was obtained. This alignment is stable

Wu, Shin-Tson

11

Natural Convection of Liquid Metals in Vertical Cavities  

E-print Network

Natural Convection of Liquid Metals in Vertical Cavities F. Wolff Research Assistant C. Beckermann- vection heat transfer and fluid flow in vertical cavities filled with liquid metals. Experiments vertical walls show a variation reflecting the complicated flow patterns. The need for highly accurate

Beckermann, Christoph

12

CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

13

P-141 / Q. Hong P-141: A Wide-view Multi-domain Vertical-alignment Liquid Crystal  

E-print Network

-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal display (VA-LCD) is proposed. According to this design, by integratingP-141 / Q. Hong P-141: A Wide-view Multi-domain Vertical-alignment Liquid Crystal Display with High ±85o viewing cone with the transmittance higher than 33% for an eight-domain VA-LCD. Potential

Wu, Shin-Tson

14

Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy  

PubMed Central

Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients’ best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism. PMID:21850551

Afendulis, Christopher C.

2011-01-01

15

Integrated Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) Memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid state, block access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1 Gbit/sq cm areal storage density, data rates of hundreds of megabits/sec, and submillisecond average access time simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBLs are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of BVL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single chip memory using 25 Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. The current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results are described which are used to assist the design process.

Katti, R. R.; Wu, J. C.; Stadler, H. L.

1991-01-01

16

Violent liquid sloshing in vertically excited cylindrical containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency characteristics of gas-liquid surface sloshing induced by the vertical vibration of cylindrical containers containing liquid were experimentally investigated using a vibration-testing system with an electrodynamic shaker. The results show that the resonance frequency of the liquid-container vibration system depends on the excitation acceleration, and that the acceleration distribution of the container wall was not axisymmetrical at higher excitation accelerations. Significant changes in liquid pressure, container wall acceleration, and amplitude of surface oscillation were noted following the formation of a bubble cluster.

Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Sudo, Seiichi

1988-04-01

17

Turbulence modification in vertical liquid-liquid dispersed flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersed flow of two immiscible liquids, where usually one phase is aqueous (e.g. water) and the other is organic (e.g. oil), has a wide range of applications such as crude oil transportation and production of food or pharmaceuticals. Compared to single phase flow, there are some significant changes on flow behaviour during dispersed flow; for example, a lower pressure drop

Bin Hu; Panagiota Angeli

18

Stability of liquid films on a porous vertical cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of liquid films flowing down a vertical porous cylinder is investigated in this paper. Fluids in the porous medium are assumed to be governed by Darcy's law. The Beaver-Joseph conditions on the liquid-porous surface are applied, and the influence of the porous medium reduces as a slip condition on the cylinder, which leads to the one-sided model. A Benney-type equation governing the interfacial shape is derived to study the nonlinear behavior of liquid films. Linear stability analysis shows that the film flow system on a porous vertical cylinder is more unstable than that on a solid impermeable vertical cylinder and that increasing the permeability of the porous medium enhances the destabilizing effect. Nonlinear studies examine our linear stability analysis. We find that, for Reynolds number Re=0, as the permeability parameter increases, the rupture time of film decreases; for Re>0, Rayleigh-Plateau instability is suppressed, and disturbances evolve to saturated traveling waves. By increasing the permeability parameter, the amplitude of traveling wave increases, and the wave speed increases too. Aside from that, the wave speed increases with increasing Re.

Ding, Zijing; Liu, Qiusheng

2011-10-01

19

Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of post-contractural apportunistic behavior for improving market efficiency through intrafirm rather than interfirm transactions is examined under the assumption that vertical costs will increase less than contracting costs as specialized assets and appropriable quasi rents increase. Vertical integration protects against the risk of contract cancellation and can create market power which is not generally referred to as monopoly.

Benjamin Klein; Robert G. Crawford; Armen A. Alchian

1978-01-01

20

Hedging and Vertical Integration in Electricity Markets Gilles Chemla  

E-print Network

and vertical integration are two separate mechanisms for demand and spot price risk diversification that both, United Kingdom. E-mail: g.chemla@imperial.ac.uk § Deutsche Bank and Finance for Energy Market research

Touzi, Nizar

21

Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence Ian Appelbauma  

E-print Network

Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence microscopy Ian Appelbauma directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL heterostructure, just below a luminescent Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1861961 In ballistic electron emission luminescence BEEL , hot

Russell, Kasey

22

Photoaligned Vertical Aligned Nematic Mode in Liquid Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoaligned vertical aligned nematic (VAN) mode in liquid crystals (LC) was developed using the photosensitive polyimide (PI) JALC 2021-R2, illuminated by obliquely incident nonpolarized light. It has been found that the combination of PI with water soluble sulfonic azo-dye (SD) yields a perfect electro-optical performance of a liquid crystal in the VAN mode. The polar and the azimuthal anchoring strengths of LC in VAN mode were measured both for rubbed and photoaligned surfaces. Increasing the illumination time results in the exponential growth of the contrast ratio in the VAN LC cell. Analysis of anchoring strength and electrooptic behaviour of the photo-aligned LC cells confirm that the mechanism of photo-alignment in our materials includes not only the photodegradation, but mostly the reorientation of both SD-1 and PI molecules to get the average absorption oscillator almost parallel to the direction of the obliquely incident UV light.

Konovalov, Viktor; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Kwok, Hoi Sing; Takada, Hirokazu; Takatsu, Haruyoshi

2004-01-01

23

Wicking and flooding of liquids on vertical porous sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When one brings a wet paintbrush into contact with a vertical watercolor paper, the paint may wick into the porous sheet completely or run down to ruin the art. We study a simple model of this spreading dynamics of liquids on hydrophilic porous sheets under the effects of gravity, using a capillary as a liquid source and thin fabrics of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate. Upon finding the maximum flow rate, Qw, that can be absorbed into the fabric, we show that the model can be used to obtain an estimate of the in-plane permeability of fabrics in a simpler manner than the conventional schemes. The shape of a wetting area that grows when the flow rate exceeds Qw to lead to rivulet formation is also theoretically given. The nose shape of the wetting front is shown to be time-invariant, while its profile depends on the properties of the liquid and the fabric. This study can be applied to understand and improve the liquid absorption behavior of hygiene items, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning equipments, and fuel cell membranes in addition to elucidating the mundane painting activity.

Kim, Seong Jin; Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Chang, Young Soo; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Ho-Young

2015-03-01

24

Evaluation of Vertical Integrated Nanogenerator Performances in Flexion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric nanowires have attracted great interest as new building blocks of mechanical energy harvesting systems. This paper presents the design improvements of mechanical energy harvesters integrating vertical ZnO piezoelectric nanowires onto a Silicon or plastic membrane. We have calculated the energy generation and conversion performance of ZnO nanowires based vertical integrated nanogenerators in flexion mode. We show that in flexion mode ZnO nanowires are superior to bulk ZnO layer. Both mechanical and electrical effects of matrix materials on the potential generation and energy conversion are discussed, in the aim of guiding further improvement of nanogenerator performance.

Tao, R.; Hinchet, R.; Ardila, G.; Mouis, M.

2013-12-01

25

Is vertical integration adding value to health systems?  

PubMed

Vertical integration is a concept used by health systems when attempting to achieve economies of scale, greater coordination of services, and improved market penetration. This article focuses on the actual outcomes of utilizing vertical integration in the health field and then compares these findings with those reported in other industries. This analysis concludes that this organizational model does not work particularly well in the health industry, as illustrated by health alliances' poor fiscal performance when they acquire physician practices or when they start their own HMO plans. PMID:11066284

Weil, T P

2000-04-01

26

Phase separation of monomer in liquid crystal mixtures and surface morphology in polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymer-stabilized vertically aligned (PS-VA) liquid crystal display (LCD) driving mode has high potential for manufacturing low power consuming displays due to the higher transmittance and fast response as compared with the existing patterned vertically aligned and multi-domain vertically aligned modes. In this paper we have investigated the reaction mechanisms of monomer-liquid crystal blends to form a surface pre-tilt angle

Jae Jin Lyu; Hirotsuku Kikuchi; Dae Hyun Kim; Jun Hyup Lee; Kyeong Hyeon Kim; Hiroki Higuchi; Seung Hee Lee

2011-01-01

27

INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

28

Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall

R E Nygren; D F Cowgill; M A Ulrickson; B E Nelson; P J Fogarty; T D Rognlien; M E Rensink; A Hassanein; S S Smolentsev; M Kotschenreuther

2003-01-01

29

Design integration of liquid surface divertors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall

M. E. Rensink; S. S. Smolentsev; T. D. Rognlien; M. Kotschenreuther; Michael Andrew Ulrickson; Donald F. Cowgill; B. E. Nelson; A. Hassanein; Richard Einar Nygren; P. J. Fogarty

2003-01-01

30

Design integration of liquid surface divertors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall

R. E. Nygren; D. F. Cowgill; M. A. Ulrickson; B. E. Nelson; P. J. Fogarty; T. D. Rognlien; M. E. Rensink; A. Hassanein; S. S. Smolentsev; M. Kotschenreuther

2004-01-01

31

AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

2014-01-01

32

CSEM WP 117 Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets  

E-print Network

CSEM WP 117 Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets: Measuring Market Efficiency Markets (CSEM) Working Paper Series. CSEM is a program of the University of California Energy Institute, and Maryland market. This distinctive conclusion results from using a model that incorporates structural market

California at Berkeley. University of

33

Outsourcing versus vertical integration: A dynamic model of industry equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence shows that vertically integrated producers are more productive, bigger and are matched to better suppliers (with high productivity and size). I present a dynamic stochastic model of an industry with heterogeneous firms interacting as buyers and sellers, and market frictions that induce a hold-up problem to the manufacturers to account for these facts. In the model economy, an

Román Fossati

2012-01-01

34

45 (2008-5) Heat Transfer of liquid droplets impinging on vertically aligned SWNTs film  

E-print Network

with conventional copper surfaces. Key Words : Single-walled carbon nanotubes, Vertical alignment, Bonding, Liquid-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8686 By using a vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNT) film to a copper block to construct a high-temperature heating surface. Liquid droplets were impinged onto the high

Maruyama, Shigeo

35

Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display (LCD) without using an additional panel or pixel division is proposed. In the device, hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy is used. The device shows narrow viewing angle when it is driven only by fringe-electric field, however, it exhibits wide viewing angle if driven by vertical- as well

Eun Jeong; Young Jin Lim; Mi Hyung Chin; Jin Ho Kim; Seung Hee Lee; Seung Hoon Ji; Gi-Dong Lee; Kyoung Ho Park; Hyun Chul Choi; Byung Chul Ahn

2008-01-01

36

Terminal velocity of a bubble in a vertically vibrated liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We rigorously derive a formula for the terminal velocity of a small bubble in a vertically vibrated viscous incompressible liquid starting from the full Navier-Stokes equations and the exact boundary conditions at the bubble surface. This formula is derived using a perturbation analysis in which the small parameter is the nondimensional amplitude of the pressure oscillation. The analysis does not assume that the bubble remains spherical but does assume that the bubble is axisymmetric. It is shown that the bubble terminal velocity can be computed to second order while computing the full solution only to first order by applying a compatibility condition on the first-order solution. To second order, the bubble terminal velocity is shown to be the net value from an upward steady term and a rectified term that can be downward or upward. The perturbation formula depends on the vibration frequency nondimensionalized by the bubble radius and the liquid kinematic viscosity. We show that our perturbation formula links two heuristically developed formulas for the rectified component, which we denote the velocity-averaged and force-averaged formulas. Our perturbation formula reproduces the velocity-averaged formula for low frequencies and the forced-averaged formula for high frequencies and varies monotonically between these limits for intermediate frequencies. We furthermore develop a high-resolution spectral code specifically to simulate this type of bubble motion. Results from this code verify that the perturbation formula is correct for infinitesimal oscillating pressure amplitudes and suggest that it provides an upper bound for finite amplitudes of the pressure oscillation.

Romero, L. A.; Torczynski, J. R.; von Winckel, G.

2014-05-01

37

Vertical integration in the beef cattle industry: Harris Ranch Company  

E-print Network

on feeders nor ingredients, nevertheless, fat cattle are hedged. Progressive risk protection based on long term markets is applied. The percentage of cattle under contract depends on fundamental decisions. Corporate officers, based on their own expertise... for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE August 1990 Department of Animal Science Major Subject: Animal Science VERTICAL INTEGRATION IN THE BEEF CATTLE INDUSI'RY HARRIS RANCH COMPANY A Professional Paper by CARLOS LUIS PEDRETTI FERNANDEZ Approved...

Pedretti Fernandez, Carlos Luis

1990-01-01

38

Vertically integrated computer aided design for device plasma processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a computer aided design concept concerning vertically integrated CAD for device processing, VicAddress[1] as a long-range objective of the design of a low temperature plasma processing used for a multi-layer semiconductor manufacturing, by considering plasma\\/interface\\/surface\\/device-structure. That is, these are a series of modelings of a plasma structure, profile evolution, charging in a patterned wafer, and device damage

T. Makabe; K. Maeshige

2001-01-01

39

Supplier Switching Costs and Vertical Integration in the Automobile Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tests a transactions cost theory of vertical integration with data from the U.S. automobile industry. Existing theory is first refined to take into account industrial know-how and the cost of transferring such know-how. A testable model is then developed, which is estimated by using probit techniques. The results support the view that transactions cost considerations surrounding the development

Kirk Monteverde; David J. Teece

1982-01-01

40

Vertical Alignment of Liquid Crystal on ITO Glass with Anodic Aluminum Oxide Thin Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) thin films have been demonstrated as a vertical alignment layer for nematic liquid crystal in recent years. To control the liquid crystal orientation by applying the electric field, the AAO alignment layers need to be fabricated on the transparent electrode. In this work, the liquid crystal cell with the AAO alignment layer on Indium Tin Oxide

Tsung-Ta Tang; Chi-Yuan Hung; Ru-Pin Pan; Chitsung Hong; Weileun Fang

2011-01-01

41

Vertical integration, escalating commitment and technological performance: evidence from firms in the US computer industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We set out in this study to analyse the impact on the technological performance of firms arising from their vertical integration, along with their escalating commitment to capital investment. Our findings reveal a positive relationship between vertical integration and the technological performance of such firms. A positive correlation is also found to exist between vertical integration and escalating commitment to

Hsiu-Ling Li; Ming-Je Tang

2011-01-01

42

MARKET POWER, VERTICAL INTEGRATION AND THE WHOLESALE PRICE OF GASOLINE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines empirically the relationship between vertical integration and wholesale gasoline prices. We use discrete and differential changes in the extent of vertical integration generated by mergers in West Coast gasoline refining and retailing markets to test for incentives to raise rivals' costs. The research design allows us to test for a relationship between vertical integration and wholesale prices,

JUSTINE S. HASTINGS; RICHARD J. GILBERT

2005-01-01

43

Experimental and theoretical studies of vertical annular liquid jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical studies are described of vertical annular jets, the conditions are determined under which vertical jets form an enclosed volume which can be used as a chemical reactor, the influence is assessed of the nozzle gap width, nozzle geometry, pressure difference across the annular jet, and Froude, Weber and Reynolds numbers on the annular jet's covergence length, and the mass

J. I. Ramos

1990-01-01

44

Phase separation of monomer in liquid crystal mixtures and surface morphology in polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymer-stabilized vertically aligned (PS-VA) liquid crystal display (LCD) driving mode has high potential for manufacturing low power consuming displays due to the higher transmittance and fast response as compared with the existing patterned vertically aligned and multi-domain vertically aligned modes. In this paper we have investigated the reaction mechanisms of monomer-liquid crystal blends to form a surface pre-tilt angle of liquid crystal in vertical alignment LCD associated with a fishbone electrode structure. The observed sizes of polymer bumps formed on the substrates were found to be dependent on the exposed UV wavelength and were almost equal in both top and bottom substrates. When a large UV wavelength was used, the phase separation mechanism of monomer in PS-VA mode was found nearly isotropic rather than anisotropic in contrast to the previous studies.

Lyu, Jae Jin; Kikuchi, Hirotsuku; Kim, Dae Hyun; Hyup Lee, Jun; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Higuchi, Hiroki; Lee, Seung Hee

2011-08-01

45

Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics  

SciTech Connect

We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2011-01-01

46

Dependence of the electrooptical properties of polymer-dispersed vertical aligned liquid crystals on the surface affinity of the liquid crystal and monomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the dependence of the electrooptical properties of polymer-dispersed vertical aligned liquid crystals on the surface affinity of the liquid crystal and monomer. The liquid crystal mixture with a smaller contact angle formed more cylindrical droplet and showed uniform vertical orientation of liquid crystal molecules. On the other hand, the liquid crystal mixture with a greater contact angle formed spherical droplet and liquid crystal orientation was deformed near the polymer boundary, resulting in a light leakage between crossed polarizers.

Lee, Hyojin; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

2014-10-01

47

Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum  

PubMed Central

Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to adequate resources, and appropriate integration into existing medical education curricula. As focused ultrasonography increasingly penetrates academic and community practices, access to ultrasound equipment and trained faculty is improving. However, there has remained the major challenge of determining at which level is integrating ultrasound training within the medical training paradigm most appropriate. Methods The Ohio State University College of Medicine has developed a novel vertical curriculum for focused ultrasonography which is concordant with the 4-year medical school curriculum. Given current evidenced-based practices, a curriculum was developed which provides medical students an exposure in focused ultrasonography. The curriculum utilizes focused ultrasonography as a teaching aid for students to gain a more thorough understanding of basic and clinical science within the medical school curriculum. The objectives of the course are to develop student understanding in indications for use, acquisition of images, interpretation of an ultrasound examination, and appropriate decision-making of ultrasound findings. Results Preliminary data indicate that a vertical ultrasound curriculum is a feasible and effective means of teaching focused ultrasonography. The foreseeable limitations include faculty skill level and training, initial cost of equipment, and incorporating additional information into an already saturated medical school curriculum. Conclusions Focused ultrasonography is an evolving concept in medicine. It has been shown to improve education and patient care. The indications for and implementation of focused ultrasound is rapidly expanding in all levels of medicine. The ideal method for teaching ultrasound has yet to be established. The vertical curriculum in ultrasound at The Ohio State University College of Medicine is a novel evidenced-based training regimen at the medical school level which integrates ultrasound training into medical education and serves as a model for future integrated ultrasound curricula. PMID:23819896

2013-01-01

48

Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors  

PubMed Central

Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

2011-01-01

49

The Stability of the Plane Free Surface of a Liquid in Vertical Periodic Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vessel containing a heavy liquid vibrates vertically with constant frequency and amplitude. It has been observed that for some combinations of frequency and amplitude standing waves are formed at the free surface of the liquid, while for other combinations the free surface remains plane. In this paper the stability of the plane free surface is investigated theoretically when the

T. B. Benjamin; F. Ursell

1954-01-01

50

Review Paper: Emerging vertical-alignment liquid-crystal technology associated with surface modification using UV-curable monomer  

E-print Network

Review Paper: Emerging vertical-alignment liquid-crystal technology associated with surface Fellow) Abstract -- The recent development of polymer-induced pretilt angle in multi-domain vertical expected to play a dominant role in the future. Keywords -- Multi-domain vertical alignment, liquid crystal

Wu, Shin-Tson

51

Moving closer to the customers: effects of vertical integration in the Swedish commercial printing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study regarding how vertical integration is used to increase customer relations in the printing industry and illustrates the competitive consequences with vertical integration towards customers. Results show that since direct customers are perceived as more loyal and profitable than advertising agencies and\\/or print brokers, integration of content creation is common to increase relations with direct

Thomas Mejtoft

2010-01-01

52

Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

Olson, M.

1997-10-01

53

Surface Instability of Liquid Propellant under Vertical Oscillatory Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid motion in a fuel tank produced during thrust oscillations can circulate sub-cooled hydrogen near the liquid-vapor interface resulting in increased condensation and ullage pressure collapse. The first objective of this study is to validate the capabilities of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, CFD-ACE+, in modeling the fundamental interface transition physics occurring at the propellant surface. The second objective is to use the tool to assess the effects of thrust oscillations on surface dynamics. Our technical approach is to first verify the CFD code against known theoretical solutions, and then validate against existing experiments for small scale tanks and a range of transition regimes. A 2D axisymmetric, multi-phase model of gases, liquids, and solids is used to verify that CFD-ACE+ is capable of modeling fluid-structure interaction and system resonance in a typical thrust oscillation environment. Then, the 3D mode is studied with an assumed oscillatory body force to simulate the thrust oscillating effect. The study showed that CFD modeling can capture all of the transition physics from solid body motion to standing surface wave and to droplet ejection from liquid-gas interface. Unlike the analytical solutions established during the 1960 s, CFD modeling is not limited to the small amplitude regime. It can extend solutions to the nonlinear regime to determine the amplitude of surface waves after the onset of instability. The present simulation also demonstrated consistent trends from numerical experiments through variation of physical properties from low viscous fluid to high viscous fluids, and through variation of geometry and input forcing functions. A comparison of surface wave patterns under various forcing frequencies and amplitudes showed good agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that thrust oscillations can cause droplet formation at the interface, which results in increased surface area and enhanced heat transfer between the liquid and gas phases as the ejected droplets travel well into the warmer gas region.

Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

2011-01-01

54

Liquid metal integrated test system (LIMITS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the liquid metal integrated test system (LIMITS) at Sandia National Laboratories11Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE–AC04-94AL85000.. This system was designed to study the flow of molten metals and salts in a vacuum as a preliminary study

T. J. Tanaka; F. J. Bauer; T. J. Lutz; J. M. McDonald; R. E. Nygren; K. P. Troncosa; M. A. Ulrickson; D. L. Youchison

2004-01-01

55

High transmittance of a twisted-vertical aligned liquid crystal display  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high transmittance continuum domain twisted-vertical alignment (CDTVA) liquid crystal display (LCD) without domain walls defect and complex fabrication process has been developed. The CDTVA mode has no optical schlieren pattern occurring in the TVA cell. The optimum conditions for liquid crystal phase retardation (Gamma) and cell gap-to-helical pitch ratio (d\\/p) were studied using three-dimensional finite element simulation, which showed

Cheng-Chung Peng; Kuei-Chu Hsu; Jin-Jei Wu; Shih-Hung Fan; Hsin-Ta Lee; Yuhren Shen

2010-01-01

56

Strong Vertical Alignment of Liquid Crystal on Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film as a liquid crystal (LC) alignment material is studied. We deposit the transparent porous AAO film on glass with the diameter of the pores controlled between 17-65 nm. The liquid crystal can be aligned vertically against the substrate with the AAO film. The measured polar anchoring strength is about 1.5 times 10-5 J\\/m,

Tsung-Ta Tang; Cheng-Ying Kuo; Ru-Pin Pan; Jia-Min Shieh; Ci-Ling Pan

2009-01-01

57

Enhanced orientational Kerr effect in vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We disclose the vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal whose Kerr constant (Kkerr?130??nm/V2 at ?=543??nm) is around one order of magnitude higher than any other value previously reported for liquid crystalline structures. Under certain conditions, the phase modulation with ellipticity less than 0.05 over the range of continuous and hysteresis-free electric adjustment of the phase shift from zero to 2? has been obtained at subkilohertz frequency. PMID:24978232

Pozhidaev, Evgeny P; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Vashchenko, Valery V; Krivoshey, Alexander I; Minchenko, Maxim V; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

2014-05-15

58

Low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs using novel hybrid assembly techniques  

E-print Network

A new heterogeneous integration technique has been developed and demonstrated to integrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on silicon CMOS integrated circuits for optical interconnect applications. Individual ...

Perkins, James Michael, 1978-

2007-01-01

59

Rewetting of a hot vertical surface by liquid sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot surfaces rewetting interests several technological fields. A very important application is in nuclear reactors technology, where it governs the cooling of overheated fuel elements during hypothesized loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). This phenomenon is also important in many normal processes and accidental situations taking place in conventional processes. For example when the integrity of metallic containers, filled by toxic

M. Casamirra; F. Castiglia; M. Giardina; C. Lombardo; G. P. Celata; A. Mariani; L. Saraceno

2005-01-01

60

A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory  

SciTech Connect

Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; ,

2011-11-01

61

Vertically integrated computer aided design for device plasma processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a computer aided design concept concerning vertically integrated CAD for device processing, VicAddress[1] as a long-range objective of the design of a low temperature plasma processing used for a multi-layer semiconductor manufacturing, by considering plasma/interface/surface/device-structure. That is, these are a series of modelings of a plasma structure, profile evolution, charging in a patterned wafer, and device damage during etching/deposition by using modules for each of objectives. A highly abstracted and idealized topdown design concept is employed as a ULSI design tool in the industry, in order to shorten the period of the development and to achieve high efficiency. Therefore, a lack of information about physical images will be essential in the topdown design. VicAddress will be expected to serve as a design tool complementary to the topdown design procedure. We will demonstrate one of the examples, plasma device damage due to local charging during etching to the gate oxide by using simple 2D modeling of VicAddress. [2mm] [1]T.Makabe, J.Matsui, and K. Maeshige, Sci. Technol. of Adv. Materials (in press), Proc. of 22 Int. Symp. on RGD (AIP; in press).

Makabe, T.; Maeshige, K.

2001-10-01

62

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

1997-04-29

63

Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOEpatents

A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

Bryan, Robert P. (12700 Indian School Rd. NE., Apt. 604, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Esherick, Peter (1105 Sagebrush Trail SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Jewell, Jack L. (12 Timberline Dr., Bridgewater, NJ 08807); Lear, Kevin L. (13713 Vic Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Olbright, Gregory R. (3875 Orange Ct., Boulder, CO 80304)

1997-01-01

64

Strategic interaction among hospitals and nursing facilities: the efficiency effects of payment systems and vertical integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising post-acute care expenditures for Medicare transfer patients and increasing vertical integration between hospitals and nursing facilities raise questions about the links between payment system structure, the incentive for vertical integration and the impact on efficiency. In the United States, policy-makers are responding to these concerns by initiating prospective payments to nursing facilities, and are exploring the bundling of payments

Dwayne Banks; Elliott Parker; Jeanne Wendel

2001-01-01

65

Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs  

E-print Network

require reformulated gasoline that meets the emissions specifications of the California Air ResourcesPWP-084 Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs Justine-5180 www.ucei.org #12;Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

California at Berkeley. University of

66

High-performance germanium-seeded laterally crystallized TFTs for vertical device integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing chip complexity and area has resulted in interconnect delay becoming a significant fraction of overall chip delay. Continued scaling of design rules will further aggravate this problem. Vertical integration of devices will enable a substantial reduction in chip size and thus in interconnect delay. We present a novel technique to achieve vertical integration of CMOS devices. Germanium is used

Vivek Subramanian; Krishna C. Saraswat

1998-01-01

67

Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium and sodium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3-D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Nygren, R E; Cowgill, D F; Ulrickson, M A; Nelson, B E; Fogarty, P J; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Hassanein, A; Smolentsev, S S; Kotschenreuther, M

2003-11-13

68

Design integration of liquid surface divertors.  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Rensink, M. E. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Smolentsev, S. S. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Rognlien, T. D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Kotschenreuther, M. (University of Texas, Austin, TX); Ulrickson, Michael Andrew; Cowgill, Donald F.; Nelson, B. E. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Hassanein, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Nygren, Richard Einar; Fogarty, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

2003-09-01

69

Vertically-Aligned Liquid Crystal Display with Axial Symmetry using Surface Relief Gratings on Polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of fabricating a vertically aligned liquid crystal display (LCD) using surface relief gratings is presented. The two dimensional surface gratings are produced on a photosensitive polymer by the illumination of the UV light through a photomask. A multi-domain structure is obtained on the grating surface with the homeotropic alignment. The LCD configuration with such axially multi-domain structure

Jae-Hong Park; Ju-Hyun Lee; Sin-Doo Lee

2001-01-01

70

Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display (MVA LCD) with reduced color shift is proposed. Each pixel is divided into a main region and a subregion. A thin electric shielding layer is embedded in the subregion to generate a higher threshold voltage than that of the main region. As a result, the final gamma curve is a superposition of two

Ruibo Lu; Shin-Tson Wu; Seung Hee Lee

2008-01-01

71

Determination of Drop Sizes in Annular Gas\\/Liquid Flows in Vertical and Horizontal Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of drop sizes play vital role in applications dealing with gas\\/liquid flow mixtures. In the present work, drop sizes in vertical and horizontal pipe flows were determined using Malvern 2600HSD system that applies laser diffraction method. From the analysis of the experimental data obtained at two different pipe orientations, two separate expressions were developed to determine Sauter mean diameter,

A. Sarimeseli

2009-01-01

72

Laminar film condensation of a liquid metal in a vertical channel with variations in wall temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of laminar film condensation of a turbulent liquid metal vapor on a vertical channel wall is analyzed by solving the boundary layer form of the conservation equations. Included in the problem were results due to an applied electromagnetic field and a variable channel wall temperature. The vapor phase is assumed to enter the condenser at its saturation temperature.

T. W. Sigmon

1977-01-01

73

Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages  

E-print Network

Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual with reduced color shift is proposed. Each pixel is divided into a main region and a subregion. A thin electric. Such a MVA LCD exhibits a reduced color shift while only requires a single thin-film transistor. Its

Wu, Shin-Tson

74

Forced convection heat transfer of subcooled liquid nitrogen in a vertical tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research on forced convection heat transfer of subcooled liquid nitrogen ranging from the pressures of 0.3 MPa to its supercritical pressure is carried out for wide ranges of inlet temperature and flow velocity. A stainless steel tube heater with the inner diameter of 5.4 mm and the length of 100 mm is mounted vertically. The heat transfer coefficients in

H. Tatsumoto; Y. Shirai; K. Hata; T. Kato; M. Futakawa; M. Shiotsu

2010-01-01

75

Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

2011-01-01

76

Liquid Crystal Elastomers for Integreated Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical crosslinking of the linear "LC-side chain polymers" yields elastomers ("rubbers") which exhibit the liquid crystalline state. The mechanical deformation of these elastomers by elongation or compression causes a macroscopic orientation of the liquid crystalline molecules linked to the polymer network similar to the electric field orientation of low molar mass liquid crystals. In this way elastomer films can be prepared, whose macroscopic optical properties are similar to the optical properties of an anisotropic single crystal having the same dimension. There is, however, an additional feature to these elastomers: a local deformation of the macroscopically aligned film causes a local chance of the optical properties. If the plane surface of the film is brought in contact with a "stamp", which has a defined pattern in the micrometer range, the pattern deforms the elastomer surface and consequently the local direction of the optical axis. It is obvious that this procedure enables the simple realisation of elements for the integrated optics. The light conductors can be mechanically pressed into the liquid crystalline elastomer film (similar to the production of a record) and durably stored in the glassy state.

