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This article discusses vesico-vaginalfistulae: their causes, prevention, and treatment. A vesico-vaginalfistula is an obstetric complication consisting of a hole in the vaginal wall connecting to the bladder or rectum, often resulting from prolonged and obstructed labor. Most women with fistulae are poor, young, malnourished from birth, chronically anemic, susceptible to disease, and often physically stunted. Incontinence is an immediate effect of fistulae. Nerves in the pelvic region may also be damaged, leading to difficulty in walking. Women with fistulae may smell strongly of urine, and thus are often abandoned by their husbands and considered outcasts in the community. A small proportion of fistulae may heal if the woman is hospitalized and the bladder is drained continuously. Surgical repair is also possible. Obstetric fistulae can be prevented through nutritional improvement, access to family planning, presence of a skilled attendant during childbirth, delaying marriage and first birth, use of a partograph, and use of maternity waiting homes. PMID:12322285
One hundred and thirteen patients with vesico-vaginalfistula were seen at the University of California Hospital from 1932 through 1959. The most common cause of fistula was trauma associated with pelvic operation, and the operation most often involved was total abdominal hysterectomy. Malignant disease of the pelvic organs was the second most common cause, while radiation therapy and obstetrical causes were next in the order of frequency. Three fistulas healed spontaneously. Twelve bladder by-pass operations were done and 54 repairs were carried out in 46 patients. Thirty-eight patients (82.6 per cent) were cured after one or more repair operations. A variety of operative approaches were used, selected in accordance with the needs of the individual case. Bladder distention postoperatively, due to a plugged catheter, was held responsible for failure of the repair in three cases, and this complication was considered preventable. Close attention to surgical technique, the recognition of bladder injury, and proper repair at the time of operation are prime factors in the prevention of vesico-vaginalfistula.
Obstetrical vesico-vaginalfistulas in Africa are very frequent and are correlated with the insufficiency or even the lack of health structures and sanitary conditions. They follow up a dystocic parturition, and their prevention requires a correct surveillance of pregnancy and parturition. Their pathogenesis consists in a durable compression of the pelvic cavity by the foetal head, inducing ischemia and later on necrosis. Their difficult treatment is based on clinical inspection which makes possible to distinguish several pathological types of fistulas. Surgical tactic will be selected according to the size of the fistula, the conservation or the destruction of the uretra with the vesico-uretral sphincters, the importance of perifistula sclerosis. BRACQUEHAYE'S operation is the basis of the conservatory treatment, associated or not with a technic restoring the urinary continence: either the INGELMAN-SUNDBERG operation of the LE GUYADER rectomyoplasty. When uretra is destroyed, the best palliative intervention is probably the building up of a rectal neobladder. These operations can be performed under conditions often prevailling in Africa. In most cases, they have restored normal social life for the women affected. But setbacks are not rare, and demonstrate the importance of prophylaxis. PMID:6999282
Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginalfistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginalfistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications.
Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginalfistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginalfistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications. PMID:24116334
This was a case of Gishiri cut in a patient with Meyer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome resulting in a vesico-vaginalfistula and urethral loss. This followed an attempt to enlarge and lengthen the vagina to enhance penile penetration. Few cases of MRKH syndrome presenting with complications after an attempt at treatment by traditional birth attendants have been reported. This report is particularly of essence as most urinary fistulae in Nigeria are obstetric fistulae following prolonged obstructed labour. PMID:20348986
Background and Aim: The urinary bladder becomes small, contracted and is associated with excess pelvic fat in long standing cases of vesico-vaginalfistulas (VVFs). The aim of this new technique was to use this excess pelvic fat for harvesting an interposition flap. Materials and Methods: An interposition flap of peri-vesical fat was raised from the anterior, superior and posterior surfaces of the urinary bladder and was interposed between the right angle closed vaginal vault and the urinary bladder to strengthen the repair. This technique was used in two patients of VVFs. Results: Both the patients had successful outcome and were able to retain sufficient quantity of urine at 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: Peri-vesical fat flap proved an effective interposition flap in the repairs of VVFs in selected cases.
Introduction We report a case of a vesico-vaginalfistula (VVF) post cold cup biopsy; to our knowledge this is the only reported case. We present the clinical history/presentation, investigation and the outcome of the treatment. VVFs are among the most distressing complications of gynecologic and obstetric procedures. The risk of developing a VVF is more than 1% after radical surgery and radiotherapy for malignancies. Management of these fistulas has been better defined and standardized over the last decade. Methods and results A case of low grade superficial bladder cancer was treated with multiple resections of bladder tumor and a single installation of mitomycin post initial resection which successfully cleared her bladder cancer, but nevertheless led to a small size and scarred bladder. In addition there was a long history of smoking with its effects on tissue integrity and healing. VVFs are very rare and are an unpleasant outcome post a cold cup biopsy, adding to the psychological and social effects of the surgical treatment. Conclusion Although cold cup biopsy is a normal day procedure performed by both residents and consultants, consensus should exist on how to treat a patient who has a bladder with defective integrity and small capacity. The rate of successful fistula repair reported in the literature varies between 70% and 100% in nonradiated patients, with similar results when a vaginal or abdominal approach is performed, the mean success rates being 91% and 97%, respectively.
Mawhinney, Abigail; Hameed, Ammar; Thwaini, Ali; Mulholland, Colin
A 10% sample was drawn from 3000 records on vesicovaginal fistulae operations performed at the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital for Poor Women with Childbirth Injuries and their content were analyzed. In 88% of the cases under review the operation was classified as successful. The results of this study underline the tremendous maternal health gains which can be achieved by appropriate obstetric care in case of obstructed labour. It also reinforced the need for early detection and referral of high risk births among the very young mothers who are likely to experience an obstructed labour, the loss of the child, vesico-vaginalfistulae and possibly a ruptured uterus. In the absence of likely increases in the availability of transport, the building of waiting homes at maternal clinics is encouraged so that women can await delivery in the vicinity of a referral centre. There is a need for increased attendance of delivery by trained personnel as well as for continuing education for both staff and traditional birth attendants. It is further recommended to train former patients as helpers for the dedicated care which needs to be extended to the unfortunate, and often stigmatized victims. PMID:7571703
The problem of maternal ill-health is growing all over the world, especially in developing countries. Data from the international workshop on vesico-vaginalfistulae cited that there are 2 million women suffering from fistulae, 200,000 of them in Nigeria. In response to this crisis, fistula-treating hospitals have been set up and training of doctors is taking place in several countries in Africa. However, maternal morbidity and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa are not decreasing. This situation is mainly attributed to poverty, wherein the basic essentials such as food, water, and sanitation are lacking. Yet, a number of health care providers are doing their job very well. Noteworthy, for instance, is the introduction of well supervised, trained traditional birth attendants, which resulted in a decline in maternal mortality in a rural area in Nigeria; clinics that have been staffed by trained midwives and follow strict protocol guidelines; health care programs that have provided better education, better antenatal care, and better use of community health workers in Ethiopia; and the building of maternity waiting homes near maternity hospitals for women considered to be at risk. PMID:12322286
Vaginalfistula (VF) is a devastating complication following restorative proctocolectomy. PURPOSE: This study was designed to examine the perioperative factors influencing the outcome and management of vaginalfistula. METHOD: Between October 1983 and September 1994, 526 women underwent restorative proctocolectomy. Nineteen develop VF (3.6 percent), and six were referred from other institutions with this complication. These 25 women were followed
Patrick Y. Lee; Victor W. Fazio; James M. Church; Tracy L. Hull; Kong-Weng Eu; Ian C. Lavery
We present the case of a vesicouterine fistula secondary to a caesarean section indicated due to the disproportion the pelvis and the head of the baby. This kind of fistula is due fundamentally to obstetric causes, especially to caesarean sections in developed countries and to prolonged labour in developing countries. The commonest clinical presentation is urinary incontinence in the form of continuous or intermittent urinary leaks. Surgical treatment is generally the therapy of choice, although, in the case of small fistulas, conservative treatment is feasible. The best form of prevention is correct indication of caesarean section and careful surgical technique. PMID:12812125
Medina Ramos, N; Cerezuela Requena, J F; Martín Martínez, A; García Hernández, J A; Chesa Ponce, N
Objective: To determine the appropriateness of vaginal approach for gynecological supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive women with gynecological supratrigonal VesicoVaginalFistulae (VVF) repaired at the fistula unit of Urogynecology department between 1996 and 2011 was done.Out of 48 cases of supratrigonal VVF of gynecological origin identified; 34 (70.8%) cases were repaired vaginally and 14 (36.8%) abdominally with a mean follow-up period of 52.8 (2-132) months. Results: Overall 95.8% were successfully cured at first attempt. The success rate of vaginal repair (94.8%) at first attempt was comparable to that of abdominal repair (100%) (P value = 0.8946). Amongst two failed vaginal repairs, one was successfully cured by subsequent vaginal repair and other by abdominal repair. Conclusion: Three fourth gynecological supratrigonal VVF can be repaired vaginally in first attempt with success rate comparable to abdominal approach. On the basis of this study we postulate that vaginal approach should be preferred over abdominal approach for repair of all vaginally accessible supratrigonal VVF of gynecological origin.
Association between Prune belly syndrome (PBS) and urethral hypoplasia is an unusual condition. It is usually fatal unless there is a communication between the fetal bladder and the amniotic sac. We report a case of PBS with urethral hypoplasia and congenital vesico-cutaneous fistula in a male neonate. Patient underwent cutaneous vesicostomy and was discharged for close follow up of his renal function and for future reconstruction.
Sarhan, Osama M.; Al-Ghanbar, Mustafa S.; Nakshabandi, Ziad M.
Association between Prune belly syndrome (PBS) and urethral hypoplasia is an unusual condition. It is usually fatal unless there is a communication between the fetal bladder and the amniotic sac. We report a case of PBS with urethral hypoplasia and congenital vesico-cutaneous fistula in a male neonate. Patient underwent cutaneous vesicostomy and was discharged for close follow up of his renal function and for future reconstruction. PMID:24311916
Sarhan, Osama M; Al-Ghanbar, Mustafa S; Nakshabandi, Ziad M
The authors report a series of 22 cases of post-obstetrical genito-urinary lesions. In addition, they analyse the cases of 12 patients suffering of vesico-vaginalfistulae (9) or uretero-vaginalfistulae (3). They point out evident regression of these fistulae in this country which become of simple type and also emphasize on preventive measures which should be taken to reduce even more its frequency. PMID:8514995
Vagino-vesico-cutaneous fistula is a rare condition characterised by continuous dribbling of urine and secondary infection of the involved areas with poor self-esteem. Osteomyelitis is delayed complication of radiotherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Treatment of these conditions is a challenging entity especially after previous surgery and irradiation. We present a case of vesicocutaneous - vesicovaginalfistula with osteomyelits of the right pubic bone which was a late complication of post-cervical cancer radiotherapy.
Contemporary literature regarding the management of neobladder-vaginalfistula and stress urinary incontinence following radical cystectomy and neobladder reconstruction in women is reviewed in this article. Neobladder-vaginalfistula is uncommon but mandates meticulous repair. Compared to the native bladder, the wall of the neobladder is much thinner that may render it vulnerable to fistulization. Preservation of the anterior vaginal wall during radical cystectomy decreases the likelihood of pouch-vaginalfistula. Omental flap interposition between the vaginal stump and neobladder at cystectomy may not always prevent fistulization if anterior vaginal wall is violated or overlapping suture lines are not avoided. Surgery for intractable stress incontinence following neobladder reconstruction is fraught with severe complications and requires judicious use of allograft pubovaginal slingplasty possibly with bone anchors. Martius flap interposition appears to play a crucial role in improving the outcome following transvaginal repair of the neobladder-vaginalfistula in multiple non-overlapping layers. PMID:16160880
Tunuguntla, Hari S G R; Manoharan, Murugesan; Gousse, Angelo E
We present a case of a thick transverse vaginal septum with a vesicovaginal fistula treated with vaginal expansion using dilators, followed by surgery. A 27-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vaginal atresia and cyclical hematuria. Urethroscopy and cystography showed a vesicovaginal fistula between the proximal vagina and bladder. The vaginal septum was 4 cm thick. Over a 6-month period, the distal vagina was expanded with the use of dilators and the septum was sufficiently thinned. Reconstruction using a transvaginal and transabdominal approach created a direct anastomosis between the proximal and distal vagina. No vaginal strictures or contractures in the anastomotic region have been observed during the 12 months following surgery. The combination of expansion and subsequent reconstructive surgery for the treatment of a thick transverse vaginal septum with a vesicovaginal fistula was less invasive than alternative surgical approaches and provided the desired outcome. PMID:22109703
Menouria due to congenital vesicovaginal fistula is rare entity. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with\\u000a menouria. On evaluation, she had congenital vesicovaginal fistula and obstructing complete vaginal septum. McIndoe vaginoplasty\\u000a and fistula repair through vaginal route was performed.
Menouria due to congenital vesicovaginal fistula is rare entity. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with menouria. On evaluation, she had congenital vesicovaginal fistula and obstructing complete vaginal septum. McIndoe vaginoplasty and fistula repair through vaginal route was performed. PMID:20737136
Congenital vesicovaginal fistula is an extreme rarity. We report on a case of a 22-year-old lady who presented with menouria and infertility. On evaluation, she was found to have congenital vesicovaginal fistula, a nonfunctioning right kidney with ectopic ureter and transverse vaginal septum. Abdominal repair of the fistula, right nephroureterectomy, and excision of the vaginal septum was performed. PMID:17143654
We present a case of iatrogenic urethrovaginal fistula with transverse vaginal septum. The patient presented with cyclical hematuria and infertility. The vagina was blind-ending. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed normal uterus with transverse vaginal septum. The cystoscopic examination during cyclical hematuria revealed bloody efflux through a small fistula below the internal urethral sphincter. Vaginoplasty and repair of the urethrovaginal fistula was done. The vagina was reconstructed using an amniotic mould. The report emphasizes the importance of MRI and cystoscopy in diagnosing such rare and complex anomalies. PMID:22279328
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very commonly encountered urogynaecological entity in developing countries such as India. The most common cause of VVF in developing counties is secondary to obstructive labour. We report a very unusual case of VVF in a young woman that developed due to insertion of an unknown vaginal herb for treatment of primary infertility. Cystoscopy showed a single trigonal fistula measuring 3×2 cm just near the bladder neck. Vaginoscopy revealed cicatrised less capacious vagina and unhealthy vaginal mucosa. She was treated with transvaginal VVF repair using Martius flap interposition which leaked on 10th postoperative day. She underwent re-evaluation and another transvaginal fistula repair for small trigonal residual fistula after 3 months. She is doing well during the follow-up of 2 years. She attained sexual activity after 3 months of surgical repair but could not conceive. PMID:24092608
Background: Urinary–vaginalfistula is one of the most common and dreaded complications of obstetric trauma in developing countries. Management of these fistulas is complicated by the presence of substantial urethral loss and the tendency of the repair to break down.Study Design: We retrospectively studied 46 patients with urinary–vaginalfistulas operated on in our institution over 5 years. Most of the
N. P Rangnekar; N Imdad Ali; S. A Kaul; H. R Pathak
Congenital vesicovaginal fistula is an extreme rarity. We report on a case of a 22-year-old lady who presented with menouria\\u000a and infertility. On evaluation, she was found to have congenital vesicovaginal fistula, a nonfunctioning right kidney with\\u000a ectopic ureter and transverse vaginal septum. Abdominal repair of the fistula, right nephroureterectomy, and excision of the\\u000a vaginal septum was performed.