Finkelmann, Heino

1989-07-01

77

Dynamic behavior of liquid free surface in a cylindrical container subject to vertical vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a series of experimental studies on the dynamic behavior of the gas-liquid interface. These studies are concerned with the liquid sloshing phenomena induced by vertical vibration of a cylindrical container containing a liquid. The disappearance of the harmonic surface wave motion, the formation of 1/2-subharmonic motion, the mechanism of the surface disintegration and the behavior of spray-excited low frequency waves are investigated. The effect of the liquid height in the container on the surface disintegration was a decrease in the threshold excitation amplitude for the disintegration with an increase in liquid height. Spray-excited low frequency waves were observed over a wide range of excitation frequencies. It was also found that a violet surface agitation might occur due to a bubble cluster formed by the air injection, although the excitation acceleration was relatively low.

Hashimoto, H.; Sudo, S.

1984-05-01

78

Strategic interaction among hospitals and nursing facilities: the efficiency effects of payment systems and vertical integration.  

PubMed

Rising post-acute care expenditures for Medicare transfer patients and increasing vertical integration between hospitals and nursing facilities raise questions about the links between payment system structure, the incentive for vertical integration and the impact on efficiency. In the United States, policy-makers are responding to these concerns by initiating prospective payments to nursing facilities, and are exploring the bundling of payments to hospitals. This paper develops a static profit-maximization model of the strategic interaction between the transferring hospital and a receiving nursing facility. This model suggests that the post-1984 system of prospective payment for hospital care, coupled with nursing facility payments that reimburse for services performed, induces inefficient under-provision of hospital services and encourages vertical integration. It further indicates that the extension of prospective payment to nursing facilities will not eliminate the incentive to vertically integrate, and will not result in efficient production unless such integration takes place. Bundling prospective payments for hospitals and nursing facilities will neither remove the incentive for vertical integration nor induce production efficiency without such vertical integration. However, bundled payment will induce efficient production, with or without vertical integration, if nursing facilities are reimbursed for services performed. PMID:11252043

Banks, D; Parker, E; Wendel, J

2001-03-01

79

Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach  

PubMed Central

Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated. PMID:24959094

Al Qahtani, Fahd; Abdelaziz, Adel

2014-01-01

80

FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS  

E-print Network

FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS D. May1 , B. Wunderle1 , F in designing liquid cooling solu- tions are performance, reliability and price. To that end a one-phase liquid to keep doing so [1, 2], liquid cooling solutions remain an interesting but challenging al- ternative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

Experiments on melting of a vertical ice layer immersed in immiscible liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the melting of a vertical ice layer immersed in immiscible liquid yielded quantitative results both for the timewise evolution of the melting front and the heat transfer. Vegetable oil, which was contained in a rectangular vessel, was adopted as a testing liquid. A bubble-free ice block stuck on a cooled wall was installed vertically in the vessel. The experiments were carried out for the immiscible liquid temperatures from 7.6 to 30.0 °C, while for the cooled wall temperatures from 0 to -11.5 °C. The flow structure of the liquid and the melting front were extensively observed and recorded photographically. It was found that the heat transfer and the rate of melting are significantly affected by a couple of fluid motions of both the water melt induced by melting of ice and the immiscible liquid based on free convection. Zusammenfassung Experimente bezüglich einer in eine nichtmischbare Flü ssigkeit eintauchend vertikal Eisschicht lieferten quantitative Ergebnisse für die zeitliche Entwicklung der Schmelzfront und des Wärmeübergangs. Als Testfluid wurde Pflanzenöl in einem rechteckigen Behälter verwendet. Ein blasenfreier Eisblock wurde senkrecht an der gekühlten Wand des Behälters befestigt. Die Temperaturen der nichtmischbaren Flüssigkeit variierten von 7,6 bis 30 °C, die der Kühlwand von 0 bis -11,5 °C. Flüssigkeitsstruktur und Schmelzfront konnten beobachtet und photographisch aufgezeichnet werden. Wärmeübergang und Schmelzrate zeigten deutlich den Einfluß von Fluidbewegungen, die im Wasser durch den Schmelzvorgang, in der nichtmischbaren Flüssigkeit durch freie Konvektion induziert wurden.

Yamada, M.; Fukusako, S.; Sayed, M. Eman-Bellah

82

Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Flow of Liquid Helium in a Vertical Converging-Diverging Nozzle  

SciTech Connect

The basic characteristics of the two-dimensional cavitating flow of liquid helium through a vertical converging-diverging nozzle near the lambda point are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new multiphase He II cooling systems. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multi-fluid model with generalized curvilinear coordinates system are presented, and several multiphase flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the cavitating flow of liquid helium though a vertical converging-diverging nozzle is shown in detail, and it is also found that the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow based on the thermomechanical effect is conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid to gas phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase.

Ishimoto, J. [Dept. Intelligent Machines and Sys. Eng., Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Kamijo, K. [Inst. Fluid Sci., Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2004-06-23

83

High transmittance of a twisted-vertical aligned liquid crystal display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high transmittance continuum domain twisted-vertical alignment (CDTVA) liquid crystal display (LCD) without domain walls defect and complex fabrication process has been developed. The CDTVA mode has no optical schlieren pattern occurring in the TVA cell. The optimum conditions for liquid crystal phase retardation (?) and cell gap-to-helical pitch ratio (d/p) were studied using three-dimensional finite element simulation, which showed good agreement with the experimental results. The results indicate that the maximum transmittance of the proposed CDTVA cell is similar to that of the twisted nematic mode thin-film-transistor LCD. Thus, CDTVA cell has potential applications for wide-viewing angle LCDs.

Peng, Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Kuei-Chu; Wu, Jin-Jei; Fan, Shih-Hung; Lee, Hsin-Ta; Shen, Yuhren

2010-12-01

84

Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide  

DOEpatents

A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2008-02-26

85

A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property  

Microsoft Academic Search

The voltage–transmittance (V–T) property is important for the liquid crystal displays (LCDs). In this work, we propose a sub-pixel structure with two common electrodes of a multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) mode. The sub-pixel is divided into two sub-areas and different common electrode voltages are applied to it. The optimal voltage difference of the common electrodes between sub-area 1 and sub-area

Ji Ma; Young-Cheol Yang; Zhigang Zheng; Jianru Shi; Wenyi Cao

2009-01-01

86

Optical Simulation of Axially Symmetrical Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal Displays With Circularly Symmetric Iso-Contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation reports the optical simulation of axially symmetric vertically aligned liquid crystal displays (ASVA LCDs). The circularly symmetric iso-light leakage and iso-transmittance contours of one subpixel result in the circularly symmetric iso-contrast contours. The contrast ratio of the area close to - and -axes at a polar angle of around 30 exceeds 10. The LCs near some azimuthal angles

Cheng-Kai Liu; Chi-Lun Ting; Ming-Shian Li; Andy Ying-Guey Fuh; Ko-Ting Cheng

2011-01-01

87

Surface mountable liquid crystal polymer package with vertical via transition compensating wire inductance up to V-band  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance V-band surface mountable packaging structure has been proposed and demonstrated. We enabled the use of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as a low-cost SMT millimeter-wave package. This package employed the wire bonding technique as the RF interconnect, and the vertical via as the vertical signal transition, despite it being meant for application up to V-band. The optimized vertical

Hiroshi Kanno; Hiroshi Ogura; Kazuaki Takahashi

2003-01-01

88

Optimization of an optical configuration in a vertical alignment liquid crystal cell for wide viewing angle.  

PubMed

We propose an optical structure for a vertical alignment (VA) liquid crystal (LC) cell with a wide viewing angle. The proposed LC cell consists of an A-plate and two C-plates for optical compensation. Optical compensation and optimization to eliminate off-axis light leakage in the entire visible wavelength range are performed on a Poincaré sphere using the Stokes vector and the Muller matrix method. After optimizing the wavelength dispersion of the retardation films that are used, we prove that the proposed VA LC cell can improve the viewing angle and contrast ratio by calculating optical characteristics, particularly in diagonal directions. PMID:19107171

Ji, Seung-Hoon; Hee Lee, Seung; Lee, Gi-Dong

2009-01-01

89

Incentives for vertical integration in healthcare: the effect of reimbursement systems.  

PubMed

In the United States, many healthcare organizations are being transformed into large integrated delivery systems, even though currently available empirical evidence does not provide strong or unequivocal support for or against vertical integration. Unfortunately, the manager cannot delay organizational changes until further research has been completed, especially when further research is not likely to reveal a single, correct solution for the diverse healthcare systems in existence. Managers must therefore carefully evaluate the expected effects of integration on their individual organizations. Vertical integration may be appropriate if conditions facing the healthcare organization provide opportunities for efficiency gains through reorganization strategies. Managers must consider (1) how changes in the healthcare market have affected the dynamics of production efficiency and transaction costs; (2) the likelihood that integration strategies will achieve increases in efficiency or reductions in transaction costs; and (3) how vertical integration will affect other costs, and whether the benefits gained will outweigh additional costs and efficiency losses. This article presents reimbursement systems as an example of how recent changes in the industry may have changed the dynamics and efficiency of production. Evaluation of the effects of vertical integration should allow for reasonable adjustment time, but obviously unsuccessful strategies should not be followed or maintained. PMID:10345556

Byrne, M M; Ashton, C M

1999-01-01

90

Vertical integration of enterprise industrial systems utilizing web services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for interoperability is prominent in the industrial enterprise environment. Different applications and systems that cover the overall range of the industrial infrastructure from the field to the enterprise level need to interoperate. This quest is driven by the enterprise need for greater flexibility and for the wider possible integration of the enterprise systems. The current paper presents an

Athanasios P. Kalogeras; John V. Gialelis; Christos E. Alexakos; Manos J. Georgoudakis; Stavros A. Koubias

2006-01-01

91

Coating flow of viscous Newtonian liquids on a rotating vertical disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a Newtonian viscous liquid coating a vertical rotating disk in the creeping flow regime. Experiments were performed at varying disk rotation speeds and liquid volumes, and the thickness profile at steady state was measured. While the maximum liquid supported by the rotating disk varied with rotation rate and liquid viscosity, the numerical value of a dimensionless number signifying the ratio of gravity to viscous forces was the same in all the cases, ? =0.30. A lubrication analysis for the time evolution of the film thickness that accounted for gravity, surface tension, and viscous forces was solved numerically to steady state. The predicted thickness profiles are in quantitative agreement with those obtained experimentally. The lubrication equation at steady state was solved analytically in the absence of surface tension to obtain constant height contours that were circular and symmetric about the horizontal axis. However to obtain a complete solution, knowledge of the height variation across the contours is required, and this is controlled by the surface tension. On including this effect, we derived an asymptotic solution to predict thickness profiles that agree well with measurements for large values of viscosity or rotation rates.

Parmar, Nilesh H.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.; Hinch, E. J.

2009-10-01

92

Optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for monitoring the vertical structural dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical structural dynamics is a crucial factor for structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil structures such as high-rise buildings, suspension bridges and towers. This paper presents an optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for an automated multi-sensor monitoring system. The closed loop feedback algorithm for integrating the vertical GPS and accelerometer measurements is proposed based on a 5 state extended KALMAN filter (EKF) and then the narrow moving window Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is applied to extract structural dynamics. A civil structural vibration is simulated and the analysed result shows the proposed algorithm can effectively integrate the online vertical measurements produced by GPS and accelerometer. Furthermore, the accelerometer bias and scale factor can also be estimated which is impossible with traditional integration algorithms. Further analysis shows the vibration frequencies detected in GPS or accelerometer are all included in the integrated vertical defection time series and the accelerometer can effectively compensate the short-term GPS outages with high quality. Finally, the data set collected with a time synchronised and integrated GPS/accelerometer monitoring system installed on the Nottingham Wilford Bridge when excited by 15 people jumping together at its mid-span are utilised to verify the effectiveness of this proposed algorithm. Its implementations are satisfactory and the detected vibration frequencies are 1.720 Hz, 1.870 Hz, 2.104 Hz, 2.905 Hz and also 10.050 Hz, which is not found in GPS or accelerometer only measurements.

Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Jian; Han, Houzeng

2014-11-01

93

A vertically integrated treatment of ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremely small vertical shear in ice stream and ice shelf flow simplifies the equations, which govern their thermodynamic evolution. Complemented by the widely used shallow shelf approximation used to simplify the ice flow momentum balance, a vertically integrated formulation of heat transfer presented here reduces the dimensionality of the thermodynamic problem from three to two (plan view) dimensions and thus significantly reduces the computational cost of treating ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics in models. For realistic conditions, errors in ice stiffness parameter, ice thickness, and speed caused by the vertically integrated treatment of heat transfer are less than 5% of magnitudes of these values compared to the standard three-dimensional thermomechanical computations. In addition, for the specific case of ice shelves with strong bottom melting, the governing equation describing evolution of the vertically integrated ice stiffness parameter is derived, which further reduces computational cost. The presented error analysis and formulations of ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics in terms of the vertically integrated temperature allow the thermodynamic effects on ice deformation to be easily incorporated into studies that traditionally disregard them.

Sergienko, O. V.

2014-04-01

94

Unifying Laboratory Content of a Digital Systems and Computer Architecture Curriculum through Horizon and Vertical Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the application of horizontal and vertical integration to unify the digital systems and computer architecture curriculum for the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University Calumet. An enhanced set of twelve laboratory assignments and five design projects resulted from performing the integration. Horizontal integration was achieved by providing a consistent presentation of concepts across two computer architecture laboratory courses while simultaneously providing students the necessary skill-set for developing a successful career as a computer engineer. Vertical integration was achieved by interweaving common technical theories and skills to establish interdependence among all digital system and computer architecture laboratory coursework. The restructured laboratory sequence provides a cohesive educational experience and significant exposure to concepts, design methodologies, and software tools ubiquitous in the semiconductor and computer industry.

95

Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.…

Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

2011-01-01

96

VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

97

An Assessment of Vertically Integrated Contract Poultry Farming: A Case Study in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to identify incentives for poultry farmers to participate in contract farming system in Bangladesh. This paper explores the causes why the farmer entering into contract farming system and evaluates the performance of vertically integrated contract poultry farming system on farmer's income by analyzing the cost and returns and labor utilization. Poultry meat is the most

2005-01-01

98

Vertical or integrated health programmes? The consequences for the laboratory information system in Mozambique  

E-print Network

Vertical or integrated health programmes? The consequences for the laboratory information system, Maputo, Mozambique b) Institute of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Corresponding author: Margunn Aanestad, Instutute of Informatics P.O.Box 1080, Blindern NO-0316 Oslo, Norway Email: margunn

Sahay, Sundeep

99

Forced convection heat transfer of saturated liquid hydrogen in vertically-mounted heated pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer from the inner side of vertically-mounted heated pipes to forced flow of saturated liquid hydrogen was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate and saturated pressure. The tube heaters have lengths L of 100 mm and 167 mm with the diameter D of 4 mm and lengths of 150 mm and 250 mm with the diameter of 6 mm. The heat fluxes at departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) were higher for higher flow velocity, lower pressures and shorter L/D. The effect of L/D on the DNB heat flux was clarified. It is confirmed that our DNB correlation can describe the experimental data.

Tatsumoto, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Hata, Koichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Kobayasi, Hiroaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

100

The mechanism for the formation of slug flow in vertical gas liquid two-phase flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the mechanism for the formation of a slug flow in vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow. By analyzing void fraction waves and their instability, it is proved that the formation of a slug flow regime is due to the increase of void fraction waves, which causes the conglomeration of gas bubbles and the coalescence of bubble clusters in unstable bubbly flow. Experiments and analysis show that intense turbulence can restrain the formation of Taylor bubbles. Therefore, in a large diameter vertical pipe, a Taylor bubble can form under a condition of low continuous volume flux due to the action of void fraction waves. However, the coalescence effect of void fraction waves as it affects bubbles is suppressed in high continuous volume flux, and therefore, a slug flow regime cannot be observed in the evolution of flow patterns. Under a condition of high continuous volume flux ( VL=0.15 m/s) described in the paper, the flow pattern evolution is from cap bubbly flow to cap churn flow, and then gradually to churn flow with the increase of void fraction.

Sun, Baojiang; Wang, Ruihe; Zhao, Xinxin; Yan, Dachun

2002-12-01

101

Realization of MEMS-IC Vertical Integration Utilizing Smart Bumpless Bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports fundamental technologies, properties, and new experimental results of SBB (Smart Bumpless Bonding) to realize MEMS-IC vertical integration. Although conventional bonding technologies have had difficulties integrating MEMS and its processing circuit because of their rough bonding surfaces, fragile structures, and thermal restriction, SBB technology realized the vertical integration without thermal treatment, any adhesive materials including bumps, and chemical mechanical polishing. The SBB technology bonds sealing parts for vacuum sealing and electrodes for electrical connection simultaneously as published in previous experimental study. The plasma CVD SiO2 is utilized to realize vacuum sealing as sealing material. And Au projection studs are formed on each electrode and connected electrically between two wafers by compressive plastic deformation and surface activation. In this paper, new experimental results including vacuum sealing properties, electrical improvement, IC bonding results on the described fundamental concept and properties are reported.

Shiozaki, Masayoshi; Moriguchi, Makoto; Sasaki, Sho; Oba, Masatoshi

102

Performance enhancement using a non-uniform vertical electric field and polymer networks for in-plane switching of multi-pretilt, vertically aligned liquid crystal devices.  

PubMed

A simple and reproducible alignment method for fabricating vertically aligned (VA) liquid crystal (LC) cells with a multi-pretilt structure is developed. A non-uniform vertical electric field is employed in the LC/monomer mixed cells during the photocuring process, and two pretilt domains with a functional small pretilt angle (?1.6°) in the stabilized VA LC/polymer cells are achieved. The enhanced electro-optical performance of the cell driven by an in-plane switching field is demonstrated. Compared to the pure cell, the 2 wt.% pretilt angle cell shows 36%, 64%, and 76% improvement in the optical switch, the gray-level rise time, and the gray-level fall time responses, respectively, which are obtained at a low driving voltage (?12??V). When applied to LC devices, the proposed method not only effectively benefits the LC molecular alignment, but it also significantly boosts the electro-optical performance. PMID:25361320

Lin, G J; Chen, T J; Tsai, Y W; Lin, Y T; Wu, J J; Yang, Y J

2014-11-01

103

Cluster Regime—The New Regime Of Flowing Of Gas-Liquid Mixture In Vertical Columns (Based On Experimental Data)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the revealing of the reasons of occurrence of discrete volcanic explosions of basalt magma the Complex Apparatus for Modeling Basaltic Eruptions (CAMBE) has been developed. It consists of two major systems—modeling and recording. The device is 18 meters high. During experiments gas-saturated model liquid acts from the saturator to the vertical transparent hose in which arising two-phase structures and its kinetics are studied. The experiments resulted in detecting and describing a new, never before known, mode of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical column—defined here as cluster regime, which is characterized by regular alteration of dense gas bubble clusters separated from each other by the liquid not containing free gas phase. The mechanism of the cluster regime formation is conditioned by the processes of blocking of the hose working section by one big bubble or several smaller ones. It has been demonstrated that liquid, bubble, cluster and slug regime are regularly sequential and present polymorphic modifications of gas-saturated liquids migrating within vertically oriented conduits. Analysis of data on explosions at volcanoes, given the obtained experimental data on the mechanism of this process, allows concluding that realization of cluster or slug regimes in volcanic crater produces basaltic explosions.

Ozerov, A. Yu.

2010-03-01

104

Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis.

Thompson, H.G. [Christensen Associates, Madison, WI (United States); Islam, M.; Rose, K.

1996-01-01

105

Exploring the aqueous vertical ionization of organic molecules by molecular simulation and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy.  

PubMed

To study the influence of aqueous solvent on the electronic energy levels of dissolved organic molecules, we conducted liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements of the aqueous vertical ionization energies (VIEaq) of aniline (7.49 eV), veratrole alcohol (7.68 eV), and imidazole (8.51 eV). We also reanalyzed previously reported experimental PES data for phenol, phenolate, thymidine, and protonated imidazolium cation. We then simulated PE spectra by means of QM/MM molecular dynamics and EOM-IP-CCSD calculations with effective fragment potentials, used to describe the aqueous vertical ionization energies for six molecules, including aniline, phenol, veratrole alcohol, imidazole, methoxybenzene, and dimethylsulfide. Experimental and computational data enable us to decompose the VIEaq into elementary processes. For neutral compounds, the shift in VIE upon solvation, ?VIEaq, was found to range from ?-0.5 to -0.91 eV. The ?VIEaq was further explained in terms of the influence of deforming the gas phase solute into its solution phase conformation, the influence of solute hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor interactions with proximate solvent molecules, and the polarization of about 3000 outerlying solvent molecules. Among the neutral compounds, variability in ?VIEaq appeared largely controlled by differences in solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions. Detailed computational analysis of the flexible molecule veratrole alcohol reveals that the VIE is strongly dependent on molecular conformation in both gas and aqueous phases. Finally, aqueous reorganization energies of the oxidation half-cell ionization reaction were determined from experimental data or estimated from simulation for the six compounds aniline, phenol, phenolate, veratrole alcohol, dimethylsulfide, and methoxybenzene, revealing a surprising constancy of 2.06 to 2.35 eV. PMID:25516011

Tentscher, Peter R; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Guerard, Jennifer J; Arey, J Samuel

2015-01-01

106

Vertical Integration and Exclusivity in Platform and Two-Sided Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops techniques to analyze the adoption decisions of agents for plat- form intermediaries in two-sided markets, and applies them to measure empirically the impact of vertical integration and exclusive contracting in the sixth-generation of the U.S. videogame industry (2000-2005). I introduce a framework to structurally esti- mate consumer demand in these markets that (i) simultaneously estimates hardware (platform)

Robin S. Lee

107

Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)  

SciTech Connect

Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

2010-10-01

108

A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.  

PubMed

A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity. PMID:24863393

Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

2014-07-23

109

Power dissipation in a vertically integrated chip-scale atomic clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physics package of a vertically integrated chip-scale atomic clock, based on cesium, has recently been demonstrated at NIST. This device requires 69 mW of electrical power to maintain the vapor cell 34 K above the temperature of the baseplate. The physics package structure is analyzed by use of analytical thermal modeling and finite-element calculation. Improvements to the design are

John Kitching; Svenja Knappe; Peter D. D. Schwindt; Vishal Shah; Leo Hollberg; Li-Anne Liew; John Moreland

2004-01-01

110

A vertically integrated test methodology based on JTAG IEEE 1149.1 Standard Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertically integrated test methodology has been developed for ASIC testing based on the IEEE 1149.1 Standard Test Interface. A common interface is used to test at the wafer, packaged-chip and board\\/system levels. The boundary scan JTAG interface is combined with an internal full scan based test technique to provide a uniform test procedure at all stages of testing. At

Kamalesh N. Ruparel; Cary Chin; Jeff Fitzgerald

1991-01-01

111

A NEW SECTORAL TAXONOMY BASED ON PECUNIARY KNOWLEDGE EXTERNALITIES: KNOWLEDGE INTERACTIONS IN A VERTICALLY INTEGRATED SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new sectoral taxonomy that focuses on the existence of non-negligible external effects that derive from user–producer knowledge interactions. These are coupled with intermediate goods transactions, in a system of vertically integrated manufacturing and services sectors. These externalities, the so-called pecuniary knowledge externalities, are the main source of changing technological conditions experienced by downstream producers. A distinguishing

Agnieszka Gehringer

2012-01-01

112

Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children. PMID:20478054

2010-01-01

113

Integral transformations of deflections of the vertical onto satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of geodetic satellite missions mapping almost globally the Earth's gravitational field, new methods and theoretical approaches have been developed and investigated to fully exploit the potential of their new observables. Besides estimating values of numerical coefficients in harmonic series of the gravitational potential, new applications emerged such as data validation and combination. In this contribution, new integral transformations are presented which transform principal components of the terrestrial deflection of the vertical onto disturbing satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometric data at altitude. Using spherical approximation, necessary integral kernel functions are derived in both spectral and closed forms. The behaviour of isotropic kernel functions is studied and the new integral transformations are tested in a closed-loop simulation using synthetic terrestrial and satellite data synthesized from a global gravitational model. New integral transformations can be used for data validation and combination purposes.

Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

2014-07-01

114

Image positions of a vertical rod in a liquid-filled cylindrical container  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a rather simple optical experiment, which many students can easily carry out, but the theoretical explanation of which requires far-from-simple mathematical analysis and application of numerical methods. A thin vertical rod, partially immersed in a liquid-filled transparent cylindrical container, is moved from the centre toward the wall and observed laterally. As it moves, the part seen through the air and the part seen through the water start to separate, so that at a certain distance from the centre the lower part of the rod becomes invisible. We show that this happens at the distance for which the refracted ray that reaches the observer's eye is along the tangent to the surface of a cylinder. We derive the expression for this distance as a function of the index of refraction and ratio d/r, where d is the distance of the observer from the surface and r is the radius of the container. The locus of image positions is determined by evaluating the intersections of pairs of close rays from the rod which reach the observer's eye after refraction at the surface of the container.

Davidovi?, Milena; Boži?, Mirjana; Sliško, Josip; Gaji?, Radoš; Dragovi?, Magdalena

2014-03-01

115

Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte  

DOEpatents

An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Xu, Liwei (Sylvania, OH)

2010-07-06

116

Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

2006-01-01

117

A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 ?m and 150 ?m has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm-2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

Beimforde, M.; Andricek, L.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

2010-12-01

118

Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

2014-10-01

119

Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors.

Re, Valerio

2014-11-01

120

Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

2012-01-01

121

Interdisciplinary Social Science: An Example of Vertical and Horizontal Integrative Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A "Concept-Centered" strategy for Integrative Studies was proposed and implemented in the creation of the book Power in Focus: Perspectives from Multiple Disciplines. Essays on the ubiquitous concept of Power were solicited internationally and a final cut of ten essays from ten different disciplines, written specifically for this project, were included. This provides an example of what might be called Horizontal Integration, as it cut across multiple disciplines. One of the essays in the volume provides an example of Vertical Integration, as it applies a psychodynamic hypothesis concerning the development of Power relations among humans across hierarchical levels, from the child to the family to other groups and institutions in society, including finally entire nations and regions of the world.

Durlabhji, Subhash

2005-03-01

122

Recent Trends on Patterned Vertical Alignment (PVA) and Fringe-Field Switching (FFS) Liquid Crystal Displays for Liquid Crystal Television Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the recent trends on super-patterned vertical alignment (S-PVA) and fringe-field switching (FFS) technologies for liquid crystal display (LCD)-television (TV) applications. For PVA mode, Samsung originally announced S-PVA technology in 2004 to enhance off-axis viewing quality of conventional PVA mode. S-PVA is a new technology which enables screen quality advantages over super-in plane switching (S-IPS) and multi-domain VA

Jae-Jin Lyu; Jiwon Sohn; Hyang Yul Kim; Seung Hee Lee

2007-01-01

123

Transmitted Light Enhancement of Electric-Field-Controlled Multidomain Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal Displays Using Circular Polarizers and a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed two new optical configurations to improve the light transmittance of a fringing-field-controlled multidomain vertically aligned liquid crystal display (FEF-MVA-LCD). We show that, by using a MVA-LC panel sandwiched between two circular polarizers, improvement of the maximum transmittance by more than 30% is achieved in comparison to the transmittance of a conventional panel configuration using two linear polarizers.

Yoshihisa Iwamoto; Yasufumi Iimura

2003-01-01

124

Liquid entrainment, droplet concentration and pressure gradient at the onset of annular flow in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a dearth of data on flow parameters in the transition region between churn and annular flow. To address this deficiency, adiabatic air–water experiments were carried out in a vertical test section (31.8 mm internal diameter, 10.8 m long) in which an isokinetic probe was employed to measure the local mass fluxes of gas and of entrained liquid droplets

J. R. Barbosa; G. F. Hewitt; G. König; S. M. Richardson

2002-01-01

125

Vertical transitions between transmission lines and waveguides in multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present two vertical transitions, in multilayer LCP substrates for millimeter wave (mmW) imaging application. The first transition is from conductor-backed co-planar waveguide (CBCPW) to strip line, and the second one connects CBCPW to substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). The multilayer structure consists of three LCP layers and four metal claddings. The CBCPW is designed on the top LCP layer, the strip line is sandwiched by the top and middle layers, and the SIW is built within the middle and bottom layers. Micro vias construct the side wall for the SIW, and electrically connect the transmission lines and waveguides. Both of the transitions perform low loss and low reflection at 77 GHz. They can efficiently connect the passive and active components in the front-end RF module of our mmW imager. Additionally, they may have promising application in high-performance systems, requiring high density, low size, weight, and power (SWaP).

Zhang, Yifei; Shi, Shouyuan; Martin, Rick D.; Prather, Dennis W.

2014-03-01

126

Performance and Transient Behavior of Vertically Integrated Thin-film Silicon Sensors  

PubMed Central

Vertical integration of amorphous hydrogenated silicon diodes on CMOS readout chips offers several advantages compared to standard CMOS imagers in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range and dark current while at the same time introducing some undesired transient effects leading to image lag. Performance of such sensors is here reported and their transient behaviour is analysed and compared to the one of corresponding amorphous silicon test diodes deposited on glass. The measurements are further compared to simulations for a deeper investigation. The long time constant observed in dark or photocurrent decay is found to be rather independent of the density of defects present in the intrinsic layer of the amorphous silicon diode.

Wyrsch, Nicolas; Choong, Gregory; Miazza, Clément; Ballif, Christophe

2008-01-01

127

Novel Vertical Interconnects With 180 Degree Phase Shift for Amplifiers, Filters, and Integrated Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, novel low loss, wide-band coplanar stripline technology for RF/microwave integrated circuits is demonstrated on high resistivity silicon wafer. In particular, the fabrication process for the deposition of spin-on-glass (SOG) as a dielectric layer, the etching of microvias for the vertical interconnects, the design methodology for the multiport circuits and their measured/simulated characteristics are graphically illustrated. The study shows that circuits with very low loss, large bandwidth and compact size are feasible using this technology. This multilayer planar technology has potential to significantly enhance RF/microwave IC performance when combined with semiconductor devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

128

3D integration of photonic crystal devices: vertical coupling with a silicon waveguide.  