An 18-year-old woman presented with history of cyclic hematuria, abdominal pain, and a mass in the hypogastrium. She was found\\u000a to have transverse vaginal septum in the lower one-third of her vagina with congenital vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) and a dead\\u000a fetus of approximately 20 weeks gestation. She underwent vaginotomy and removal of the dead fetus. Vaginal repair of VVF was\\u000a carried
An 18-year-old woman presented with history of cyclic hematuria, abdominal pain, and a mass in the hypogastrium. She was found to have transverse vaginal septum in the lower one-third of her vagina with congenital vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) and a dead fetus of approximately 20 weeks gestation. She underwent vaginotomy and removal of the dead fetus. Vaginal repair of VVF was carried out 3 months later. PMID:16897124
Surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has become very pop- ular after respectable success with minimal invasive surgeries. This is the first report of long term vaginocutaneous fistula (VCF) plus inguinal abcess after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT). A 67 year-old woman with vaginal discharge lasting more than 3 years complained with a painful swelling in the left inguinal area for the last three months. She had a medical history of TVT sling procedure for SUI six years ago. She had no history of pelvic surgery, cancer treatment or pelvic irradiation before or after TVT sling. No urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula was found in physical examination and cystocopy. MRI showed a vaginocutenaous fistula and inguinal abcess. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for VCF after TVT. PMID:23820661
?ahin, Ali Feyzullah; ?lbey, Yusuf Özlem; ?ahin, Nur
A 67-year-old lady presented to the surgical outpatient clinic with a 4 month history of recurrent purulent discharge from her left buttock. Four years and 4 months prior to this she underwent a posterior intravaginal slingoplasty for vaginal prolapse and urinary stress incontinence. An MRI demonstrated a long gluteo-vaginalfistula tract from the posterior wall of the vaginal vault through the left ischiorectal fossa to the skin. An examination under anaesthesia revealed that the fistulous tract was surrounding the intact mesh used for the posterior intravaginal slingoplasty. The mesh was removed, the fistula tract excised and the perineal wound marsupialised. The patient was discharged 5 days later. The wound healed within 4 weeks and she remains sepsis free 2 years on.
Sivarajah, Vernon; Bello, Sean OZ; Yiu, Chu Yiu; Oke, Olatokunbo
Background: Recto-vaginalfistula is primarily one of the co-morbidities of vaginal delivery. These patients suffer from persistent malodor vaginal discharge. Various surgical techniques have been employed by surgeons in the course of time. This is the first trial of applying Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) as a bio-prosthesis in repairing recto-vaginalfistula. Materials and Methods: In a prospective animal study, 8 mixed-breed female dogs weighing 23-27 kg with the age of 12-18 months were selected. They were randomly divided into two groups for standard recto-vaginalfistula repair and fistula repair with human amniotic membrane. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were performed to indicate statistical differences. Results: After 6 weeks, fistulas were evaluated both grossly and microscopically. In gross examination, there were no difference between the two groups and healing of fistula seemed to have been occurred in all dogs expect for one which had a persistent patent fistulous tract. Microscopic healing was scored according to epithelialization, collagenization inflammation, ulcer and necrosis of samples. Healing score was significantly higher in the HAM group than the standard group (P = 0.029). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that using HAM as a bio-prosthesis to repair recto-vaginalfistula would result in better surgical and histological outcomes comparing to simple repair.
Roshanravan, Reza; Ghahramani, Leila; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Mohammadipour, Mastoureh; Moslemi, Sam; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid
An 18-year-old female presented with primary amenorrhea and progressive cyclic abdominal pain, which prompted emergency exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperative findings revealed absent cervix and vagina, partial bicornuate uterus, hematometra, left tubal endometriosis, ruptured left endometrioma and left renal agenesis. Left salpingectomy, left oophorocystectomy, hysterotomy, evacuation of menstrual blood and transverse loop colostomy were performed. Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate was administered to suppress menses. On re-exploration, utero-rectovestibular fistula anastomosis was described with the distal rectovestibular fistula functioning as a neovagina. Cyclic menses occurred thereafter. Endorectal pull-through with anoplasty was performed after the fistulous tract healed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cervico-vaginal agenesis associated with imperforate anus and rectovestibular fistula. Early diagnosis and surgery are necessary to avoid complications such as endometriosis. The aim was to preserve fertility with conservative management. PMID:18588621
A 13-year-old patient with a complaint of worsening lower abdominal pain during the past 4 months was admitted to the emergency department. An abdominopelvic ultrasound scan revealed a distended uterocervical cavity suggestive of hematometrocolpos. Imperforate hymen was observed on examination of the external genitalia. MRI scan revealed an air-fluid level representing pyometrocolpos within a distended vagina. Posterior vaginal extraperitoneal leakage as the sign of a fistula between the vagina and the rectovaginal space was detected. Although laparoscopic approach was planned, malodorous pus expelled after the insertion of the Veress needle, it was decided to proceed to laparotomy. Pus with peritoneal microabscess formations was observed at laparotomy. The imperforate hymen and TVS were excised vaginally. A more complex anomaly should be suspected in cases with hematometra and concomitant imperforated hymen without any bulging and thorough evaluation using radiological imaging techniques should be performed before surgical approach. PMID:24660080
A fistula is an abnormal connection between two parts inside of the body. Fistulas may develop between different organs, such as between ... two arteries. Some people are born with a fistula. Other common causes of fistulas include Complications from ...
AIM: To communicate our findings on successful treatment of recto-vaginalfistulas (RVFs) after prosthetic reinforcement surgery of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: A retrospective single center study between 1998 and 2008 was performed. A total of 80 patients with RVF were identified, of which five patients (6%), with a mean age of 65 years (range: 52-73), had undergone previous surgery for POP with prosthetic reinforcement. RESULTS: All patients complained about ongoing vaginal infections and febrile episodes. These symptoms were reported after a mean period of 18 mo after POP repair. As a first intervention, three patients underwent ablation of the prosthetic material (PM). As a second intervention, open proctectomy with a primary anastomosis, an omental patch, and a protective ileostomy were performed in two patients. One patient required a terminal colostomy due to complete destruction of the anal sphincters. In two other patients, ablation of the PM and proctectomy was performed as a one-step procedure. The postoperative course in all patients was uneventful, with a mean length of hospitalization of 20 d (range: 15-30). Closure of the ileostomy was achieved in all four patients within four months. After a mean period of 35 mo (range: 4-60) of follow-up, no recurrence was observed with normal continence in four patients. CONCLUSION: In our experience, the definitive treatment of high RVFs after PM repair for POP necessitates ablation of the PM, proctectomy with a primary colo-rectal anastomosis, an omental patch interposition, and a temporary ileostomy.
Objective. In irreparable or recurrent vesicovaginal fistulas and cloacal defects following high-dose irradiation therapy for gynecological malignancies, urinary diversion is the last resort to achieve a socially acceptable solution. In a select group of young and tumor-free patients, additional vaginal reconstruction may be indicated. Multiple operative procedures are available, but the results are often disappointing in the previously irradiated area.Materials
Joachim Leissner; Peter Black; Dragana Filipas; Margit Fisch; Rudolf Hohenfellner
Recto-urinary, recto-vaginal and ileo-anal pouch-associated fistulae are rare yet a significant clinical problem due to their profound impact on patients' quality of life and are a challenge to repair. In this report, we describe repair of these complex fistulae using a modified trans-sphincteric posterior sagittal approach with Surgisis™ mesh and fibrin sealant and review our repair outcomes. PMID:23095950
We report a case of grade III pseudomyxoma peritonei revealed by mucusuria and abdominal mass. These symptoms are unusual; the most frequent clinical presentation is acute appendicitis or progressively increasing abdominal diameter. PMID:24462837
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the assessment of suspected vaginal pathology. This pictorial review demonstrates the MRI features and some of the histopathological findings of a variety of vaginal conditions. These may be congenital (total vaginal agenesis, partial vaginal agenesis, longitudinal vaginal septum, transverse vaginal septum), benign (Bartholin's cyst, diffuse vaginal inflammation, invasive endometriosis, ureterovaginal fistula, post-surgical appearances with the formation of a neovagina and adhesions) or malignant, usually due to extension or recurrence from another pelvic malignancy. In this paper, examples of the above are described and illustrated together with examples of the much rarer primary vaginal malignancies. PMID:16038691
\\u000a Urogenital fistulae are a rare condition in western countries. Due to the wide variety and individuality of the clinical manifestations\\u000a of these injuries, it is practically impossible to find and create common guidelines for treatment. Prevention of urogenital\\u000a fistulae can be achieved through both improvements in obstetric care and profound training in vaginal surgery. The success\\u000a of any surgical treatment
Background Rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) have multiple causes, size and location on which the surgical treatment depends. Description The Authors consider different approaches to RVFs and describe a clinical case of recurrent high RVF. Conclusions Most RVFs can be successfully repaired, although many interventions may be necessary. A colostomy with delayed repair may improve RVFs outcome. Moreover, several authors indicate Mucosal Advancement Flap and Babcock-Bacon technique as the treatments of choice respectively for low and high RVFs (complex and recurrent) and emphasize the placement of endoscopic prothesis in cases of difficult healing of the anastomosis.
To our knowledge, peritoneovaginal fistula is a complication of cystectomy that has not been reported before. We describe 2 patients in whom a transvaginal approach using a Martius flap was utilized to repair persistent vaginal leakage after cystectomy. At a mean follow-up of 20 months, both patients are free from vaginal leakage and have no evidence of recurrent fistula. This approach offers a safe and effective way to repair a peritoneovaginal fistula in a cystectomy patient. PMID:10925104
Blander, D S; Zimmern, P E; Lemack, G E; Sagalowsky, A I
Objective The abdominal route of genitourinary fistula repair may be associated with longer term hospitalisation, hospital-associated infection and increased resource requirements. We examined: (1) the factors influencing the route of repair; (2) the influence of the route of repair on fistula closure 3 months following surgery; and (3) whether the influence of the route of repair on repair outcome varied by whether or not women met the published indications for abdominal repair. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eleven health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Population The 1274 women with genitourinary fistula presenting for surgical repair services. Methods Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were generated using log-binomial and Poisson (log-link) regression. Multivariable regression and propensity score matching were employed to adjust for confounding. Main outcome measures Abdominal route of repair and fistula closure at 3 months following fistula repair surgery. Results Published indications for abdominal route of repair (extensive scarring or tissue loss, genital infibulation, ureteric involvement, trigonal, supratrigonal, vesico-uterine or intracervical location or other abdominal pathology) predicted the abdominal route [adjusted risk ratio (ARR), 15.56; 95% CI, 2.12–114.00]. A vaginal route of repair was associated with increased risk of failed closure (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05–1.88); stratified analyses suggested elevated risk among women meeting indications for the abdominal route. Conclusions Additional studies powered to test effect modification hypotheses are warranted to confirm whether the abdominal route of repair is beneficial for certain women.
Frajzyngier, V; Ruminjo, J; Asiimwe, F; Barry, TH; Bello, A; Danladi, D; Ganda, SO; Idris, S; Inoussa, M; Lynch, M; Mussell, F; Podder, DC; Barone, MA
Vesicovaginal fistulas are among the most distressing complications of gynecologic and obstetric procedures. The risk of developing vesicovaginal fistula is more than 1% after radical surgery and radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. Management of these fistulas has been better defined and standardized over the last decade. We describe in this paper the success rate reported in the literature by treatment modality and the guidelines used at our teaching hospitals, University of Rome Campus Biomedico and University of Miami School of Medicine. In general, our preferred approach is a trans-vaginal repair. To the performance of the surgical treatment, we recommend a minimum of a 4-6 week's wait from the onset of the fistula. The vaginal repair techniques can be categorized as to those that are modifications of the Latzko procedure or a layered closure with or without a Martius flap. The most frequently used abdominal approaches are the bivalve technique or the fistula excision. Radiated fistulas usually require a more individualized management and complex surgical procedures. The rate of successful fistula repair reported in the literature varies between 70 and 100% in non-radiated patients, with similar results when a vaginal or abdominal approach is performed, the mean success rates being 91 and 97%, respectively. Fistulas in radiated patients are less frequently repaired and the success rate varies between 40 and 100%. In this setting many institutions prefer to perform a urinary diversion. In conclusion, the vaginal approach of vesicovaginal fistulas repair should be the preferred one. Transvaginal repairs achieve comparable success rates, while minimizing operative complications, hospital stay, blood loss, and post surgical pain. We recommend waiting at least 4-6 weeks prior to attempting repair of a vesicovaginal fistula. It is acceptable to repeat the repair through a vaginal approach even after a first vaginal approach failure. In the more individualized management of fistulas associated with radiation, the vaginal approach should still be considered. PMID:14693342
Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal ... Most gastrointestinal fistulas occur after surgery. Other causes include: Gastrointestinal obstruction Inflammatory processes, such as infection or inflammatory bowel disease (most ...
To improve surgical outcomes in patients with complicated recurrent, radiation-induced, giant and multiple vesicovaginal fistulas, we have developed a new combined method of fistuloplasty (patent 21350999). The method was used in 12 of 32 operations made in 1997-2007 in the urological clinic of the Kazan Medical University for vesicovaginal fistula in patients aged 19 to 72 years. The technique was applied in women with vesicovaginal fistula located close to the ureteral orifice. Good results of the operation were achieved due to leak-proof sutures, accurate dissection of the bladder from the vagina and intact blood supply of the tissues. Two surgical approaches were used: transvesical and vaginal. Neither complications nor relapses occurred in all 12 patients operated by the proposed technique of combined fistuloplasty which proved to be effective in recurrent, complicated, combined fistulas and is a method of choice in complicated, recurrent, radiation-induced, giant and multiple fistulas. PMID:20973131
Management of vaginal prolapse in the elderly lacks a uniform consensus and continues to remain challenging. The authors report a case of an elderly lady who presented with a spontaneous vaginal evisceration. She had a long-standing vaginal prolapse being controlled by a shelf pessary, which, in her case became displaced 2 weeks prior to admission. The patient underwent a laparotomy with an intent to replace the bowel back within the peritoneal cavity and repair the vault. During the pelvic floor repair, she sustained an inadvertent button-hole injury to the rectum, which was oversewn. She went on to develop a rectovaginal fistula requiring a de-functioning colostomy. The patient made good recovery subsequently.
I, Siddiqui; A, Samee; C, Hall; J, Cooper; F, O'Mahony
Vaginal dryness is present when the tissues of the vagina are no longer well-lubricated and healthy. When ... sexual intercourse more comfortable. It also helps decrease vaginal dryness. If estrogen levels drop off, the vaginal tissue ...
... symptoms. Common causes are bacterial infections, trichomoniasis, and yeast infections. Some other causes of vaginal symptoms include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems depends ...
Colovesical fistulas were identified in 42 patients. Diverticulitis was the underlying cause in 40 per cent of the patients. Carcinoma of the colon or cervix caused 33 per cent of the fistulas. Cystoscopy was the most effective procedure in diagnosing the fistulas. Surgical therapy had to be individualized to the patient's condition. Fistulas secondary to radiation were associated with a high complication rate.
Leiomyomas are common benign tumors in the uterus. However, vaginal leiomyomas remain an uncommon entity with only about 300 reported cases. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old multigravida who presented with lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed, and a diagnosis of cervical fibroid was made. Pervaginal removal of the tumor was performed and subsequent histopathology revealed a vaginal leiomyoma. Although a rare tumor, vaginal leiomyomas may present with a variety of clinical features and may be mistaken preoperatively for cervical fibroid. Removal of tumor by vaginal route, wherever possible, with subsequent histopathological examination appears to be the optimum management plan.
Chakrabarti, Indranil; De, Anuradha; Pati, Shyamapada
Colouterine fistula complicating diverticulitis is rare. Our experience with two patients, one with chronic vaginal discharge\\u000a and the other with acute overwhelming sepsis, emphasizes the wide spectrum of clinical presentations that may accompany this\\u000a entity. In patients with chronic symptoms, surgery is indicated to forestall further local infectious complications, and a\\u000a single-stage sigmoid resection without hysterectomy may be adequate. If
Elliot L. Chaikof; Richard P. Cambria; Andrew L. Warshaw
The cholecystocolonic fistula is an atypical variant of biliary disease. When presenting with symptomatic disease, surgical treatment with cholecystectomy, fistula takedown and possible colonic resection are indicated, however the role of surgery in asymptomatic patients, especially those deemed higher risk is less clear. Herein we present a case of an incidentially discovered asymptomatic cholecystocolonic fistula in a higher risk surgical patient managed nonoperatively. The presentation and treatment options for this disease are discussed in relation to their application to this patient.
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) formation represents a condition with devastating consequences for the patient and continues to pose a significant challenge to the surgeon. Quick and accurate diagnosis, followed by timely repair is essential to the successful management of these cases. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiology and anatomy of the fistula, potential factors that may compromise healing and experience in the fundamental principles of fistula repair are the vital tools of the fistula surgeon. This review was undertaken to provide an overview of the key areas in VVF investigation and management.
Forty women presenting with mammillary fistulas over a 6 year period have been reviewed. The events preceding the fistula were incision of a periareolar breast abscess (n = 24), breast biopsy (n = 13) and spontaneous discharge of an inflammatory mass (n = 3). Only two of the women with abscesses were lactating. Two patients had granulomatous mastitis. The remaining 36 patients were all considered to have periductal mastitis/mammary duct ectasia as the cause of their fistulas. The two mammillary fistulas associated with lactation healed spontaneously. Nine patients had the fistula excised and the wound packed; this resulted in satisfactory healing in all but one patient. Twenty-one patients had excision of the fistula and primary closure, without antibiotic cover, but only ten healed without complications and six patients required further surgical procedures for a recurrent fistula. Six patients had primary excision and closure under antibiotic cover with a penicillin and metronidazole; all healed. Mammillary fistulas are complications of the periductal mastitis/duct ectasia syndrome. They should be treated by excision and primary closure under appropriate antibiotic cover or alternatively excised and left open to granulate. PMID:3607398
Vesicovaginal fistulas are often the result of obstetric trauma in third world countries or gynaecologic surgery in developed countries. The incidence of obstetric trauma is approximately 3-4/1000 births in West Africa. The incidence of fistulas as a result of surgery has remained relatively unchanged for years; 75% occur during gynaecologic procedures. The main clinical symptom of a vesicovaginal fistula is urine loss. Different surgical techniques with similar repair results are available: transvaginal approach, transvesical approach and transperitoneal approach. Irrespective of the approach used, requirements for successful repair include adequate surgical exposure, wide mobilization of the bladder and vagina, excision of the fistula tract, tension-free closure of the bladder and vagina, and placement of an interposition flap, i.e. Martius flap, omentum, peritoneum, when indicated. Using these surgical techniques, around 85% of women can be cured from their vesicovaginal fistula with a single operation. PMID:15702304
Vaginal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors. This is a case report with menstrual and urinary difficulties and vaginal mass with inner urethral meatus and hymen displacement. Miccional cystourethrography showed a posterior displaced, comprised and elongated urethra. Excretory urography and pelvic sonogram were normal. Preurethral enucleation extirpation with no complications was practiced. Current literature is reviewed. PMID:16972526
Leiomyomas are common benign tumors in the uterus. However, vaginal leiomyomas remain an uncommon entity with only about 300 reported cases. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old multigravida who presented with lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed, and a diagnosis of cervical fibroid was made. Pervaginal removal of the tumor was performed and subsequent histopathology revealed a vaginal leiomyoma. Although a rare tumor, vaginal leiomyomas may present with a variety of clinical features and may be mistaken preoperatively for cervical fibroid. Removal of tumor by vaginal route, wherever possible, with subsequent histopathological examination appears to be the optimum management plan. PMID:21897740
Chakrabarti, Indranil; De, Anuradha; Pati, Shyamapada
INTRODUCTION Rectovaginal fistulas have a multitude of causes and it is well known that obstetric and gynecological problems form a large part of these causes such as our case. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a 45-year-old female that presented with complaints of stool per vagina and was found to have a rectal vaginalfistula near the vaginal cuff from her previous uncomplicated vaginal hysterectomy. The patient was originally scheduled for a complex open abdominal surgery based on examination but underwent a sigmoidoscopy with vaginal examination and identified a small opening with minimal inflammation. The patient was treated with Bioglue® and had complete resolution of the fistula at follow-up. DISCUSSION There are numerous cases presented in the literature on the use of bioglue for anal fistulas and rectovaginal fistulas with multiple cases of success. However, in looking at the literature failure appears to be due to ongoing inflammation from the previous disease process. CONCLUSION Although the use of Bioglue® may not be suitable for all patients with rectovaginal fistulas, it offers yet another treatment modality for select patients.
Opinion statement External and internal pancreatic fistulas have a different etiology and natural history. Approximately 50% of internal and\\u000a 70% to 90% of external pancreatic fistulas can be expected to heal with nonoperative management. Nonclosure is predicted by\\u000a anatomic factors, which may be defined at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or by CT if disconnected pancreatic\\u000a segments are seen. Enteral nutrition beyond the
The management of a postoperative rectovaginal fistula after low anterior resection for rectal cancer is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. The results of reconstructive operation are often unsatisfactory. Herein, we describe our reconstruction technique using the posterior approach through the vaginal lumen for a high rectovaginal fistula repair. This reconstructive operation is useful for postoperative rectovaginal fistulas accompanied by severe stenosis of the anastomotic site following low anterior resection for rectal cancer. PMID:12162534
... who is infected. What about other infections? Two sexually transmitted infections, chlamydia and gonorrhea, can also cause vaginal discharge. ... I need any tests, such as tests for sexually transmitted infections? What do my test results mean? Based on ...
... your vagina). A pessary can also help many women who have stress urinary incontinence (the leaking of urine when you cough, strain or exercise). Pregnant women who have incontinence can also use a vaginal ...
... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...
... Female infants are normally born with a thin membrane ( hymen ) that surrounds the vaginal opening. In rare ... specific physiological purpose. high transverse septum: A thin membrane up high in an organism that lies crosswise. ...
Preauricular fistulae and their relapses are not exceptional in ENT practice. Simple topographic and anatomical relations in this area tempt us to underrate the surgical risk which is mainly the danger of incomplete removal and subsequent relapses. The elimination of nonidentifiable remnants of branchiomas in the granulation and scar tissue calls for resection extending to sound neighbouring structures which require more pretentious knowledge of clinical and anatomical conditions in this region. The authors operated successfully during the past 10 years 10 preauricular fistulae (primary operations) and two relapses. They outline the principles of surgery which were formulated with regard to their own experience, data in the literature and based on the most recent embryological findings; they emphasize preventive aspects of surgical treatment of preauricular fistulae. PMID:2713931
Vaginal leiomyoma is a very rare condition. The earliest reference made to such a tumor is attributed to Denys De Leyden in 1773, and the first review of the literature concerning such tumors was published in 1882. It is estimated approximately 300 leiomyomas of the vagina have been reported in the world literature. The case of a 39-year-old female with large vaginal leiomyoma illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in such cases. In leiomyoma of the vagina surgical treatment is recommended. PMID:12916261
We present a case in which there was optimal management of recurrent cervicovesical fistula. The patient sustained a fistula shortly after a cesarean for cephalopelvic disproportion in the second stage. She underwent an unsuccessful attempt at vaginal repair 3 months postpartum and continued experiencing intermittent urinary leakage through the vagina. She expressed a wish for further childbearing and was counseled to undergo fistula repair at the time of repeat cesarean section. Twenty-seven months after her first delivery, she had a second healthy pregnancy and the repair of her cervicovesical fistula was performed with collagen graft interposition at the time of her elective cesarean section. This case report highlights the importance of surgical timing and comments on various factors that possibly enhance the success of the fistula repair. PMID:24522933
An 18-year-old female patient with Crohn's disease had abdominal pain secondary to a retained pill camera. After several weeks of medical management, the camera spontaneously passed. However, the patient also had an intra-abdominal abscess that worsened, despite medical therapy. Surgical therapy was recommended and a 5cm infected urachal cyst with entero-urachal and vesico-urachal fistulas was discovered. An en-bloc resection of the entire area was performed to include the urachal cyst, the adherent portion of the dome of the bladder, and 15cm of associated ileum. The bladder was repaired, a suprapubic catheter was placed, and an ileo-ileal anastamosis was performed. Microscopic findings were consistent with active Crohn's disease and fistula formation. The entero-uracho-vesical fistula site was likely the site of the retained pill camera. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged on postoperative day six without complications. PMID:23795327
Yheulon, Christopher G; Derosa, Daniel C; Gagliano, Ronald A
An 18-year-old female patient with Crohn's disease had abdominal pain secondary to a retained pill camera. After several weeks of medical management, the camera spontaneously passed. However, the patient also had an intra-abdominal abscess that worsened, despite medical therapy. Surgical therapy was recommended and a 5cm infected urachal cyst with entero-urachal and vesico-urachal fistulas was discovered. An en-bloc resection of the entire area was performed to include the urachal cyst, the adherent portion of the dome of the bladder, and 15cm of associated ileum. The bladder was repaired, a suprapubic catheter was placed, and an ileo-ileal anastamosis was performed. Microscopic findings were consistent with active Crohn's disease and fistula formation. The entero-uracho-vesical fistula site was likely the site of the retained pill camera. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged on postoperative day six without complications.
Objective: To establish the efficacy of Macroplastique® in treating vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) in adults with neuropathic bladder dysfunction.Patients and methods: Fifteen patients (12 male and three female), age range 19 to 80 years (mean age 38) were included in this study. Diagnosis was confirmed by videourodynamics. In seven patients reflux was present bilaterally. Twenty-two refluxing ureters were treated. Twelve patients
Urachal anomalies are uncommon defects arising either by incomplete obliteration of the urachus during the foetal period or by its reopening after postnatal regression. Five anomalies have been described: congenital patent urachus, urachal cyst, umbilical-urachal sinus, vesico-urachal diverticulum, and alternating sinus. Only congenital patent urachus is present at childbirth. The other forms are usually acquired disorders. Nevertheless, they commonly appear in children, being less common in the adult. Colic-urachal fistulas are quite uncommon findings. Only three cases have been reported thus far. The aim of this study is to report the fourth case of sigmoid-urachal fistula, and the first one appearing without an urachal cyst. PMID:12432840
We report on a patient who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy for urinary incontinence 8 years previously with a sling operation using transobturator tape (TOT). She was admitted to our hospital after complaints of vaginal discharge, foul odor, and bleeding, left thigh pain, and edema. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a fistula tract from the vagina or urethra with remnant sling tape. We removed the remnant tape using intraoperative ultrasonography. This case exemplifies the rare occurrence of a vaginalfistula extending to the obturator, adductor, and pectineus muscles combined with myositis after TOT placement. It is important that urogynecologists recognize that TOT procedures may result in complications accompanied by common recurrent vaginal symptoms, such as vaginal odor and spotting, which can be identified by MRI or CT. PMID:24085145
This patient education program reviews female reproductive anatomy and explains vaginal birth. It also discusses the stages of labor and delivery, as well as potential risks and complications. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.
A coronary artery fistula generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries fails to form properly during the development of the baby. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of ...
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to assess results of surgery for fistula-in-ano and identify risk factors for fistula recurrence and impaired continence. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 624 patients who underwent surgery for fistula-in-ano between 1988 and 1992. Follow-up was by mailed questionnaire, with 375 patients (60 percent) responding. Mean follow-up was 29 months. Fistulas were intersphincteric in 180
Julio Garcia-Aguilar; Carlos Belmonte; W. Douglas Wong; Stanley M. Goldberg; Robert D. Madoff
This article reviews the mechanisms by which vaginal surgery affects female sexual function and related pathophysiology to potential causes. The anatomy, neurovascular supply of the clitoris and introitus, and intrapelvic nerve supply are discussed as they apply to vaginal surgery. Methods to avoid neurovascular damage during pelvic floor surgery have been corroborated by supporting literature. The incidence of female sexual dysfunction after various transvaginal procedures for indications such as stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, anterior/posterior colporrhaphy, perineoplasty, and vaginal vault prolapse has been discussed. Current literature regarding female sexual dysfunction following other procedures such as vaginal hysterectomy, Martius flap interposition, and vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistula repair also are reviewed. PMID:15461920
Most external small bowel fistulas follow surgical operation, but a few develop spontaneously. Seventy percent will close with conservative treatment including vigorous nutritional support and elimination of sepsis. Internal fistulas involving the small bowel always result from extension of disease in the bowel or in adjacent viscera, and they virtually never close spontaneously. Our 11-year experience of 71 Crohn's fistulas
PurposeCongenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula is a rare anomaly that may present in an isolated fashion or in association with other penile abnormalities, such as chordee or hypospadias. There have been 18 cases of congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula reported in the literature. We present 14 additional cases of congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula.
ANTHONY A. CALDAMONE; SHYH-CHYAN CHEN; JACK S. ELDER; MICHAEL L. RITCHEY; DAVID A. DIAMOND; MARTIN A. KOYLE
Congenital vesicovaginal fistula (CVVF) is a rare, complex female genital malformation that is difficult to diagnose, classify and treat. Symptoms include menouria, cyclical haematuria and urinary incontinence from birth. The aim of this review was to highlight the importance of correct diagnosis and treatment of this congenital anomaly. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify articles on CVVF with and without menouria. Forty-one articles were found, of which 31 described 37 original cases of congenital fistula (30 CVVF, six uterovesical fistula and one urethrovaginal fistula): 14 in girls and 23 in adults. The cases were classified according to clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic parameters in order to unify concepts and terms. Menouria occurred in 21 of the 23 adults: 14 cases were CVVF, six cases were congenital uterovesical fistula, and one case was congenital urethrovaginal fistula in a young woman without congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Sixteen (53%) of the 30 patients with CVVF had urinary incontinence or hydrocolpometra, and 14 (47%) had menouria. There were associated anomalies in 91% of cases, 29 (48%) of which involved the urinary tract. Various diagnostic and therapeutic methods were used, and there was confusion surrounding the aetiopathogenesis in most cases. CVVF should be suspected in any girl with urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections from birth, vaginal swelling or hydrocolpometras, as well as in adults with menouria. Diagnosis should be based on physical examination and imaging (cystoscopy during menouria, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging). Surgical treatment should be based on correction of the vaginal defects (obstructive problem opening or vaginal reconstruction) and CVVF closure. The embryological origin of CVVF lies in the abnormal persistence of the urogenital sinus due to lack of formation and caudal growth of the urogenital wedge, combined with distinct degrees of agenesis or hypoplasia of the entire urogenital ridge or the mesonephric ducts (which affects development of the Müllerian ducts). PMID:24560718
Martínez Escoriza, J C; Palacios Marqués, A M; López Fernández, J A; Feliu Rey, E; Martín Medina, P; Herráiz Romero, I; Delgado García, S; Oliva García, A B; Oliver Sánchez, C
A transverse vaginal septum is the most common congenital anomaly of the vagina. Vaginal atresia is seen less frequently. There have been some variations in cases of transverse vaginal septum and vaginal atresia. This is the first report of a patient with retrohymenal vaginal atresia and perforate transverse vaginal septum. PMID:1427424
Oga, M; Anai, T; Yoshimatsu, J; Kawano, Y; Hayata, T; Miyakawa, I
The Martius pedicle adipose flap can be used as an interposition flap during complex vaginal operations. It is a simple, rapid technique allowing raising of a well vascularized adipose flap with a mean length of 8 to 12 cm. It can be used in certain forms of vaginal repair, such as high supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistula, after bladder perforation, for obstructed urethra after colposuspension, after urethral destruction following prolonged bladder catheterization in a neurological patient, during repair of a complex urethral diverticulum or during transvaginal insertion of an artificial sphincter. After describing the flap raising operative technique, the various operative indications are presented. PMID:9116729
Localization of leiomyomas in the vaginal wall is very rare. We report about a case of a vaginal leiomyoma in the anterior vaginal wall, preoperatively identified with sonography and CT. Surgical enucleation was performed. Surgical removal in these cases is safe and usually with minimal bleeding. PMID:18317784
Theodoridis, T D; Zepiridis, L; Chatzigeorgiou, K N; Papanicolaou, A; Bontis, J N
Background: Congenital vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very uncommon condition rarely suspected at initial presentation. It is usually seen in association with complex malformations of the genitourinary tract. Case: A bifid insertion of the solitary ureter causing an uretero-VVF was associated with an obstructing transverse vaginal septum manifesting as menouria. Also seen were solitary crossed renal ectopia, bicornuate uterus and skeletal anomalies. Conclusion: In women with menouria without vaginal menstruation, pre-operative evaluation to detect an obstructive vaginal anomaly and unusual uretero-vesicovaginal fistulous communications is necessary before surgical intervention. PMID:19955683
Background: Congenital vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very uncommon condition rarely suspected at initial presentation. It is usually seen in association with complex malformations of the genitourinary tract. Case: A bifid insertion of the solitary ureter causing an uretero–VVF was associated with an obstructing transverse vaginal septum manifesting as menouria. Also seen were solitary crossed renal ectopia, bicornuate uterus and skeletal anomalies. Conclusion: In women with menouria without vaginal menstruation, pre-operative evaluation to detect an obstructive vaginal anomaly and unusual uretero–vesicovaginal fistulous communications is necessary before surgical intervention.