PubMed

Two integrated devices based on the vertical coupling between a photonic crystal microcavity and a silicon (Si) ridge waveguide are presented in this paper. When the resonator is coupled to a single waveguide, light can be spectrally extracted from the waveguide to free space through the far field emission of the resonator. When the resonator is vertically coupled to two waveguides, a vertical add-drop filter can be realized. The dropping efficiency of these devices relies on a careful design of the resonator. In this paper, we use a Fabry-Perot (FP) microcavity composed of two photonic crystal (PhC) slab mirrors. Thanks to the unique dispersion properties of slow Bloch modes (SBM) at the flat extreme of the dispersion curve, it is possible to design a FP cavity exhibiting two quasi-degenerate modes. This specific configuration allows for a coupling efficiency that can theoretically achieve 100%. Using 3D FDTD calculations, we discuss the design of such devices and show that high dropping efficiency can be achieved between the Si waveguides and the PhC microcavity. PMID:20721002

Ferrier, L; Romeo, P Rojo; Letartre, X; Drouard, E; Viktorovitch, P

2010-07-19

129

METHOD OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS IN STATISTICAL THEORY OF LIQUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTENTS1. Introduction 592 a) Problem of the Theory of the Liquid State 592 b) The Method of Integral Equations 593 2. The Percus-Yevick Equation 594 a) Functional Definition of the Direct Correlation Function 594 b) The Percus Approximation 595 c) Analytic Solution of the Percus-Yevick Equation for a System of Hard Spheres 597 3. Results of Numerical Calculations by the

N T Kovalenko; I Z Fisher

1973-01-01

130

Vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into silicon-on-insulator platform.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into the silicon-on-insulator platform for applications at the telecommunication wavelengths. Low-loss silicon nitride films with a thickness of 400 nm are successfully grown, enabling compact silicon nitride microresonators with ultra-high intrinsic Qs (~ 6 × 10(6) for 60 ?m radius and ~ 2 × 10(7) for 240 ?m radius). The coupling between the silicon nitride microresonator and the underneath silicon waveguide is based on evanescent coupling with silicon dioxide as buffer. Selective coupling to a desired radial mode of the silicon nitride microresonator is also achievable using a pulley coupling scheme. In this work, a 60-?m-radius silicon nitride microresonator has been successfully integrated into the silicon-on-insulator platform, showing a single-mode operation with an intrinsic Q of 2 × 10(6). PMID:23938694

Li, Qing; Eftekhar, Ali A; Sodagar, Majid; Xia, Zhixuan; Atabaki, Amir H; Adibi, Ali

2013-07-29

131

Stability of a vertical liquid film with consideration of the marangoni effect and heat exchange with the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of a free vertical liquid film under the combined action of gravity and thermocapillary forces has been studied. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes and thermal conductivity equations is obtained for the case of plane steady flow with constant film thickness. It is shown that if the free surfaces of the film are perfectly heat insulated, the liquid flow rate through the cross section of the layer is zero. It is found that to close the model with consideration of the heat exchange with the environment, it is necessary to specify the liquid flow rate and the derivative of the temperature with respect to the longitudinal coordinate or the flow rate and the film thickness. The stability of the solution with constant film thickness at small wave numbers is studied. A solution of the spectral problem for perturbations in the form of damped oscillations is obtained.

Burmistrova, O. A.

2014-05-01

132

Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking; in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

2015-02-01

133

A highly integrated vertical SU8 valve for stepwise in-series reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stepwise performance of reactions demands highly integrated microfluidic control. The vertical valve presented in this work allows performing reactions in cascade with reduced control requirements, by controlling the rupture of an SU8 wall that separates a chamber from an adjacent evacuation channel. Owing to its vertical construction, the valve can be readily integrated into any geometry with a low increase in footprint. Two valve approaches are presented, which differ in the location of the rupture region, the breaking pressures and the size of the fluidic path open. Breaking the wall about its upper end has proven to be more limited in terms of geometry and resulting gap size, whereas breaking the wall about its root opens a wider fluidic path that allows smooth filling of downstream chambers. Following these conclusions, a sequence of two reactions has been demonstrated, using a wall-valve-regulated double-chamber device. The chosen protocol, DNA concentration, elution and transport, has been successfully accomplished, as evidenced by positive on-chip polymerase chain reaction in a second double-chamber device.

Calvo, V.; Ezkerra, A.; Elizalde, J.; Fernández, L. J.; Berganzo, J.; Mayora, K.; Ruano-López, J. M.

2011-06-01

134

Kinematical relations among radar-observed water concentrations, vertical motions, and liquid-water drop-size spectra in convective clouds  

E-print Network

KINEMATICAL RELATIONS AMONG RADAR-OBSERVED WATER CONCENTRATIONSp VERTICAL MOTIONS, AND LIQUID- WATER DROP-SIZE SPECTRA IN CONVECTIVE CLOUDS A Thesis By ROBERT CLAYTON RUNNELS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical... College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1962 Major Subject: METEOROLOGY KINEMATICAL RELATIONS AMONG RADAR-OBSERVED WATER CONCENTRATIONS' VERTICAL MOTIONS p AND LIQUID WATER DROP" SIZE...

Runnels, Robert Clayton

1962-01-01

135

Use of Vertically Integrated Ice in WRF-Based Forecasts of Lightning Threat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously reported methods of forecasting lightning threat using fields of graupel flux from WRF simulations are extended to include the simulated field of vertically integrated ice within storms. Although the ice integral shows less temporal variability than graupel flux, it provides more areal coverage, and can thus be used to create a lightning forecast that better matches the areal coverage of the lightning threat found in observations of flash extent density. A blended lightning forecast threat can be constructed that retains much of the desirable temporal sensitivity of the graupel flux method, while also incorporating the coverage benefits of the ice integral method. The graupel flux and ice integral fields contributing to the blended forecast are calibrated against observed lightning flash origin density data, based on Lightning Mapping Array observations from a series of case studies chosen to cover a wide range of flash rate conditions. Linear curve fits that pass through the origin are found to be statistically robust for the calibration procedures.

McCaul, E. W., jr.; Goodman, S. J.

2008-01-01

136

Integrated measurements of acoustical and optical thin layers I: Vertical scales of association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study combined measurements from multiple platforms with acoustic instruments on moorings and on a ship and optics on a profiler and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to examine the relationships between fluorescent, bioluminescent, and acoustically scattering layers in Monterey Bay during nighttime hours in July and August of 2006 and May of 2008. We identified thin bioluminescent layers that were strongly correlated with acoustic scattering at the same depth but were part of vertically broad acoustic features, suggesting layers of unique composition inside larger biomass features. These compositional thin layers nested inside larger biomass features may be a common ecosystem component and are likely to have significant ecological impacts but are extremely difficult to identify as most approaches capable of the vertical scales of measurement necessary for the identification of sub-meter scale patterns assess bulk properties rather than specific layer composition. Measurements of multiple types of thin layers showed that the depth offset between thin phytoplankton and zooplankton layers was highly variable with some layers found at the same depth but others found up to 16 m apart. The vertical offset between phytoplankton and zooplankton thin layers was strongly predicted by the fraction of the water column fluorescence contained within a thin phytoplankton layer. Thin zooplankton layers were only vertically associated with thin phytoplankton layers when the phytoplankton in a layer accounted for more than about 18-20% of the water column chlorophyll. Trophic interactions were likely occurring between phytoplankton and zooplankton thin layers but phytoplankton thin layers were exploited by zooplankton only when they represented a large fraction of the available phytoplankton, suggesting zooplankton have some knowledge of the available food over the entire water column. The horizontal extent of phytoplankton layers, discussed in the second paper in this series, is likely an important factor contributing to this selective exploitation by zooplankton. The pattern of vertical offset between phytoplankton and zooplankton layers was consistent between studies in different years and using different combinations of platforms, indicating the importance of the relationship between zooplankton layers and the fraction of phytoplankton within a layer at night within Monterey Bay. These results highlight the value of integrating measurements of various types of organisms to understand thin layers processes and the importance of assessing ecological interactions in plankton thin layers within the context of the properties of the entire water column, like the animals themselves do.

Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.; Moline, Mark A.; Waluk, Chad M.; Robbins, Ian C.

2010-01-01

137

Modeling multiphase flow for high viscosity liquids: a study of vertical/inclined zero net liquid flow  

E-print Network

° for higher viscosities. The trend suggests that the flow distribution coefficient, C[], varies with fluid viscosity and inclination angle, therefore affecting the liquid holdup in the pipe. A new model is proposed to take into account these factors and its...

Rodriguez, Jose Ramon

2001-01-01

138

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

1982-07-01

139

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

1982-01-01

140

Effective Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Liquid Alloy Electrowetting Kamran Mohseni  

E-print Network

Effective Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Liquid Alloy Electrowetting Kamran Mohseni of air. Such liquid heat sinks, often referred to as cold plates, operate very similarly to air cooled droplets of liquid met- als/alloys for active heat management of Integrated Circuits (ICs) and removal

Mohseni, Kamran

141

The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Construction, Integration, Commissioning and Performance from Selected Particle Beam Test Results  

E-print Network

The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Construction, Integration, Commissioning and Performance from Selected Particle Beam Test Results P.Krieger (on behalf of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Collaboration) Abstract­Construction of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter is now complete and integration with the ATLAS detector in the cavern

Krieger, Peter

142

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

143

Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

144

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the executive summary of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

145

Pool boiling heat transfer from vertical heater array in liquid nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer from an array of discrete sources is expected to differ from the behavior of a single heat source due to the interaction between the flow induced by individual heat sources. This study details the results from experiments conducted to study the pool boiling heat transfer characteristics from a vertical heater array with flush-mounted heat sources. The lower

Charlotte J. Chui; M. S. Sehmbey; L. C. Chow; O. J. Hahn

1995-01-01

146

Heterogeneously integrated III-V laser on thin SOI with compact optical vertical interconnect access.  

PubMed

A new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure is reported in this report that consists of a III-V ridge waveguide gain section on silicon, III-V/Si optical vertical interconnect accesses (VIAs), and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonic waveguide sections. The III-V semiconductor layers are introduced on top of the 300-nm-thick SOI layer through low temperature, plasma-assisted direct wafer-bonding and etched to form a III-V ridge waveguide on silicon as the gain section. The optical VIA is formed by tapering the III-V and the beneath SOI in the same direction with a length of 50 ?m for efficient coupling of light down to the 600 nm wide silicon nanophotonic waveguide or vice versa. Fabrication details and specification characterizations of this heterogeneous III-V/Si Fabry-Perot (FP) laser are given. The fabricated FP laser shows a continuous-wave lasing with a threshold current of 65 mA at room temperature, and the slope efficiency from single facet is 144??mW/A. The maximal single facet emitting power is about 4.5 mW at a current of 100 mA, and the side-mode suppression ratio is ?30??dB. This new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure demonstrated enables more complex laser configuration with a sub-system on-chip for various applications. PMID:25831337

Pu, Jing; Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris Keh Ting; Krishnamurthy, Vivek; Lee, Chee Wei; Tang, Kun; Seng Kay, Anthony Yew; Loh, Ter Hoe; Wang, Qian

2015-04-01

147

Vertical viewing angle enhancement for the 360??degree integral-floating display using an anamorphic optic system.  

PubMed

We propose a 360 degree integral-floating display with an enhanced vertical viewing angle. The system projects two-dimensional elemental image arrays via a high-speed digital micromirror device projector and reconstructs them into 3D perspectives with a lens array. Double floating lenses relate initial 3D perspectives to the center of a vertically curved convex mirror. The anamorphic optic system tailors the initial 3D perspectives horizontally and vertically disperse light rays more widely. By the proposed method, the entire 3D image provides both monocular and binocular depth cues, a full-parallax demonstration with high-angular ray density and an enhanced vertical viewing angle. PMID:24978984

Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Yoo, Kwan-Hee; Baasantseren, Ganbat; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Nam

2014-04-15

148

Fabrication of high-efficiency heterogeneous Si/III-V integration with short optical vertical interconnect access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon nanophotonic platform based on a silicon-on-insulator substrate enables dense photonic integration due to transparency for light propagation and ultra-high refractive index contrast for light confinement. Here, we integrate silicon together with III-V for high-efficiency heterogeneous Silicon/III-V and short vertical optical interconnect access. The fabrication involves 3 critical processes: 1) obtaining more than 80% maximum bonded areas of Si with III-V, 2) precise alignment of III-V nano-devices on top of the passive devices and 3) vertical sidewall etch profile of Si and III-V devices. The measurement results show around 90% coupling efficiency. The realization of this heterogeneous Si/III-V integration platform will open up enormous opportunities for photonic system on silicon through integrating various devices.

Ng, Doris K. T.; Pu, Jing; Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim-Peng; Wei, Yongqiang; Wang, Yadong; Lai, Yicheng; Ho, Seng-Tiong

2013-03-01

149

Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of integrated thruster/PMS tests demonstrate operation of the feed system in the relevant environment.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

2007-01-01

150

Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a pilot study conducted with last year occupational and physical therapy students. The study tested the benefits of vertical integration with anatomy courses and case studies in this population. Improvements in knowledge and retention were identified. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Suresh Parmar (Christian Medical College Anatomy)

2011-05-10

151

Vertical Integration, Business Diversification, and Firm Architecture: The Case of the China Egg Produce Company in Shanghai, 1923-1950  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a case study of a Chinese indigenous firm in the refrigerated egg-packing industry during the interwar period. I argue that the China Egg Produce Company (CEPC) was quick to grasp Western management in terms of vertical integration and business diversification. In addition, this firm took advantage of embedded social relations and social networks to construct a strong

NING JENNIFER CHANG

2005-01-01

152

Pressure drop characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow in vertical miniature triangular channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented for the gas velocity, the void fraction, and the pressure drop of upward co-current air–water two-phase flow through vertical miniature triangular channels having hydraulic diameters of 0.866, 1.443 and 2.886 mm, with superficial air velocity ranging from jg=0.1 to 100 m\\/s and superficial water velocity ranging from jl=0.08 to 6 m\\/s. A correlation is developed for

T. S Zhao; Q. C Bi

2001-01-01

153

Observing Nitrogen Bubbles in Liquid Zinc in a Vertical Hele-Shaw Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of gas bubbles in liquid metal are strongly hindered by the opacity of metals. To circumvent this limitation, the authors recently proposed to study such systems under quasi-2D flow conditions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The current paper presents a successful application of this approach for nitrogen bubbles in liquid zinc at 973 K (700 °C) in a fused quartz cell with a thickness of 1.5 mm. At low oxygen levels, the cell walls are not wetted by the liquid zinc, and bubbles can be observed directly through the transparent cell walls. Furthermore, using a moving high-speed camera that travels upwards with the bubbles, their properties are quantified in detail along the entire trajectory. In the range of equivalent diameters between 5.9 and 9.0 mm, this reveals a single periodic flow regime in which bubbles follow a sinusoidal path with a characteristic frequency of 3.31 Hz. In addition, systematic intermediate accelerations are observed of which the origin remains unexplained. Considering the unprecedented resolution of such observations for bubbles in liquid metals, especially at high temperatures, it is expected that this approach will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern gas injection in pyrometallurgy.

Klaasen, Bart; Verhaeghe, Frederik; Blanpain, Bart; Fransaer, Jan

2015-01-01

154

Design and fabrication of a polymer-based micron-scale semispherical vertical interconnecting structure for 3D photonic integrated circuit application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertically interconnected structure is a key feature of a photonic integrated circuit application, like an optical printed circuit board. Conventional vertical interconnecting structures have a 45 degree mirror, with or without metal coating to enhance its reflectance. We have designed a curved-shape semi-spherical type vertical interconnecting structure to enhance vertical interconnecting efficiency, and also developed simple fabrication procedure to realize it.

Lee, Min-Woo; Choi, Chul-Hyun; Jo, Soo-Beom; O, Beom-Hoan; Lee, Seung-Gol; Park, Se-Geun; Lee, El-Hang

2005-03-01

155

Vertically integrated pixel microbolometers for IR imaging using high-resistivity VOx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncooled IR bolometers form an integral part of thermal imaging cameras. Vanadium oxide material currently used for IR imaging has a resistivity between 0.1 and 1 ohm-cm and a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between -1.4%K-1 to -2.4%K-1. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials inevitably have higher resistivity and therefore higher electrical resistance in a lateral resistor configuration. A high resistance leads to an increase in the Johnson-Nyquist noise of the bias-induced current, thereby limiting the performance of bolometers using high resistivity material. In this work, we demonstrate high resistivity, high TCR VOx and propose the use of a vertically integrated resistor configuration an alternate pixel structure design with lower Johnson noise when compared with the conventional lateral pixel design. Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition was used to deposit high resistivity vanadium oxide thin-films (~85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivities ranging from 2 × 103 ohm-cm to 2.1 × 104 ohm-cm, TCR varying from -2.6%K-1 to -5%K-1, Johnson noise (pixel resistance of 1.3G?) of 4.7 to 6?V/?Hz and 1/f noise (normalized Hooge's parameter (?/n)) of 5 × 10-21 to 5 × 10-18 cm-3. In contrast, the through-film resistor structures showed significantly higher resistivities at 3 × 104 Ohm-cm to 1.55 × 105 Ohm-cm, TCR similar to lateral resistive structure between -2.6%K-1 to -5.1%K-1, immeasurably low Johnson noise (pixel resistance of 48K?) and normalized Hooge's parameter ranging from to 5×10-21 to 1×10-18 cm-3. These results indicate the possible use of through-film resistors as an alternative to the conventional lateral-resistor design currently used in uncooled imaging microbolometers.

Basantani, Hitesh A.; Shin, Hang-Beum; Jackson, T. N.; Horn, Mark W.

2013-06-01

156

Physician opinions about an anatomy core curriculum: a case for medical imaging and vertical integration.  

PubMed

Pre-clinical anatomy curricula must provide medical students with the knowledge needed in a variety of medical and surgical specialties. But do physicians within specialties agree about what anatomical knowledge is most important in their practices? And, what is the common core of anatomical knowledge deemed essential by physicians in different specialties? Answers to these questions would be useful in designing pre-clinical anatomy courses. The primary aim of this study was to assess the importance of a human gross anatomy course by soliciting the opinions of physicians from a range of specialties. We surveyed 93 physicians to determine the importance of specific anatomical topics in their own practices. Their responses were analyzed to assess variation in intra- and inter-departmental attitudes toward the importance of anatomy. Nearly all of the topics taught in the course were deemed important by the clinicians as a group, but respondents showed little agreement on the rank order of importance of anatomical topics. Overall, only medical imaging received high importance by nearly all respondents, and lower importance was attached to embryology and lymphatic anatomy. Our survey data, however, also suggested distinct hierarchies in the importance assigned to anatomical topics within specialties. Given that physicians view the importance of anatomy differently, we suggest that students revisit anatomy through a vertically integrated curriculum tailored to provide specialty-specific anatomical training to advanced students based on their areas of clinical interest. Integration of medical imaging into pre-clinical anatomy courses, already underway in many medical schools, is of high clinical relevance. PMID:24022941

Orsbon, Courtney P; Kaiser, Rebecca S; Ross, Callum F

2014-01-01

157

An integrated model of substrate clogging in vertical flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

This paper presents an integrated model of substrate clogging in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW). The model simulates the reduction of pore space in the wetland substrate due to combined influences of various physical, biogeochemical and plant-related processes. A series of experiments based on laboratory-scale VFCWs were conducted to examine and measure key parameters related to clogging of the wetland substrate during operation under different conditions. The model was then validated using data collected from the experiments. The results showed that the model was able to replicate the clogging phenomenon as observed in the experiments, in particular, the characteristic clogging time. The model also predicted well individual contributions to clogging by accumulated inert suspended solids, microbial biomass and plant root materials during the wetland operation. Although the validation was based on the laboratory data, the results indicated that the model describes well the processes underlying the clogging and has the potential to become a tool for assessing the performance of prototype CWs in relation to clogging at both the design and operation stages. PMID:23454415

Hua, G F; Li, L; Zhao, Y Q; Zhu, W; Shen, J Q

2013-04-15

158

Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

2014-03-01

159

Vertical integration of cosmid and YAC resources for interval mapping on the X-chromosome  

SciTech Connect

The vertical integration of cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) resources is of particular importance in the development of high-resolution maps of selected regions of the human genome. A resource of approximately 95,000 cosmids constructed using DNA from primary fibroblasts of karyotype 49,XXXXX was validated by detailed characterization of a 200-kb cosmid contig spanning exons 8-20 of the dystrophin gene. This resource was used to construct contigs in 0.65 Mb of Xq26 by hybridization of gel-purified YAC DNA to high-density gridded arrays of the cosmid library; positive cosmids were overlapped by fingerprinting. Contigs were oriented and ordered relative to existing YACs in the region using cross-hybridization. The overlaps between a representative set of cosmids define 54 intervals of 5-20 kb and were used to construct a high-resolution cosmid interval map of the region, locating markers, dinucleotide repeats, and candidate CpG islands. This approach can be applied rapidly to large regions of the genome and without recourse to subcloning of individual YACs. 49 refs., 5 figs.

Holland, J.; Coffey, A.J.; Giannelli, F.; Bentley, D.R. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, London (United Kingdom))

1993-02-01

160

China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?  

PubMed

The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain. PMID:21539027

Huang, Philip C C

2011-01-01

161

Forced convection heat transfer from a wire inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe to liquid hydrogen flowing upward  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced convection heat transfer from a PtCo wire with a length of 120 mm and a diameter of 1.2 mm that was inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe with a diameter of 8.0 mm to liquid hydrogen flowing upward was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate under saturated conditions. The pressures were varied from 0.4 MPa to 1.1 MPa. The non-boiling heat transfer characteristic agrees with that predicted by Dittus-Boelter correlation. The critical heat fluxes are higher for higher flow rates and lower pressures. Effect of Weber number on the CHF was clarified and a CHF correlation that can describe the experimental data is derived based on our correlation for a pipe.

Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.

2014-12-01

162

Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

Integrated carbon?to?liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub?bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal?Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat?camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger?scale process demonstration studies of the CHI process in combination with CCU to generate synthetic jet and diesel fuels from algae and algae fertilized crops. Site assessment and project prefeasibility studies are planned with a major EPC firm to determine the overall viability of ICTL technology commercialization with Crow coal resources in south central Montana.

Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

2013-09-30

163

HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

2010-10-01

164

Inkjet Printed Ultra Wideband Spiral Antenna Using Integrated Balun on Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP)  

E-print Network

Inkjet Printed Ultra Wideband Spiral Antenna Using Integrated Balun on Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP, integrated balun is inkjet printed on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate and operates successfully from 1 and the spiral arms are inkjet printed on LCP. The fabricated antenna covers a wideband frequency range (1~8GHz

Tentzeris, Manos

165

Remote measurements of ozone, water vapor and liquid water content, and vertical profiles of temperature in the lower troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several advanced atmospheric remote sensing systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were demonstrated under various field conditions to determine how useful they would be for general use by the California Air Resources Board and local air quality districts. One of the instruments reported on is the Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS). It has a pair of carbon dioxide lasers with a transmitter and receiver and can be flown in an aircraft to measure the column abundance of such gases as ozone. From an aircraft, it can be used to rapidly survey a large region. The LAS is usually operated from an aircraft, although it can also be used at a fixed location on the ground. Some tests were performed with the LAS to measure ozone over a 2-km horizontal path. Another system reported on is the Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing System (MARS). It is tuned to microwave emissions from water vapor, liquid water, and oxygen molecules (for atmospheric temperature). It can measure water vapor and liquid water in the line-of-sight, and can measure the vertical temperature profile.

Grant, W. B.; Gary, B. L.; Shumate, M. S.

1983-01-01

166

Anisotropy estimation of compacted municipal solid waste using pressurized vertical well liquids injection.  

PubMed

Waste hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy represent two important parameters controlling fluid movement in landfills, and thus are the key inputs in design methods where predictions of moisture movement are necessary. Although municipal waste hydraulic conductivity has been estimated in multiple laboratory and field studies, measurements of anisotropy, particularly at full scale, are rare, even though landfilled municipal waste is generally understood to be anisotropic. Measurements from a buried liquids injection well surrounded by pressure transducers at a full-scale landfill in Florida were collected and examined to provide an estimate of in-situ waste anisotropy. Liquids injection was performed at a constant pressure and the resulting pore pressures in the surrounding waste were monitored. Numerical fluid flow modeling was employed to simulate the pore pressures expected to occur under the conditions operated. Nine different simulations were performed at three different lateral hydraulic conductivity values and three different anisotropy values. Measured flowrate and pore pressures collected from conditions of approximate steady state were compared with the simulation results to assess the range of anisotropies. The results support that compacted municipal waste in landfills is anisotropic, provide anisotropy estimates greater than previous measurements, and suggest that anisotropy decreases with landfill depth. PMID:24824167

Singh, Karamjit; Kadambala, Ravi; Jain, Pradeep; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G

2014-05-13

167

Integrated management of liquid effluents at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This poster session illustrates the integrated approach that the Hanford Site has taken in managing high-priority liquid effluent streams. These waste waters are produced from a variety of process- and utility-related sources. The Hanford Site approach to management of liquid effluents focusses on eliminating the source, reusing where possible, and treating and disposing of the water that cannot be eliminated or recycled prior to disposal. Thirteen of the high-priority waste water streams have been or will be eliminated by the end of 1995. Some of these streams have been eliminated as the result of shutting down the associated operation. However, the elimination of other streams has been the result of process modifications, equipment substitutions, or recycling. Several of the waste water streams will receive treatment at the individual generating facility before being discharged into a new industrial sewer (the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility). The industrial sewer will collect treated streams from various plants in the 200 Areas and dispose of the clean effluent at two uncontaminated new 20,235-square meter (5-acre) ponds permitted by Washington State. Finally, condensate from the 200 Areas tank waste evaporator and waste water from operations in the 300 Area will be treated at two end-of-the-pipe treatment facilities. The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will treat condensate (a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (1)-listed waste) from the tank waste evaporator, thereby allowing the waste to be delisted prior to disposal. The treated effluent will be pumped to a state-approved land disposal site selected to maximize the migration time to the river. This disposal site allows for the decay of tritium, which will be present in the condensate but cannot be removed using current technologies.

Lindsey, D.W.; Eacker, J.A.; Crane, A.F.; Veneziano, T.B.

1994-04-01

168

Development of system level integration of compact RF components on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to optimize compactness for reconfigurable wireless communication systems by integrating Radio Frequency (RF) components on a multilayer Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) package while minimizing the size and interconnection of each component. To achieve this goal, various RF/microwave components have been integrated on LCP with the design, fabrication, and testing results to explore the feasibility of the designs for RF applications. The first chapter of this research focuses on the characterization of via interconnects for 3D system designs. As a crucial component for achieving compact multilayer designs, various transition designs are explored from DC to 110 GHz. In particular, High Density Interconnects (HDI) are investigated to achieve low loss performance at mm-wave frequencies. An example of accessing the input and output of a LCP packaged device using via interconnects is included. In addition, a heat sink using via technology is presented for active cooling of heat generating embedded devices. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 demonstrate the results of RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) switches integrated on LCP to create compact reconfigurable devices. RF MEMS switches are essential for designing compact multi-functional devices. A pattern reconfigurable antenna with monolithically integrated RF MEMS switches is presented. In addition, a compact 3D phase shifter using RF MEMS switches for a 2 x 2 phased antenna array is also presented in this work. To create a phased antenna array that is more compatible with Integrated Circuits (IC), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) RF MEMS switches are used to make a low voltage phase shifter. The actuation voltage is under 10 V, which is more easily achievable in a integrated system compared to commonly used electrostatic actuated RF MEMS switches that required at least 30 V. In Chapter 6, an expandable, low cost, and conformal multilayer phased antenna array is presented. Starting with a 4 x 8 element antenna array, the concept of beam steering is shown. Using this antenna array as a building block, an 8 x 8 element antenna array is shown with the measured results when conformed around a cylinder. Further expanding the antenna array, a 16 x 16 element antenna array is designed, fabricated, and measured. All of these antenna arrays use LCP as a platform for lightweight and low cost satellite communication applications. Finally, using the integration technology and expertise developed from the previous work, a 60 GHz transceiver front end is designed on LCP for high speed wireless communication applications. Two dual mode filters and high-gain vertical dipoles are integrated at the packaging level on LCP to create a low cost system. A PA and LNA are included in the system to increase the system gain. The measurements of the dual mode filters are presented as well as the fully integrated transceiver pattern measurements and gain measurements of each of the transmitting and receiving mode. This research contributes to LCP integration technology with more compact and higher frequency multilayer applications while focusing on integration of the components at the system packaging level to achieve optimal compactness. The highlight of this work is in developing key technologies for multilayer integration on organic LCP such as HDI interconnects and RF MEMS; applying the technology to create reconfigurable RF components such as reconfigurable antennas and compact low voltage phase shifters; and integrating the components to create compact low cost multilayer RF front end systems.

Chung, David

169

Vertically integrated shared learning models in general practice: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The numbers of learners seeking placements in general practice is rapidly increasing as an ageing workforce impacts on General Practitioner availability. The traditional master apprentice model that involves one-to-one teaching is therefore leading to supervision capacity constraints. Vertically integrated (VI) models may provide a solution. Shared learning, in which multiple levels of learners are taught together in the same session, is one such model. This study explored stakeholders’ perceptions of shared learning in general practices in northern NSW, Australia. Methods A qualitative research method, involving individual semi-structured interviews with GP supervisors, GP registrars, Prevocational General Practice Placements Program trainees, medical students and practice managers situated in nine teaching practices, was used to investigate perceptions of shared learning practices. A thematic analysis was conducted on 33 transcripts by three researchers. Results Participants perceived many benefits to shared learning including improved collegiality, morale, financial rewards, and better sharing of resources, knowledge and experience. Additional benefits included reduced social and professional isolation, and workload. Perceived risks of shared learning included failure to meet the individual needs of all learners. Shared learning models were considered unsuitable when learners need to: receive remediation, address a specific deficit or immediate learning needs, learn communication or procedural skills, be given personalised feedback or be observed by their supervisor during consultations. Learners’ acceptance of shared learning appeared partially dependent on their supervisors’ small group teaching and facilitation skills. Conclusions Shared learning models may partly address supervision capacity constraints in general practice, and bring multiple benefits to the teaching environment that are lacking in the one-to-one model. However, the risks need to be managed appropriately, to ensure learning needs are met for all levels of learners. Supervisors also need to consider that one-to-one teaching may be more suitable in some instances. Policy makers, medical educators and GP training providers need to ensure that quality learning outcomes are achieved for all levels of learners. A mixture of one-to-one and shared learning would address the benefits and downsides of each model thereby maximising learners’ learning outcomes and experiences. PMID:24079420

2013-01-01

170

Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels  

SciTech Connect

Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} are investigated. The flow phenomena, which are bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and dispersed bubbly flow are observed and recorded by high-speed camera. When the phase shifts are increased, the onset of the transition from the bubbly flow to the churn flow shifts to a higher value of superficial air velocity, and the regions of the slug flow and the churn flow are smaller. In other words, the regions of the bubbly flow and the dispersed bubbly flow are larger as the phase shift increases. The slug flow pattern is only found in the test sections with phase shifts of 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Recirculating gas bubbles are always found in the troughs of the corrugations. The recirculating is higher when the phase shifts are larger. The relationship between the two-phase multipliers calculated from the measured pressure drops, and the Martinelli parameter is compared with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. The correlation in the case of turbulent-turbulent condition is shown to fit the data very well for the phase shift of 0{sup o} but shows greater deviation when the phase shifts are higher. (author)

Nilpueng, Kitti [Department of Mechanical Engineering, South East Asia University, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2006-06-15

171

Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)  

SciTech Connect

Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

2011-04-13

172

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

173

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22

174

Photoresponsive Carbohydrate-based Giant Surfactants: Automatic Vertical Alignment of Nematic Liquid Crystal for the Remote-Controllable Optical Device.  