Mammillary fistulae develop between the lactiferous ducts of the breast and areolar skin. Over a 14-year period 41 fistulae were treated in 36 patients (34 women, 2 men). In 24 women at least one subareolar abscess (mean 2.5) had been incised and drained previously. Fourteen fistulae developed after discharge of an inflammatory mass and three after surgical biopsy. Twelve women underwent 13 fistulectomies, two of which required reoperation. The remaining 24 patients with complicated fistulae (n = 28) had previously undergone multiple surgical procedures; 12 patients had 13 fistulae treated by total duct excision and primary closure without antibiotic cover and six fistulae required reoperation. Fifteen fistulae in 12 women were treated by duct excision with either primary closure under antibiotic cover (n = 7) or packing with healing by granulation (n = 8) and only one recurred (P less than 0.05). Operations for mammillary fistulae should be treated as contaminated procedures. In simple cases where no previous surgery has taken place, fistulectomy is appropriate. In complicated cases, treatment should be duct excision with the wound either closed primarily under antibiotic cover or left open to heal by secondary intention. PMID:1774706
Vaginal ageneses are by no means rare anomalies. Complete Mullerian agenesis is the most common reason for vaginal agenesis requiring reconstruction. Patients usually present with pain, hematocolpos, or hematometra in puberty, and later with amenorrhea and dyspareunia. Detailed information is given here regarding etiologies, timing of surgery, and current treatment options for vaginal agenesis. Outcomes and short- and long-term complications of recent treatment options are also discussed. PMID:21372677
Ozkan, Ozlenen; Erman Akar, Münire; Ozkan, Omer; Do?an, N Utku
Introduction: The aim of this study is to verify the predictive role of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) of prostatic fossa, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and pathological stage after radical prostectomy in the detection of a prostate tumor recurrence at the level of the vesico-urethral anastomosis by means of multiple TRUS biopsies (6–8 cores).Material and Methods: From October
Vincenzo Scattoni; Marco Roscigno; Marco Raber; Francesco Montorsi; Luigi Da Pozzo; Giorgio Guazzoni; Massimo Freschi; Patrizio Rigatti
Objectives: Dextranomer\\/hyaluronic acid (Dx\\/HA) copolymer has favorable properties for endoscopic treatment of vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). This open, randomized study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Dx\\/HA copolymer with antibiotic prophylaxis in children with VUR. Methods: Children >1 year of age with VUR grade II to IV (confirmed by voiding cysto-urethrogram) received endoscopic treatment with Dx\\/HA copolymer (n
Objective To present our experience of treating supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae by laparoscopic technique and their long-term follow-up. Material and Methods Between January 2008 and June 2012, 28 cases of supratrigonal fistulas were repaired by laparoscopic transperitoneal transvesical technique with interposition flap. The obstetric fistula was present in 18 and gynecologic fistula in 10 patients. Single supratrigonal fistula was present in 26 patients and in 2 patients there were 2 fistulae lying side to side. The vaginal opening was closed as single layer interrupted suture and cystotomy closed as single layer continuous suture by 3-0 polygalactin. The omentum was used as interposition flap in all except 2 cases in whom postero-superior vesical fold of peritoneum was used. The open conversion was required in 2 cases. The urethral catheter was removed in 4 weeks following a micturating cystogram. Result The mean fistula size was 1.2 cm (range 0.8-2.5 cm). Open conversion was performed in 2 cases of whom one had excess carbon-dioxide retention and cardiac arrhythmia and in another case the needle of 3-0 polygalactin was avulsed and lost in peritoneal cavity which was recovered following laparotomy. All patients were continent following the catheter removal. The median follow-up is 24 months. None developed any complication related to laparoscopic repair till last follow-up. Conclusion Laparoscopic repair of supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae is an effective and safe minimally invasive treatment with excellent result.
Oroantral fistula is an uncommon complication in oral surgery. Although smaller fistulas of less than 5 mm in diameter may close spontaneously, larger fistulas always require surgical closures. The literature review revealed various procedures for the closure of oroantral fistulas. These procedures may be subdivided into local flap, distant flap and grafting. Procedures involving local flaps are usually adequate to close minor to moderate size defects. Those procedures utilizing the buccal mucoperiosteal flap as the tissue closure include straight-advancement, rotated, sliding and transversal flap procedures; while those involving the palatal mucoperiosteum are straight advancement, rotational-advancement, hinged and island flap procedures. The combinations of various local flaps to strengthen the tissue closure are also being advocated. The advantages and the limitations of these procedures are discussed. Distant flaps and bone grafts are usually indicated in the closure of larger defects in view of their greater tissue bulks. Tongue flaps have superseded extra-oral flaps from extremities and forehead for aesthetic reasons and also in view of their similar tissue replacement. Various tongue flap procedures are described. At present, various alloplastic materials such as gold, tantalum and polymethylmethacrylate are infrequently reported in the closure of oroantral fistulas. However, in the light of successful reports over the use of biological materials, collagen and fibrin, in the closure of oroantral fistulas, there seems to be another simple alternative technique for treating oroantral fistulas. PMID:3133418
Vaginal erotic sensitivity was investigated in a group of 48 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. It was found that 45 subjects reported erotic sensitivity located in most cases on the upper anterior wall, and of those, 30 (66. 7%) either reached orgasm or requested to stop stimulation short of orgasm. This study
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) has been a social and a surgical problem for centuries and remains a challenge to surgeons. Though advances have been made in the understanding of the etiology, diagnostic procedures and management of these fistulae, controversies still exist over the ideal approach and time to repair. This review was undertaken to look into the recent literature with regard to the timing and surgical approach to VVF repair. The literature search was done using the Medline database with keywords: vesicovaginal fistula, laparoscopy and robotic repair filtered for the last 5 years.
Background: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is defined as Müllerian aplasia with vaginal agenesis and uterine remnants. It is commonly associated with renal and sometimes vertebral anomalies. MRKH syndrome or distal vaginal atresia is sometimes associated with anorectal malformations. The purpose of this study was to describe seven females with vaginal agenesis or distal vaginal atresia and an anorectal malformation and review the
Objective The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and complication rate of vaginal hysterectomy with or without adnexectomy in women with enlarged uteri and\\/or other considered contraindications to the vaginal route. Study design Over a period of 2 years, a total of 204 women underwent vaginal hysterectomy for benign pathology. Normally considered contraindications to the vaginal route were: moderate to excessive
Pierluigi Paparella; Ornella Sizzi; Alfonso Rossetti; Franco De Benedittis; Raffaele Paparella
The surgical treatment of intestinal deep infiltrating endometriosis has an associated risk of major complications such as dehiscence of the intestinal anastomosis, pelvic abscess, and rectovaginal fistula. The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula frequently requires a reoperation and the construction of a stoma for temporary fecal diversion. In this paper we describe a 27-year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic treatment of deep infiltrating endometriosis (extramucosal cystectomy, resection of the uterosacral ligaments, resection of the posterior vaginal fornix, and segmental bowel resection) complicated by a rectovaginal fistula, which healed spontaneously with nonsurgical conservative treatment.
Seventeen patients with dimples, fistulae and cysts in the region of the cheek and the preauricular field are reported. All are located in the neighborhood of the dorsal end of the first visceral arch. Both the fistulae of the ascending helix and the upper preauricular fistulae must be regarded as relics of the dorsal end of the first branchial cleft. This interpretation supports the theory of Wood-Jones and I-Chuan according to which the tragus is formed from the material of the mandibular arch, and the remaining part of the auricle from the mesoderm of the second visceral arch. Similar anomalies in the neighborhood of the angle of the mouth, the extraoral opening of an accessory duct of Stensen and the inferior preauricular fistula are sufficiently explained by the incomplete closure or tearing of the embryonal oral aperture. PMID:267575
A small-bowel enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) is an especially challenging complication for patients with open abdomens (OAs) and their surgeons. Manipulation of the bowel during treatment (e.g. dressing changes) is one of the risk factors for developing these openings between the atmosphere and the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike enterocutaneous fistulae, EAFs have neither overlying soft tissue nor a real fistula tract, which reduces the likelihood of their spontaneous closure. Surgical closure is necessary but not always easy to do in the OA environment. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used successfully as an adjunct therapy to heal the wound around EAFs. This review discusses many aspects of managing EAFs in patients with OAs, and presents techniques that have been developed to isolate the fistula and divert effluent while applying NPWT to the surrounding wound bed. PMID:24851732
Terzi, Cem; Egeli, Tufan; Canda, Aras E; Arslan, Naciye C
Vaginal vault dehiscence (VVD) may occur rarely after hysterectomy. Although mostly, a vaginal cuff dehiscence is seen after robotic or laparoscopic hysterectomy, it may also be observed as a complication of abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Vaginal repair is one of the techniques used for VVD. Here, we will describe a case of vaginally repaired VVD, associated with intra-abdominal hematoma after postpartum hysterectomy. PMID:24876366
The records of 93 patients with colocutaneous fistulas associated with diverticulitis treated at the Cleveland Clinic between\\u000a 1965 and 1983 were reviewed. There were 56 males and 37 females with an age range of 19 to 80 years (median, 57 years). Eighty-eight\\u000a fistulas followed surgery for diverticulitis while five developed spontaneously. The presence of a diverting stoma in 34 patients
Victor W. Fazio; James M. Church; David G. Jagelman; Frank L. Weakley; Ian C. Lavery; Riyad Tarazi; Maurice VanHillo
This study was undertaken to assess the appropriate management of patients with diverticulitis complicated by fistula formation.\\u000a A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with symptoms of a fistula who presented between 1975 to 1995. There\\u000a were 42 patients (32 women, 76%; 10 men, 24%) who ranged in age from 46 to 89 years (mean 69.8±9.8). Six patients had
C.-A. Vasilevsky; P. Belliveau; J. L. Trudel; B. L. Stein; P. H. Gordon
Benign anorectal diseases, such as anal abscesses and fistula, are commonly seen by primary care physicians, gastroenterologists, emergency physicians, general surgeons, and colorectal surgeons. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the complexity of these 2 disease processes so as to provide appropriate and timely treatment. We review the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options for both anal abscesses and fistulas. PMID:24280399
To evaluate the presence of vesico ureteric reflux (VUR) and renal scarring in children with documented symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), and the importance of age at time of presentation, we studied 29 patients with UTI. Nineteen patients were females and 10 were males. Three patients were below one year of age, 13 were between one and five years, and 13 were above five years. None of the patients had systemic hypertension or renal insufficiency. All patients had renal ultrasound and renal scintigraphy with dimercapto succinic acid (DMSA). Micturating cystourethrogram was done in all children below age of five, and in patients above age of five if renal scintigraphy showed evidence of scarring. Of the 29 UTI patients 10 (34%) had VUR. Of the patients with VUR, seven were below age of five while three were above five. Renal scarring was found in 3/7 patients with VUR below age of five years, but was in all patients with VUR above age of five years. All patients with grade 3 and 4 reflux nephropathy had renal scarring, while it was found in half of the patients with grade 1 and 2 reflux. We conclude that in UTI patients VUR is not uncommon finding, which needs further investigations and follow-up. PMID:18417912
... IUD use (may cause occasional spotting) Ectopic pregnancy Miscarriage Other pregnancy complications Vaginal dryness due to lack ... information Are you pregnant? Have you had a miscarriage or abortion? Have you had a D and ...
Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated.
The MR appearances of two cases of vaginal leiomyoma are described. Both patients presented with a periurethral mass; one patient presented during pregnancy. MRI allowed precise anatomic localization of the masses and confident preoperative characterization in both cases. PMID:11351183
Shadbolt, C L; Coakley, F V; Qayyum, A; Donat, S M
A case of a vaginal fibroma in a 50-year-old woman is presented. The tumor presented as a solid mass in the upper third of the anterior vaginal wall. Intravenous pyelography (IVP) and cystoscopy excluded any association of the mass with the urinary tract. Surgical excision of the tumor was easily accomplished and histopathological examination established the diagnosis of a fibroid tumor of the vagina. PMID:12556111
Daskalakis, G J; Karabinas, C D; Papantoniou, N E; Papaspyrou, I A; Antsaklis, A J; Michalas, S
Aims: To study the outcome of endoscopic hyaluronic acid/dextranomer injection in patients with vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR). Materials and Methods: Sixty-three children were evaluated with a median follow up of 18 months (12-55 months) before injecting hyaluronic acid/dextranomer in a total of 99 ureteric moieties. Median age at presentation was 24 months (6-72 months). Primary VUR was the main presenting diagnosis in 60%. Patients were monitored for urinary tract infection (UTI), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal scarring, persistence, or appearance of contra-lateral reflux. Results: Grade III VUR was the most common (38%) followed by Grade IV (24%), Grade V (17%), Grade II (14%), and Grade I (7%). Most common cause for VUR was Primary (60%), followed by posterior urethral valve (PUV) (19%), bladder exstrophy (5%), anorectal malformation (ARM), epispadias, and duplex system. Analysis of patients characteristics at presentation revealed renal scarring (40%), split renal functions <35% (35%), recurrent UTI (15%), GFR <50 ml/min/1.73 m2 (15%), serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dL (10%). Complete resolution (100%) of Grade I and Grade II VUR was achieved after single injection. For Grade III VUR, single injection resolved reflux in 85.5% ureters, 100% resolution was seen after 2nd injection. In Grade IV VUR, 1st injection resolved VUR in 83.3% ureters, 95.8% ureters were reflux free after 2nd injection, and 100% resolution was seen after 3rd injection. In Grade V VUR, 94% ureters showed absent reflux after three injections. Conclusion: Hyaluronic acid/dextranomer injection holds promise even in higher grades of VUR.
Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon finding during angiographic exams. We report a case series of five patients with congenital coronary fistulas. The first patient was 56 years old and had a coronary fistula associated with a partial atrio ventricular defect, the second patient was 54 years old and had two fistulas originating from the right coronary artery with a severe atherosclerotic coronary disease, the third patient was 57 years old with a fistula originating from the circumflex artery associated with a rheumatic mitral stenosis, the fourth patient was 50 years old and had a fistulous communication between the right coronary artery and the right bronchial artery, and the last patient was 12 years old who had bilateral coronary fistulas draining into the right ventricle with an aneurismal dilatation of the coronary arteries. Angiographic aspects of coronary fistulas are various; management is controversial and depends on the presence of symptoms. PMID:24501660
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina. It can happen any time from conception ( ... out of every 10 pregnant women have vaginal bleeding during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
... dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication Having two of everything may be ... if your child's doctor diagnoses an "anomaly of fusion and duplication." What causes vaginal fusion and duplication? ...
Changes in the elasticity of the vaginal walls, connective support tissues, and muscles are thought to be significant factors in the development of pelvic organ prolapse, a highly prevalent condition affecting at least 50% of women in the United States during their lifetimes. It creates two predominant concerns specific to the biomechanical properties of pelvic support tissues: how does tissue elasticity affect the development of pelvic organ prolapse and how can functional elasticity be maintained through reconstructive surgery. We designed a prototype of vaginal tactile imager (VTI) for visualization and assessment of elastic properties of pelvic floor tissues. In this paper, we analyze applicability of tactile imaging for evaluation of reconstructive surgery results and characterization of normal and pelvic organ prolapse conditions. A pilot clinical study with 13 patients demonstrated that VTI allows imaging of vaginal walls with increased rigidity due to implanted mesh grafts following reconstructive pelvic surgery and VTI has the potential for prolapse characterization and detection.
The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has been a mainstay of hemodialysis treatments and the preferred access route since its inception in the 1960s, due to its longevity and resistance to infection. However, the AVF is not benign. There is significant primary failure, as well as cardiac, vascular, and other, less well recognized, complications. Together, they represent toxicity, to which considerable morbidity
Richard Amerling; Claudio Ronco; Martin Kuhlman; James F. Winchester
A radiotelemetric method for measurements of vaginal temperature in the home milieu is presented. Registrations from two subjects show that vaginal temperatures vary up to and about 1°C nighttime. Initially, on going to bed, vaginal temperature drops. A further distinct drop occurs with any kind of experienced sexual arousal, reaching a minimum when and if orgasm is achieved. At rest,
Axel R. Fugl-Meyer; Kerstin Sjögren; Kenneth Johansson
Objective To report two cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods Case report of two patients, one with an acute and one with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with DIV on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pre- and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Results Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial cultures following oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Conclusions DIV may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction.
Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Nyirjesy, Paul
A case of paraurethral vaginal leiomyoma becoming clinically apparent in the postpartum period is presented. As is frequently the case, the diagnosis was not apparent. Urinary tract origin is commonly suspected, since the majority of these tumors occur in the midline of the anterior vaginal wall. The tumors are often asymptomatic, but can cause dysuria, urinary frequency, urinary retention, and dyspareunia. Pathologically, they are well circumscribed and have the typical microscopic features of leiomyomas found elsewhere. Simple excision is usually adequate treatment. PMID:3603914
In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel- group trial hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (Hyalofemme) was compared to estriol vaginal cream (Ovestin) in women with vaginal dryness due to various causes. A total of 144 supposedly postmenopausal women below age 70 years were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (5 g per application) or estriol vaginal cream (0.5 g cream per application = 0.5 mg estriol) every 3 days for a total of ten applications, respectively. Exclusion criteria included vaginal infections, conventional contraindications to estrogens, use of vaginal products other than the investigational compounds, being unmarried, pregnant, or breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to test for non-inferiority of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel compared to estriol vaginal cream. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage (%) improvement in vaginal dryness, with the secondary end points being the percentage (%) improvements in vaginal itching, burning, and dyspareunia. Efficacy was assessed by using a visual analog scale (VAS) (0-10; 0 = absent, 10 = intolerable) at baseline (V0), during telephone contact after the third administration (V1), and at the final visit after the tenth administration (V2). Safety parameters included vaginal pH, endometrial thickness, and a vaginal smear for vaginal microecosystem assessment. Adverse events were recorded according to international guidelines. 133 women completed the study. At baseline, participants' characteristics did not differ significantly. Mean age was 54 years, time since menopause was 5 years on average, and cause of menopause was mostly natural. However, mean menstrual cycle days were also reported, although according to inclusion criteria only postmenopausal women were eligible for the study. At V1, an improvement in vaginal dryness was reported by about 49 % of women using hyaluronic acid vaginal gel, and by 53 % of women using estriol vaginal cream (p = 0.31). At V2, the percentage improvement rates were 84 and 89 % (p = 0.13), respectively. Improvement rates for vaginal itching, burning, and dyspareunia at V2 were about 86, 85, and 57 % for hyaluronic acid vaginal gel, and 82, 87, and 62 % for estriol vaginal cream (p[0.05), respectively. After treatment, vaginal pH was significantly lower in estriol-treated women compared to those having received hyaluronic acid. Endometrial thickness did not differ between groups. In the majority of women, the vaginal microenvironment remained unaffected by treatment. However, the proportion of women whose abnormal vaginal microecological results became normal was higher in women using estriol vaginal cream. Adverse events (suspected to be) related to the investigational compounds were minor and included vaginal infection and genital itching. The authors concluded that hyaluronic acid vaginal gel was not inferior to estriol vaginal cream in women presenting with vaginal dryness. They suggest using hyaluronic acid vaginal gel not only as an alternative treatment to vaginal estrogens, but also to consider its general use in women presenting with vaginal dryness of any cause. PMID:24178484
Purpose Anal fistulas that involve a significant amount of sphincter may be difficult to treat without compromising continence function.\\u000a In this study, we evaluated our experience with the Surgisis® anal fistula plug, which was recently reported to be successful\\u000a in >80 percent of patients with complex fistulas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We retrospectively collected patient and fistula characteristics, procedure details, and follow-up information for all
Dimitrios Christoforidis; David A. Etzioni; Stanley M. Goldberg; Robert D. Madoff; Anders Mellgren
Vaginitis is a common complaint of adolescent females. It can cause extreme distress for some patients, especially those with recurrent symptoms. Thus, it is important to take care when evaluating these patients and to acknowledge their frustration when appropriate. A thoughtful and thorough history will determine most causes, with the most common being yeast, trichomoniasis, and BV. PMID:15449843
PURPOSE: Long-term results of cutting seton in the treatment of anal fistulas were studied. METHODS: Of the 44 patients with anal fistulas, mainly of the high variety, managed with this method, 35 (25 men) attended a clinical and manometric follow-up examination on average 70 (range, 28–184) months after operation. Fistula distribution was high transsphincteric (25), low transsphincteric (5), extrasphincteric (3),
Cholecystocolic fistula is a rare billiary-enteric fistula with variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tool a high degree of suspicion is required to diagnose it preoperatively. These fistulae are treated by open as well as laparoscopic surgery, with no difference in intraoperative and postoperative complications. We are describing a 50-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis, which was investigated with routine lab investigations, and abdominal ultrasonography but none of these gave us any clue to the presence of fistula, were discovered incidentally during an open surgery and were appropriately treated. PMID:24783121
Cholecystocolic fistula is a rare billiary-enteric fistula with variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tool a high degree of suspicion is required to diagnose it preoperatively. These fistulae are treated by open as well as laparoscopic surgery, with no difference in intraoperative and postoperative complications. We are describing a 50-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis, which was investigated with routine lab investigations, and abdominal ultrasonography but none of these gave us any clue to the presence of fistula, were discovered incidentally during an open surgery and were appropriately treated.
Gastrocutaneous fistula is an infrequent but serious surgical complication which has received little attention in the recent literature. The current report analyzes 13 patients with this complication. The fistula most commonly occurs in the fundic portion of the greater curvature of the stomach and is usually a result of unrecognized iatrogenic injury or associated with severe left upper quadrant inflammation and external drainage. Clinical recognition occurs when the patient develops left subphrenic sepsis or drains gastric content. The fistula is best documented by upper gastrointestinal contrast studies and usually responds to wide drainage and supportive treatment in the presence of benign disease. Oral alimentation apparently need not be delayed until complete fistula closure.
Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) with aorto-oesophageal fistula formation is an uncommon but fatal cause of haematemesis. A case is presented of a previously healthy 63-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with syncope and haematemesis. He had no history of heavy alcohol intake and was previously well. Bedside portable chest x ray revealed a widened mediastinum and, while awaiting
Summary We have presented two examples of difficulties encountered in making a diagnosis, and have shown how improper medical or surgical\\u000a therapy may hinder correct treatment of cancer.\\u000a \\u000a Over a period of 13 years, two patients have been treated for neoplastic anal fistula. The lesson to be learned is that an\\u000a early diagnosis is seldom reached and consequently correct treatment is
Arturo Heidenreich; Hector A. Collarini; Alberto Mario Paladino; José María Fernandez; Teófilo Oscar Calvo
Vaginal leiomyomas are rare benign solid tumours of the vagina. They can cause mechanical dystocia, which is a common problem in obstetrics leading to serious maternal and perinatal complications. Here we describe a patient with a vaginal leiomyoma diagnosed during the mid-trimester that could have caused dystocia. This 22-year-old woman presented with a vaginal mass and leaking vaginal fluid during pregnancy. On examination, a prolapsed, pedunculated mass, measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm was detected in the anterior vaginal wall. Via a midline incision, the mass was easily enucleated and removed. Transvaginal surgical enucleation of the vaginal leiomyoma is usually curative and recommended as the initial treatment of choice to prevent for dystocia. Such treatment is indicated when the tumour is a potential obstacle to normal labour. PMID:23223657
Background Treatment and care for female genital fistula have become increasingly available over the last decade in countries across Africa and South Asia. Before the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and partners published a global fistula training manual in 2011 there was no internationally recognized, standardized training curriculum, including perioperative care. The community of fistula care practitioners and advocates lacks data about the prevalence of various perioperative clinical procedures and practices and their potential programmatic implications are lacking. Methods Data presented here are from a prospective cohort study conducted between September 2007 and September 2010 at 11 fistula repair facilities supported by Fistula Care in five countries. Clinical procedures and practices used in the routine perioperative management of over 1300 women are described. Results More than two dozen clinical procedures and practices were tabulated. Some of them were commonly used at all sites (e.g., vaginal route of repair, 95.3% of cases); others were rare (e.g., flaps/grafts, 3.4%) or varied widely depending on site (e.g. for women with urinary fistula, the inter-quartile range for median duration of post-repair bladder catheterization was 14 to 29 days). Conclusions These findings show a wide range of clinical procedures and practices with different program implications for safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. The variability indicates the need for further research so as to strengthen the evidence base for fistula treatment in developing countries.
OBJETIVE: To assess efficacy and tolerability of a isoflavone (Glycine max L. Merr.) vaginal gel to the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. METHODS: The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Ninety women were treated for 12 weeks with isoflavone vaginal gel 4% (1g/day) and a placebo gel and conjugated equine estrogen cream (0.3mg/day). After 4 and 12 weeks, the vaginal atrophy symptoms were classified at none, mild, moderate and severe and the vaginal cytology were taken to determine the maturation value. The endometrial safety (by transvaginal ultrasonography) was evaluated through at screening and the end of the trial. RESULTS: Isoflavone vaginal gel appears to be effective for relief of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia symptons and an increase in the intermediate and superficial cells was noted. These results were similar to the effects with use of conjugated equine estrogens and superior to placebo gel. No changes in endometrial thickness, sera FSH and estradiol levels were observed at study endpoint. CONCLUSION: Glycine max (L.) Merr. at 4% vaginal gel on a daily basis in postmenopausal women led to improvements in vaginal atrophy symptoms and a significant increase in cell maturation values. Isoflavones proved good treatment options for relief of vulvovaginal symptoms especially in women who do not wish to use hormonal therapy or have contra-indications for this treatment. PMID:23312487
Lima, Sonia M Rolim Rosa; Yamada, Silvia Saito; Reis, Benedito Fabiano; Postigo, Sostenes; Galvão da Silva, Maria Antonieta L; Aoki, Tsutomu
Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward in future.
Anomalies of the urethra are uncommon. Urethrorectal fistula in horses has only been reported in foals and only in conjunction with other congenital anomalies. This report describes the diagnosis, surgical management, and possible etiologies of a unique case of urethrorectal fistula in a mature gelding.
Cruz, A M; Barber, S M; Kaestner, S B; Townsend, H G
Over a recent 4-year period, 823 neck dissections that included the lower jugular lymph nodes were performed. Of the 823, 14 (1.9%) patients developed chyle fistulas. Two other patients developed fistulas, one after undergoing a gastric transposition, and the other after a scalene node biopsy. All 16 patients were initially managed conservatively with closed-wound drainage and low-fat nutritional support; this was successful in only 4 patients, 3 of whom had peak 24-hour chyle drainage of less than 600 cc. The remaining 10 patients required open-wound management, which included operative ligation in 4 instances. Continued conservative treatment with an open neck wound resulted in significant additional hospitalization. Our experience indicates that closed-wound management of a chyle fistula is likely to fail when peak 24-hour fistula output exceeds 600 cc. Considering the cost and morbidity of conservative treatment, early reoperation may be appropriate in those patients with high fistula output. PMID:2362537
CRYPTOGLANDULAR ANAL FISTULA: Perianal abscesses are caused by cryptoglandular infections. Not every abscess will end in a fistula. The formation of a fistula is determined by the anatomy of the anal sphincter and perianal fistulas will not heal on their own. The therapy of a fistula is oriented between a more aggressive approach (operation) and a conservative treatment with fibrin glue or a plug. Definitive healing and the development of incontinence are the most important key points. ANAL FISSURES: Acute anal fissures should be treated conservatively by topical ointments, consisting of nitrates, calcium channel blockers and if all else fails by botulinum toxin. Treatment of chronic fissures will start conservatively but operative options are necessary in many cases. Operation of first choice is fissurectomy, including excision of fibrotic margins, curettage of the base and excision of the sentinel pile and anal polyps. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is associated with a certain degree of incontinence and needs critical long-term observation. PMID:23179514
Three cases of hereditary lateral cervical fistulas are reported. The patients had lateral cervical fistulas bilaterally and different types of auricular malformations. The mothers of the patients also had lateral cervical fistulas. Moreover, one mother had bilateral microtias and the other mothers bilateral preauricular fistulas. The literature is reviewed and discussed. PMID:3377420
A 41-year-old amenorrheic woman started taking venlafaxine 37.5 mg/day for treatment of depression; 7 days later, she experienced vaginal bleeding, which ceased 1 day after she stopped taking the drug. On rechallenge with venlafaxine, she again experienced vaginal bleeding that resolved after discontinuation. We found no published reports describing vaginal bleeding associated with venlafaxine. However, premarketing and postmarketing data report similar adverse effects in patients taking the agent. In addition, several cases of menstrual irregularities have occurred with two other antidepressants: fluoxetine and bupropion. This case report supports previous surveillance data indicating that venlafaxine may cause vaginal bleeding. PMID:12013367
Linnebur, Sunny A; Saseen, Joseph J; Pace, Wilson D
During a 15 year period, 18 patients with 28 mamillary fistulas were treated. In eight women, periareolar abscess had preceded recognition of a fistula. Ten patients were primarily diagnosed as having mamillary fistula. In six patients, when the underlying fistula tract was not identified and excised at the time of operation, discharging sinus reoccurred. Twenty-two fistulas were completely excised together with an extensive lactiferous duct system. Operative wound was primarily closed using antibiotic cover. Periareolar abscess and mamillary fistula should be treated primarily by complete excision of the fistula tract and extensive duct system of the breast. PMID:1411885
Background A vaginalfistula is a devastating condition, affecting an estimated 2 million girls and women across Africa and Asia. There are numerous challenges associated with providing fistula repair services in developing countries, including limited availability of operating rooms, equipment, surgeons with specialized skills, and funding from local or international donors to support surgeries and subsequent post-operative care. Finding ways of providing services in a more efficient and cost-effective manner, without compromising surgical outcomes and the overall health of the patient, is paramount. Shortening the duration of urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery would increase treatment capacity, lower costs of services, and potentially lower risk of healthcare-associated infections among fistula patients. There is a lack of empirical evidence supporting any particular length of time for urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery. This study will examine whether short-term (7 day) urethral catheterization is not worse by more than a minimal relevant difference to longer-term (14 day) urethral catheterization in terms of incidence of fistula repair breakdown among women with simple fistula presenting at study sites for fistula repair service. Methods/Design This study is a facility-based, multicenter, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the new proposed short-term (7 day) urethral catheterization to longer-term (14 day) urethral catheterization in terms of predicting fistula repair breakdown. The primary outcome is fistula repair breakdown up to three months following fistula repair surgery as assessed by a urinary dye test. Secondary outcomes will include repair breakdown one week following catheter removal, intermittent catheterization due to urinary retention and the occurrence of septic or febrile episodes, prolonged hospitalization for medical reasons, catheter blockage, and self-reported residual incontinence. This trial will be conducted among 512 women with simple fistula presenting at 8 study sites for fistula repair surgery over the course of 24 months at each site. Discussion If no major safety issues are identified, the data from this trial may facilitate adoption of short-term urethral catheterization following repair of simple fistula in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01428830.
PURPOSE This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the Surgisis® (Anal Fistula Plug™) in multiple patients at our institution\\u000a and present early clinical results along with notable clinical observations from our experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS This was a prospective analysis of all patients who received the Anal Fistula Plug™ for treatment of anorectal fistulas between\\u000a April 2006 and February 2007. All tracts
Alex J. Ky; Patricia Sylla; Randolph Steinhagen; Emily Steinhagen; Sergei Khaitov; Erin K. Ly
\\u000a Purpose Complex high and recurrent fistulas remain a surgical challenge. Simple division, i.e., fistulotomy, will likely result in fecal incontinence. Various surgical treatment options for these fistulas have shown disappointing\\u000a results. Recently a biologic anal fistula plug was developed to treat these high transsphincteric fistulas. To assess the\\u000a results of the anal fistula plug in patients with complex high perianal fistulas,
Paul J. van Koperen; Andre D’Hoore; Albert M. Wolthuis; Willem A. Bemelman; J. Frederik M. Slors
The effort to develop vaginal contraceptives began in the distant past and is still underway today. 1000 years ago, South American Indians inserted into the vagina bark strips impregnated with quinine. In medieval times women used vaginal inserts of cloth soaked in honey or vinegar. Quinine pessaries were introduced into Europe in the late 1800s, and in the early 1900s investigators began to study the effects of various chemicals on sperm motility. Following World War II, surfactant spermicides which disrupt the sperm membrane were developed and marketed. Many of these preparations contained nonoxynol-9. Currently, the D-isomer of propranolol is being examined as a spermicidal contraceptive, and several bacteriocides, e.g., benzalkonium and chlorhexidine, are being developed as spermicides which reduce the penetrability of cervical mucus. Other chemicals being investigated act by inhibiting the acrosome reaction. Advantages of vaginal contraceptives are that they are inexpensive, reversible, and relatively safe and easy to use. Generally they require no medical intervention or supervision. In addition, spermicides may kill or inhibit the growth of organisms responsible for sexually transmitted diseases. Disadvantages of spermicides are that they are generally less effective than many other methods, some interfere with sexual spontaneity, they may cause local irritations, and some women find them messy to use. Recently, concerns were expressed about the possible teratogenic effects of sperimicides. Most of these concerns proved to be unfounded. Given the many new avenues of research, the major disadvantage of sperimicides, i.e., their high failure rates, may be minimized in the near future. PMID:12340621
Summary Dural arteriovenous fistulas are most probably acquired lesions. However, they have been rarely encountered de novo. We present a unique case of a 71-year-old woman who initially presented with right-sided dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which spontaneously resolved after diagnostic arteriography. She later developed asymptomatic occlusion of the left transverse sinus. Five years after her initial presentation she developed left-sided pulse-synchronous tinnitus. MRA and catheter angiography showed a complex type IV DAVF between the left transverse sinus and multiple dural branches arising from both left and right external carotid arteries. The left transverse sinus was isolated from the torcula herophili, with stenosis of the sigmoid sinus. Extensive cortical venous drainage was demonstrated. Endovascular cure was effected by polyvinyl alcohol particle and absolute alcohol occlusion of the dominant dural supply, and transvenous coil occlusion of the left transverse sinus. The patient's symptoms resolved almost immediately. This unique case demonstrates that dural sinus occlusion and DAVFs may co-exist, but there may not be a causal relationship. It is likely that both DAVFs and sinus occlusion are manifestations of the same disease process characterised by a pro-thrombotic state and secondary angiogenesis. It is important to recognise that changes in symptomatology, even long after apparent disappearance of a lesion may indicate recurrence, and careful follow up is advocated.