PubMed

Photoresponsive carbohydrate-based giant surfactants (abbreviated as CELAnD-OH) were specifically designed and synthesized for the automatic vertical alignment (VA) layer of nematic (N) liquid crystal (LC), which can be applied for the fabrication of remote-controllable optical devices. Without the conventional polymer-based LC alignment process, a perfect VA layer was automatically constructed by directly adding the 0.1 wt % CELA1D-OH in the N-LC media. The programmed CELA1D-OH giant surfactants in the N-LC media gradually diffused onto the substrates of LC cell and self-assembled to the expanded monolayer structure, which can provide enough empty spaces for N-LC molecules to crawl into the empty zones for the construction of VA layer. On the other hand, the CELA3D-OH giant surfactants forming the condensed monolayer structure on the substrates exhibited a planar alignment (PA) rather than a VA. Upon tuning the wavelength of light, the N-LC alignments were reversibly switched between VA and PA in the remote-controllable LC optical devices. Based on the experimental results, it was realized that understanding the interactions between N-LC molecules and amphiphilic giant surfactants is critical to design the suitable materials for the automatic LC alignment. PMID:25738306

Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Sang-A; Kang, Dong-Gue; Park, Minwook; Choi, Yu-Jin; Jeong, Kwang-Un

2015-03-25

175

Membrane-Based, Liquid–Liquid Separator with Integrated Pressure Control  

E-print Network

We describe the development and application of an improved, membrane-based, liquid–liquid separator. Membrane-based separation relies on the exploitation of surface forces and the use of a membrane wetted by one of the ...

Adamo, Andrea

176

Pros and cons of vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum: examples and experiences from Linköping, Sweden.  

PubMed

Problem-based learning (PBL), combined with early patient contact, multiprofessional education and emphasis on development of communications skills, has become the basis for the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping (FHS), Sweden, which was started in 1986. Important elements in the curriculum are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science parts of the curriculum and horizontal integration between different subject areas. This article discusses the importance of vertical integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to experiences from the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping, and also give examples on how it has been implemented during the latest 15 years. Results and views put forward in published articles concerning vertical integration within undergraduate medical education are discussed in relation to the experiences in Linköping. Vertical integration between basic sciences and clinical medicine in a PBL setting has been found to stimulate profound rather than superficial learning, and thereby stimulates better understanding of important biomedical principles. Integration probably leads to better retention of knowledge and the ability to apply basic science principles in the appropriate clinical context. Integration throughout the whole curriculum entails a lot of time and work in respect of planning, organization and execution. The teachers have to be deeply involved and enthusiastic and have to cooperate over departmental borders, which may produce positive spin-off effects in teaching and research but also conflicts that have to be resolved. The authors believe vertical integration supports PBL and stimulates deep and lifelong learning. PMID:12098414

Dahle, L O; Brynhildsen, J; Behrbohm Fallsberg, M; Rundquist, I; Hammar, M

2002-05-01

177

TID and Displacement Damage Effects in Vertical and Lateral Power MOSFETs for Integrated DC-DC Converters  

E-print Network

TID and displacement damage effects are studied for vertical and lateral power MOSFETs in five different technologies in view of the development of radiation-tolerant fully integrated DC-DC converters. Investigation is pushed to the very high level of radiation expected for an upgrade to the LHC experiments. TID induces threshold voltage shifts and, in n-channel transistors, source-drain leakage currents. Wide variability in the magnitude of these effects is observed. Displacement damage increases the on-resistance of both vertical and lateral high-voltage transistors. In the latter case, degradation at high particle fluence might lead to a distortion of the output characteristics curve. HBD techniques to limit or eliminate the radiation-induced leakage currents are successfully applied to these high-voltage transistors, but have to be used carefully to avoid consequences on the breakdown voltage.

Faccio, F; Michelis, S; Faccio, Federico; Fuentes, C; Allongue, B; Sorge, R; Orlandi, S

2010-01-01

178

Physician Opinions About an Anatomy Core Curriculum: A Case for Medical Imaging and Vertical Integration  

E-print Network

was to assess the importance of a human gross anatomy course by soliciting the opinions of physicians fromPhysician Opinions About an Anatomy Core Curriculum: A Case for Medical Imaging and Vertical and Anatomy, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Pre-clinical anatomy curricula must provide medical

179

Vertical and Horizontal Economies in the Electric Utility Industry: An Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical literature on the cost structure of the electric utility industry traditionally focused on the measurement of specific technological properties: i) scale economies in generation or distribution; ii) multi- product (or horizontal) economies of scope at the downstream stage; iii) multi-stage (or vertical) economies of scope between generation, transmission and distribution. This paper extends the results of previous studies

MASSIMILIANO PIACENZA; DAVIDE VANNONI

2005-01-01

180

Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

2014-01-01

181

New Approach to Enhance Contrast Ratio at Normal Incidence by Controlling the Retardation of Optical Compensation Film in Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found that the light leakage at normal incidence of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display (VA-LCD) in black state is strongly affected by the polarization states of obliquely incident light. Experimental results were explained by a light scattering model of substrates on both sides of a liquid crystal layer. Applying this model, we found that the contrast ratio at normal incidence can be highly enhanced by controlling the retardation value of retardation films. This is a new, effective approach to enhancement of the contrast ratio in LCDs, different from the conventional approach of simply decreasing the depolarization of the scattering media.

Makoto Ishiguro,; Megumi Sekiguchi,; Yukito Saitoh,

2010-03-01

182

Vertical alignment of liquid crystal through ion beam exposure on oxygen-doped SiC films deposited at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the vertical alignment of liquid crystal (LC) through the ion beam exposure on amorphous oxygen-doped SiC (SiOC) film surfaces deposited at room temperature. The optical transmittance of these films was similar to that of polyimide layers, but much higher than that of SiO{sub x} films. The light leakage of a LC cell aligned vertically on SiOC films was much lower than those of a LC cell aligned on polyimide layers or other inorganic films. They found that LC molecules align vertically on ion beam treated SiOC film when the roughness of the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) data is high on the SiOC film surface, while they align homogeneously when the roughness of the EFM data is low.

Son, Phil Kook; Park, Jeung Hun; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Rho, Soon Joon; Jeon, Back Kyun; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jang Sub; Lim, Soon Kwon [School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); LC/OLED Research Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Process Development Team, LCD R and D Center, LCD Business, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-09-03

183

Content Delivery and Vertical Integration in On-line Content Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line content delivery and vertical alliances between conduit and content providers are nowadays crucial issues in on-line content markets. In this paper, we discuss and compare two types of model for on-line content delivery: push and pull. We assume non-zero marginal cost for network transits, justified by the presence of network services for content delivery (like data caching). Under both

Diego Lanzi; Massimiliano Marzo

2005-01-01

184

A STUDY ON VOID FRACTION IN VERTICAL CO-CURRENT UPWARD AND DOWNWARD TWO-PHASE GAS-LIQUID FLOW—I: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on void fraction in a small diameter tube (9·525?mm) for vertical upward and downward, gas-liquid, two-phase flow was carried out. Void fraction measurements in water-air were taken for both upward and downward flow using a single beam gamma densitometer. The gamma densitometer was calibrated against the reading from a quick-closing valve system. The experimental results indicate that

YIJUN JIANG; KAMIEL S. REZKALLAH

1993-01-01

185

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder.  

PubMed

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. Fluids 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. Fluids 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations. PMID:23767631

Mayo, Lisa C; McCue, Scott W; Moroney, Timothy J

2013-05-01

186

Liquid tunable lens integrated with a rotational symmetric surface for long depth of focus.  

PubMed

A liquid tunable lens with an extended depth of focus (DOF) is proposed. By integrating a phase plate with rotational symmetric quartic function (QF) contour into the liquid lens cavity, the lens can achieve higher tolerance to the defocus aberration. The liquid lens was fabricated with a convenient and low-cost process that combined single-point diamond turning (SPDT) with soft lithography using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Experimental results demonstrate that both focal length tunability and extended DOF can be achieved with the proposed liquid lens. PMID:20885488

Kang, Jingran; Yu, Hongbin; Chen, Haiqing

2010-10-01

187

Vertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in  

E-print Network

biofuels for road transport Bio-diesel : vegetable oil based substitute for diesel Bio-ethanol : alcohol · Relatively liquid market · Product differentiation: increasing requirement for "sustainable" source - distribution of farms, information on harvesting, pricing #12;Global Production of Bio-ethanol Source

Aickelin, Uwe

188

Integrated waveguide/thermocouple sensor for liquid properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A torsional and longitudinal waveguide was introduced several years ago and shown to be effective for measuring various properties of liquids, including viscosity, density and temperature. The instrument is simply a specially constructed, thin rod (waveguide), one end of which is inserted into the liquid slurry. Torsional or extensional waves are generated in the rod, via a magnetostrictive mechanism, by passing a current through a coil which fits over the dry end of the rod. Liquid properties are correlated to different attributes of the waves (e.g., speed and amplitude) that travel down the rod and reflect off the end that is inserted into the liquid. Different properties of the material can be determined using waveguides of different cross-section. Noncircular rods are used to measure density, while viscosity is measured with circular rods. Since temperature affects these same wave attributes it would be desirable to have an independent measure of the temperature. This is accomplished by using a thermocouple sheath as the sensor part of the waveguide. In this way, the influence of temperature can be decoupled from the other properties of interest. In addition, the temperature is measured at the same point where the other properties of the liquid are being measured. The basic design of the sensor will be presented along with experimental results.

Costley, R. Daniel; Boudreaux, Gary; Ramsey, William G.; Simpson, Jason; Menezes, Clinton

1999-02-01

189

Millimeter-wave Low-Loss Integrated Waveguide on Liquid Crystal Polymer Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, low loss integrated waveguides implemented in liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate are investigated for the first time as a candidate of choice for millimeter-wave packaging. The proposed integrated waveguide (IWG) can be used as a low loss millimeter-wave feed-through transition between the MMIC and the module. As the top face of the integrated waveguide does not have

Kiseok Yang; Stephane Pinel; Il Kwon Kim; J. Laskar

2006-01-01

190

LIQUID MIXING STUDIES WITH AN INTEGRATED MIXER/VALVE  

E-print Network

mixer/valve consists of a two wafers: 1) a lower silicon wafer with a cantilever-plate flapper valve reveals a blow-up of the reagent-inlet port area. The cantilever-plate flapper valve is shown atop to mix a reagent with the sample, Sample Reagent Mixed Liquids Silicon Glass Cantilever-plate flapper

Voldman, Joel

191

Gravity-driven fingering simulations for a thin liquid film flowing down the outside of a vertical cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study is presented to examine the fingering instability of a gravity-driven thin liquid film flowing down the outer wall of a vertical cylinder. The lubrication approximation is employed to derive an evolution equation for the height of the film, which is dependent on a single parameter, the dimensionless cylinder radius. This equation is identified as a special case of that which describes thin film flow down an inclined plane. Fully three-dimensional simulations of the film depict a fingering pattern at the advancing contact line. We find the number of fingers observed in our simulations to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations and a linear stability analysis reported recently by Smolka and SeGall [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3633530 23, 092103 (2011)]. As the radius of the cylinder decreases, the modes of perturbation have an increased growth rate, thus increasing cylinder curvature partially acts to encourage the contact line instability. In direct competition with this behavior, a decrease in cylinder radius means that fewer fingers are able to form around the circumference of the cylinder. Indeed, for a sufficiently small radius, a transition is observed, at which point the contact line is stable to transverse perturbations of all wave numbers. In this regime, free surface instabilities lead to the development of wave patterns in the axial direction, and the flow features become perfectly analogous to the two-dimensional flow of a thin film down an inverted plane as studied by Lin and Kondic [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3428753 22, 052105 (2010)]. Finally, we simulate the flow of a single drop down the outside of the cylinder. Our results show that for drops with low volume, the cylinder curvature has the effect of increasing drop speed and hence promoting the phenomenon of pearling. In contrast, drops with much larger volume evolve to form single long rivulets with a similar shape to a finger formed in the aforementioned simulations.

Mayo, Lisa C.; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.

2013-05-01

192

Engaged Learning across the Curriculum: The Vertical Integration of Food for Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a relatively new and decidedly healthy educational movement emerging across the United States, from grade schools to high schools, from community colleges to graduate programs at the nation's most prestigious universities. The movement goes by the name of "engaged learning." The authors describe two experiments to integrate

Duster, Troy; Waters, Alice

2006-01-01

193

Vertical Integration in the Malting Barley Industry: A “Silver Bullet” for Coors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coors Brewing Company owns a single-site, integrated malting facility and brewery in Golden, Colorado; a second brewery in Memphis, Tennessee; and a mixing facility in Elkton, Virginia. Coors operates a research and development program that breeds barley varieties suitable for malting at the Golden site. Coors contracts with 900 growers in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming for approximately 160,000

Michael A. Boland; Gary W. Brester

2006-01-01

194

Implementing Vertical and Horizontal Engineering Students' Integration and Assessment of Consequence Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to…

Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

2012-01-01

195

Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

1987-01-01

196

Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs  

E-print Network

Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

2000-01-01

197

Integration of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with gratings on SOI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which comprises a cladding, multiple quantum well (QW) active area, oxide restrict layer, substrate, and high reflectivity distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The VCSEL cavity consists of the cladding, multiple QW active area, and limiting layer. AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb has been used for the DBR mirror system to achieve lattice matching. The QW/barrier comprises GaInAsN/AlGaInAs. By epitaxial growth, the DBR is banded with the active layer at the cavity antinode of the standing wave field, and the cavity length is set to 1.0?. A double-oxide layer, which is more beneficial than a single-oxide layer, has been adopted in the laser. Discrete Fourier transform is performed on the captured signal to extract the spectral content of the measured signal. By the FDTD method and the PML boundary condition, we achieve a 35% relative light intensity by introducing a TE mode from the cavity to the in-plane grating.

Li, Hongqiang; Cui, Beibei; Zhang, Meiling; Zhou, Wenqian; Chen, Hongda; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Yu; Tang, Chunxiao; Li, Enbang

2014-12-01

198

A thermally-aware performance analysis of vertically integrated (3-D) processor-memory hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits have emerged as promising candidates to overcome the interconnect bottlenecks of nanometer scale designs. While they offer several other advantages, it is expected that the benefits from this technology can potentially be off-set by thermal considerations which impact chip performance and reliability. The work presented in this paper is the first attempt to study the performance

Gian Luca Loi; Banit Agrawal; Navin Srivastava; Sheng-chih Lin; Timothy Sherwood; Kaustav Banerjee

2006-01-01

199

Vertical Information Integration for Cross Enterprise Business Processes in the Energy Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing growth and decentralization of power networks creates immense interoperability and integration challenges for\\u000a ICT systems performing control and coordination tasks. On the one hand, large amounts of data coming from low-level field\\u000a and automation systems need to be interpreted, aggregated, and made available to the business information systems to inform\\u000a local decisions within power generation companies and operators;

Christoph Gerdes; Udo Bartlang; Jörg P. Müller

200

Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film using ion-beam irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Using ion-beam (IB) irradiation, liquid crystals (LCs) were vertically aligned (VA) on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film. Atomic-layer deposition was used to orient the LCs on high-quality {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. The LC molecule orientation indicates the vertical direction of the atomic-layer-deposited {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that IB irradiation changed the chemical structure, shifting the Al-O binding energy and altering the Al-O bonding intensity. The low-voltage transmittance characteristics of the VA LC displays on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films were also measured, showing reduced voltage and power requirements.

Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Young-Hwan; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Seo, Dae-Shik [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Information Display Device Laboratory, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jeong-Yeon [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States)

2008-12-08

201

Subcooled boiling heat transfer in a short vertical SUS304-tube at liquid Reynolds number range 5.19 × 10 4 to 7.43 × 10 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcooled boiling heat transfer and the steady-state critical heat fluxes (CHFs) in a short vertical SUS304-tube for the flow velocities (u=17.28–40.20m\\/s), the inlet liquid temperatures (Tin=293.30–362.49K), the inlet pressures (Pin=842.90–1467.93kPa) and the exponentially increasing heat input (Q=Q0exp(t\\/?), ?=8.5s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop comprised of a multistage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The SUS304

Koichi Hata; Suguru Masuzaki

2009-01-01

202

An investigation of heat exchange of liquid metal during flow in a vertical tube with non-uniform heating in the transverse magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental investigations of heat exchange during the downflow of liquid metal in a vertical tube with non-uniform heating in the transverse magnetic field are presented. The experiment was more realistic in terms of conditions of the blanket of a fusion reactor of the tokamak type. Profiles of the average temperature, distribution of local and mean heat transfer coefficients (Nusselt numbers), and the intensities and spectra of temperature pulsations have been measured. On certain combinations of operating parameters in the strong magnetic field low-frequency temperature pulsations with abnormal intensity were found.

Mel'nikov, I. A.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sviridov, E. V.; Shestakov, A. A.

2013-05-01

203

A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

2008-12-01

204

RF characteristics of thin film liquid crystal polymer (LCP) packages for RF MEMS and MMIC integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard non-metallized liquid crystal polymer (LCP) 4 mil thick microwave substrate with depth-controlled laser-micromachined cavities was investigated as a system-level packaging layer for integrated packaging of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) and radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switches. The RF characteristics of air\\/dielectric discontinuities at the cavity interfaces were first simulated and the results show that LCP's low

Dane Thompson; Nickolas Kingsley; Guoan Wang; John Papapolymerou; Manos M. Tentzeris

2005-01-01

205

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 4: Reviews and presentation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid rocket booster integration study is presented. Volume 4 contains materials presented at the MSFC/JSC/KSC Integrated Reviews and Working Group Sessions, and the Progress Reviews presented to the KSC Study Manager. The following subject areas are covered: initial impact assessment; conflicts with the on-going STS mission; access to the LRB at the PAD; the activation schedule; transition requirements; cost methodology; cost modelling approach; and initial life cycle cost.

1988-01-01

206

Fast response wavelength tunable filter using Vertically-Aligned Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals (VA-PSLC) with a curing voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary experimental results obtained for a Vertically-Aligned Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal (VA-PSLC) with a curing voltage. The curing voltage was found to help reduce the otherwise strong scattering effect of the VA-PSLC. This liquid crystal was placed inside a Fabry-Perot cavity to achieve a wavelength tunable filter. Wavelength tuning range was found to decrease as curing voltage increased, which is consistent with what we expected since molecules were already tilted at a large angle when the curing voltage was high. Shortening of response time was found since the polymer effect helped improve the response speed. The filters can have potential applications in wavelength tuning applications (e.g. WDM) in telecommunication systems where high speed is desirable.

Choi, Wing-Kit; Li, Yan-Min

2014-10-01

207

CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino County study phases 1-A, 1-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User needs, data types, data automation, and preliminary applications are described for an effort to assemble a single data base for San Bernardino County from data bases which exist at several administrative levels. Each of the data bases used was registered and converted to a grid-based data file at a resolution of 4 acres and used to create a multivariable data base for the entire study area. To this data base were added classified LANDSAT data from 1976 and 1979. The resulting data base thus integrated in a uniform format all of the separately automated data within the study area. Several possible interactions between existing geocoded data bases and LANDSAT data were tested. The use of LANDSAT to update existing data base is to be tested.

Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

208

Dense and vertically-aligned centimetre-long ZnS nanowire arrays: ionic liquid assisted synthesis and their field emission properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the self-ordering behavior of ionic liquids on solid surface, a gold ion containing ionic liquid was employed to obtain a uniform pattern of gold nanoparticles on Si substrate. Using this catalytic pattern, super-dense, centimetre long, well-crystallized and vertically-aligned ZnS nanowire arrays were then generated. It was found that the densely-packed gold nanoparticles played a key role in the nanowire alignment. Furthermore, the field-emission measurements show that the present ultralong ZnS nanowires arrays possess a low turn-on field of 3.69 V ?m-1 and a high field-enhancement factor of 1215.4, indicating they are valuable field emitters.Based on the self-ordering behavior of ionic liquids on solid surface, a gold ion containing ionic liquid was employed to obtain a uniform pattern of gold nanoparticles on Si substrate. Using this catalytic pattern, super-dense, centimetre long, well-crystallized and vertically-aligned ZnS nanowire arrays were then generated. It was found that the densely-packed gold nanoparticles played a key role in the nanowire alignment. Furthermore, the field-emission measurements show that the present ultralong ZnS nanowires arrays possess a low turn-on field of 3.69 V ?m-1 and a high field-enhancement factor of 1215.4, indicating they are valuable field emitters. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11835a

Chen, Shimou; Li, Liang; Wang, Xi; Tian, Wei; Wang, Xuebing; Tang, Dai-Ming; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

2012-03-01

209

Design and Fabrication of Integrated RF Modules in Liquid Crystalline Polymer (LCP) Substrates  

E-print Network

Design and Fabrication of Integrated RF Modules in Liquid Crystalline Polymer (LCP) Substrates M (LCP) based substrates. Firstly, the paper introduces the packaging technology that utilizes multiple sheets of LCP substrate. Characterization of high Q inductors on the multi-layer process

Swaminathan, Madhavan

210

Design and fabrication of integrated RF modules in liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and fabrication of fully-packaged RF modules that are suitable for integration in portable handset applications. The system blocks utilize high Q passive devices that are embedded in liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) based substrates. Firstly, the paper introduces the packaging technology that utilizes multiple sheets of LCP substrate. Characterization of high Q inductors on the multi-layer

M. Swaminathan; A. Bavisi; W. Yun; V. Sundaram; V. Govind; P. Monajemi

2005-01-01

211

Vertical Integration of Pharmacogenetics in Population PK/PD Modeling: A Novel Information Theoretic Method  

PubMed Central

To critically evaluate an information-theoretic method for identifying gene–environmental interactions (GEI) associated with pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and clinical outcomes from genome-wide pharmacogenetic data. Our approach, which is built on the K-way interaction information (KWII) metric, was challenged with simulated data and clinical PK/PD data sets from the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) and a gemcitabine clinical trial. The KWII efficiently identified both novel and known interactions for warfarin and gemcitabine. Interactions between herbal supplementation and VKORC1 genotype were associated with warfarin response. For gemcitabine-associated neutropenia, combination treatment with carboplatin and cytidine deaminase (CDA) 208G?A genotypes were identified as risk factors. Gemcitabine disposition was associated with drug metabolism–transporter interactions between deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) and the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT). This novel approach is effective for detecting GEI involved in drug exposure and response and could enable integration of genome-wide pharmacogenetic data into the population PK/PD analysis paradigm.

Knights, J; Chanda, P; Sato, Y; Kaniwa, N; Saito, Y; Ueno, H; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M

2013-01-01

212

Development of vertical SU-8 microtubes integrated with dissolvable tips for transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Polymer-based microneedles have drawn much attention in the transdermal drug delivery resulting from their flexibility and biocompatibility. Traditional fabrication approach deploys various kinds of molds to create sharp tips at the end of needles for the penetration purpose. This approach is usually time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we developed an innovative fabrication process to make biocompatible SU-8 microtubes integrated with biodissolvable maltose tips as novel microneedles for the transdermal drug delivery applications. These microneedles can easily penetrate the skin's outer barrier represented by the stratum corneum (SC) layer. The drug delivery device of mironeedles array with 1000??m spacing between adjacent microneedles is proven to be able to penetrate porcine cadaver skins successfully. The maximum loading force on the individual microneedle can be as large as 7.36 ± 0.48N. After 9?min of the penetration, all the maltose tips are dissolved in the tissue. Drugs can be further delivered via these open biocompatible SU-8 microtubes in a continuous flow manner. The permeation patterns caused by the solution containing Rhodamine 110 at different depths from skin surface were characterized via a confocal microscope. It shows successful implementation of the microneedle function for fabricated devices. PMID:24404018

Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakanksha; Pastorin, Giorgia; Lee, Chengkuo

2013-01-01

213

Comparison of the prevalence and genomic characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolated from various production groups in a vertically integrated swine operation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006. Isolation of C. difficile was performed utilizing an enrichment technique and restrictive media. Prelim...

214

Liquid nitrogen cooled integrated power electronics module with high current carrying capability and lower on resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents the development of high-performance integrated cryogenic power modules, where both driver components and power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors are integrated in a single package, to be used in a 50kW prototype cryogenic inverter operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. The authors have demonstrated a compact high-voltage, cryogenic integrated power module that exhibited more than 14 times improvement in on-resistance and continuous current carrying capability exceeding 40A. The modules are designed to operate at liquid nitrogen temperature with extreme thermal cycling. The power electronic modules are necessary components that provide control and switching for second generation, yttrium barium copper oxide-based high temperature superconductor devices including cables, motors, and generators.

Ye, Hua; Lee, Changwoo; Simon, Randy W.; Haldar, Pradeep; Hennessy, Michael J.; Mueller, Eduard K.

2006-11-01

215

Numerical Pattern Formation on Magnetothermal Convection of Diamagnetic Liquids in a Cylindrical Vessel of Rayleigh–Benard Model: Effects of Axisymmetric Horizontal Magnetic Forces on Vertical Magnetic Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out three-dimensional computations of the magnetothermal convection of diamagnetic liquids (e.g., water) in a shallow cylindrical vessel of the Rayleigh–Benard model to investigate the effects of the radial components of the magnetic force (MFR) and the vertical components of the magnetic force (MFZ) on heat transfer and pattern formation. For the purpose of examining various magnitudes of radial and vertical components of the magnetic force, we used a 1800-turn coil instead of an actual conventional magnet, and a 2-turn coil as a new proposal. In the computation, the Prandtl number was constant at 6.0 (i.e., water at room temperature), and the Rayleigh number was 1.0 × 104. As a result, an axisymmetric pattern and a spokelike pattern appeared in the convection. Subsequently, we arranged all the results with a new parameter, which is the absolute ratio of the radial component of magnetic force at the vessel sidewall to the vertical resultant force at the vessel center. This parameter represents the relative contribution of MFR to the vertical resultant force (RFZ). The RFZ is the sum of the gravitational force and MFZ, and is associated with the magnetic Rayleigh number. By using this parameter, the spoke pattern convection appeared when the parameter was within 0.11 to 0.85. This result suggests that not only the MFR but also the MFZ plays an important role in determining whether the convection flow pattern transited to the axisymmetric flow or not. This parameter range is easily satisfied in a conventional superconducting magnet. We can say that the spoke pattern convection may be a common phenomenon in the magnet. On the other hand, the flow pattern had little effect on the heat transfer in convection. Thus, the effects of MFR and MFZ on the pattern formation in the magnet are much more complicated than those previously considered.

Maki, Syou; Sumitani, Mariko; Udagawa, Chikako; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

2014-07-01

216

Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy of hard spheres via a thermodynamic integration scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hard-sphere crystal-liquid interfacial free energy ?cl is determined from molecular dynamics simulations using a thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme. The advantage of this TI scheme compared to previous methods is to successfully circumvent hysteresis effects due to the movement of the crystal-liquid interface. This is accomplished by the use of extremely-short-range and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls that prevent the drift of the interface while imposing a negligible free-energy penalty. We find that it is crucial to analyze finite-size effects in order to obtain reliable estimates of ?cl in the thermodynamic limit.

Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

2015-03-01

217

Passive fluidic chip composed of integrated vertical capillary tubes developed for on-site SPR immunoassay analysis targeting real samples.  

PubMed

We have successfully developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement system for the on-site immunoassay of real samples. The system is composed of a portable SPR instrument (290 mm(W) × 160 mm(D) × 120 mm(H)) and a microfluidic immunoassay chip (16 mm(W) × 16 mm(D) × 4 mm(H)) that needs no external pump system. An integrated vertical capillary tube functions as a large volume (150 ?L) passive pump and a waste reservoir that has sufficient capacity for several refill operations. An immunoassay was carried out that employed the direct injection of a buffer and a test sample in sequence into a microfluidic chip that included 9 antibody bands and 10 reference reagent bands immobilized in the flow channel. By subtracting a reliable averaged reference sensorgram from the antibody, we effectively reduced the influence of the non-specific binding, and then our chip successfully detected the specific binding of spiked IgG in non-homogeneous milk. IgG is a model antigen that is certain not to be present in non-homogeneous milk, and non-homogeneous milk is a model of real sample that includes many interfering foreign substances that induce non-specific binding. The direct injection of a real sample with no pretreatment enabled us to complete the entire immunoassay in several minutes. This ease of operation and short measuring time are acceptable for on-site agricultural, environmental and medical testing. PMID:22969339

Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Miura, Toru; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Haga, Tsuneyuki; Tamechika, Emi

2012-01-01

218

Tiny surface plasmon resonance sensor integrated on silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into finite metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide.  

PubMed

We propose a tiny surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor integrated on a silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into a finite thickness metal-insulator-metal (f-MIM) plasmonic waveguide structure acting as a Fabry-Perot resonator. The resonant characteristics of vertically coupled f-MIM plasmonic waveguides are theoretically investigated and optimized. Numerical results show that the SPR sensor with a footprint of ~0.0375 ?m2 and a sensitivity of ~635 nm/RIU can be designed at a 1.55 ?m transmission wavelength. PMID:21996997

Lee, Dong-Jin; Yim, Hae-Dong; Lee, Seung-Gol; O, Beom-Hoan

2011-10-10

219

Abstract--This paper reports on two novel broadband vertical transitions on flexible organic Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP)  

E-print Network

Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate which show superior characteristics- Return Loss below -10 d Polymer (LCP) [1] for use with mm- wave (up to 100GHz) front-end [3,4] applications such as broadband high for developing mm-wave circuitry [1]. In addition, LCP can be easily laminated and micro- machined to form 3D

Tentzeris, Manos

220

Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.

Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.

2015-03-01

221

Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures.  

PubMed

Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations. PMID:25747091

Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E

2015-03-01

222

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides. No top sealing of the channels is required. Surface accessible fluid input ports are formed in a BPSG layer, with no additional steps, by appropriate design of template layers. By tightly controlling the refractive index of the waveguide layer and the microchannel-forming layer, fully integrated structures facilitating optical coupling between solid waveguides and liquids segments in various geometries are demonstrated. Applications in liquid-filled photonic device elements for novel nonlinear optical devices and in optical sensors and on-chip spectroscopy are outlined.