Purpose: We aim to present our experience for the repair of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) with special reference to surgical approach. Materials and Methods: From January 1999 to June 2005, 52 VVF patients with mean age of 32 years underwent operative treatment. Fistulas were divided into two groups, simple and complex, depending on site, size, etiology and associated anomalies. Simple VVFs were approached through the vaginal route and complex VVFs via the transabdominal route. Patients were evaluated at two to three weeks initially, three-monthly twice and later depending on symptoms. Results: Thirty-two (61.5%) had simple fistulas and 20 (38.5%) complex fistulas. The most common etiology was obstetric trauma in 31 (59.6%) patients, while the second most common cause was post hysterectomy VVF. Thirty-two (61.5%) patients were managed by transvaginal route, of which 17 had supratrigonal and 15 trigonal fistulas. Twenty (38.5%) patients with complex fistulas were managed by abdominal route. The mean blood loss, postoperative pain and mean hospital stay were shorter in transvaginal repair. Eleven (21.2%) patients required ancillary procedures for various other associated anomalies at the time of fistula repair. Three patients failed repair giving a success rate of 94.2%. At a mean follow-up of three years 48 women were sexually active, of these 10 (19.2%) complained of mild to moderate dyspareunia. Conclusion: Most of the simple fistulas irrespective their locations are easily accessible transvaginally while in complex fistulas we recommend the transabdominal approach. Depending on the clinical context both the approaches achieved comparable success rates.
Vaginal eroticism was investigated in a group of 27 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. Erogenous zones were found in all subjects, mainly located on the upper anterior wall and the lower posterior one. An orgasmic response was elicited by stimulation of these zones in 89% of the subjects.
A quantitative method of culture, based on a weighed sample and with results expressed as colony forming units (cfu)\\/g was assessed and used to investigate the vaginal flora of normal women and that of women with vaginal disease. Samples were collected by means of disposable plastic loops into modified proteose peptone water transport medium in preweighed bottles. Counts expressed as
Vaginal or vulvovaginal atrophy is a widespread but poorly recognized condition of peri- and post-menopausal women. It causes urogenital symptoms of dryness, reduced lubrication, itching, burning, irritable bladder symptoms and painful intercourse. This impacts quality of life and sexual health, but increases with time rather than reduces, as with most other menopausal symptoms. With early identification, treatments can improve these symptoms and reverse the physical changes. However, when embedded, bladder and sexual changes have occurred and these may be more difficult to remedy. Therefore, it is important to educate both healthcare professionals and women about these symptoms and advise on the range of interventions available. PMID:24601810
Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics. PMID:24049092
Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health.
Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M.; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I.; Frank, Jeremy A.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Biggs, Diana R.; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R.; Tapping, Richard I.; Blanke, Steven R.; Slauch, James M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S.; Olsen, Gary J.; Hoyer, Lois L.; Wilson, Brenda A.
An esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF) is an often fatal consequence of esophageal or bronchogenic carcinomas. The preferred treatment is placement of esophageal and/or airway stents. Stent placement must be performed as quickly as possible since patients with ERFs are at a high risk for aspiration pneumonia. In this review, choice of stents and stenting area, fistula reopening and its management, and the long-term outcome in the interventional management of malignant ERFs are considered. Lastly, a review of esophagopulmonary fistulas will also be provided.
Bronchio biliary fistula in adults is a rare event defined by the passage of bile into the bronchus and the sputum (biloptysis).Typically these lesions occur in the congenital form, as a result of thoracoabdominal trauma, or in rare instances as a result of iatrogenic injury or long-standing biliary tract disease and obstruction. In this paper, we report a novel case of a fatal bronchobiliary fistula that developed in a 67-year-old Chinese male with Oriental cholangiohepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a bronchobiliary fistula complicating the clinical management of a patient with this disease.
Forty-two patients with 43 mammary duct fistulae, including 23 with a history of at least one previous unsuccessful operation, were treated by excision of the involved duct and fistula alone (15 fistulae) or excision of the fistula combined with total duct excision (28 fistulae). The wounds were closed primarily with antibiotic cover. Two patients had a minor wound infection which settled within 1 month of surgery; one patient developed superficial necrosis of the nipple and one patient required a second operation to excise a discharging sinus. No fistula recurrence has been identified after a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Excision of the involved duct and fistula alone, or excision of the fistula combined with total duct excision performed with antibiotic cover, is probably the treatment of choice for mammary duct fistula. PMID:1958980
Patient: Female, 16 Final Diagnosis: Malrotation and cholecystoduodenal fistula Symptoms: Abdominal pain • anorexia • fever • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Anatomical anomaly/variation Background: Cholecystoduodenal fistula (CDF) is the most common cholecystenteric fistula. It is a late complication of gallbladder disease with calculus and is mainly encountered in the elderly and females. Case Report: We report the case of a teenage patient with cholecystoduodenal fistula and malrotation. Direct plain abdominal x-ray demonstrated air in the biliary system. Computed tomography revealed CDF-associated with an anomaly of intestinal malrotation. She had gallstones (with a few stones in the gallbladder) and cholecystitis. CDF is caused by malrotation, and cholecystitis has not been reported before. In this regard our patient is the first and youngest reported case. Conclusions: We suggest that CDF is probably a consequence of malrotation. The patient’s clinical features and operative management are presented and discussed with current literature.
Ozkan, Aybars; Ozaydin, Ismet; Kaya, Murat; Kucuk, Adem; Katranci, Ali Osman
In the clinic, 56 patients with an external pancreatic fistula was treated. After conservative treatment, a fistula closed in 43 patients, and was functioning in 13. Fistuloenterostomy was performed in 6 patients, resection of the left lobe of the pancreas--in 7. There were no complications and lethal outcomes. The method for return of the pancreatic juice into the duodenum has been suggested. PMID:1296060
Vecherko, V N; Konoplia, P P; Tiurin, I V; Iurév, V V
A case of aortocaval fistula complicating a ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm is reported. As the length of the defect and the thickness of the aortic wall made repair from within the aorta unsafe, the defect was repaired from within the vena cava. The details of the technique are reported. It can be a useful alternative to inferior vena cava ligation, when standard repair of aortocaval fistulae from within the aorta is risky or difficult to attempt. PMID:9128225
Illuminati, G; Calió, F G; Bertagni, A; Caratozzolo, M; Vietri, F
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term success and complication rate of fibrin-glue treatment of anal fistulas. METHODS: Patients with an anal fistula presenting to a single surgeon over a three-year period were enrolled in this study. At their first operation, all 48 patients (26–72 years old) underwent anoscopy, biopsy, destruction of the internal gland, and
Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF)--a rare inborn disease of respiratory system. During 32 yrs 19 observations of pulmonary AVF were made. There were 13 (68.4%) men and 6 (31.6%) women. The patients' age was 25 yrs at average. In 4 (21.1%) patients there was Rendu-Weber-Osler disease diagnosed. Characteristic complaints were acrocyanosis, dyspnea while on loading, rapid fatigue. In accordance to laboratory investigation performed, polycytemia and hypoxemia were revealed. All the patients were operated on, most frequent operation was lobectomy--in 14 (73.6%). Multiple AVF were revealed in 4 (21.1%) patients. The postoperative period course was without complications in 15 (78.9%) patients. One patient (5.3%) died, aged 24 yrs old, suffering bilateral AVF, in 24 days after right-sided lower lobectomy from the bleeding, occurring in contralateral lung and asphyxia. PMID:24501988
Opanasenko, M S; Klymenko, V I; Demus, R S; Konik, B M; Tereshkovych, O V; Kalenychenko, M I; Bychkovs'ky?, V B; Obrems'ka, O K; Levanda, L I; Kononenko, V A; Kshanovs'ky?, O E; Mykytenko, I Iu
Pancreaticopleural fistula is a rare complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis. This usually presents with chest symptoms due to pleural effusion, pleural pseudocyst, or mediastinal pseudocyst. Diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion in patients who develop alcohol-induced pancreatitis and present with pleural effusion which is recurrent or persistent. Analysis of pleural fluid for raised amylase will confirm the diagnosis and investigations like CT. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ECRP) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) may establish the fistulous communication between the pancreas and pleural cavity. The optimal treatment strategy has traditionally been medical management with exocrine suppression with octreotide and ERCP stenting of the fistulous pancreatic duct. Operative therapy considered in the event patient fails to respond to conservative management. There is, however, a lack of clarity regarding the management, and the literature is reviewed here to assess the present view on its pathogenesis, investigations, and management.
We report the resection of a vaginal septum while preserving the virginity of a 12-year-old girl with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome (HWWS) having a didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and an ipsilateral renal agenesis with follow-up at 18 months. Successful resection of the vaginal septum with conservation of the hymenal ring and complete drainage of both the hematocolpos and the hematometra were achieved. Cyclic dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain were completely resolved on follow-up visits at 4, 6, and 18 months. Office hysteroscopy performed during the last follow-up visit revealed a patent vaginal vault without evidence of adenosis or recurrence of the vaginal septum. Vaginoscopy is a safe, convenient, and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic modality that can be used in the management of patients with an obstructed hemivagina. It maintains the patient's virginity and it is useful in patients with a restrictive vaginal opening or narrow vaginal canal. Furthermore, the hysteroscopic excision of the vaginal septum offers minimal risk of recurrence of the septal defect. PMID:23315718
Nassif, Joseph; Al Chami, Ali; Abu Musa, Antoine; Nassar, Anwar H; Kurdi, Ahmad; Ghulmiyyah, Labib
The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. PMID:17422296
The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.
Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) is one the most common inherited disorder in humans. Even though this defect is common among siblings and parents of index patients (27-40%), the mode of inheritance is not well defined. Parents and siblings (three female and two male) of a 13-year-old girl with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) due to reflux nephropathy were screened for VUR although they had not presented episodes of urinary tract infection. VUR was identified in the father (44 years old) and in all the three sisters (aged 15 years, 16 years and 18 years) while the two brothers (aged 5 years and 8 years) had normal renal ultrasonograms and cystograms. A technetium-99m di-mercapto-succinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) scan demonstrated renal scars in the father and in two of the sisters with VUR. No episodes of urinary infection had been documented for any relatives. Haplotype analysis on the X-chromosome confirmed paternity. This is the first description of VUR compatible with an X-dominant trait. This mode of inheritance must be added to what is already known on familial VUR, and future studies should also consider this possibility. PMID:19705159
Naseri, Mitra; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Caridi, Gianluca; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad R
The C825T polymorphism in the GNB3 gene encoding a beta3 subunit from heterotrimeric G-proteins correlates strongly with the variation in activity of the G-proteins. It has so far been associated with a variety of medical conditions, but has not been tested for association with vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR). Primary VUR is a condition of genetic origin that appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode, but with reduced penetrance. The constitutional change in G-protein-mediated cell signaling associated with the C825T polymorphism might be one of the factors that participate in the development of VUR by modifying the effect of still unknown mutated gene(s). A significant difference in genotype frequencies (chi(2) = 7.38, P = 0.025, df = 2) was observed between patients with primary VUR (33 CC homozygotes, 40 CT heterozygotes, 12 TT homozygotes) and healthy controls with no medical record of reflux (114 CC homozygotes, 88 CT heterozygotes, 18 TT homozygotes). This result suggests that the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene might be associated with the development of VUR. PMID:15337465
Congenital vaginal agenesis, with a prevalence of 1 in 4000 females, occurs mainly as a feature of the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Management of patients with MRKH syndrome includes, along with the proper psychological support, the creation of a neovagina to give them the opportunity to have a normal sexual life. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques have been suggested during the past century, for neovagina creation. Among them, the most widespread non-surgical techniques performed are the Frank technique and its modification by Ingram, while the surgical techniques include the McIndoe operation, the Vechietti procedure and its laparoscopic modification and the Williams vaginoplasty and its Creatsas modification. The Creatsas vaginoplasty is a simple, fast and safe technique that has been performed in 178 patients in our Institution over the past 22 years and has provided excellent results in the vast majority of patients. PMID:20089458
Cyclical hematuria is an unusual presentation of a müllerian fusion anomaly. We report a patient with transverse vaginal septum and menstruation by way of the lower urinary tract because of a vesical-vaginal communication. A defect of vertical fusion, transverse vaginal septum results from failure of canalization of the vaginal plate. Reconstruction using a transvaginal and transabdominal approach created a direct anastomosis between the proximal vaginal segment and the distal vaginal pouch. Previously described cases are reviewed. PMID:17382175
One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their third trimester. At times, it may ... few months of pregnancy, you should always report bleeding to your health care provider right away. You ...
Serum antibody titers to Candida albicans were estimated in 37 women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis and in 148 normal American and Finnish subjects, using the passive-hemagglutination technique. The antibody titers ranged from 0 to 16 in normal individuals and 4 to 256 in vaginal candidiasis patients. Antibodies to C. albicans in the sera of vaginal candidiasis patients were found to be the secretory immunoglobulin A type, as determined by gel filtration and double-diffusion tests. The results were confirmed by the indir-ct fluorescent-antibody technique. Our findings suggest that, in vaginal candidiasis, the antibody response is mainly local, consisting of secretory immunoglobulin A, some of which finds its way into systemic circulation. Images
Mathur, S; Koistinen, G V; Horger, E O; Mahvi, T A; Fudenberg, H H
... tumors, it may be used to biopsy possible metastasis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... in detecting cancer that has spread to the brain or spinal cord. This rarely occurs in vaginal ...
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of passive vaginal dilation and McIndoe vaginoplasty in the creation of a neovagina for patients with müllerian agenesis. Study Design: Fifty-one patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome were treated for vaginal agenesis at either Johns Hopkins Hospital or Emory University. These historic prospective data were obtained by a review of medical
\\u000a Vaginal bleeding during gestation is an ominous sign indicating an adverse pregnancy outcome. Bleeding can occur during all\\u000a stages of gestation. It complicates up to 20% of pregnancies during the first trimester and is regarded as a sign of threatened\\u000a abortion. During the second and third trimesters, vaginal bleeding was found to be a risk factor for adverse maternal and
Background: Enterocutaneous fistula has traditionally been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, related to fluid, electrolyte and metabolic disturbance, sepsis and malnutrition. Methods: A retrospective review of enterocutaneous fistula in 277 consecutive patients treated over an 11-year period in a major tertiary referral centre was undertaken to evaluate current management practice and outcome. Results: Most fistulas occurred secondary to abdominal
P. Hollington; J. Mawdsley; W. Lim; S. M. Gabe; A. Forbes; A. J. Windsor
Aggressive treatment of early fistula failure.BackgroundFistula failure has been classified as early and late. Early failure refers to those cases in which the arteriovenous (AV) fistula never develops to the point that it can be used or fails within the first 3 months of usage. It has been common practice to abandon these early failures; however, aggressive evaluation and treatment
Gerald A. Beathard; Perry Arnold; Jerry Jackson; Terry Litchfield
Dural arteriovenous fistulas are fistulas connecting the branches of dural arteries to dural veins or a venous sinus. Digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosing these fistulas. Endovascular treatment is one of the first line options available for their management. This review article reviews the etiopathogenesis, natural history, common classification systems and various available treatment options.
Background Several techniques have been described for the management of fistula-in-ano, but all carry their own risks of recurrence and incontinence. We conducted a prospective study to assess type of presentation, treatment strategy and outcome over a 5-year period. Methods Between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2011 247 patients presenting with anal fistulas were treated at the University Hospital Tor Vergata and were included in the present prospective study. Mean age was 47 years (range 16-76 years); minimum follow-up period was 6 months (mean 40, range 6-74 months). Patients were treated using 4 operative approaches: fistulotomy, fistulectomy, seton placement and rectal advancement flap. Data analyzed included: age, gender, type of fistula, operative intervention, healing rate, postoperative complications, reinterventions and recurrence. Results Etiologies of fistulas were cryptoglandular (n = 218), Crohn's disease (n = 26) and Ulcerative Colitis (n = 3). Fistulae were classified as simple -intersphincteric 57 (23%), low transphincteric 28 (11%) and complex -high transphicteric 122 (49%), suprasphincteric 2 (0.8%), extrasphinteric 2 (0.8%), recto-vaginal 7 (2.8%) Crohn 26 (10%) and UC 3 (1.2%). The most common surgical procedure was the placement of seton (62%), usually applied in case of complex fistulae and Crohn's patients. Eighty-five patients (34%) underwent fistulotomy, mainly for intersphincteric and mid/low transphincteric tracts. Crohn's patients were submitted to placement of one or more loose setons. The main treatment successfully eradicated the primary fistula tract in 151/247 patients (61%). Three cases of major incontinence (1.3%) were detected during the follow-up period; Furthermore, three patients complained minor incontinence that was successfully treated by biofeedback and permacol injection into the internal anal sphincter. Conclusions This prospective audit demonstrates an high proportion of complex anal fistulae treated by seton placement that was the most common surgical technique adopted to treat our patients as a first line. Nevertheless, a good outcome was achieved in the majority of patients with a limited rate of faecal incontinence (6/247 = 2.4%). New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management particularly in case of complex fistulas. There is, however, a real need for high-quality randomized control trials to evaluate the different surgical and non surgical treatment options.
Multiple superficial veins in different anatomical configurations exist in the elbow. The resulting variety of elbow arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) is described in this paper. A classification of elbow AVF in nontransposed AVF, transposed AVF and multiple outflow AVF is proposed. The nontransposed brachiocephalic AVF has the lowest primary failure rate and a good medium-term survival particularly in the elderly. The simplest technique is an end-to-side anastomosis of the median cubital vein to the brachial artery. In cases of small upper arm veins, a perforating vein AVF, using multiple outflow tracts, may be helpful to lower primary failure risk. In the era of vein mapping with portable ultrasound elbow AVF should be made when forearm veins are exhausted or too small. A side-to-side AVF in order to enhance retrograde flow in the median forearm vein seems rarely indicated, in particular considering the greater risk of steal and venous hypertension. A transposed brachiobasilic AVF is a tertiary access procedure after the simpler alternatives have been exhausted. There is conflicting evidence of the benefits of one-stage versus two-stage procedures. Therefore, the type of operation should be tailored to the individual patient. PMID:24817455
Enteroatmospheric fistulae (EAFs), a rare condition that develops in patients treated with an open abdomen, present serious problems for the surgeon. There are no fixed algorithms for treatment of EAF, and treatment options are determined based on the experience of the surgeon and status of the patient. We developed a 'suspended silicone fistula plug' for treating a patient who developed an EAF after undergoing multiple operations in a short period of time. Used in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy, application of this novel therapy resulted in EAF closure and patient discharge. PMID:24851733
Ozer, M Tahir; Sinan, Hüseyin; Zeybek, Nazif; Peker, Yusuf
Background Thoracobiliary fistulas are pathological communications between the biliary tract and the bronchial tree (bronchobiliary fistulas) or the biliary tract and the pleural space (pleurobiliary fistulas). Review of the literature We have reviewed aetiology, pathogenesis, predilection formation points, the clinical picture, diagnostic possibilities, and therapeutic options for thoracobiliary fistulas. Case report A patient with an iatrogenic bronchobiliary fistula which developed after radiofrequency ablation of a colorectal carcinoma metastasis of the liver is present. We also describe the closure of the bronchobiliary fistula with the greater omentum as a possible manner of fistula closure, which was not reported previously according to the knowledge of the authors. Conclusions Newer papers report of successful non-surgical therapy, although the bulk of the literature advocates surgical therapy. Fistula closure with the greater omentum is a possible method of the thoracobiliary fistula treatment.
We present a complex case of a splanchnic arterioportal vein fistula in a patient who presented with weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and pancreatitis. We report successful use of the Guglielmi Detachable Coil (GDC) and N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue for the therapeutic embolization of the fistula between the superior mesenteric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the portal vein. On the day following the procedure, the patient reported total remission of the abdominal pain and diarrhea. These results were maintained at 3 months follow-up.
Chen, Qi, E-mail: qc13@Cornell.edu; Tack, Carl; Morcos, Morcos; Ruggiero, Mary Ann; Schlossberg, Peter; Fogel, Joshua [Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Weng Lijun [New York Methodist Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Farkas, Jeffrey [Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to review retrospectively the functional and anatomic outcomes of women who underwent vaginal repair of enterocele and vault prolapse with the use of an intraperitoneal suspension of the vaginal vault to the uterosacral ligaments in conjunction with fascial reconstruction of the anterior and posterior vaginal wall. Study Design: Two hundred two women with
M. Karram; S. Goldwasser; S. Kleeman; A. Steele; B. Vassallo; P. Walsh
PURPOSE: This prospective study was done to analyze the efficacy of autologous fibrin glue application in the healing or closure of recurrent anorectal fistulas. Autologous cryoprecipitate was used as fibrin glue in all patients. This group included complex anorectal fistulas, rectovaginal fistulas, and urethrovesicorectal fistulas. METHODS: Patients were given bowel preparation and intravenous antibiotics before the procedure. Fistulas were curetted
... contact us Vaginitis Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long have you had this vaginal discomfort? ... abdominal pain, joint pain, or a rash? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...
... and low estrogen levels, which may lead to vaginal dryness and other symptoms ( Atrophic vaginitis ). Forgotten tampon or foreign body, which may cause a foul odor. Chemicals found in ... irritate the vagina or the skin around the vagina Less common ...
...3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...
...3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...
Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal micro- bial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific micro- bial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S
Tae Kyung Kim; Susan M. Thomas; Mengfei Ho; Shobha Sharma; Claudia I. Reich; Jeremy A. Frank; Kathleen M. Yeater; Diana R. Biggs; Noriko Nakamura; Rebecca Stumpf; Steven R. Leigh; Richard I. Tapping; Steven R. Blanke; James M. Slauch; H. Rex Gaskins; Jon S. Weisbaum; Gary J. Olsen; Lois L. Hoyer; Brenda A. Wilson
The appearance of a new intrafascial technique for vaginal hysterectomy serves to remind us that in spite of well-standardized techniques, gynecologists perform this less often than formerly. The described technique is an intrafascial variation of the extrafascial vaginal hysterectomy beginning at the fundus uteri. We mobilize the anterior vaginal wall using Strassmann's incision. The body of the uterus should be delivered through the anterior fornix. Then follows the ligation of the broad ligaments and careful dissection of the fibroareolar space of the posterior cervical wall. The cardinal ligament requires intrafascial clamping and ligation. This technique is simple and avoids injury to the ureters. If this operation is successfully performed, postoperative pain is minimal, and hospitalization could be greatly reduced. PMID:15459520
We report on a 32-year-old man with a history of chronic lower abdominal pain and urogenital symptoms, leading to the diagnosis of coloseminal fistula complicating diverticular disease. We reviewed the literature on this rare clinical entity and would like to stress the role of pelvic imaging with rectal contrast to investigate complicated forms of diverticular disease. PMID:24457980
Barret, Maximilien; Cuenod, Charles-André; Jian, Raymond; Cellier, Christophe; Berger, Anne
OBJECTIVE: To observe the composition of the vaginal flora of healthy women over time, and in relation to hormonal changes, sexual activity, and hygiene habits. DESIGN: A longitudinal surveillance of the vaginal flora over an eight week period. SUBJECTS: 26 female health care workers in local genitourinary medicine clinics. METHODS: The participants were anonymised. They filled in diary cards daily. Blind vaginal swabs were self-taken two-seven times weekly. A smear was air-dried for later Gram staining. The swabs were also cultured for Candida spp, Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. RESULTS: Of 26 subjects, only four had normal vaginal microbiology throughout. One woman, who was not sexually active, had bacterial vaginosis (BV) throughout and nine (35%) had intermittent BV. Candidiasis was found intermittently in eight women (31%), and eight had normal microscopy. U urealyticum was isolated intermittently in 40% of women with BV, 25% with candida, and 50% with normal microscopy. Many women were symptomatic, but symptoms correlated poorly with microbiological findings. All but two women were sexually active; however, more women with BV were exposed to semen. BV seemed to be related to frequent use of scented soap, and there appeared to be an additive effect of clothing and hygiene factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study raises doubts about what should be regarded as normal vaginal flora. It calls into question the significance of finding BV or U urealyticum on a single occasion in asymptomatic women, or of finding normal flora in symptomatic women. The effect of external factors on the vaginal flora deserve further study.
Background and Study Objectives. Enterovesical fistula (EVF) is a devastating complication of a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Radiological imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis of EVF and is indispensable to gastroenterologists and surgeons for choosing the correct therapeutic option. This paper provides an overview of the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae. The treatment of fistulae is also briefly discussed. Material and Methods. We performed a literature review by searching the Medline database for articles published from its inception until September 2013 based on clinical relevance. Electronic searches were limited to the keywords: “enterovesical fistula,” “colovesical fistula” (CVF), “pelvic fistula”, and “urinary fistula”. Results. EVF is a rare pathology. Diverticulitis is the commonest aetiology. Over two-thirds of affected patients describe pathognomonic features of pneumaturia, fecaluria, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Computed tomography is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae as not only does it detect a fistula, but it also provides information about the surrounding anatomical structures. Conclusions. In the vast majority of cases, this condition is diagnosed because of unremitting urinary symptoms after gastroenterologist follow-up procedures for a diverticulitis or bowel inflammatory disease. Computed tomography is the most sensitive test for enterovesical fistula.
IntroductionHigh transsphincteric fistulas are difficult to treat because fistulotomy of involved sphincter muscle results in incontinence. We compare our outcomes for anal fistula plug, fibrin glue, advancement flap closure, and seton drain insertion.
Wiley Chung; Pooya Kazemi; David Ko; Clare Sun; Carl J. Brown; Manoj Raval; Terry Phang
Infections of the vaginal tract result from perturbations in the complex interactions between the microbiome and the host vaginal ecosystem. Recent data have linked specific vaginal microbes and urogenital infection with pre-term birth. Here we discuss how next generation sequencing-based approaches to study the vaginal microbiome will be important for defining what constitutes an imbalance of the microbiome and the associated host conditions that lead to subsequent infection and disease states. These studies will provide clinicians reliable diagnostic tools and treatments for women who are at increased risk for vaginal infections, preterm birth, HIV and other sexually acquired diseases, and will provide opportunities for intervention.
White, Bryan A.; Creedon, Douglas J.; Nelson, Karen E.; Wilson, Brenda A.
Vaginitis can be a frustrating entity to treat, since the incidence of recurrence is high. This paper examines evidence from the literature concerning diagnosis and treatment of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Corynebacterium vaginale, herpes simplex type 2 and gonorrhea. A protocol based on these readings is outlined.
Vaginal infections, affecting half of all women, are more severe in women with AIDS. The infection vulva vaginitis, caused by candida, may require medical attention. The doctor performs a pelvic exam and examines vaginal fluids under a microscope. Antibiotics, diet, or a suppressed immune system can increase candida yeast presence. Sweets should be avoided, as well as foods high in leavening, such as bread, cheese, fruit, or alcoholic beverages. Vegetables, grains, rice and wheat can be added to the diet. Eating a half-cup of yogurt daily will help maintain a proper level of yeast. Acidophilus capsules can be taken two or three times daily to relieve digestive problems. Raw or cooked garlic can be used as a vaginal suppository at night. Pau D'arco, the bark of a South American tree, is also anti-yeast. Boil for ten to twenty minutes, and take a teaspoon two or three times a day. Tea, or vinegar and water, can be used as a douche. Some women get relief by adding a half-cup of white vinegar to their bath. Do not wash genitals with soap and do not use sanitary napkins or tampons. Visit a doctor if the condition persists. PMID:11362438
The aim of this study was to determine if a new sphincter muscle-sparing technique that uses fibrin glue was effective in\\u000a closing all types of anal fistulas. All patients with anal fistulas who were seen by a single surgeon over a 2-year period\\u000a were treated with fibrin glue. Six to 8 weeks after a seton was placed in the fistula
Background: Rectovaginal fistulas are rare, and the majority is of traumatic origin. The most common causes are obstetric trauma, local infection, and rectal surgery. This guideline does not cover rectovaginal fistulas that are caused by chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Results: Rectovaginal fistula is diagnosed on the basis of the patient history and the clinical examination. Other pathologies should be ruled out by endoscopy, endosonography or tomography. The assessment of sphincter function is valuable for surgical planning (potential simultaneous sphincter reconstruction). Persistent rectovaginal fistulas generally require surgical treatment. Various surgical procedures have been described. The most common procedure involves a transrectal approach with endorectal suture. The transperineal approach is primarily used in case of simultaneous sphincter reconstruction. In recurrent fistulas. Closure can be achieved by the interposition of autologous tissue (Martius flap, gracilis muscle) or biologically degradable materials. In higher fistulas, abdominal approaches are used as well. Stoma creation is more frequently required in rectovaginal fistulas than in anal fistulas. The decision regarding stoma creation should be primarily based on the extent of the local defect and the resulting burden on the patient. Conclusion: In this clinical S3-Guideline, instructions for diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal fistulas are described for the first time in Germany. Given the low evidence level, this guideline is to be considered of descriptive character only. Recommendations for diagnostics and treatment are primarily based the clinical experience of the guideline group and cannot be fully supported by the literature.
Summary A high flow pial arteriovenous fistula in a twenty-years-old girl is described. The arteriovenous communication corresponds to a single hole fistula on the right rolandic area, with a giant venous ectasia. The patient presented seizures and left hemiparesis as symptoms. The fistula was embolized with glue obtaining total occlusion of the shunt. Hypotension was induced and valsalva manoeuver was done during the glue injection to reduce the flow into the fistula,however 26 hours after the procedure the patient bled resulting in a fatal outcome. The purpose of this paper is discuss the presentation of Rendu-Osler-Weber (ROW) in children and the therapeutic guidelines.
Enterovesical fistula (EVF) is an abnormal communication between the intestine and the bladder. It represents a rare complication\\u000a of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, and traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. The most common aetiologies are diverticular\\u000a disease and colorectal carcinoma. Over 75% of affected patients describe pathognomonic features of pneumaturia, faecaluria\\u000a and recurrent urinary tract infections. The diagnosis of EVF can be
This is the case of a 56-year-old male who presented at our Emergency Room complaining of severe epigastric pain that radiated towards the left shoulder and neck. Pneumopericardium was diagnosed with plain chest X-rays, which indicated a gastropericardial fistula. A contrast X-ray film was taken using a water-soluble contrast. A full gastrectomy was performed with esophagojejunostomy reconstruction and pericardial drainage, which resulted in a favourable patient outcome. PMID:17516832
Ruano Poblador, A; Gay Fernández, A M; García Martínez, M T; Galán Raposo, L; Maruri Chimeno, I; Carracedo Iglesias, R; Casal Núñez, J E
Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient's signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.
Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Elkhamry, Sahar M.; Al-Rashed, Waleed; Bosley, Thomas M.