Dumais, Patrick; Callender, Claire L.; Ledderhof, Christopher J.; Noad, Julian P.

2006-12-01

223

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon.  

PubMed

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides. No top sealing of the channels is required. Surface accessible fluid input ports are formed in a BPSG layer, with no additional steps, by appropriate design of template layers. By tightly controlling the refractive index of the waveguide layer and the microchannel-forming layer, fully integrated structures facilitating optical coupling between solid waveguides and liquids segments in various geometries are demonstrated. Applications in liquid-filled photonic device elements for novel nonlinear optical devices and in optical sensors and on-chip spectroscopy are outlined. PMID:17151758

Dumais, Patrick; Callender, Claire L; Ledderhof, Christopher J; Noad, Julian P

2006-12-20

224

Emiflective Display with Integration of Reflective Liquid Crystal Display and Organic Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel emi-flective display which integrates a reflective liquid crystal display (R-LCD) and an organic light emitting diode (OLED) was demonstrated, whose OLED achieved a gain factor of 8 in contrast ratio (CR) compared with the conventional OLED. Under the high light ambience, the R-LCD is sustained with the CR of 10:1 at the viewing angle between ± 55°; while

Bo-Ru Yang; Kang-Hung Liu; Han-Ping D. Shieh

2007-01-01

225

An integrated test method for high-temperature liquid lubricants: Dynamic test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-ball-on-disk (TBOD) bench test has been developed to evaluate high-temperature liquid lubricants such as the polyphenyl ethers. The TBOD test method is capable of generating an integrated set of tribo-measurements including friction, wear, lubricant consumption, and lubricant tribochemistry. Unlike the four-ball wear test, well-defined wear scars of circular and elliptical shapes are exclusively produced, which is critical for precise wear volume calculation.

Chao, Kenneth K.; Toth, Douglas K.; Saba, Costandy S.

1994-04-01

226

Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electrooptical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of liquid crystal (LC) alignment characteristics on a SiOx thin films of various thicknesses deposited at an oblique angle of 45° by RF magnetic sputtering. A uniform LC alignment characteristic was achieved on the SiOx thin film, and the pretilt angle was about 90°. The thermal stability of the SiOx thin film was sustained until 200

Sung-Ho Choi; Jeoung-Yeon Hwang; Sungyeon Kim; Byeong-Yun Oh; Jae-Min Myoung; Dae-Shik Seo

2006-01-01

227

The Impact of a Vertically Travelling Magnetic Field on the Flow in a Cylindrical Liquid Metal Bubble Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes laboratory experiments for the investigations of flow structures and related transport processes in liquid metal bubbly flows under the influence of a traveling magnetic field (TMF). The melt flow is driven by central gas injection into a cylindrical container filled with the low-melting-point alloy GaInSn. The velocity fields of both the liquid and the gaseous phase were measured nonintrusively using the ultrasound Doppler method. Depending on the traveling direction of the magnetic field, the TMF mainly imposes either a concurrent flow or counterflow with respect to the original bubble-driven circulation. In general, the application of a downward TMF significantly increases the liquid velocity all over the fluid volume. An upward TMF gives rise to the more complex structures of the velocity field resulting in alternately arranged upstream and downstream regions. Both the upward and downward TMF promote the occurrence of nonsteady motions with distinct velocity fluctuations leading to an intensification of related transport processes in the melt and providing the perspective of enhanced mixing efficiencies.

Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

2009-10-01

228

Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.  

PubMed

In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission. PMID:21348530

Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

2011-03-01

229

Comparative study of microbial community structure in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic and nitrified wastewaters.  

PubMed

Microbial processes play a vital important role in the removal of contaminants in constructed wetland (CW). However, the microbial physiology and community structure can be influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, four pilot-scale integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) were employed to treat domestic and nitrified wastewaters. The microbial properties, along with their response to wastewater quality characteristics and seasonal variation, were determined. The results showed higher Shannon-Weiner diversity (H) and evenness (E) index of fatty acids (FAs), and relative abundances of signature FAs in down-flow cells and in the systems fed with domestic wastewater (DW). The relative abundances of fungi and gram-negative and aerobic bacteria were greater in up-flow cells. The dominant anaerobic bacteria found in most cells might be accounted for the prevailing anaerobic environment within the wetland beds, which could mean that the system fed with nitrified wastewater (NW) should perform better in nitrogen removal. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that pollutant concentrations, especially organic matter, influence the FA compositions greatly, and the most significant difference of microbial community structures was detected in down-flow cells fed with DW and up-flow ones with NW. The branched FAs, which could be used to represent anaerobic bacteria, were observed in down-flow cells treating DW and had a significant positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, probably suggesting the important role of anaerobic bacteria in organic matter degradation in the IVCWs. Seasonal variation, however, did not greatly influence the microbial community structure in the IVCWs. PMID:25245259

Chang, Jun-Jun; Wu, Su-Qing; Liang, Kang; Wu, Zhenbin; Liang, Wei

2015-03-01

230

Pretilt Angles of Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) with the Application of Copolymers Possessing Chalconyl and Cholesteryl Moieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed the synthesis of a new copoly (M4Ch-ChMA), copoly ((4-methacryloyloxy) chalcone-cholestery methacrylate), with chalconyl and cholesteryl moiety characteristics for photoalignment materials. Good thermal stabilities of the synthesized copolymers are confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement. The pretilt angles of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) are reduced as UV exposure time is increased on the copolymer surfaces. A pretilt angle of 81° in NLC was observed with UV exposure of 3 min on the copolymer-3 surface. The NLCs pretilt angle is attributed to increased chalcone with increasing the UV exposure time.

Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Seo, Dae-Shik; Son, Jong Ho; Suh, Dong Hack

2000-11-01

231

Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.

Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.

2015-01-01

232

An Integrated Study of Geoelectric Vertical Sounding and Hydrogeochemistry in the Riverside Alluvium around Buyeo Area, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water quality of alluvial aquifers in agricultural areas is sensitive to the behaviour of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and lime) and, also, to the geologic conditions. It is important to know the characteristics of the aquifers (e.g., depth, spatial distribution, and soil types) and the relationship between subsurface geology and the groundwater contamination for its effective use and management in the future. In order to provide the subsurface information of the lithology and the groundwater zone for hydrogeologic interpretations, an integrated study using twenty vertical electric soundings (VES), direct observation of lithology from two boreholes and hydrochemical data from irrigation well has been conducted in the riverside alluvium near Buyeo area, Korea. Main results of this study are as follows. The depth of main groundwater table is getting slightly deeper toward the river. The boundary between surface sandy and silty soils extends to the subsurface at depth of groundwater table. The vestige of an ancient river channel, such as an oxbow lake, can be identified by a lateral continuation of perched aquifer parallel to the river on the resistivity profiles. This perched aquifer materials are composed of clay-rich silt soils, which prohibit the infiltration of oxygen and nitrate from the land surface. Therefore, the groundwater of the main aquifer below the oxbow lake shows the very low NO3 level and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. Surface resistivity contour map indicates that the resistivity varies with a NW-SE trending zonal distribution and increases toward the river. This result shows an agreement with the spatial distribution of surface soils, implying that the variation of surface resistivity is mainly controlled by surface lithology or soil type. On the other hand, the distribution of water resistivities is correlated with that of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, while the earth resistivity of aquifer shows a different spatial distribution from those of water resistivity and TDS. It is interpreted that the earth resistivity of aquifer might represent the variations of soil type rather than water chemistry in the study area. The present study shows that the geoelectric sounding survey with the complement of borehole lithology and hydrochemical data can provide an inexpensive and useful method for delineating the subsurface hydrogeology in the riverside alluvial aquifer.

Doh, S.; Park, Y.; Yun, S.

2005-12-01

233

Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

1993-01-01

234

Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water from path-integral simulations using anab initioforce-matching approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have applied path integral simulations, in combination with new ab initio based water potentials, to investigate nuclear quantum effects in liquid water. Because direct ab initio path integral simulations are computationally expensive, a flexible water model is parameterized by force-matching to density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting effective potentials provide an inexpensive replacement for direct ab inito molecular dynamics simulations and allow efficient simulation of nuclear quantum effects. Static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions are presented and the role of nuclear quantum effects, exchange-correlation functionals and dispersion corrections are discussed in regards to reproducing the experimental properties of liquid water.

Spura, Thomas; John, Christopher; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

2015-04-01

235

Kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen: a path integral Monte Carlo simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The translational (center of mass) kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen have been recently measured by means of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. We have evaluated the same quantity, in similar thermodynamic conditions, by means of Path Integral Monte Carlo computer simulation, modelling the system as composed of a set of spherical molecules interacting through a pairwise additive Lennard-Jones potential. In spite of the crude approximations on the interaction potential, the agreement is excellent. The pressure was also computed by means of the same simulations. This quantity, compared with the equation of state for solid para-hydrogen given by Driessen and Silvera, gives an agreement of a lesser quality and a negative value for the liquid state. We attribute this discrepancy to the limitations of the Lennard-Jones potential.

Zoppi, Marco; Neumann, Martin

1992-06-01

236

Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

2011-01-01

237

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01

238

Enrichment of Integral Membrane Proteins for Proteomic Analysis Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Currently, most proteomic studies rely on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect and identify constituent peptides of enzymatically digested proteins obtained from various organisms and cell types. However, sample preparation methods for isolating membrane proteins typically involve the use of detergents, chaotropes, or reducing reagents that often interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI). To increase the identification of integral membrane proteins by LC-ESI-MS/MS, a sample preparation method combining carbonate extraction and surfactant-free organics solvent-assisted solubilization and proteolysis was developed and used to target the membrane subproteome of Deinococcus radiodurans. Out of 503 proteins identified, 135 were recognized as hydrophobic based on their positive grand average of hydropathicity values that covers 15% of the theoretical hydrophobic proteome. Using the PSORT algorithm, 268 identified proteins were recognized as integral membrane proteins covering 21% and 43% of the predicted integral cytoplasmic and outer membrane proteins, respectively. Of the integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins containing four or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs), 65% were identified by detecting at least one peptide spanning a TMD using LC-MS/MS. The extensive identification of highly hydrophobic proteins containing multiple TMDs confirms the efficacy of the described sample preparation protocol to isolate and solubilize integral membrane proteins and validates the method for large-scale analysis of bacterial membrane subproteomes using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

Blonder, Josip; Goshe, Michael B.; Moore, Ronald J.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Masselon, Christophe D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

2002-04-01

239

Reconfigurable RF MEMS Phased Array Antenna Integrated Within a Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) System-on-Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, a fully integrated phased array antenna with radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switches on a flexible, organic substrate is demonstrated above 10 GHz. A low noise amplifier (LNA), MEMS phase shifter, and 2 times 2 patch antenna array are integrated into a system-on-package (SOP) on a liquid crystal polymer substrate. Two antenna arrays are compared;

Nickolas Kingsley; George E. Ponchak; John Papapolymerou

2008-01-01

240

Slot array antennas fed by integrated wave guide on liquid crystal polymer for V-band wireless LAN application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the two slot array antennas fed by integrated waveguide are proposed and designed on liquid crystal polymer to reduce the transmission loss of the feeding line and enable an easy integration. For 60 GHz wireless LAN applications, a high antenna gain is required to overcome the propagation loss. Also, we investigated fan beam antenna topology to maximize

Il Kwon Kim; Ki Seok Yang; Stephane Pinel; Joy Laskar

2006-01-01

241

Liquid Aspiration and Dispensing Based on an Expanding PDMS Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the development of active liquid aspiration and dispensing units designed for vertical, as well as lateral, liquid aspiration. The devices are based on a single-use thermally expanding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite, which allows altering its surface topography by means of individually addressable integrated heaters. Devices are designed in order to create an enclosed cavity in the

Björn Samel; Niklas Sandström; Patrick Griss; Göran Stemme

2008-01-01

242

An integrated control panel utilizing a programmable varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the conflicting demands of modern aircraft for increased systems/sensors and the decrease in cockpit panel size, weight, volume, and power, conventional discrete/dedicated methods of display and control are fast becoming obsolete. A means is sought to integrate the control and display into multifunctional programmable devices, thus giving the ability to increase system functions and yet conserve panel space. A potential solution to the control portion of the problem has come to be known as the Integrated Control Panel (ICP) approach. Flat panel display technology and controls using programmable flat panel displays with transparent capacitive touch control overlays offer the largest potential advantages. The flat panel display made of varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal (LCD) developed by GE in recent years appears to offer the ideal monochrome solution.

Whitton, I. J.

1981-01-01

243

Vertical stream curricula integration of problem-based learning using an autonomous vacuum robot in a mechatronics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in teaching a multi-disciplinary subject such as the mechatronics system design module in Departments of Mechatronics Engineering at Temasek Polytechnic arise from the gap in experience and skill among staff and students who have different backgrounds in mechanical, computer and electrical engineering within the Mechatronics Department. The departments piloted a new vertical stream curricula model (VSCAM) to enhance student

Cheng Chin; Keng Yue

2011-01-01

244

Toward a more comprehensive theory of zooplankton diel vertical migration: Integrating ultraviolet radiation and water transparency into the biotic paradigm  

E-print Network

in the surface waters, visual predators are abundant, and UV radiation levels are low. In contrast, in more transparent systems, vertical thermal gradients tend to be more gradual, food quality and quantity are higher implications for water quality and fisheries production as well as biogeochemical cycling. Natural

Williamson, Craig E.

245

IL-GLOBO (1.0) - integrated Lagrangian particle model and Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO: development of the vertical diffusion module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and validation of the vertical diffusion module of IL-GLOBO, a Lagrangian transport model coupled online with the Eulerian general circulation model GLOBO, is described. The module simulates the effects of turbulence on particle motion by means of a Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM) consistently with the turbulent diffusion equation used in GLOBO. The implemented LSM integrates particle trajectories, using the native ?-hybrid coordinates of the Eulerian component, and fulfils the well-mixed condition (WMC) in the general case of a variable density profile. The module is validated through a series of 1-D offline numerical experiments by assessing its accuracy in maintaining an initially well-mixed distribution in the vertical. A dynamical time-step selection algorithm with constraints related to the shape of the diffusion coefficient profile is developed and discussed. Finally, the skills of a linear interpolation and a modified Akima spline interpolation method are compared, showing that both satisfy the WMC with significant differences in computational time. A preliminary run of the fully integrated 3-D model confirms the result only for the Akima interpolation scheme while the linear interpolation does not satisfy the WMC with a reasonable choice of the minimum integration time step.

Rossi, D.; Maurizi, A.

2014-09-01

246

Integrative responses of neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius to visceral afferent stimulation and vestibular stimulation in vertical planes  

PubMed Central

Anatomical studies have demonstrated that the vestibular nuclei project to nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), but little is known about the effects of vestibular inputs on NTS neuronal activity. Furthermore, lesions of NTS abolish vomiting elicited by a variety of different triggering mechanisms, including vestibular stimulation, suggesting that emetic inputs may converge on the same NTS neurons. As such, an emetic stimulus that activates gastrointestinal (GI) receptors could alter the responses of NTS neurons to vestibular inputs. In the present study, we examined in decerebrate cats the responses of NTS neurons to rotations of the body in vertical planes before and after the intragastric administration of the emetic compound copper sulfate. The activity of more than one-third of NTS neurons was modulated by vertical vestibular stimulation, with most of the responsive cells having their firing rate altered by rotations in the head-up or head-down directions. These responses were aligned with head position in space, as opposed to the velocity of head movements. The activity of NTS neurons with baroreceptor, pulmonary, and GI inputs could be modulated by vertical plane rotations. However, injection of copper sulfate into the stomach did not alter the responses to vestibular stimulation of NTS neurons that received GI inputs, suggesting that the stimuli did not have additive effects. These findings show that the detection and processing of visceral inputs by NTS neurons can be altered in accordance with the direction of ongoing movements. PMID:21832211

Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; DeStefino, Vincent J.

2011-01-01

247

Electronic and atomic structure of liquid potassium via path integral molecular dynamics with non-local quantum exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a novel first-principle molecular dynamics method based on the discretized path integral formalism of quantum mechanics. This method which includes quantum exchange is used to simulate the behavior of liquid potassium at high temperature. We compute the energy as well as the electronic and atomic structural properties of the liquid metal. These results compare favorably with previous calculations and experimental results.

Deymier, P. A.; Jabbour, G. E.; Weinberg, J. D.; Cherne, F. J.

1996-03-01

248

Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

1988-01-01

249

Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

2014-10-01

250

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char  

SciTech Connect

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-01-01

251

Study of Thermodynamic Vent and Screen Baffle Integration for Orbital Storage and Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to determine the feasibility of integrating an internal thermodynamic vent system and a full wall-screen liner for the orbital storage and transfer of liquid hydrogen (LH2). Ten screens were selected from a comprehensive screen survey. The experimental study determined the screen bubble point, flow-through pressure loss, and pressure loss along rectangular channels lined with screen on one side, for the 10 screens using LH2 saturated at 34.5 N/cm2 (50 psia). The correlated experimental data were used in an analysis to determine the optimum system characteristics in terms of minimum weight for 6 tanks ranging from 141.6 m3 (5,000 ft3) to 1.416 m3 (50 ft3) for orbital storage times of 30 and 300 days.

Cady, E. C.

1973-01-01

252

Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

2014-10-24

253

Hybrid two-chain simulation and integral equation theory : application to polyethylene liquids.  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a hybrid simulation and integral equation approach to the calculation of polymer melt properties. The simulation consists of explicit Monte Carlo (MC) sampling of two polymer molecules, where the effect of the surrounding chains is accounted for by an HNC solvation potential. The solvation potential is determined from the Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) as a functional of the pair correlation function from simulation. This hybrid two-chain MC-PRISM approach was carried out on liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 CH{sub 2} units. The results are compared with MD simulation and self-consistent PRISM-PY theory under the same conditions, revealing that the two-chain calculation is close to MD, and able to overcome the defects of the PRISM-PY closure and predict more accurate structures of the liquid at both short and long range. The direct correlation function, for instance, has a tail at longer range which is consistent with MD simulation and avoids the short-range assumptions in PRISM-PY theory. As a result, the self-consistent two-chain MC-PRISM calculation predicts an isothermal compressibility closer to the MD results.

Huimin Li, David T. Wu (Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO.); Curro, John G.; McCoy, John Dwane (New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology Socorro, NM.)

2006-02-01

254

Maximized liquid radwaste volume reduction through a total integrated process: A new technology success story  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental nuclear industry goal is the minimization of the generation of radioactive waste. This goal has been dramatically reinforced over the past few years due to the spiraling increased costs of both commercial and DOE disposal. To assist in meeting these goals and reducing the industry`s costs, NUKEM initiated a new technology program to maximize the reduction of liquid radwaste through the use of a systematic approach or TIPS (Total Integrated Process System). This concept evaluates the total life cycle of various technologies in a combination that results in the final waste form being minimized to the pure solids content of the waste stream. Additionally, it allows for a final waste form that maximizes the utilization of the waste package and is conditioned to be readily acceptable to additional processing to meet new waste form requirements at future disposal sites, should interim storage of the waste be required. The TIPS, although first introduced at commercial facilities, has broad applications for DOE`s liquid waste streams.

Rae, G.A. [NUKEM Nuclear Technologies, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-12-31

255

A vertical microfluidic probe.  

PubMed

Performing localized chemical events on surfaces is critical for numerous applications. We earlier invented the microfluidic probe (MFP), which circumvented the need to process samples in closed microchannels by hydrodynamically confining liquids that performed chemistries on surfaces (Juncker et al. Nat. Mater. 2005, 4, 622-628). Here we present a new and versatile probe, the vertical MFP (vMFP), which operates in the scanning mode while overcoming earlier challenges that limited the practical implementation of the MFP technology. The key component of the vMFP is the head, a microfluidic device (?1 cm(2) in area) consisting of glass and Si and having microfluidic features fabricated in-plane in the Si layer. The base configuration of the head has two micrometer-size channels that inject/aspirate liquids and terminate at the apex which is ?1 mm(2). In scanning mode, the head is oriented vertically with the apex parallel to the surface with typical spacing of 1-30 ?m. Such length scales and using flow rates from nanoliters/second to microliters/second allow chemical events to be performed on surfaces with tens of picoliter quantities of reagents. Before scanning, the head is clipped on a holder for leak-free, low dead volume interface assembly, providing a simple world-to-chip interface. Surfaces are scanned by mounting the holder on a computer-controlled stage having ?0.1 ?m resolution in positioning. We present detailed steps to fabricate vMFP heads having channels with dimensions from 1 ?m × 1 ?m to 50 ?m × 50 ?m for liquid localization over areas of 10-10,000 ?m(2). Additionally, advanced design strategies are described to achieve high yield in fabrication and to support a broad range of applications. These include particulate filters, redundant aperture architectures, inclined flow-paths that service apertures, and multiple channels to enable symmetric flow confinement. We also present a method to characterize flow confinement and estimate the distance between the head and the surface by monitoring the evolution of a solution of fluorescently labeled antibody on an activated glass surface. This flow characterization reveals regimes of operation suitable for different surface topographies. We further integrate the dispensing of immersion liquid to the vMFP head for processing surfaces for extended periods of time (?60 min). The versatility of the vMFP is exemplified by patterning fluorescently labeled proteins, inactivation of cells using sodium hypochlorite, and staining living NIH fibroblasts with Cellomics. These applications are enabled by the compact design of the head, which provides easy access to the surface, simplifies alignment, and enables processing surfaces having dimensions from the micrometer to the centimeter scale and with large topographical variations. We therefore believe that ease-of-operation, reconfigurability, and conservative use of chemicals by the vMFP will lead to its widespread use by microtechnologists and the chemical and biomedical communities. PMID:21476506

Kaigala, G V; Lovchik, R D; Drechsler, U; Delamarche, E

2011-05-01

256

Integrative responses of neurons in parabrachial nuclei to a nauseogenic gastrointestinal stimulus and vestibular stimulation in vertical planes  

PubMed Central

The parabrachial and adjacent Kölliker-Fuse (PBN/KF) nuclei play a key role in relaying visceral afferent inputs to the hypothalamus and limbic system and are, thus, believed to participate in generating nausea and affective responses elicited by gastrointestinal (GI) signals. In addition, the PBN/KF region receives inputs from the vestibular system and likely mediates the malaise associated with motion sickness. However, previous studies have not considered whether GI and vestibular inputs converge on the same PBN/KF neurons, and if so, whether the GI signals alter the responses of the cells to body motion. The present study, conducted in decerebrate cats, tested the hypothesis that intragastric injection of copper sulfate, which elicits emesis by irritating the stomach lining, modifies the sensitivity of PBN/KF neurons to vertical plane rotations that activate vestibular receptors. Intragastric copper sulfate produced a 70% median change in the gain of responses to vertical plane rotations of PBN/KF units, whose firing rate was modified by the administration of the compound; the response gains for 16 units increased and those for 17 units decreased. The effects were often dramatic: out of 51 neurons tested, 13 responded to the rotations only after copper sulfate was injected, whereas 10 others responded only before drug delivery. These data show that a subset of PBN/KF neurons, whose activity is altered by a nauseogenic stimulus also respond to body motion and that irritation of the stomach lining can either cause an amplification or reduction in the sensitivity of the units to vestibular inputs. The findings imply that nausea and affective responses to vestibular stimuli may be modified by the presence of emetic signals from the GI system. PMID:22277934

Suzuki, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro

2012-01-01

257

Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of a Rigid Rotating Shaft Supported by the Magnetic Bearing (Influence of the Integral Feedback in the PID Control of the Vertical Shaft)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active magnetic bearing (AMB) becomes to be widely used in various kinds of rotating machinery. However, as the magnetic force is nonlinear, nonlinear phenomena may occur when the rotational speed becomes higher and the delay of control force relatively increases. In this paper, the magnetic force is modeled by considering both the second order delay of the electric current and the first order delay of the magnetic flux. The AMB force is represented by a power series function of the electric current and shaft displacement. The nonlinear theoretical analysis of the vertical rigid rotor supported by the AMB with the PID control theory is demonstrated. The effects of the gain of the integral feedback on the nonlinear phenomena are clarified theoretically and experimentally.

Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko

258

Integration of pre-aligned liquid metal electrodes for neural stimulation within a user-friendly microfluidic platform  

PubMed Central

Electrical stimulation of nervous tissue is used clinically for the treatment of multiple neurological disorders and experimentally for basic research. With the increase of optical probes to record neuronal activity, simple and user-friendly methods are desired to stimulate neurons and their subcellular compartments for biological experimentation. Here we describe the novel integration of liquid metal electrodes with microfluidic culture platforms to accomplish this goal. We integrated electrode and cell channels into a single poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip, eliminating entirely the need to align electrodes with microchannels. We designed the electrode channels such that the metal can be injected by hand and when the device is non-covalently bound to glass. We demonstrated the biocompatibility of the electrodes for long-term cultures (12 days) using hippocampal neurons. We demonstrated the use of these electrodes to depolarize neurons and recorded neuronal activity using the calcium indicator dye, Fluo-4. We established optimal stimulation parameters that induce neuronal spiking without inducing damage. We showed that the liquid metal electrode evoked larger calcium responses in somata than bath electrodes using the same stimulus parameters. Lastly we demonstrated the use of these liquid metal electrodes to target and depolarize axons. In summary, the integration of liquid metal electrodes with neuronal culture platforms provides a user-friendly and targeted method to stimulate neurons and their subcellular compartments, thus providing a novel tool for future biological investigations. PMID:23232866

Hallfors, Nicholas; Khan, Asif; Dickey, Michael D.; Taylor, Anne Marion

2015-01-01

259

Integrated Bragg reflectors in low-index media: enabling strategies for wavelength tunability in electro-optic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports two configurations of Bragg reflectors based on liquid crystals confined between two small glass plates. Both approaches employ the efficient electro-optic effect in liquid crystals, which allows tunability of the reflectors by using low voltages. The molecular reorientation induced by an applied electric field implies a refractive index modulation seen by polarized light propagating into the liquid crystal. We show design criteria and profile optimization of the electrodes to induce a liquid crystal refractive index periodic modulation, providing a wavelength selective propagation of confined light in the liquid crystal. The two proposed device configurations differ for the top-bottom electrode configuration in one case and coplanar electrodes in the other case. Modeling of both configurations has been carried by calculating the applied electric field distribution and its interaction with the liquid crystal elastic properties taking into account the boundary conditions due to the alignment layer on the inner faces of the glass substrates. The calculated performance in terms of high wavelength selectivity and ultrawide spectral tuning range indicate that the two designed structures can be proposed for both optical filtering and to produce novel low power integrated distributed feedback resonators in dense wavelength division multiplexed fiber optic systems.

Asquini, Rita; Gilardi, Giovanni; D'Alessandro, Antonio; Assanto, Gaetano

2011-07-01

260

Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

2010-03-01

261

Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

2002-01-01

262

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07

263

Integral Circulation Experiment: Thermal-hydraulic simulator of a heavy liquid metal reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the IP-EUROTRANS (6th Framework Program EU), domain DEMETRA, ENEA was involved in the Work Package 4.5 " Large Scale Integral Test", devoted to characterize a relevant portion of a sub-critical ADS reactor block (core, internals, heat exchanger, cladding for fuel elements) in steady state, transient and accidental conditions. More in details ENEA assumed the commitment to perform an integral experiment aiming to reproduce the primary flow path of the " European Transmutation Demonstrator (ETD)" pool-type nuclear reactor, cooled by Lead Bismuth Eutectics (LBE). This experimental activity, called " Integral Circulation Experiment (ICE)", has been implemented merging the efforts of several research institutes, among which, besides ENEA, FZK, CRS4 and University of Pisa, allowing to design an appropriate test section to be installed in the CIRCE facility. The goal of the experiments is therefore to demonstrate the technological feasibility of a heavy liquid metal (HLM) nuclear system pool-type in a relevant scale (1 MW), investigating the related thermal-hydraulic behaviour (heat source and heat exchanger coupling, primary system and downcomer coupling, gas trapping into the main stream, thermal stratification in the pool, forced and mixed convection in rod bundle) under both steady state and transient conditions. Moreover the preliminary as well as the planned experiments aims to address performance and reliability tests of some prototypical components, such as heat source, heat exchanger, chemistry control system. The paper reports a detailed description of the experiment, the design performed for the test section and its main components as well as the preliminary experimental results carried out in the first experimental campaign run on the CIRCE pool, which consists of a full power steady state test. The preliminary experimental results carried out have demonstrate the proper design of the test section trough the experiment goals as well as the HLM primary system technological viability. Moreover the results depicted into the paper are the first experimental data made available, especially for what concern the HLM pool thermal-hydraulic in a large scale system.

Tarantino, M.; Agostini, P.; Benamati, G.; Coccoluto, G.; Gaggini, P.; Labanti, V.; Venturi, G.; Class, A.; Liftin, K.; Forgione, N.; Moreau, V.

2011-08-01

264

THE VERTICAL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

1994-01-01

265

Investigation of the liquid/vapor composition of compressed liquid CO2 with N2 and O2 in integrated pollutant removal systems for coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Accurate prediction of the processes in Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) using compression and condensation of coal combustion products requires an understanding of the liquid/vapor ternary CO2/O2/N2 system. At conditions close to the critical point of CO2 the existing equations of state deviate from the sparse measured results available in the literature. Building on existing data and procedures, the USDOE/Albany Research Center has designed an apparatus for examining compositions in this region. The design of the apparatus and planned initial experiments are presented.

Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Penner, Larry R.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

266

Functions and Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

2011-01-17

267

Vertical Mergers and Market Foreclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model in this paper illustrates three effects of vertical mergers when both stages are oligopolistic and vertically integrated and unintegrated producers coexist. First, the merging firm increases its final good output. Second, the resulting backward shift in the residual demand curve facing unintegrated final good producers lowers their demand for the intermediate good. Third, the merged firm withdraws from

Michael A Salinger

1988-01-01

268

Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique may also be extended to other laser-based analyzers including methane and carbon dioxide isotope sensors.

Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-04-15

269

Epitaxial growth of a nanoscale, vertically faceted, one-dimensional, high-aspect ratio grating in III-V materials for integrated photonics  

E-print Network

Epitaxial growth of a nanoscale, vertically faceted, one-dimensional, high-aspect ratio grating-dimensional 1D grating with vertical facets is reported. For a pattern direction along 110 , the kinetics of faceting in selective molecular-beam epitaxy MBE induce 11¯0 -type facets vertical to a GaAs 001 substrate

New Mexico, University of

270

Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

2013-01-01

271

Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control  

DOEpatents

A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA)

2012-04-24

272

Development of Liquid Crystal Display Panel Integrated with Drivers Using Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-Oxide Thin Film Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed, prototyped, and evaluated a liquid crystal panel integrated with a gate driver and a source driver using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). Using bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) thin film transistors, superior characteristics could be obtained. We obtained TFT characteristics with little variation even when the thickness of the gate insulator (GI) film was reduced owing to etching of

Takeshi Osada; Kengo Akimoto; Takehisa Sato; Masataka Ikeda; Masashi Tsubuku; Junichiro Sakata; Jun Koyama; Tadashi Serikawa; Shunpei Yamazaki

2010-01-01

273

Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

2007-03-20

274

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor

John S. Hsu; Curtis W. Ayers; Chester Coomer; Laura D. Marlino

2006-01-01

275

Improvement of the treatment of salted liquid waste by integrated electrodialysis upstream biological treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as the reduction of the environmental impact of production processes is concerned, the management of liquid wastes of high salinity remains a key point. In this paper, the possibility to use electrodialysis for the improvement of the management of such problematic liquid wastes is investigated. The ED experiments are carried out to investigate the influence of the operating

Elodie Singlande; Hélène Roux-de Balmann; Xavier Lefevbre; Mathieu Sperandio

2006-01-01

276

22 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 4, 2005 Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP): A New Organic  

E-print Network

22 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 4, 2005 Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP): A New arrays is presented for the first time on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) multilayer technology. Some of the properties of LCP, such as multilayer (three-dimen- sional) vertical integration capability, good electrical

Tentzeris, Manos

277

Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a variety of factors that influence the determination of precipitable water vapor (V) and integrated cloud liquid (L) by dual-channel microwave radiometers (MWRs). These factors include radiometric calibration; dry, water vapor, and liquid absorption coefficients; and physical versus statistical retrieval methods. We then applied the analysis to the MWR that was operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

Ed R. Westwater; Yong Han; Matthew D. Shupe; Sergey Y. Matrosov

2001-01-01

278

Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration.  

PubMed

We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 ?m long VDJ phase shifter shows a V?L? of ?0.6??V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of ?50??GHz at -2??V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50??Gb/s operation under 2.5??Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88??dB/100???m, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration. PMID:24978980

Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Sanggi

2014-04-15

279

Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850?nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55?dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 ?m long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

Dalir, Hamed, E-mail: dalir.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Koyama, Fumio [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

2014-08-25

280

Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others. PMID:25901854

Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

2015-06-01

281

Design of Novel Highly Integrated Passive Devices for Digital Broadcasting Satellite \\/ 802.11 Home Networking Solution in Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Based Organic Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high performance integrated passive devices (IPD) allows an optimum solution in the tradeoff between integration and flexibility for design modification. The paper presents the integration of sub-circuits into IPD's for WLAN and distributed broadcasting satellite (DBS) applications on liquid polymer crystal (LCP)-based organic substrate technology. An integrated diplexer-coupler-harmonic filter for dual-band WLAN applications and a diplexer-balun chipset

V. Govind; P. Monajemi; L. Carastro; S. Lapushin; C. Russell; S. Dalmia; J. Vickers; V. Sundaram; G. White

2006-01-01

282

Synergistic benefits of ionic liquid and alkaline pretreatments of poplar wood. Part 1: effect of integrated pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate hemicelluloses and lignin from poplar wood by ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment coupled with mild alkaline extraction. Hemicellulosic and lignin fractions were obtained in high yields, amounting to 59.3% and 74.4%, respectively, which can served as raw materials for production of value-added products. The yield of glucose for the integrated pretreated poplar wood was 99.2%, while it was just 19.2% for the untreated material. The synergistic benefits of the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses, the increase of the cellulose surface area, and the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase resulted in the high glucose yield for the integrated pretreated substrate. Therefore, the IL based biorefining strategy proposed can integrate biofuels production into a biorefinery scheme in which the major components of poplar wood can be converted into value-added products. PMID:23287725

Yuan, Tong-Qi; Wang, Wei; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2013-09-01

283

Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber.  

PubMed

A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further. PMID:23988927

Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

2013-09-01

284

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-print Network

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

285

Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on double teeth-shaped structure at telecom wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of a double teeth-shaped plasmonic optical switch are analyzed. Based on the metal–insulator–metal waveguide consisting of double rectangular teeth, a nanoscale liquid crystal optical switch is proposed and numerically simulated by using the finite difference time domain method with a perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition. It is found that the double teeth-shaped structure filled with liquid crystal

Jia Hu Zhu; Xu Guang Huang; Jin Tao; Xiao Ping Jin; Xian Mei; Yun Jin Zhu

2011-01-01

286

Vertical Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the continued growth of the human population of the Earth, there is increasing concern with the planet's ability to provide sustenance for all of its inhabitants. This compelling website by Dickson Despommier and his colleagues at Columbia University provides a worthy alternative to other forms of agriculture: the vertical farm. As Dr. Despommier notes on the site, "..they offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (year-round crop production), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming." The site offers a great deal of information about these vertical farms, a detailed essay on the importance of such farms, a number of potential designs, and a discussion forum. Finally, there are a number of plans that indicate how this type of farm might be effectively created and sustained.

287

Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

2005-01-01

288

Photo-Generation of Linearly Polymerized Liquid Crystal Aligning Layers Comprising Novel, Integrated Optically Patterned Retarders and Color Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time photo cross-linking of linearly polymerizable polymers (LPPs) is shown to induce uniaxial planar alignment in adjacent liquid crystal polymer (LCP)-layers on single substrates. Ways and novel materials allowing integration of LPP-aligning layers with optical retarders in patterned, hybrid LPP-LCP-configurations with freely adjustable optical axes are presented. The novel multifunctional, anisotropic photopolymer configurations are shown to render in-situ optical retarders and polarization interference filters for black-white and color liquid crystal displays (LCDs) feasible. The molecular mechanisms inducing the anisotropic film properties and their thermal and optical stabilities are outlined. The photo-patternable, high resolution hybrid configurations are shown to exhibit excellent thermal and light stability.

Schadt, Martin; Seiberle, Hubert; Schuster, Andreas; Kelly, Stephen

1995-06-01

289

Social Justice Vertical Integration Group  

E-print Network

Haven (homelessness and food insecurity) · Headrest (suicide prevention and substance abuse hotline, Jack Lyons, James O'Connell (HMS, Boston's Healthcare for the Homeless), Tommy Clark (Grassroot Soccer · Dimmock Clinic -Boston · Boston Healthcare for Homeless · Lawrence Fam Practice · Codman Square and other

Myers, Lawrence C.

290

Equilibrium structures in vertical oligopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central purpose of this paper is to examine vertical integration as an equilibrium phenomenon. We model it as integration between Cournot oligopolists in both the upstream and the downstream stages. We consider the issue of private profitability versus collective profitability and show that under several situations the equilibrium outcomes may result in a Prisoner's dilemma. The analysis is extended

Masahiro Abiru; Babu Nahata; Subhashis Raychaudhuri; Michael Waterson

1998-01-01

291

Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a pre-polymer/LC solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG are discussed. Experimental data here presented, demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, while further discussed.

Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

2013-09-01

292

Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber  

E-print Network

A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a pre-polymer/LC solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG are discussed. Experimental data here presented, demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, while further discussed.

Zito, Gianluigi

2013-01-01

293

Panel-size component integration (PCI) with molded liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future product development in microelectronics requires low-cost, high-speed, high-reliability, good manufacturability, and environmental compatibility. Recently developed DCA techniques, such as flip-chip and CSP on high-density microvia substrates, are believed to be able to satisfy such needs. Further integration of passive devices has been realized recently in the Single Level Integrated Module (SLIM). The integration of active devices into a planar

J. Kivilahti; J. Liu; J. E. Morris; T. Suga; C. P. Wong

2002-01-01

294

In vivo silicon-based flexible radio frequency integrated circuits monolithically encapsulated with biocompatible liquid crystal polymers.  

PubMed

Biointegrated electronics have been investigated for various healthcare applications which can introduce biomedical systems into the human body. Silicon-based semiconductors perform significant roles of nerve stimulation, signal analysis, and wireless communication in implantable electronics. However, the current large-scale integration (LSI) chips have limitations in in vivo devices due to their rigid and bulky properties. This paper describes in vivo ultrathin silicon-based liquid crystal polymer (LCP) monolithically encapsulated flexible radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) for medical wireless communication. The mechanical stability of the LCP encapsulation is supported by finite element analysis simulation. In vivo electrical reliability and bioaffinity of the LCP monoencapsulated RFIC devices are confirmed in rats. In vitro accelerated soak tests are performed with Arrhenius method to estimate the lifetime of LCP monoencapsulated RFICs in a live body. The work could provide an approach to flexible LSI in biointegrated electronics such as an artificial retina and wireless body sensor networks. PMID:23617401

Hwang, Geon-Tae; Im, Donggu; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jooseok; Koo, Min; Park, So Young; Kim, Seungjun; Yang, Kyounghoon; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Kwyro; Lee, Keon Jae

2013-05-28

295

RF Characteristics of Thin Film Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Packages for RF MEMS and MMIC Integration  

E-print Network

RF Characteristics of Thin Film Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Packages for RF MEMS and MMIC (LCP) 4 mil thick microwave substrate with depth- controlled laser-micromachined cavities show that LCP's low dielectric constant enables cavity dimensions to be arbitrarily chosen without

Tentzeris, Manos

296

Liquid crystal polymer-based integrated passive development for RF applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based multilayer packaging process is presented for RF\\/microwave applications. LCP is gaining increasing interest as a choice technology in the packaging community due to its superior thermal and electrical properties including low loss, low dielectric constant and low CTE characteristics. For the first time, we present a thorough study of the design, model, and measurement

M. F. Davis; S.-W. Yoon; S. Pinel; K. Lim; J. Laskar

2003-01-01

297

Tunable liquid-filled lens integrated with aspherical surface for spherical aberration compensation.  

PubMed

A novel liquid-filled lens design is presented. During fabrication, high precision single point diamond turning (SPDT) is introduced into standard soft lithography process to fabricate an aspherical surface constituting one end of lens. This enables the spherical aberration associated with the operation of the conventional liquid-filled lenses to be compensated for. Through flexibly optimizing this surface contour, it can be designed to work within particular working regions with improved optical quality. At the same time, the deformable elastic membrane is still adopted at the other end of the lens, thus preserving the high focal length tunability. This proof of concept and the performance of the proposed lens have been demonstrated using the lateral shearing interferometry experiment.. PMID:20588848

Yu, Hongbin; Zhou, Guangya; Leung, Hui Min; Chau, Fook Siong

2010-05-10

298

Integrity of liquid transmission lines taking into account the fluid-structure interaction  

SciTech Connect

Two mechanical models have been presented in this paper for structural failure prediction of piping systems conveying liquids subjected to hydraulic transients. One model takes into account the axial fluid-structure interaction (fsi) phenomenon between fluid and pipe motion, whereas the other refers to an extension of the well-known waterhammer formulation. Numerical predictions of both models are presented and compared, so that the influence of the fsi term on the failure analysis is focused on.

Freitas Rachid, F.B.; Costa Mattos, H.S. [Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-01

299

Dressed vertices  

E-print Network

The response of a correlated nuclear system to an external field is discussed. The Bethe-Salpeter equation for the dressed vertex is solved. The kernel of the integral equation for the vertex is chosen consistently with the approximation for the self-energy. This guarantees the fulfillment of the f-sum rule for the response function.

P. Bozek

2003-09-11

300

Volatile liquid storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid

R. J. Laverman; P. J. Winters; J. K. Rinehart

1992-01-01

301

Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, liquid-core waveguides, and silica waveguides on silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication of embedded microchannels monolithically integrated with optical waveguides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of doped silica glass is reported. Both waveguide ridges and template ridges for microchannel formation are patterned in a single photolithography step. The microchannels are formed within an overlay of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG), which also serves as the top cladding layer of the silica waveguides.

Patrick Dumais; Claire L. Callender; Christopher J. Ledderhof; Julian P. Noad

2006-01-01

302

Integration of pillar array columns into a gradient elution system for pressure-driven liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A gradient elution system for pressure-driven liquid chromatography (LC) on a chip was developed for carrying out faster and more efficient chemical analyses. Through computational fluid dynamics simulations and an experimental study, we found that the use of a cross-Tesla structure with a 3 mm mixing length was effective for mixing two liquids. A gradient elution system using a cross-Tesla mixer was fabricated on a 20 mm × 20 mm silicon chip with a separation channel of pillar array columns and a sample injection channel. A mixed solution of water and fluorescein in methanol was delivered to the separation channel 7 s after the gradient program had been started. Then, the fluorescence intensity increased gradually with the increasing ratio of fluorescein, which showed that the gradient elution worked well. Under the gradient elution condition, the retention times of two coumarin dyes decreased with the gradient time. When the gradient time was 30 s, the analysis could be completed in 30 s, which was only half the time required compared to that required for an isocratic elution. Fluorescent derivatives of aliphatic amines were successfully separated within 110 s. The results show that the proposed system is promising for the analyses of complex biological samples. PMID:22540342

Song, Yanting; Noguchi, Masao; Takatsuki, Katsuya; Sekiguchi, Tetsushi; Mizuno, Jun; Funatsu, Takashi; Shoji, Shuichi; Tsunoda, Makoto

2012-06-01

303

Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (p<0.05). In addition, acrosomal membrane damage was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (p<0.05). And mitochondrial membrane damage with all sperm was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that highly magnetized semen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen. PMID:25592860

Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

2015-03-01

304

X-33 Liquid Hydrogen Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The liquid hydrogen tank is a multi-lobe graphite/epoxy tank with integrally bonded, woven composite joints. The tanks are broken down into three major subgroups: aft dome/bulkhead, mid barrel section, and the forward dome/bulkhead. The vehicle uses two tanks (a left and right hand tank) as the "aft fuselage" of the vehicle, to react all body bending loads, landing gear loads, canted and vertical fin loads and air loads, as well as being used as the cryogenic fuel cells.

Adams, Andrew J.; Buck, P.; Franklin, W.; Yu, T.

1999-01-01

305

3-D-integrated RF and millimeter-wave functions and modules using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) system-on-package technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics packaging evolution involves system, technology, and material considerations. In this paper, we present a novel three-dimensional (3-D) integration approach for system-on-package (SOP)-based solutions for wireless communication applications. This concept is proposed for the 3-D integration of RF and millimeter (mm) wave embedded functions in front-end modules by means of stacking substrates using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) multilayer and ?BGA

Manos M. Tentzeris; Joy Laskar; John Papapolymerou; Stéphane Pinel; V. Palazzari; R. Li; G. DeJean; N. Papageorgiou; D. Thompson; R. Bairavasubramanian; S. Sarkar; J.-H. Lee

2004-01-01

306

Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface for High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and the control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are n0t va lid during all stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid now equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob

2012-01-01

307

High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions Using an Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and th e control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are not valid during aU stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid flow equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Dr. Paul; Roth, Jacob

2012-01-01

308

Quantitative determination of saccharides in dietary glyconutritional products by anion-exchange liquid chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

A new technique for the assay of carbohydrates is described in which separation and quantification of neutral saccharides, aminosaccharides, glycuronic acids, and disaccharides may be accomplished in less than 50 min of total run time. This method involves optimized anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulse amperometric detection. Complex carbohydrates from various sources, including dietary supplements, were hydrolyzed in a dilute solution of trifluoroacetic acid, freeze-dried, and reconstituted in water containing 2-deoxygalactose as the internal standard. The solution was filtered and separated on CarboPac PA20 column. The eluted saccharides were detected by oxidation on a gold electrode with quadruple-pulsed integrated amperometry. The calibration plots for the saccharides were linear with an average correlation coefficient of 0.999. Method precision regarding peak retention time and resolution used in the peak identifications was verified. With this method, previously difficult-to-separate saccharides, such as galactosamine, glucosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine, were successfully resolved from the neutral saccharides rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose. Mannose was also resolved from xylose, and de-acetylation of aminosaccharides prior to separation was not necessary. This technique provides an accurate and efficient means to assay carbohydrates in dietary supplements, which new federal regulations will soon mandate. PMID:16152914

Eberendu, Alexis R; Booth, Christy; Luta, Gabriela; Edwards, Joshua A; McAnalley, Bill H

2005-01-01

309

Comparisons Between Integral Equation Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Atomistic Models of Polyethylene Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on dense liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 united atom CH{sub 2} units. A series of models was studied ranging in atomistic detail from coarse-grained, freely-jointed, tangent site chains to realistic, overlapping site models subjected to bond angle restrictions and torsional potentials. These same models were also treated with the self-consistent, polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. The intramolecular and total structure factors, as well as, the intermolecular radial distribution functions g(r) and direct correlation functions C(r) were obtained from theory and simulation. Angular correlation functions were also simulation obtained from the MD simulations. Comparisons between theory and reveal that PRISM theory works well for computing the intermolecular structure of coarse-grained chain models, but systematically underpredicts the extent of intermolecular packing as more atomistic details are introduced into the model. A consequence of g(r) having insufficient structure is that the theory yields an isothermal compressibility that progressively becomes larger, relative to the simulations, as overlapping the PRISM sites and angular restrictions are introduced into the model. We found that theory could be considerably improved by adding a tail function to C(r) beyond the effective hard core diameter. The range of this tail function was determined by requiring the theory to yield the correct compressibility.

Curro, John G.; Webb III, Edmund B.; Grest, Gary S.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.; Putz, Mathias; McCoy, John D.

1999-07-21

310

Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Integration of structure and property measurements in a Paris-Edinburgh cell (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the structure and physical properties of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures is important in understanding dynamics and evolution of the Earth and other planets. However, understanding the physics of liquid materials remains a challenge, especially under high pressure and high temperature conditions. We have recently developed an integrated setup for multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, ultrasonic measurement, and falling sphere viscometer using a Paris-Edinburgh press at sector 16-BM-B, HPCAT, at the APS, for comprehensively studying structures and physical properties of liquids and amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures. The sector 16-BM-B is capable of amorphous and liquid structure measurements by using multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction technique at high pressure and high temperature conditions in a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell (e.g., Yamada et al., 2011). The PE cell is capable of compressing large volume samples (typically >1 mm3) up to 7 GPa at temperatures exceed 2000 °C. In addition to the liquid and amorphous structure measurement capability, we have developed ultrasonic elastic wave velocity and falling sphere viscosity techniques in the PE cell. The elastic wave velocity is measured by ultrasonic pulse echo overlap method in conjunction with white x-ray radiography measurement for determining the wave travel distance (Kono et al., 2012). The falling sphere viscosity measurements are made with high-speed white x-ray radiography (>1000 frame/second) (Kono et al., 2013). The integration of liquid structure measurement with elastic wave velocity measurement and viscosity measurement in the PE cell provides a unique opportunity to investigate in situ correlation between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties of liquids and amorphous solids. Knowledge of the correlation will provide valuable constraints for modeling liquid properties at high pressures and high temperatures, and thus improving our understanding the nature of magmas at depths and the dynamics of the Earth's interior.

Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Shen, G.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

311

Test Results of the RS-44 Integrated Component Evaluator Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

1993-01-01

312

Efficient solution of liquid state integral equations using the Newton-GMRES algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present examples of the accurate, robust and efficient solution of Ornstein-Zernike type integral equations which describe the structure of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous fluids. In this work we use the Newton-GMRES algorithm as implemented in the public-domain nonlinear Krylov solvers NKSOL [ P. Brown, Y. Saad, SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. 11 (1990) 450] and NITSOL [ M. Pernice, H.F. Walker, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 19 (1998) 302]. We compare and contrast this method with more traditional approaches in the literature, using Picard iteration (successive-substitution) and hybrid Newton-Raphson and Picard methods, and a recent vector extrapolation method [ H.H.H. Homeier, S. Rast, H. Krienke, Comput. Phys. Commun. 92 (1995) 188]. We find that both the performance and ease of implementation of these nonlinear solvers recommend them for the solution of this class of problem.

Booth, Michael J.; Schlijper, A. G.; Scales, L. E.; Haymet, A. D. J.

1999-06-01

313

Integral Equation Study of Molecular Fluids and Liquid Crystals in Two Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation is solved with a Percus-Yevick (PY) closure for the hard ellipse and hard planar dumbell fluids in two dimensions. The correlation functions, including the orientation correlation function, are expanded in a set of orthogonal functions and the coefficients are solved for using an iterative algorithm developed by Lado. The pressure, compressibility, and orientation coefficients are computed for a variety of densities and molecular elongations. The hard planar dumbell fluid shows no orientational ordering. The PY values for the pressure differ from the corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) values by as much as 8% for the cases studied. The hard ellipse fluid exhibits some orientational ordering. Ordering is much more pronounced for ellipses with an axis ratio larger than 2.0. Pressure values computed for the hard ellipse fluid from the PY theory differ from the corresponding MC values by as much as 11% for the cases studied. As the PY solutions do exhibit a nematic character in the hard ellipse fluid, we find it to be a viable reference system for further studies of the nematic liquid crystal phase, though the isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase transition found by Vieillard-Baron was not observed in the PY solutions. The Maier-Saupe theory was reformulated based on the density functional formalism of Sluckin and Shukla. Using PY data of the hard ellipse as input for the direct correlation function in the isotropic phase, the orientational distribution was calculated. The values obtained showed only extremely weak nematic behavior.

Ward, David Atlee

314

Molecular structure and elastic properties of thermotropic liquid crystals: Integrated molecular dynamics—Statistical mechanical theory vs molecular field approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between the molecular structure of liquid crystals and their elastic properties, which control the director deformations relevant for electro-optic applications, remains a challenging objective for theories and computations. Here, we compare two methods that have been proposed to this purpose, both characterized by a detailed molecular level description. One is an integrated molecular dynamics-statistical mechanical approach, where the bulk elastic constants of nematics are calculated from the direct correlation function (DCFs) and the single molecule orientational distribution function [D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1973)]. The latter is obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, together with the radial distribution function, from which the DCF is then determined by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation. The other approach is based on a molecular field theory, where the potential of mean torque experienced by a mesogen in the liquid crystal phase is parameterized according to its molecular surface. In this case, the calculation of elastic constants is combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of single molecule conformations. Using these different approaches, but the same description, at the level of molecular geometry and torsional potentials, we have investigated the elastic properties of the nematic phase of two typical mesogens, 4'-n-pentyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl and 4'-n-heptyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl. Both methods yield K3(bend) >K1 (splay) >K2 (twist), although there are some discrepancies in the average elastic constants and in their anisotropy. These are interpreted in terms of the different approximations and the different ways of accounting for the structural properties of molecules in the two approaches. In general, the results point to the role of the molecular shape, which is modulated by the conformational freedom and cannot be fully accounted for by a single descriptor such as the aspect ratio.

Capar, M. Ilk; Nar, A.; Ferrarini, A.; Frezza, E.; Greco, C.; Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.

2013-03-01

315

Convection in vertical Bridgman configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are interested in tracing the convective profiles of vertical Bridgman growth in two configurations, the pure Rayleigh convective mode and the combined Rayleigh-Marangoni mode. In order to do so, we conducted a numerical investigation that involved a finite volume calculation. The governing equations were integrated about a cell volume, using the Gauss Theorem and the volume variables like temperature and velocity were related to the surface variables. In order to solve for the pressure field, we employed the continuity equation and the residuals resulted in a Poisson equation. Results and comments for the Rayleigh and Marangoni problems in a vertical cylinder or Bridgman configuration are given.

Narayanan, Ranga

1991-01-01

316

Refractive Index-Based Detection of Gradient Elution Liquid Chromatography using Chip-Integrated Microring Resonator Arrays  

PubMed Central

Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as non-destructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with HPLC. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution – a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviating extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of post-column (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also makes it an attractive potential detection technology that could be integrated within lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic separation devices. PMID:24328221

Wade, James H.; Bailey, Ryan C.

2014-01-01

317

An investigation of the liquid to glass transition using integral equations for the pair structure of coupled replicae.  

PubMed

Extensive numerical solutions of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations are presented for the pair structure of a system of two coupled replicae (1 and 2) of a "soft-sphere" fluid of atoms interacting via an inverse-12 pair potential. In the limit of vanishing inter-replica coupling ?12, both integral equations predict the existence of three branches of solutions: (1) A high temperature liquid branch (L), which extends to a supercooled regime upon cooling when the two replicae are kept at ?12 = 0 throughout; upon separating the configurational and vibrational contributions to the free energy and entropy of the L branch, the Kauzmann temperature is located where the configurational entropy vanishes. (2) Starting with an initial finite coupling ?12, two "glass" branches G1 and G2 are found below some critical temperature, which are characterized by a strong remnant spatial inter-replica correlation upon taking the limit ?12 ? 0. Branch G2 is characterized by an increasing overlap order parameter upon cooling, and may hence be identified with the hypothetical "ideal glass" phase. Branch G1 exhibits the opposite trend of increasing order parameter upon heating; its free energy lies consistently below that of the L branch and above that of the G2 branch. The free energies of the L and G2 branches are found to intersect at an alleged "random first-order transition" (RFOT) characterized by weak discontinuities of the volume and entropy. The Kauzmann and RFOT temperatures predicted by RY differ significantly from their HNC counterparts. PMID:25381529

Bomont, Jean-Marc; Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Pastore, Giorgio

2014-11-01

318

An investigation of the liquid to glass transition using integral equations for the pair structure of coupled replicae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive numerical solutions of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations are presented for the pair structure of a system of two coupled replicae (1 and 2) of a "soft-sphere" fluid of atoms interacting via an inverse-12 pair potential. In the limit of vanishing inter-replica coupling ?12, both integral equations predict the existence of three branches of solutions: (1) A high temperature liquid branch (L), which extends to a supercooled regime upon cooling when the two replicae are kept at ?12 = 0 throughout; upon separating the configurational and vibrational contributions to the free energy and entropy of the L branch, the Kauzmann temperature is located where the configurational entropy vanishes. (2) Starting with an initial finite coupling ?12, two "glass" branches G1 and G2 are found below some critical temperature, which are characterized by a strong remnant spatial inter-replica correlation upon taking the limit ?12 ? 0. Branch G2 is characterized by an increasing overlap order parameter upon cooling, and may hence be identified with the hypothetical "ideal glass" phase. Branch G1 exhibits the opposite trend of increasing order parameter upon heating; its free energy lies consistently below that of the L branch and above that of the G2 branch. The free energies of the L and G2 branches are found to intersect at an alleged "random first-order transition" (RFOT) characterized by weak discontinuities of the volume and entropy. The Kauzmann and RFOT temperatures predicted by RY differ significantly from their HNC counterparts.

Bomont, Jean-Marc; Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Pastore, Giorgio

2014-11-01

319

Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

2006-01-01

320

Integrated lab-in-syringe platform incorporating a membraneless gas-liquid separator for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

This manuscript reports the proof-of-concept of a novel integrated lab-in-syringe/gas-liquid separation (LIS/GLS) batch-flow system based on a programmable flow for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric assays. Homogeneous mixing of metered volumes of sample and reagent solutions drawn up in a sandwich-type mode along with in situ vapor generation are accomplished inside the microsyringe in a closed manner, while the separation of vapor species is achieved via the membraneless GLS located at the top of the syringe's valve in the upright position. The potentials of the proposed manifold were demonstrated for trace inorganic mercury determination in drinking waters and seawater. For a 3.0 mL sample, the limit of detection and repeatability (RSD) were found to be 0.03 ?g L(-1) Hg(II) and 3.1% (at the 2.0 ?g L(-1) concentration level), respectively, with a dynamic range extending up to 10.0 ?g L(-1). The proposed system fulfills the requirements of US-EPA, WHO, and EU Council Directives for measurements of the maximum allowed concentrations of inorganic mercury in drinking water. PMID:23977837

Giakisikli, Georgia; Miró, Manuel; Anthemidis, Aristidis

2013-10-01

321

Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5-3D. A set of numerical models were developed in parallel to the experimental work. RELAP5-3D models were developed for the salt-cooled PB-AHTR, and for the simulat fluid CIET natural circulation experimental loop. These models are to be validated by the data collected from CIET. COMSOL finite element models were used to predict the temperature and fluid flow distribution in the annular pebble bed core; they were instrumental for design of SETs, and they can be used for code-to-code comparisons with RELAP5-3D. A number of other small SETs, and numerical models were constructed, as needed, in support of this work. The experiments were designed, constructed and performed to meet CAES quality assurance requirements for test planning, implementation, and documentation; equipment calibration and documentation, procurement document control; training and personnel qualification; analysis/modeling software verification and validation; data acquisition/collection and analysis; and peer review.

Peterson, Per

2012-10-30

322

Low-Loss Integrated-Waveguide Passive Circuits Using Liquid-Crystal Polymer System-on-Package (SOP) Technology for Millimeter-Wave Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show a low-loss integrated waveguide (IWG), microstrip line-to-IWG transition, IWG bandpass filter (BPF), and system-on-package (SOP) using a liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) substrate, which can be used toward SOP technology for millimeter-wave applications. The proposed IWG can be used as a low-loss millimeter-wave transmission line on this substrate. The measured insertion loss of the IWG is -0.12

Ki Seok Yang; Stephane Pinel; Il Kwon Kim; Joy Laskar

2006-01-01

323

Multiband RF and mm-wave design solutions for integrated RF functions in liquid crystal polymer system-on-package technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic packaging evolution involves systems, technology and material considerations. In this paper, we present a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) based multilayer packaging technology that is rapidly emerging as an ideal platform for low cost, multi-band and reconfigurable RF front-end module integration. LCP's very low water absorption (0.04%), low cost and high electrical performance makes it very appealing for RF applications.

V. Palazzaril; D. Thompson; N. Papageorgiou; S. Pinel; J. H. Lee; S. Sarkar; R. Pratap; G. DeJean; R. Bairavasubramanian; R.-L. Li; M. Tentzeris; J. Laskar; J. Papapolymerou; L. Roselli

2004-01-01

324

Fabrication and electrical integration of robust carbon nanotube micropillars by self-directed elastocapillary densification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) 'forest' microstructures fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using patterned catalyst films typically have a low CNT density per unit area. As a result, CNT forests have poor bulk properties and are too fragile for integration with microfabrication processing. We introduce a new self-directed capillary densification method where a liquid is controllably condensed onto and

Michaël F. L. De Volder; Sei Jin Park; Sameh H. Tawfick; Daniel O. Vidaud; A. John Hart

2011-01-01

325

Vertical Map Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

Perry, Joanne M.

1982-01-01

326

Influence of sperm concentration on the motility, morphology, membrane and DNA integrity along with oxidative stress parameters of ram sperm during liquid storage.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the influences of two different concentrations in terms of motility, morphology, membrane integrity (viability and HOST response: HE-test; modified hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) associated with supravital eosin staining test), DNA integrity (COMET assay) and oxidative stress parameters (MDA, malondialdehyde; AOA, total antioxidant activity; GSH, reduced glutathione; NOx, nitric oxide) of liquid stored ram sperm for 5 days. Two different concentrations suitable for laparoscopic and cervical inseminations were employed. A total of 5 Pirlak rams (Daglic × Kivircik, local breed) with satisfactory breeding potential were selected. Semen samples were collected by artificial vagina. Ejaculates were extended to 25 and 100 million sperm per ml with Tris-based egg-yolk (T) extender at room temperature and stored at 4°C. The concentration significantly had effects on motility, morphology, membrane and DNA integrity along with oxidative stress parameters (P<0.05). Overall changes in the motility, morphology, membrane and DNA integrity along with oxidative stress parameters of ram sperm diluted with T in the 100 × 10(6)ml(-1) concentration and preserved at 4°C for a short term was found to be better preservation than that of diluted with T in the 25 × 10(6)ml(-1) concentration. Significant concentration × days of storage interactions were found for all parameters except the NOx. Further studies are required to elucidate the oxidative stress changes on sperm quality parameters in different concentrations during the liquid storage of ram semen. PMID:20828947

Gundogan, M; Yeni, D; Avdatek, F; Fidan, A F

2010-12-01

327

Integration of Gravitational Torques in Cerebellar Pathways Allows for the Dynamic Inverse Computation of Vertical Pointing Movements of a Robot Arm  

PubMed Central

Background Several authors suggested that gravitational forces are centrally represented in the brain for planning, control and sensorimotor predictions of movements. Furthermore, some studies proposed that the cerebellum computes the inverse dynamics (internal inverse model) whereas others suggested that it computes sensorimotor predictions (internal forward model). Methodology/Principal Findings This study proposes a model of cerebellar pathways deduced from both biological and physical constraints. The model learns the dynamic inverse computation of the effect of gravitational torques from its sensorimotor predictions without calculating an explicit inverse computation. By using supervised learning, this model learns to control an anthropomorphic robot arm actuated by two antagonists McKibben artificial muscles. This was achieved by using internal parallel feedback loops containing neural networks which anticipate the sensorimotor consequences of the neural commands. The artificial neural networks architecture was similar to the large-scale connectivity of the cerebellar cortex. Movements in the sagittal plane were performed during three sessions combining different initial positions, amplitudes and directions of movements to vary the effects of the gravitational torques applied to the robotic arm. The results show that this model acquired an internal representation of the gravitational effects during vertical arm pointing movements. Conclusions/Significance This is consistent with the proposal that the cerebellar cortex contains an internal representation of gravitational torques which is encoded through a learning process. Furthermore, this model suggests that the cerebellum performs the inverse dynamics computation based on sensorimotor predictions. This highlights the importance of sensorimotor predictions of gravitational torques acting on upper limb movements performed in the gravitational field. PMID:19384420

Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Ebadzadeh, Mehdi; Eskiizmirliler, Selim; Ouanezar, Sofiane; Darlot, Christian

2009-01-01

328

Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

Cross, Rod

2007-11-01

329

Vertical axis wind turbines  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

2011-03-08

330

Soret-driven thermosolutal convection in a vertical enclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the Soret effect on natural convection in a vertical cavity filled with a binary liquid. The two vertical walls of the cavity are subject to constant fluxes of heat while the two horizontal ones are adiabatic. The analysis deals with the particular situation where the buoyancy forces induced by

F. Joly; P. Vasseur; G. Labrosse

2000-01-01

331

Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This R&D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 ?m or 150 ?m, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 ?m thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×1015 neq/cm2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3 ?m×10 ?m, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.

Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Ellenburg, M.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

2013-12-01

332

Pre-storage of liquid reagents in glass ampoules for DNA extraction on a fully integrated lab-on-a-chip cartridge.  

PubMed

Self-containing, ready-to-use cartridges are essential for mobile Lab-on-a-Chip (LoaC) systems intended for Point-of-Care (POC) use. Up to now, a common weak point in many LoaC developments is the need to dispense liquid reagents into the test cartridge before or during processing of the assay. To address this issue we have developed an efficient method for fusing liquid reagents into glass ampoules, which are then sealed into a centrifugally operated cartridge. For on-demand reagent release, the ampoules are disrupted through the flexible lid of the cartridge. Upon centrifugation, 98.7 microL out of 100 microL (CV = 2.5%) of the pre-stored contents are released into the microfluidic system. No liquid loss is observed for ethanol and H(2)O stored for 300 days at room temperature. Frozen storage is possible without damage to the ampoules. Applicability of this concept is demonstrated by performing a LoaC integrated DNA extraction after 140 days of reagent pre-storage. DNA yield from 32 microL of whole blood was up to 199 ng, which is 77% of an off-chip reference extraction. The presented approach allows the improvement of existing LoaC cartridges where pre-storage of liquid reagents was not implemented yet. PMID:20480115

Hoffmann, Jochen; Mark, Daniel; Lutz, Sascha; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

2010-06-01

333

Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow  

E-print Network

The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

1972-01-01

334

Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.  

PubMed

An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:22975252

Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

2012-11-01

335

Si nanowire directly grown on a liquid metal substrate—towards wafer scale transferable nanowire arrays with improved visible-light sterilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrating vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) on a functional substrate is important for the application of NWs in wafer scale assemblies and functional devices. However, vertically aligned NWs via the current epitaxial growth route can only be prepared on crystalline wafers. A convenient method is thus presented to overcome NW substrate limitations. Liquid metal is proposed to serve as a substrate for the initial growth of vertically aligned NWs. NWs could then be harvested from the growth substrate and integrated with functional substrates. Fabricated vertically aligned silicon NWs (SiNWs) were grown on molten Sn and then integrated into a flexible transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane) film to obtain a SiNW/functional substrate device. The device showed enhanced visible-light absorption ability and refreshable visible-light bactericidal activities with a bacterial reduction rate of close to 100%, indicating that growth with molten metal as a substrate could be a promising approach for extending the function and application of NWs.

Wang, Hui; Wang, Jian-Tao; Ou, Xue-Mei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

2014-04-01

336

Highly Integrated LTCC and LCP Millimeter Wave Functions For 3D-SOP High Data Rate Wireless Systems.  

E-print Network

Highly Integrated LTCC and LCP Millimeter Wave Functions For 3D-SOP High Data Rate Wireless Systems vertically coupling mechanism. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) is a organic material that offers a unique of LCP for millimeter-wave applications. I. INTRODUCTION merging high data rate wireless applications

Tentzeris, Manos

337

Offset vertical radar profiling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

Witten, A.; Lane, J.

2003-01-01

338

Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, we become familiar with integrals, both by understanding them as sums of areas under plots of functions, and by understanding them as anti-derivatives. We present the u-substitution rule, which is the analog of the chain rule for differentiating composite functions.

2013-06-21

339

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

2003-04-22

340

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

2003-04-01

341

Bubble Enhanced Heat Transfer from a Vertical Heated Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rising bubble in a liquid can greatly enhance heat transfer from heated surfaces by acting like a bluff body, displacing fluid as it moves and via the wake generated by the bubble, increasing the mixing of the liquid. The current research quantifies the effect a single free rising ellipsoidal air bubble has on heat transfer from a vertical heated

Brian Donnelly; Darina B. Murray; Tadhg S. O'Donovan

2008-01-01

342

Geysering inhibitor for vertical cryogenic transfer piping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geysering (i.e., the expulsion of boiling liquid and its vapor from a vertical tube) has been a problem for the missile industry in long vertical cryogenic propellant feed lines connecting the launch vehicle propellant tank with the rocket engines. A proposed novel method of inhibiting geysering and the associated pressure gradients provides a self-starting self-regulating action that is not dependent on other active systems or components. The inhibiting action is attained by incorporating a concentric tube within the main transfer tube to prevent constriction of natural convective flow.

Howard, F. S.

1973-01-01

343

Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

1993-01-01

344

Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students try to connect given points on a graph in a way that they will pass the vertical line test. If the points can't be made to pass the vertical line test, the student must adjust the points so they will pass the test. This activity allows students to explore the vertical line test for functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2011-05-24

345

A Dual-Channel Microwave Radiometer for Measurement of Precipitable Water Vapor and Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of a two-channel ground-based microwave radiometer (20.6 and 31.6 GHz) for measurement of total integrated water vapor and cloud liquid in a vertical column are discussed. Unique features of this instrument are a single antenna producing equal beamwidth for the two frequencies, and incorporation of two stable reference loads in a three-way Dicke switching sequence. The

Fred Guiraud; Joe Howard; David Hogg

1979-01-01

346

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

347

Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator  

DOEpatents

A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-10-19

348

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now

Nathan A. Niemi; Michael Oskin; Thomas K. Rockwell

2008-01-01

349

KDD99 panel report: data mining into vertical solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

At KDD-99, the panel on Integrating Data Mining into Vertical Solutions addressed a series of questions regarding future trends in industrial applications. Panelists were chosen to represent different viewpoints from a variety of industry segments, including data providers (Jim Bozik), horizontal and vertical tool providers (Ken Ono and Steve Belcher respectively), and data mining consultants (Rob Gerritsen and Dorian Pyle).

Ronny Kohavi; Mehran Sahami; Steve Belcher; Jim Bozik; Rob Gerritsen; Ken Ono; Dorian Pyle

2000-01-01

350

Efficient Mobility Management for Vertical Handoff between WWAN and WLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we are moving toward the next generation all-IP wireless networks, we are facing the integration of heterogeneous networks, such as WWAN and WLAN, where vertical handoff is required. In vertical handoff between WWAN and WLAN, mobile hosts should be able to move freely across different networks while satisfying QoS requirements for a variety of applic ations. In order to

Qian Zhang; Chuanxiong Guo; Zihua Guo; Wenwu Zhu

2003-01-01

351

Liquid mixing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the

OLeary

1985-01-01

352

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The first step in the integrated, mufti-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal is the production of ultra low-ash coal. Subsequent steps convert low-ash coal to high-value, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-08-01

353

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-12-31

354

Estimating the Gibbs energy of hydration from molecular dynamics trajectories obtained by integral equations of the theory of liquids in the RISM approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of integral equations of the theory of liquids in the reference interaction site model (RISM) approximation is used to estimate the Gibbs energy averaged over equilibrium trajectories computed by molecular mechanics. Peptide oxytocin is selected as the object of interest. The Gibbs energy is calculated using all chemical potential formulas introduced in the RISM approach for the excess chemical potential of solvation and is compared with estimates by the generalized Born model. Some formulas are shown to give the wrong sign of Gibbs energy changes when peptide passes from the gas phase into water environment; the other formulas give overestimated Gibbs energy changes with the right sign. Note that allowance for the repulsive correction in the approximate analytical expressions for the Gibbs energy derived by thermodynamic perturbation theory is not a remedy.

Tikhonov, D. A.; Sobolev, E. V.

2011-04-01

355

Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

Bryant, Jeffrey W.

2010-08-12

356

Integration of Satellite-Derived Cloud Phase, Cloud Top Height, and Liquid Water Path into an Operational Aircraft Icing Nowcasting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational products used by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to alert pilots of hazardous icing provide nowcast and short-term forecast estimates of the potential for the presence of supercooled liquid water and supercooled large droplets. The Current Icing Product (CIP) system employs basic satellite-derived information, including a cloud mask and cloud top temperature estimates, together with multiple other data sources to produce a gridded, three-dimensional, hourly depiction of icing probability and severity. Advanced satellite-derived cloud products developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provide a more detailed description of cloud properties (primarily at cloud top) compared to the basic satellite-derived information used currently in CIP. Cloud hydrometeor phase, liquid water path, cloud effective temperature, and cloud top height as estimated by the LaRC algorithms are into the CIP fuzzy logic scheme and a confidence value is determined. Examples of CIP products before and after the integration of the LaRC satellite-derived products will be presented at the conference.

Haggerty, Julie; McDonough, Frank; Black, Jennifer; Landott, Scott; Wolff, Cory; Mueller, Steven; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William, Jr.

2008-01-01

357

The structure of poly(ethylene oxide) liquids : comparison of integral equation theory with molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scaling.  

SciTech Connect

Polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on poly(ethylene oxide) liquids using a force field of Smith, Jaffe, and Yoon. The intermolecular pair correlation functions and radius of gyration from theory were in very good agreement with MD simulations when the partial charges were turned off. When the charges were turned on, considerably more structure was seen in the intermolecular correlations obtained from MD simulation. Moreover, the radius of gyration increased by 38% due to electrostatic repulsions along the chain backbone. Because the partial charges greatly affect the structure, significant differences were seen between the PRISM calculations (without charges) and the wide angle neutron scattering measurements of Annis and coworkers for the total structure factor, and the hydrogen/hydrogen intermolecular correlation function. This is in contrast to previous PRISM calculations on poly (dimethyl siloxane).

Curro, John G.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile (University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, NM.)

2005-01-01

358

Low voltage vertical recording preamplifier for hard disk drives  

E-print Network

are being placed vertically(vertical recording) rather than horizontally to pack more data onto the magnetic media. Traditionally, the preamplifier has been designed using bipolar technologies be- cause of the low noise, high frequency and high gain... requirements. But with CMOS read-channels overtaking the bipolar read-channels the stress has been towards re- alizing preamplifiers in digital CMOS for future integration possibilities [1]. With a purely CMOS preamplifier integrating the AGC and low pass...

Mellachervu, Ramachandra Murthy

2004-11-15

359

Integrated, nontargeted ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry platform for the identification and relative quantification of the small-molecule complement of biological systems.  

PubMed

To address the challenges associated with metabolomics analyses, such as identification of chemical structures and elimination of experimental artifacts, we developed a platform that integrated the chemical analysis, including identification and relative quantification, data reduction, and quality assurance components of the process. The analytical platform incorporated two separate ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS(2)) injections; one injection was optimized for basic species, and the other was optimized for acidic species. This approach permitted the detection of 339 small molecules, a total instrument analysis time of 24 min (two injections at 12 min each), while maintaining a median process variability of 9%. The resulting MS/MS(2) data were searched against an in-house generated authentic standard library that included retention time, molecular weight (m/z), preferred adducts, and in-source fragments as well as their associated MS/MS spectra for all molecules in the library. The library allowed the rapid and high-confidence identification of the experimentally detected molecules based on a multiparameter match without need for additional analyses. This integrated platform enabled the high-throughput collection and relative quantitative analysis of analytical data and identified a large number and broad spectrum of molecules with a high degree of confidence. PMID:19624122

Evans, Anne M; DeHaven, Corey D; Barrett, Tom; Mitchell, Matt; Milgram, Eric

2009-08-15

360

Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase  

DOEpatents

By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

361

Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL® system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, S.; Krebs, T.; Weiss, C.; Paur, H.-R.

2009-05-01

362

Integrity of chromatin and replicating DNA in nuclei released from fission yeast by semi-automated grinding in liquid nitrogen  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei. Findings Here we present a useful method for nuclear isolation from the important model organism, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To preserve in vivo molecular configurations, we flash-froze the yeast cells in liquid nitrogen. Then we broke their tough cell walls, without damaging their nuclei, by grinding in a precision-controlled motorized mortar-and-pestle apparatus. The cryo-ground cells were resuspended and thawed in a buffer designed to preserve nuclear morphology, and the nuclei were enriched by differential centrifugation. The washed nuclei were free from contaminating nucleases and have proven well-suited as starting material for genome-wide chromatin analysis and for preparation of fragile DNA replication intermediates. Conclusions We have developed a simple, reproducible, economical procedure for large-scale preparation of endogenous-nuclease-free, morphologically intact nuclei from fission yeast. With appropriate modifications, this procedure may well prove useful for isolation of nuclei from other organisms with, or without, tough cell walls. PMID:22088094

2011-01-01

363

Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

1998-01-01

364

Investigation of liquid\\/liquid flows using laser-based optical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid\\/liquid system has been used to model high pressure gas\\/liquid systems. Kerosene and aqueous potassium carbonate solution have been chosen for his purpose. An experimental facility has been constructed in which horizontal and vertical liquid\\/liquid flows can be investigated. The main objective of the work is to gather information about the drop size distributions of the dispersed aqueous phase

M. J. Simmons; Sohail H. Zaidi; B. J. Azzopardi

1997-01-01

365

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-print Network

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01

366

Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

Pruess, K.

2011-05-15

367

Vertically aligned Si intrananowire p-n diodes by large-area epitaxial growth  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned Si intrananowire p-n diodes by large-area epitaxial growth Cheol-Joo Kim,1 demonstrate fabrication of vertically aligned, intrananowire p-n diodes by large-area epitaxial growth of Si and vertically aligned NWs at large areas. Our study suggests implication for integrated electronics

Jo, Moon-Ho

368

Liquid-Hydrogen Polygeneration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polygeneration system uses existing technology in integrated process to produce liquid hydrogen space-vehicle propellant and secondary products as gaseous nitrogen, electrical energy, and thermal energy. Makes commercial launch services economical. Lowers expected cost of liquid hydrogen by utilizing relatively cheap coal feedstocks and by reducing electrical costs associated with producing liquid hydrogen.

Minderman, P.; Gutkowski, G.; Manfredi, L.; King, J.; Howard, F.

1986-01-01

369

524 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 4, APRIL 2013 GreenCool: An Energy-Efficient Liquid Cooling  

E-print Network

, APRIL 2013 GreenCool: An Energy-Efficient Liquid Cooling Design Technique for 3-D MPSoCs Via Channel multiprocessor system-on-chips (MPSoCs). Microchannel- based liquid cooling, however, can substantially increase efficiency. In this paper, we present GreenCool, an optimal design methodology for liquid-cooled 3-D MPSo

Coskun, Ayse

370

Liquid level system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid level system employs a pair of vertically spaced sensors in a tank such as a boiler. Each sensor includes a pair of bellows. The first bellows is enclosed by a protective enclosure while the second bellows is exposed to the interior of the tank. The first bellows of the two sensors are interconnected and filled with a liquid forming substance, such as an alkali metal, which is in liquid phase at high temperatures, while the second bellows of each sensor and the enclosure for the first bellows are interconnected and filled with a second liquidforming substance, such as a metal alloy, which is essentially inert. A transducer is connected to one of the second bellows which produces an electrical output signal proportional to the difference between the pressures at the locations of the second bellows and, thus, the level of liquid in the tank.

Austin, R.R.; Lawford, V.N.

1983-03-08

371

Coulomb blockade in vertical, bandgap engineered silicon nanopillars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically oriented, bandgap engineered silicon double tunnel junction nanopillars were fabricated and electrically addressed. The devices were tested at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Distinctive staircase steps in current were observed at cryogenic temperatures indicative of the Coulomb blockade effect present in asymmetric double tunnel junction structures. These features disappeared when the device was measured at room temperature.

Walavalkar, Sameer; Latawiec, Pawel; Scherer, Axel

2013-05-01

372

Leachate injection using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate recirculation or liquid injection in municipal solid waste landfills offers economic and environmental benefits. The key objective of this study was to carry out numerical evaluation of key design variables for leachate recirculation system consisting of vertical wells. In order to achieve the objective, numerical modeling was carried out using the finite-element model HYDRUS-2D. The following design parameters were

Milind V. Khire; Moumita Mukherjee

2007-01-01

373

Liquid Crystal Optofluidics  

SciTech Connect

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-11

374

Experimental study of ``laminar'' bubbly flows in a vertical pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of bubbly two-phase flow parameters in a vertical pipe were performed. To keep the pipe Reynolds number below that for single-phase turbulent transition, a water-glycerin solution was used as the test liquid. Local void fraction and liquid velocity profiles along with the wall shear stress were measured by an electrochemical method. Experiments were made with bubbles of two different sizes. As the gas flow rate was increased, a gradual development of the liquid velocity profile from the parabolic Poiseuille flow to a flattened two-phase profile was observed. The evolution of the wall shear stress and of the velocity fluctuations were also quantified.

Kashinsky, O. N.; Timkin, L. S.; Cartellier, A.

1993-09-01

375

Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen feedline passive recirculation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of the National Launch System (NLS) program was to design an operationally efficient, highly reliable vehicle with minimal recurring launch costs. To achieve this goal, trade studies of key main propulsion subsystems were performed to specify vehicle design requirements. These requirements include the use of passive recirculation to thermally condition the liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant feed systems and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel pumps. Rockwell International (RI) proposed a joint independent research and development (JIRAD) program with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to study the LH2 feed system passive recirculation concept. The testing was started in July 1992 and completed in November 1992. Vertical and sloped feedline designs were used. An engine simulator was attached at the bottom of the feedline. This simulator had strip heaters that were set to equal the corresponding heat input from different engines. A computer program is currently being used to analyze the passive recirculation concept in the LH2 vertical feedline tests. Four tests, where the heater setting is the independent variable, were chosen. While the JIRAD with RI was underway, General Dynamics Space Systems (GDSS) proposed a JIRAD with MSFC to explore passive recirculation in the LO2 feed system. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is being used instead of LO2 for safety and economic concerns. To date, three sets of calibration tests have been completed on the sloped LN2 test article. The environmental heat was calculated from the calibration tests in which the strip heaters were turned off. During the LH2 testing, the environmental heat was assumed to be constant. Therefore, the total heat was equal to the environmental heat flux plus the heater input. However, the first two sets of LN2 calibration tests have shown that the environmental heat flux varies with heater input. A Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA/FLUINT) model is currently being built to determine if this variation in environmental heat is due to a change in the wall temperature. During the third set of calibration tests, a faulty reference junction was found. Based on this anomaly with the reference junction, the heat flux calculations from the first two calibration sets are now considered questionable.

Holt, Kimberly Ann; Cleary, Nicole L.; Nichols, Andrew J.; Perry, Gretchen L. E.

1993-01-01

376

Vertical Motion Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), at the NASA Ames Research Center, is an advanced flight simulation facility. This Web site provides thorough descriptions of all of the VMS systems. The VMS is a full immersion environment, complete with customizable cockpit, controls, and instrumentation to give the appearance of any aerospace vehicle. One of its most intriguing characteristics is "out-the-window graphics." This allows the pilot to see computer generated imagery of real locations, so virtually everything is identical to the actual flying experience. Even aircraft that are still in the design stage can be simulated on the VMS.

377

Vertical solar louver project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal network analysis computer program MICROPAS was used to analyze Vertical Solar Louvers and other reference solar designs in eight selected climates. The results have been used to generate a set of correlation coefficients for use in performance predictions by the Solar Load Ratio method. At low mass VSL were shown to be superior to ordinary direct gain and equal to the trombe wall systems in energy savings. The energy savings advantage of VSL over direct gain disappears in comparable systems of high mass. Identical solar water tanks of oval cross section were compared in the water wall and VSL configurations.

Bier, C. J.

1984-09-01

378

'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

2004-01-01

379

Magnetic field effect on the cooling of a low-Pr fluid in a vertical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of direct numerical simulations are presented for the transient and turbulent natural convection cooling of an initially isothermal quiescent liquid metal placed in a vertical cylinder in the presence of a vertical magnetic field. The electrically conductive low-Prandtl number fluid is put to motion when the cylindrical wall is suddenly cooled to a uniform lower temperature. For this particular

I. E. Sarris; A. I. Iatridis; C. D. Dritselis; N. S. Vlachos

2010-01-01

380

Modeling vertical and horizontal solute transport for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical memorandum presents a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of a contaminant that originates as a liquid release, moves vertically downward through a vadose zone, mixes with initially clean groundwater in an unconfined aquifer, and ends at a downgradient extraction well. Vertical and horizontal segments of the contaminant pathway are coupled by assuming that the breakthrough curve of

1992-01-01

381

Vertical root fractures and their management.  

PubMed

Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

2014-03-01

382

Vertical root fractures and their management  

PubMed Central

Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

2014-01-01

383

Integrating laser-range finding, electronic compass measurements and GPS to rapidly map vertical changes in volcanic stratigraphy and constrain unit thicknesses and volumes: two examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of laser-range finding-GPS surveys from two separate locations in northern British Columbia, in the south-central northern Cordilleran volcanic province: Hoodoo Mountain volcano and Craven Lake cone. This technique, described in detail below, is appropriate for rapidly measuring changes in vertical thicknesses of units that either would be difficult or impossible to measure by most other techniques. The ability to accurately measure thicknesses of geologic units in otherwise difficult-to-access locations will aide in generating better quantitative estimates of deposit geometries and eruption volumes. Such data is particularly important for constraining quantitative models of magma production and eruption dynamics. The deposits of interest in this study comprised at least partly inaccessible, largely pyroclastic units, although the technique could be used to map any vertical surfaces. The first field location was the northern side of Hoodoo Mountain volcano (56deg47'23.72'N/131deg17'36.97'W/1208m-asl), where a sequence of welded to unwelded, trachytic-phonolitic tephra was deposited in a paleovalley. This deposit is informally referred to as the Pointer Ridge deposit, and it comprises at least 7 distinct subunits. The horizontal limit of the exposures is approximately 1.5km, and the vertical limit is approximately 250m. Three different GPS base stations were used to map the lateral and vertical variations in the deposit. The second field location is north of Craven Lake (56deg54'44.55'N/129deg21'42.17'W/1453m-asl), along Craven Creek, where a sequence of basaltic tephra is overlain by pillow lava and glacial diamicton. This exposure is 200m long and approximately 30m high, much smaller than the area mapped at Hoodoo Mountain. The basaltic tephra appears to comprise 4 distinct sequences (measured thicknesses vary from 3-4m) not including the overlying pillow lava (measured thickness varies from 2 to 10m), and measurements of the sequences give average thicknesses of 5-10m. The laser-range finding-GPS setup used in these studies comprises an IMPULSE LR laser-range finder, a MapStar Module II electronic compass, and a Trimble ProXL global positioning (GPS) unit attached to a tripod specially designed to hold all three pieces of equipment. The three units communicate via a variety of cables. The maximum distance over which the laser can used is 500m (this distance varies for different lasers); the tripod was set at a relatively short distance from the exposure of interest at Craven Lake (95-115m), but further away at Hoodoo Mountain (up to 450m). The range finder was used to 'shoot' bottom and top contacts of each unit within the vertical faces. The distance and relative bearing were automatically transferred into compass and then to the GPS unit, producing in a map of the vertical face with horizontal and vertical coordinates. Analysis of the data provides detailed estimates of unit thicknesses across the vertical faces. The data collected can be imported into ArcGIS as a SHAPE file and overlain on DEM models for the areas of interest. ArcGIS extensions such as Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst can be used to estimate surface areas and volumes for units mapped within the laser-GPS setup.

Nogier, M.; Edwards, B. R.; Wetherell, K.

2005-12-01

384

Physical modelling of vertical DMOS power transistors for circuit simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physical model for vertical DMOS power transistors is presented. The model takes into account various short channel effects in the DMOS channel region and the velocity saturation and the exact device geometry in the drift region. The model, aimed at computer aided design of power integrated circuits, has been implemented in the APLAC circuit simulator. A good agreement between the measured and simulated results for vertical DMOSTs is demonstrated.

Andersson, M.; Kuivalainen, P.

1994-01-01

385

Liquid Crystal polymer (LCP): a new organic material for the development of multilayer dual-frequency\\/dual-polarization flexible antenna arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of dual-frequency (14 and 35 GHz), dual-polarization microstrip antenna arrays is presented for the first time on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) multilayer technology. Some of the properties of LCP, such as multilayer (three-dimensional) vertical integration capability, good electrical and mechanical properties, and near-hermetic nature, make this substrate a practical choice for the design of low-cost antenna arrays that

G. Dejean; R. Bairavasubramanian; D. Thompson; G. E. Ponchak; M. M. Tentzeris; J. Papapolymerou

2005-01-01

386

Identifying the component responsible for antagonism within ionic liquid mixtures using the up-to-down procedure integrated with a uniform design ray method.  

PubMed

Various chemicals in the environment always exist as mixtures. Toxicity interaction within mixtures may pose potential hazards and risks to the environmental safety and human health. Recent studies showed that toxicity interaction by ionic liquid (IL) mixtures can be related to a certain component. To identify the component, we developed a novel procedure integrating an up-to-down process with the uniform design-based ray method (UDUD) and applied it into an IL mixture system of four 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs (simply [bmim]X) where X=Cl(-), Br(-), CH3OSO3(-) and CH3(CH2)7OSO3(-). It was shown that two mixture rays in the quaternary system exhibited significant antagonistic interaction. In this paper, the UDUD was first employed to design four ternary mixture systems. The microplate toxicity analysis was used to determine the toxicities of various mixtures to a freshwater photobacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67. The concentration addition was taken as an additive reference to assess the toxicity interactions taking place in mixtures. The results revealed that some ternary mixture rays including [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 display antagonism while the ternary rays without [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 exhibit additivity. On these grounds, we again designed all binary mixtures containing [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3, determined their toxicities and assessed toxicity interaction. The results showed that three binary mixture systems produce antagonism. Thus, it may be concluded that [bmim]CH3(CH2)7OSO3 is indeed a key component inducing mixture antagonism. PMID:24905692

Zhang, Jin; Liu, Shu-Shen; Xiao, Qian-Fen; Huang, Xian-Huai; Chen, Qiong

2014-09-01

387

Measurement of ultralow vertical emittance using a calibrated vertical undulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few experimental techniques are useful for the direct observation of ultralow vertical emittance in electron storage rings. In this work, quantitative measurements of ultralow (pm rad) electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator are presented. An undulator radiation model was developed using the measured magnetic field of the APPLE-II type undulator. Using calibrated experimental apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of ?y=0.9 ±0.3 pm rad has been observed. These measurements could also inform modeling of the angular distribution of undulator radiation at high harmonics, for proposed diffraction-limited storage ring light sources.

Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Rassool, R. P.

2014-11-01

388

Observation of Picometer Vertical Emittance with a Vertical Undulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a vertical undulator, picometer vertical electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the vertical electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel vertical emittance diagnostic.

Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Dowd, R.; Tan, Y.-R. E.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Taylor, G. N.; Rassool, R. P.

2012-11-01

389

Vertical dynamics of disk galaxies in MOND  

E-print Network

We investigate the possibility of discriminating between Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and Newtonian gravity with dark matter, by studying the vertical dynamics of disk galaxies. We consider models with the same circular velocity in the equatorial plane (purely baryonic disks in MOND and the same disks in Newtonian gravity embedded in spherical dark matter haloes), and we construct their intrinsic and projected kinematical fields by solving the Jeans equations under the assumption of a two-integral distribution function. We found that the vertical velocity dispersion of deep-MOND disks can be much larger than in the equivalent spherical Newtonian models. However, in the more realistic case of high-surface density disks this effect is significantly reduced, casting doubts on the possibility of discriminating between MOND and Newtonian gravity with dark matter by using current observations.

Carlo Nipoti; Pasquale Londrillo; HongSheng Zhao; Luca Ciotti

2007-04-24

390

4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

391

DISTANCES BETWEEN PAIRS OF VERTICES AND VERTICAL PROFILE IN CONDITIONED  

E-print Network

DISTANCES BETWEEN PAIRS OF VERTICES AND VERTICAL PROFILE IN CONDITIONED GALTON­WATSON TREES LUC DEVROYE AND SVANTE JANSON Abstract. We consider a conditioned Galton­Watson tree and prove an estimate of a randomly labelled conditioned Galton­Watson tree converges in distribution, after suitable normalization

Janson, Svante

392

DISTANCES BETWEEN PAIRS OF VERTICES AND VERTICAL PROFILE IN CONDITIONED  

E-print Network

DISTANCES BETWEEN PAIRS OF VERTICES AND VERTICAL PROFILE IN CONDITIONED GALTON--WATSON TREES LUC DEVROYE AND SVANTE JANSON Abstract. We consider a conditioned Galton--Watson tree and prove an estimate of a randomly labelled conditioned Galton--Watson tree converges in distribution, after suitable normalization

Janson, Svante

393

Evolution of statistical parameters of gasliquid slug ow along vertical pipes  

E-print Network

is often essential. Of particular importance is the maximum possible slug length since slug catchers designEvolution of statistical parameters of gas±liquid slug ¯ow along vertical pipes R. van Hout * , D in gas±liquid slug ¯ow for various ¯ow conditions and two pipe diameters. The measuring modules comprise

Shemer, Lev

394

Modelling the Effect of Passive Vertical Suspensions on the Dynamic Behaviour of Sprayer Booms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical products for crop protection are usually distributed on the field as liquids by field sprayers. Unwanted horizontal and vertical sprayer boom movements create local under- and over-applications of spray liquid. A non-linear finite element model of a tractor and a mounted sprayer is developed to simulate these unwanted boom vibrations during field operations. Representative disturbance signals at the hitch

Patrik Kennes; Herman Ramon; Josse De Baerdemaeker

1999-01-01

395

Liquid mixing device  

SciTech Connect

A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

O'Leary, R. P.

1985-08-06

396

Liquid metal enabled pump  

PubMed Central

Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

2014-01-01

397

Liquid metal enabled pump.  

PubMed

Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

2014-03-01

398

Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel  

DOEpatents

The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

1981-01-01

399

Vertically reciprocating auger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

1988-01-01

400

Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

Briggs, Derek C.

2013-01-01

401

Latitude and longitude vertical disparity  

PubMed Central

The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

2010-01-01

402

Fast vertical mining using diffsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of vertical mining algorithms have been proposed recently for association mining, which have shown to be very effective and usually outperform horizontal approaches. The main advantage of the vertical format is support for fast frequency counting via intersection operations on transaction ids (tids) and automatic pruning of irrelevant data. The main problem with these approaches is when intermediate

Mohammed Javeed Zaki; Karam Gouda

2003-01-01

403

Extraordinarily wide-view circular polarizers for liquid crystal displays  

E-print Network

Extraordinarily wide-view circular polarizers for liquid crystal displays Zhibing Ge1 , Ruibo Lu1 polarizer is proposed for high transmittance multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal displays (MVA, "Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays," J. Display Technology

Wu, Shin-Tson

404

New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the R&D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m3 helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; de Rijk, G.; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Hanzelka, P.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.

2014-01-01

405

New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the R and D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m{sup 3} helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; Rijk, G. de; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Hanzelka, P. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno, CZ (Czech Republic)

2014-01-29

406

Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

407

Membranes of vertically aligned superlong carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

In the present work, we have developed a simple but effective method to prepare superlong vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (SLVA-CNT) and epoxy composite membranes, and we have demonstrated that various liquids, including water, hexane, and dodecane, can effectively pass through the SLVA-CNT membranes. These results were confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. While the mechanical densification was used to further enhance the flow transport through the SLVA-CNT membranes, we developed in this study a magnetic-nanoparticle switching system to turn on and off the flow through the nanotube membrane by simply applying an alternating voltage. The methodologies developed in this study should have a significant implication to the development of various smart membranes for advanced intelligent systems. PMID:21657212

Du, Feng; Qu, Liangti; Xia, Zhenhai; Feng, Lianfang; Dai, Liming

2011-07-01

408

Droplet size and velocity profiles in liquid–liquid horizontal flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and vertical distribution of drops were studied experimentally in dispersed liquid–liquid pipeline flows. Under most conditions the pattern was dual continuous where both phases retain their continuity and there is entrainment in the form of drops of one phase into the other. The investigations were carried out in a stainless steel test section with 38 mm ID with

J Lovick; P Angeli

2004-01-01

409

Vertical antenna embedded in earth with conductive coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical antenna embedded in earth with conductive coating has been investigated by employing the method of integral equation.\\u000a This topic is available to EM-MWD (Electromagnetic Measurement-While-Drilling) system, which is a new real time system for\\u000a drilling measurement. Under the condition that the wave number of the earth is much larger than that of the air, a current\\u000a integral equation

Xia Mingyao; Feng Kongyu

1991-01-01

410

Vertical profiles of acetylene in the troposphere and stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric measurements of acetylene up to altitudes of 30 km are presented. The air samples were collected during three different balloon flights, two of them at 44 deg N, and one at 32 deg N, using balloon-borne, liquid neon-cooled, cryosamplers. Their acetylene concentration was measured in the laboratory by flame ionization gas chromatography. The different profiles at 32 deg N and 44 deg N are discussed with respect to possible vertical exchange processes, and compared with published model calculations.

Rudolph, J.; Ehhalt, D. H.; Khedim, A.

411

Immune Controller Design for Vertical-Joint Industry Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new immune PID controller is designed for a vertical-joint robot which is 6 degreed of freedom. Firstly, the experimental robot system has been set up. The PID controllers of robot joints are designed. Then the immune clone select algorithm (ICSA) is researched and used to set the PID parameters on line, which are the proportional coefficient, the integral coefficient

Dukun Ding; Cunxi Xie; Xuanzi Hu

2009-01-01

412

Further Development of Galileo-GPS RAIM for Vertical Guidance  

E-print Network

Further Development of Galileo-GPS RAIM for Vertical Guidance Alexandru Ene, Stanford University of combined GPS/Galileo signals, positioning error threat space and integrity. He holds a Bachelors anticipated deployment of Galileo, a new partner will rise on the sky of Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Stanford University

413

Strategic Motives for Vertical Separation: Evidence from Retail Gasoline Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers can choose to remain separate from their retailers for both incentive and strategic reasons. In this article, strategic motives for vertical separation are examined empirically. Two datasets are used for the assessment. The first is a cross section of all contracts between private, integrated oil companies and their branded service stations in the city of Vancouver, whereas the second

Margaret E Slade

1998-01-01

414

Film boiling on the inside of vertical tubes with upward flow of the fluid at low qualities  

E-print Network

Flow regimes, local heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions along the wall have been studied for film boiling inside a vertical tube with upward flow of a saturated liquid. The area of interest has been ...

Dougall, R. S.

1963-01-01

415

Plasma/liquid metal interactions during tokamak operation.  

SciTech Connect

One of the critical technological challenges of future tokamak fusion devices is the ability for plasma-facing components to handle both normal and abnormal plasma/surface interaction events that compromise their lifetime and operation of the machine. Under normal operation plasma/surface interactions that are important include: sputtering, particle implantation and recycling, He pumping and ELM (edge localized modes)-induced erosion. In abnormal or off-normal operation: disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are important. To extend PFC lifetime under these conditions, liquid-metals have been considered as candidate PFCs (Plasma-Facing Components), including: liquid lithium, tin-lithium, gallium and tin. Liquid lithium has been measured to have nonlinear increase of physical sputtering with rise in temperature. Such increase can be a result of exposure to ELM-level particle fluxes. The significant increase in particle flux to the divertor and nearby PFCs can enhance sputtering erosion by an order of magnitude or more. In addition from the standpoint of hydrogen recycling and helium pumping liquid lithium appears to be a good candidate plasma-facing material (PFM). Advanced designs of first wall and divertor systems propose the application of liquid-metals as an alternate PFC to contend with high-heat flux constraints of large-scale tokamak devices. Additional issues include PFC operation under disruptions and long temporal instabilities such as VDEs. A comprehensive two-fluid model is developed to integrate core and SOL (scrape-off layer) parameters during ELMs with PFC surface evolution using the HEIGHTS package. Special emphasis is made on the application of lithium as a candidate plasma-facing liquid-metal.

Hassanein, A.; Allain, J. P.; Insepov, Z.; Konkashbaev, I.; Energy Technology

2005-04-01

416

Plasma/Liquid-Metal Interactions During Tokamak Operation  

SciTech Connect

One of the critical technological challenges of future tokamak fusion devices is the ability for plasma-facing components to handle both normal and abnormal plasma/surface interaction events that compromise their lifetime and operation of the machine. Under normal operation plasma/surface interactions that are important include: sputtering, particle implantation and recycling, He pumping and ELM (edge localized modes)-induced erosion. In abnormal or off-normal operation: disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are important. To extend PFC lifetime under these conditions, liquid-metals have been considered as candidate PFCs (Plasma-Facing Components), including: liquid lithium, tin-lithium, gallium and tin.Liquid lithium has been measured to have nonlinear increase of physical sputtering with rise in temperature. Such increase can be a result of exposure to ELM-level particle fluxes. The significant increase in particle flux to the divertor and nearby PFCs can enhance sputtering erosion by an order of magnitude or more. In addition from the standpoint of hydrogen recycling and helium pumping liquid lithium appears to be a good candidate plasma-facing material (PFM). Advanced designs of first wall and divertor systems propose the application of liquid-metals as an alternate PFC to contend with high-heat flux constraints of large-scale tokamak devices. Additional issues include PFC operation under disruptions and long temporal instabilities such as VDEs. A comprehensive two-fluid model is developed to integrate core and SOL (scrape-off layer) parameters during ELMs with PFC surface evolution using the HEIGHTS package. Special emphasis is made on the application of lithium as a candidate plasma-facing liquid-metal.

Hassanein, A.; Allain, J.P.; Insepov, Z.; Konkashbaev, I. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2005-04-15

417

Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

2012-12-18

418

Relationship between the contact angle and the tilt angle on the vertical polymer layer of NLC using various ion beam exposure energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the relationship between surface energy and tilt angle on vertical polyimide (PI) was studied. The study showed that ion beam (IB) exposure using argon gas changes the surface energy of vertical PI as a function of exposure time. This characteristic induces the transition of vertical liquid crystal (LC) orientation from vertical to homogeneous. In this study, we applied the property to fabricate liquid crystal displays (LCD) with both vertical alignment (VA) and twisted nematic (TN) LCDs on vertical PI. The study revealed correlations between various IB exposure energies and surface energies with the same exposure time on vertical PI. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic spectra were analyzed to prove the correlations and transmittance curves via applied voltage to VA, and TN LCDs were evaluated to observe the LC driving performance on IB-irradiated vertical PI.

Lim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Hwan; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Han, Jeong-Min; Hwang, Jeong-Yeon; Seo, Dae-Shik

2009-08-01

419

Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequality of post-tax income among pre-tax equals is evaluated andaggregated to form a global index of horizontal inequity in the income tax.The vertical action of the tax is captured by its inequality effect on averagebetween groups of pre-tax equals. Putting the two together, horizontalinequity measures loss of vertical performance. The identification problem,which has previously been thought insuperable, is addressed by

Peter J. Lambert; Xavier Ramos

1997-01-01

420

Liquid rocket valve assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

1973-01-01

421

Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat  

SciTech Connect

Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

422

The effects of increased attentional demand on the perception of visual vertical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balance and locomotion involve multi-sensory integration while meeting environmental demands. In addition, increased task complexity negatively affects postural control in aging and patient populations. The goal of this pilot study was to examine the effects of aging and cognitive load on the visual perception of vertical. Four young and 3 older individuals participated. Subjective visual vertical (SVV) performance deteriorated more

Lucinda K. Hughey; Rachel Kizony; Claire Perez; Joyce Fung

2008-01-01

423

Mode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates  

E-print Network

for integrated photonic devices and nano photonics. In this paper, we present novel passively mode-locked fiberMode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto novel passively mode-locked fiber lasers using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes synthesized using

Maruyama, Shigeo

424

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2010-07-01

425

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2013-07-01

426

40 CFR 146.8 - Mechanical integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Provisions § 146.8 Mechanical integrity. (a) An injection well has mechanical integrity if: (1) There is no...drinking water through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well bore. (b) One of the following methods...

2014-07-01

427

Liquid jet pumped by rising gas bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From observations of a stream of gas bubbles rising through a liquid, a two-phase mathematical model is proposed for calculating the induced turbulent vertical liquid flow. The bubbles provide a large buoyancy force and the associated drag on the liquid moves the liquid upward. The liquid pumped upward consists of the bubble wakes and the liquid brought into the jet region by turbulent entrainment. The expansion of the gas bubbles as they arise through the liquid is taken into account. The continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically for an axisymmetric air jet submerged in water. Water pumping rates are obtained as a function of air flow rate and depth of submergence. Comparisons are made with limited experimental information in the literature.

Hussain, N. A.; Siegel, R.

1975-01-01

428

Disaster SitRep -A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management Domain  

E-print Network

Disaster SitRep - A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management information delivering platform, the process of collecting, integrating, and analyzing disaster related information from diverse channels becomes more difficult and challenging. Further, information from multiple

Chen, Shu-Ching

429

Vertical organic nanowire arrays: controlled synthesis and chemical sensors.  

PubMed

Vertical organic nanowire arrays of 1,5-diaminoanthraquinone (DAAQ) on solid substrates were prepared by a facile physical vapor transport method. The crystal structure and growth direction of the nanowires were determined with electron diffraction. The color and fluorescence of the DAAQ nanowires can be bleached and quenched by acid vapor and rapidly regenerated by base vapor, making them useful as optical sensor materials. The ease of oriented vertical growth makes them promising nanophotonic elements that may be directly integrated into photonic devices during growth. PMID:19256563

Zhao, Yong Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Huang, Jiaxing

2009-03-11

430

Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.  

PubMed

Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. PMID:25151607

Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

2014-11-01

431

The SNS Liquids Reflectometer  

SciTech Connect

The SNS Liquids Reflectometer [1], installed as one of the first instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source, has now been functional for more than a year. This instrument is designed to view liquid and solid surfaces in specular, off specular, and near-surface small angle scattering geometries. The guide system supplies 2 {angstrom} < {angstrom} < 16.5 {angstrom} neutrons at vertical incident angles ranging from 0{sup o} < {alpha}{sub i} < 5.5{sup o} for free liquid surfaces and up to 45{sup o} for solid surfaces. Three bandwidth choppers, synchronized with the spallation source and operating at 15-60 Hz, provide neutrons in bandwidths ranging from 3.5-14 {angstrom} at a fixed incident angle onto a sample. The sample stage enables all of the motions necessary for positioning liquid and solid surfaces, while the detector arm directs a position-sensitive detector to view the sample at specular or off specular angles up to 90{sup o} and can scan out of the specular plane by up to 30{sup o}.

Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Tao, Xiaodong [ORNL; Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Swader, Onome A [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Kharlampieva, Dr. Eugenia [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Sukhishvili, Prof. Svetlana A. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey

2008-01-01

432

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08

433

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

1983-01-01

434

Ionic liquid functionalized graphene based immunosensor for sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 integrated with Cd(2+)-functionalized nanoporous TiO2 as labels.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) based on dual signal amplification strategy of ionic liquid functionalized graphene and Cd(2+)-functionalized nanoporous TiO2 (f-TiO2-Cd(2+)) has been developed. Ionic liquid functionalized graphene was used to anchor primary CA15-3 antibody (Ab1). f-TiO2-Cd(2+) was employed to immobilize secondary cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) antibody (Ab2) and the resulting nanocomposite (Ab2-f-TiO2-Cd(2+)) was used as trace tag for signal amplification. The fabricated immumosensor displayed a wide range of linear response (0.02-60 U/mL), ultra-low detection limit (0.008 U/mL), good reproducibility, selectivity and stability towards CA15-3. The good performance of the immunosensor can be attributed to (1) high surface-to-volume ratio of graphene which allows high-level immobilization of Ab1, (2) excellent biocompatibility and electron transfer rate originating from ionic liquid functionalized graphene, (3) a highly specific surface area of nanoporous TiO2 that facilitates the adsorption of high amount of Cd(2+) for signal amplification. PMID:24690564

Zhao, Lifang; Wei, Qin; Wu, Hua; Dou, Jinke; Li, He

2014-09-15

435

Vertical Discretization of Hydrostatic Primitive Equations with Finite Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertical finite element (VFE) discretization of hydrostatic primitive equations is developed for the dynamical core of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) system at KIAPS, which is horizontally discretized by a spectral element on a cubed-sphere grid. The governing equations are discretized on a hybrid pressure-based vertical coordinate [1]. Compared with a vertical finite difference (VFD) discretization, which is only first order accurate for non-uniform grids, the VFE has many advantages such that it gives more accurate results, all variables are defined in the same full level, the level of vertical noise might be reduced [2], and it is easily coupled with existing physics packages, developed for a Lorentz staggering grid system. Due to these reasons, we adopted the VFE scheme presented by Untch [2] for the vertical discretization. Instead of using semi-Lagrangian and semi-implicit schemes of ECMWF, we use the Eulerian equations and second-order Runge-Kutta scheme as the first step in implementing the VFE for the dynamical core of the KIAPS's NWP model. Since the Eulerian hydrostatic equations are used in this study, both integral and derivative operators are required to implement the VFE using the Galerkin method with b-splines as basis functions. To compare the accuracy of the VFE with the VFD, the two-dimensional test case of mountain waves is used where physical configuration and initial conditions are the same as that of Durran [3]. In this case, the horizontal and vertical velocities obtained by the analytical solution, VFD, VFE-linear and VFE-cubic are compared to understand their numerical features and the vertical flux of horizontal momentum is also presented as the measurement of solution accuracy since it is sensitive to errors in a solution [3]. It is shown that the VFE with a cubic b-spline function is more accurate than the VFD and VFE with a linear b-spline function as the vertical flux is closer to unity, which will be presented in the conference. Reference Simmons, A. J., Burridge, D. M., 1981: An energy and angular momentum conserving vertical finite difference scheme and hybrid vertical coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 758-766. Untch, A., Hortal, M., 2004: A finite-element schemes for the vertical discretization of the semi-Lagrangian version of the ECMWF forecast model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1505-1530. Durran, D. R., Klemp, J. B., 1983: A compressible model for the simulation of moist mountain waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 2341-2361.

Yi, Tae-Hyeong; Park, Ja-Rin

2014-05-01

436

The orientation of liquid crystals by temperature gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has been known for some time that the molecular orientation of liquid crystals can be affected by the presence of a temperature gradient.Stewart reported in 1936 that, whenp-azoxyanisol was placed in a vertical temperature gradient, the orientation adopted was vertical when the higher temperature was at the bottom and horizontal when the higher temperature was at the top.

P. K. Currie

1973-01-01

437

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

438

Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

Danek, George L.

1993-01-01

439

Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

2004-01-01

440

Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

2014-01-01

441

Performance of tuned liquid column dampers considering maximum liquid motion in seismic vibration control of structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimum design of tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) is usually performed by minimizing the maximum response of structure subjected to stochastic earthquake load without imposing any restrictions on the possible maximum oscillation of the liquid within the vertical column. However, during strong earthquake motion, the maximum oscillation of vertical column of liquid may be equal to or greater than that of the container pipe. Consequently the physical behavior of the hydraulic system may change largely reducing its efficiency. The present study deals with the optimization of TLCD parameters to minimize the vibration effect of structures addressing the limitation on such excessive liquid displacement. This refers to the design of optimum TLCD system which not only assure maximum possible performance in terms of vibration mitigation, but also simultaneously put due importance to the natural constrained criterion of excessive lowering of liquid in the vertical column of TLCD. The constraint is imposed by limiting the maximum displacement of the liquid to the vertical height of the container. Numerical study is performed to elucidate the effect of constraint condition on the optimum parameters and overall performance of TLCD system of protection.

Chakraborty, Subrata; Debbarma, Rama; Marano, Giuseppe Carlo

2012-03-01

442

Recent Progress with Vertical Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical MOS transistors are a promising approach for channel lengths in the range of 100 to 25nm without the need for extreme fine line lithography. These devices provide high satura­ tion currents due to the short channel length and small lateral size due to the 3D-geometry. The channel is defined by epitaxy which can be grown with very good layer

Lothar Risch; Thomas Aeugle; Wolfgang Rosner

1997-01-01

443

Quantum well vertical cavity laser  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus which comprises: quantum well laser vertical cavity structure for lasing in a direction non-parallel to the major dimensions of a quantum well, such laser consisting essentially of an active element containing one or two quantum wells and a cavity dependent upon reflectance as between two distributed feedback mirrors.

Huang, R.F.; Jewell, J.L.; McCall, S.L. Jr.; Tai, K.

1991-03-12

444

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the

Blaugher

1999-01-01

445

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber.

Blaugher; Richard D

1999-01-01

446

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids  

SciTech Connect

This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1992-05-01

447

Integrated two-liquid phase bioconversion and product-recovery processes for the oxidation of alkanes: Process design and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas oleovorans and recombinant strains containing the alkane oxidation genes can product alkane oxidation genes can produce alkane oxidation products in two-liquid phase bioreactor systems. In these bioprocesses the cells, which grow in the aqueous phase, oxidize apolar, non-water soluble substrates. The apolar products typically accumulate in the emulsified apolar phase. The authors have studied both the bioconversion systems and several downstream processing systems to separate and purify alkanols from these two-liquid phase media. Based on the information generated in these studies, the authors have now designed bioconversion and downstream processing systems for the production of 1-alkanols from n-alkanes on a 10 kiloton/yr scale, taking the conversion of n-octane to 1-octanol as a model system. Here, the authors describe overall designs of fed-batch and continuous-fermentation processes for the oxidation of octane to 1-octanol by Pseudomonas oleovoran, and the authors discuss the economics of these processes. The overall performance of each of these two systems has been modeled with Aspen software. Although the continuous process is about 10% more expensive than the fed-batch process, improvements to reduce overall cost can be achieved more easily for continuous than for fed-batch fermentation by decreasing the dilution rate while maintaining near constant productivity. Improvements relevant to both processes can be achieved by increasing the biocatalyst performance, which results in improved overall efficiency, decreased capital investment, and hence, decreased production cost.

Mathys, R.G.; Schmid, A.; Witholt, B.

1999-08-20

448

A geocentric vertical datum for coastal geospatial data infrastructure construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seamless data for coastal mapping and management is an essential element of coastal spatial data, especially when data sources have different accuracy, age and quality. Many applications of geospatial data in coastal zone require the knowledge of the near-shore topography and bathymetry. The coastal mappers are looking for the methods to merge both topographic and bathymetric data, but the current mismatch in vertical surfaces causes difficulties. In order to obtain accurate geospatial information for coastal geospatial data infrastructure construction, a more stable reference datum should be established. This study introduces a seamless geocentric Vertical Datum, and then an ellipsoidal datum is adopted as vertical reference surface. The reference ellipsoid that is most related to GPS is WGS84 and it is used in this paper as the stable reference surface. In coastal application area, WGS-84 datum will be selected to manage data seamlessly. This reference ellipsoidal is chosen as the fundamental vertical reference surface and transformation surface. The geospatial data cannot be integrated without datum conversion. This paper presents a strategy to seamlessly integrate geospatial data in coastal areas.

Wang, Shuangxi; Huang, Wenqian; Wu, Di; Liu, Min

2007-11-01

449

Vertical Photon Transport in Cloud Remote Sensing Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon transport in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds is investigated and applied to cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements for retrieving droplet effective radius. Transport is couched in terms of weighting functions which approximate the relative contribution of individual layers to the overall retrieval. Two vertical weightings are investigated, including one based on the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons in any given layer. A simpler vertical weighting based on the maximum penetration of reflected photons proves useful for solar reflectance measurements. These weighting functions are highly dependent on droplet absorption and solar/viewing geometry. A superposition technique, using adding/doubling radiative transfer procedures, is derived to accurately determine both weightings, avoiding time consuming Monte Carlo methods. Superposition calculations are made for a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Effective radius retrievals from modeled vertically inhomogeneous liquid water clouds are then made using the standard near-infrared bands, and compared with size estimates based on the proposed weighting functions. Agreement between the two methods is generally within several tenths of a micrometer, much better than expected retrieval accuracy. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived weightings can be applied to any multiple scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers.

Platnick, S.

1999-01-01

450

Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL  

SciTech Connect

A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars. The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.

Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.; Grau, M.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tallerico, T.; McIntyre, G.; Lederle, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.

2011-03-28

451

HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATION FOR TWO PHASE FLOW IN VERTICAL PIPES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many industrial applications, such as the flow of natural gas and oil in flowlines and wellbores, the knowledge of nonboiling two-phase, two-component (liquid and permanent gas) heat transfer is required. Several heat transfer correlations for forced convective heat transfer during gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical pipes have been published over the past 40 years. These correlations were developed based

A. J. Ghajar; L. M. Tam; H. K. Tam

452

Sedimentation of a sphere near a vertical wall in an Oldroyd-B fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A code based on the distributed Lagrange multiplier\\/fictitious domain method (DLM) is used to study the motion of a sphere sedimenting in a viscoelastic liquid near a vertical wall. The viscoelastic liquid is assumed to be shear thinning and modeled by a shear-thinning Oldroyd-B model. Our simulations show that when the Deborah number based on the sphere velocity is O(1)

P. Singh; D. D. Joseph

2000-01-01

453

Vertical leakage and vertically averaged vertical conductance for Karst Lakes in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the karst lake district in peninsular Florida in the southeastern United States, as many as 70% of the lakes lack surface outlets, and groundwater outflow is an important part of the water budgets of these lakes. For 11 karst lakes in the Central Lake District, vertical leakage from the lakes to the upper Floridan aquifer averages 0.12 to 4.27

L. H. Motz

1998-01-01

454

Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering from Vertical Arrays of Silver Nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of optical studies of surface plasmons and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from vertical arrays of Ag nanowires. Arrays based on Ag wires with mean diameters d=100 nm have been studied. The wires were grown electrochemically in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). To test the SERS activity of these vertical Ag nanowires arrays, we have carried out experiments to detect pyridine on the surface of the nanowires. The SERS enhancement factor is found to be in the order of 10^6 compared to the Raman signal from bulk liquid. We also studied the surface plasmons of these nanowire arrays in transmission with the incident photon wavevector approximately parallel to the wire axis. Calculations of the plasmon resonances have been made and are found in reasonable agreement with the data.

Chen, G.; Habib, J.; Russin, T.; Guitierrez, H. G.; Eklund, Peter

2006-03-01

455

Emerging energy and environmental applications of vertically-oriented graphenes.  

PubMed

Graphene nanosheets arranged perpendicularly to the substrate surface, i.e., vertically-oriented graphenes (VGs), have many unique morphological and structural features that can lead to exciting properties. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition enables the growth of VGs on various substrates using gas, liquid, or solid precursors. Compared with conventional randomly-oriented graphenes, VGs' vertical orientation on the substrate, non-agglomerated morphology, controlled inter-sheet connectivity, as well as sharp and exposed edges make them very promising for a variety of applications. The focus of this tutorial review is on plasma-enabled simple yet efficient synthesis of VGs and their properties that lead to emerging energy and environmental applications, ranging from energy storage, energy conversion, sensing, to green corona discharges for pollution control. PMID:25711336

Bo, Zheng; Mao, Shun; Jun Han, Zhao; Cen, Kefa; Chen, Junhong; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

2015-04-10

456

Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity (i.e., the ease with which it is traded) and traders' funding liquidity (i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding). Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and margin requirements, depends on the assets'

Markus K. Brunnermeier; Lasse Heje Pedersen

2009-01-01

457

Prediction of liquid superheat around spherical bubbles  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure in a bubble is dependent upon the surrounding liquid pressure, the surface tension of the fluid, and the radius of curvature of the liquid/vapor interface. Since the bubble saturation temperature, and hence the surrounding liquid temperature, is above the liquid saturation temperature, the liquid is referred to as superheated. The superheat is usually related to the vapor/liquid pressure difference by integrating the Clapeyron equation. When this integration is carried out by assuming some or all of the integrand to be constant, significant errors can occur in the superheat prediction for bubbles smaller than 1 {micro}m. A curve fit of saturation temperature vs. pressure data is shown to be a much simpler and accurate method of determining the liquid superheat required for equilibrium.

Martin-Dominguez, I.R. [Inst. Tecnologico de Durango (Mexico). Dept. de Metal-Mecanica; McDonald, T.W. [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-11-01

458

Fast-Response Single Cell Gap Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display (TR-LCD) using dual fringing field switching mode is proposed, in which a positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal is vertically aligned and driven by fringing fields from both substrates. By optimizing the electrode width and gap of the transmissive and reflective regions, this TR-LCD exhibits a fast response time, high optical efficiency, single

Meizi Jiao; Shin-Tson Wu; Wing-Kit Choi

2009-01-01

459

A high precision profilometer based on vertical scanning microscopic interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A profilometer used for 3 dimension measurement of micro-surface topography is presented. The instrument is based on the vertical\\u000a scanning microscopic interferometry (VSMI). A Linnik type interference microscope is used and the interferograms which present\\u000a changes of surface profile are recorded with a CCD camera. A developed nano-positioning work stage with an integrated optical\\u000a grating displacement measuring system realizes the

Rong Dai; Tie-bang Xie; Wen Gong; Su-ping Chang

2008-01-01

460

Improving the Lateral Resolution of Quartz Tuning Fork-Based Sensors in Liquid by Integrating Commercial AFM Tips into the Fiber End  

PubMed Central

The use of quartz tuning fork sensors as probes for scanning probe microscopy is growing in popularity. Working in shear mode, some methods achieve a lateral resolution comparable with that obtained with standard cantilevered probes, but only in experiments conducted in air or vacuum. Here, we report a method to produce and use commercial AFM tips in electrically driven quartz tuning fork sensors operating in shear mode in a liquid environment. The process is based on attaching a standard AFM tip to the end of a fiber probe which has previously been sharpened. Only the end of the probe is immersed in the buffer solution during imaging. The lateral resolution achieved is about 6 times higher than that of the etched microfiber on its own. PMID:25594596

Gonzalez, Laura; Martínez-Martín, David; Otero, Jorge; de Pablo, Pedro José; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Gómez-Herrero, Julio

2015-01-01