Purpose The long-term efficacy of Surgisis anal fistula plug in closure of cryptoglandular anorectal fistulas was studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients with high cryptoglandular anorectal fistulas were prospectively studied. Additional variables recorded were: number\\u000a of fistula tracts, and presence of setons. Under general anesthesia and in prone jackknife position, patients underwent irrigation\\u000a of the fistula tract by using hydrogen peroxide. Each primary opening was
Bradley J. Champagne; Lynn M. O’Connor; Martha Ferguson; Guy R. Orangio; Marion E. Schertzer; David N. Armstrong
Background and Objective: We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of immediate laparoscopic nontransvesical repair without omental interposition for vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) developing after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), which causes not only social and economic misery for the patient but also considerable stress to the physicians who perform the surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 5 women who underwent immediate laparoscopic nontransvesical repair without omental interposition for VVFs, developing after TAH from October 2007 to March 2009. In terms of laparoscopic procedure, cystoscopy was performed to confirm the location of fistula and ureteral openings, initially. Without opening the bladder, the fistula tract was identified, and the bladder was dissected from the vagina. The bladder defect was closed by using intracorporeal, continuous, and double-layer suturing, laparoscopically. The vaginal defect was closed using interrupted and single-layer suturing, vaginally. A Foley catheter was inserted for 2 weeks and removed after bladder integrity was confirmed with a retrograde cystogram. Results: The median age and body mass index of the patients were 47 years and 22.3 kg/m2, respectively. Operating time, hemoglobin change, and hospital stay were 95 minutes, 1.1 g/dL, and 5 days, respectively. There were no complications or laparoconversions. During follow-up (median 56.1 weeks; range 26.6 to 74.0), there was no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions: Immediate laparoscopic nontransvesical repair without omental interposition might be an effective, feasible alternative to the traditional methods in select patients with small sized (<1 cm) VVF developing after TAH.
Malignant melanoma is predominantly a skin disease but in rare instances it may occur at other sites. A vaginal melanoma is a rare clinical entity and the round cell type is an uncommon variant. Although the present case was clinically diagnosed as a urethral caruncle, on histopathological examination and immunostaining it was diagnosed as a round cell pigmented malignant melanoma. The patient refused radical surgery and was given a full course radiotherapy treatment but died a year later. Malignant vaginal melanoma carries a very poor prognosis even when lesion is localised at the time of presentation. The five-year survival rate ranges from 10–20% with the prognosis being influenced by tumour size. A tumour size ?3cm has a poor prognosis. Age, mitotic count, stage, and location of the lesion do not influence survival rates.
Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of in-utero percutaneous Vesico Amniotic Shunt (VAS) in the management of fetal lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) Design Model based economic analysis using data from the randomised controlled arm of the PLUTO (percutaneous vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction) trial. Setting Fetal medicine departments in United Kingdom, Ireland and Netherlands. Population or Sample Pregnant women with a male, singleton fetus with LUTO. Methods Costs and outcomes were prospectively collected in the trial; three separate base case analyses were performed using the intention to treat (ITT), per protocol and uniform prior methods. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore data uncertainty. Main Outcome Measures Survival at 28 days, 1 year and disease free survival at 1 year. Results VAS was more expensive but appeared to result in higher rates of survival compared with conservative management in patients with LUTO. Using ITT analysis the incremental cost effectiveness ratios based on outcomes of survival at 28 days, 1 year, or 1 morbidity-free year on the VAS arm were £15,506, £15,545, and £43,932, respectively. Conclusions VAS is a more expensive option compared to the conservative approach in the management of individuals with LUTO. Data from the RCT suggest that VAS improves neonatal survival but does not result in significant improvements in morbidity. Our analysis concludes that VAS is not likely to be cost effective in the management of these patients given the NICE (National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence) cost threshold of £20,000 per QALY.
Diwakar, Lavanya; Morris, Rachel K.; Barton, Pelham; Middleton, Lee J.; Kilby, Mark D.; Roberts, Tracy E.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate recent advances in our understanding of the clinical relevance, diagnosis, and treatment of vaginal infections, and to determine an efficient and effective method of evaluating this clinical problem in the outpatient setting. DATA SOURCES Relevant papers on vaginitis limited to the English language obtained through a MEDLINE search for the years 1985 to 1997 were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS Techniques that enable the identification of the various strains of candida have helped lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of recurrent candida infection. From this information a rationale for the treatment of recurrent disease can be developed. Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with complications, including upper genital tract infection, preterm delivery, and wound infection. Women undergoing pelvic surgery, procedures in pregnancy, or pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery should be evaluated for bacterial vaginosis to decrease the rate of complications associated with this condition. New, more standardized criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis may improve diagnostic consistency among clinicians and comparability of study results. Use of topical therapies in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis are effective and associated with fewer side effects than systemic medication. Trichomonas vaginalis, although decreasing in incidence, has been associated with upper genital tract infection. Therapy of T. vaginalis infection has been complicated by an increasing incidence of resistance to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS Vaginitis is a common medical problem in women that is associated with significant morbidity and previously unrecognized complications. Research in recent years has improved diagnostic tools as well as treatment modalities for all forms of vaginitis.
Carr, Phyllis L; Felsenstein, Donna; Friedman, Robert H
A total of 132 pregnant women with average gestational age of 14.2 weeks (range 11–22 weeks) undergoing legal abortion volunteered for a trial utilizing vaginal administration of misoprostol. In 106 women a dose of 800 ?g was utilized, whilst in 26 women 1,200-1,600 ?g were given. Nonsurgical expulsion of the fetus was successful in 117 cases (88.6%). Four cases had
Antonio Bugalho; Cassimo Bique; Luisa Almeida; Staffan Bergström
Objective: To document a 15 year experience of fistula in ano surgery. Design: Retropective audit of patients. Subjects: All patients referred with fistula in ano between 1975 and 1990. Setting: Colorectal Service, University Department of Surgery, Wellington School of Medicine. Main outcome measures: Resolution of symptoms and morbidity of surgery. Results: 92 operations were performed in 88 patients. There were
Six among 60 arterial injuries at the 18th Surgical Hospital (MA) and 71st Evacuation Hospital, Vietnam, were treated for arteriovenous fistulas. Five of six fistulas caused by war injuries were acute, and one was chronic. All injuries were caused by frag...
Summary Bronchobiliary fistula is a rare condition, defined by the presence of a passage between the biliary tract and the bronchial tree. Many conditions can give raise to the development of such a communication. Biliary lithiasis is one of those and is perhaps the one most amenable to endoscopic management. We describe a case of bronchobiliary fistula secondary to the
V. F. Moreira; C. Arocena; F. Cruz; M. Alvarez; A. L. San Roman
Duodenocaval fistulae are rare but may well be the source of gastrointestinal hemorrhage with associated sepsis in patients undergoing surgery and subsequently receiving radiation to the right upper abdomen. Management of these fistulae may be challenging. Diagnosis usually requires a high index of suspicion, particularly in post irradiated patients.
Arterio-ureteric fistulae are rare but can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a novel case in which an arterio-ureteric fistula occurred as a complication following external iliac artery angioplasty and stenting, in a patient who had undergone previous pelvic surgery, radiotherapy, ureteric stenting, and urinary diversion surgery. Prompt recognition enabled successful endovascular management using a covered stent.
Aarvold, Alexander; Wales, Lucy, E-mail: email@example.com; Papadakos, Nikolaos; Munneke, Graham; Loftus, Ian; Thompson, Matt [St. George's Vascular Institute (United Kingdom)
Aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas constitute a problem in therapy because of the high rates of morbidity and mortality associated with operation. From May 1996 to March 2000, we treated by an endovascular procedure one aortoesophageal and three aortobronchial fistulas. There was no postoperative death. We noted one peripheral vascular complication that required a surgical procedure, one postoperative confusion, and one
Bertrand Léobon; Daniel Roux; Antoine Mugniot; Hervé Rousseau; Alain Cérene; Yves Glock; Gérard Fournial
Vaginal leiomyoma is a rare tumor with a variable clinical presentation and broad differential diagnosis that can lead to preoperative misdiagnosis. We present a case of vaginal leiomyoma with a symptom complex of prolapse, urinary urgency and urge incontinence. A 50-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of deteriorating sensation of prolapse, significant complex urinary complaints and prolonged vaginal bleeding. Clinical examination revealed a mobile 6 x 8 cm mass arising from the anterior vaginal wall. She underwent hysteroscopy, curettage, urethrocystoscopy (normal findings) and mass enucleation through a vertical incision. Histology showed a benign leiomyoma. Ultrasonography, MRI, positive-pressure urethrography and urethrocystoscopy should be considered in the evaluation of an anterior wall vaginal mass. Surgical enucleation via a vaginal approach is the treatment of choice. If this surgical procedure results in skeletonization of the urethral and bladder support, a colporrhaphy/pubourethral ligament plication is required. PMID:11484748
Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases.
The increased number of vaginal yeast infections in the past few years has been a disturbing trend, and the scientific community has been searching for its etiology. Several theories have been put forth to explain the apparent increase. First, the recent widespread availability of low-dosage, azole-based over-the-counter antifungal medications for vaginal yeast infections encourages women to self-diagnose and treat, and women may be misdiagnosing themselves. Their vaginitis may be caused by bacteria, parasites or may be a symptom of another underlying health condition. As a result, they may be unnecessarily and chronically expose themselves to antifungal medications and encourage fungal resistance. Second, medical technology has increased the life span of seriously immune compromised individuals, yet these individuals are frequently plagued by opportunistic fungal infections. Long-term and intense azole-based antifungal treatment has been linked to an increase in resistant Candida and non-Candida species. Thus, the future of limiting antifungal resistance lies in identifying the factors promoting resistance and implementing policies to prevent it.
Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS) is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS). Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.
Using McIndoe's vaginal reconstruction with the ORFIT "S" vaginal stent, we achieved good results in 5 patients with congenital vaginal absence over the past 3 years. The ORFIT "S" vaginal stent is a semirigid, porous, and inexpensive stent. The application is easy intraoperatively, and minimal daily care is required for long-term postoperative dilatation. The stent keeps the neovagina in full acceptance of the speculum after long-term follow-up. PMID:8041835
The incidence of vaginal septum is rare. The infrequency of this anomaly makes accurate estimates of the true incidence very difficult to obtain. Diagnosis is based on careful historyand examination. This is the case of a patient who presented with transverse vaginal septum in labour and breech presentation. The septum was resected and the foetus delivered normally. Careful vaginal examination should be performed in pregnant women at term before labour to detect such manageable abnormalities. PMID:24397081
The pulmonary hypoplasia with bronchoesophageal fistula is a rarely-seen disease which can be confused with total pulmonary agenesis. This case study concerns to one day old male newborn which was hospitalized in our hospital with respiratory difficulties, accompanied by pulmonary opacity of the right side. After having carried out diagnosis studies, including bronchography, we concluded that it was a case of pulmonary agenesis. The patient died from persistent pulmonary hypertension. The anatomopathologic diagnosis, was right pulmonary hypoplasia with bronchoesophageal fistula. This pathology originated during early embryonic stage when the bronchoplastic and esophagoplastic tissue are incompletely separated an thus a fistula between the esophagus and the principal bronchus is formed. The presence of a fistula could not be proven by bronchography. However, esophagography or esophagoscopy would have proven the presence of the fistula. PMID:1466775
De León-Cantú, R E; Rodríguez-Balderrama, I; Tijerina-Carrillo, E L; Villarreal-Castellanos, E; Rodríguez-Bonito, R; Barbosa-Quintana, A; Abrego-Moya, V
Three cases of the rare condition of congenital cheek fistulae are presented. These differ from preauricular fistulae in terms of their location and the direction in which the fistula is lying. Each cheek fistula seemed to be situated along the line of the junction between the mandibular and maxillary processes of the first branchial arch. PMID:10624301
Colocutaneous fistula caused by diverticulitis is relatively rare, and a delayed recrudescent case of colocutaneous fistula is very uncommon. We herein report a rare case of a Japanese 56-year-old male with delayed recrudescent sigmoidocutaneous fistula due to diverticulitis. A colocutaneous fistula was formed after a drainage operation against a perforation of the sigmoid colon diverticulum. After 5 years from treatment,
Aim: Anal fistula is usually treated by either fistulotomy or fistulectomy. We described the routine use of setons to treat anal fistula without any surgery. Method: Forty-seven consecutive patients with diagnosed anal fistulae were treated using setons alone. Results: The median age of the patients was 41 (range: 18-70). Of the 47 patients, 15 had surgery previously for fistula and
This study compares the outcomes of laparoscopic uterosacral ligament uterine suspension (LUSUS) to those of vaginal vault suspension with total vaginal hysterectomy (TVH) for the treatment of symptomatic uterovaginal prolapse. We compared the outcomes of 25 LUSUS to those of 25 TVH with vaginal vault suspension among age-matched controls. No significant complications occurred in either group. EBL and hospitalization duration
Aparna Diwan; Charles R. Rardin; William C. Strohsnitter; Alexandra Weld; Peter Rosenblatt; Neeraj Kohli
Objectives: To determine if the efficacy of continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring is equivalent to estriol vaginal cream regarding improvement of the patient's subjective feeling of vaginal dryness and to determine if there is a preference for either of the two study treatments. Methods: Open-label randomized parallel group trial with active control with a blind evaluation
Ronald Barentsen; Peter H. M. van de Weijer; Jan H. N. Schram
Severe vaginal stenosis is a potentially disabling complication of transverse vaginal septum resection due to the constriction of the resulting circular scar. We describe a vaginal mold that can be easily created by an occupational therapist, and used as a long-term stent of the vagina in young girls. PMID:17418828
Lacy, Judith; Correll, Gretchen R; Walmer, David K; Price, Thomas M
Objectives: To evaluate whether an elevated vaginal leucocyte count in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) predicts the presence of vaginal or cervical infections, and to assess the relation of vaginal WBC counts to clinical manifestations. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the relation of vaginal leucocyte counts to vaginal and cervical infections and to clinical manifestations in non-pregnant women diagnosed with BV at an STD clinic visit. Results: Of 296 women with BV studied, the median age was 24 years and 81% were African-American. Elevated vaginal leucocyte counts were associated with objective signs of vaginitis and cervicitis and also predicted candidiasis (OR 7.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 28.9), chlamydia (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.7), gonorrhoea (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.4), or trichomoniasis (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 7.3). In general, as a screening test for vaginal or cervical infections, vaginal leucocyte count had moderate sensitivities and specificities, low positive predictive values, and high negative predictive values. Conclusions: An elevated vaginal leucocyte count in women with BV was a strong predictor of vaginal or cervical infections. Vaginal leucocyte quantification may provide an alternative approach to assessing need for empirical therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, particularly in resource-limited high STD risk settings that provide syndromic management.
... factors for vaginal cancer? What are the key statistics about vaginal cancer? Vaginal cancer is rare. Only ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...
Vaginal contraception is enjoying a revival among women who fear the side effects of the pill or of the IUD. Vaginal contraception by vaginal diaphragm or by cervical cap is totally reversible and never causes complications; there may be short term reversible side effects with the diaphragm, such as cystitis, uretritis, and hemorroids; no side effects are associated with the use of cervical caps. Vaginal contraception has the added advantage of exercising a notable prophylactic actions on the diffusion of verereal diseases and of other vaginal infections such as trichomoniasis and candidosis. It is also possible that vaginal contraception offers protection against cervical neoplasia. Failure rate of diaphragm use is an average 10/100 women years, and for the cervical cap it is about 7.6/100 women years, when both devices are properly used. Vaginal contraception needs to be used in conjunction with spermicidal agents. Spermicidal agents can be used alone and can be very effective; they are, however, not well accepted by most couples, who resent the interruption of the sexual act. Two experimental models of vaginal sponge are now under study; vaginal sponges can be left in place for some time, and insertion is very easy. PMID:12336893
Vesico-vaginalfistula (VVF) is a major public health issue in Nigeria. This study focused on VVF patients seeking treatment. Hospital records were used to sample 30 respondents. Three focus group discussions were conducted and analyzed in themes. Results reveal that most of the respondents did not know what brought about their condition, whereas some felt it was a curse from the gods. Respondents reported discrimination and stigmatization by relatives. Findings suggest the need to have trained social workers working in all fistula centers in the country. They will help in the counseling, rehabilitation, and reintegration of these women. PMID:25068607
Emma-Echiegu, Nkechi; Okoye, Uzoma O; Odey, Ering S
A 44-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) for menstrual and bulk-related symptoms in an enlarged, myomatous uterus. After surgery, she spontaneously sloughed a large mass of fibroids that arrested in the cervical canal during passage. Four days after gynecological extraction, she developed copious vaginal discharge that contained enteric contents. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a fistula between the small bowel and the uterus. She subsequently underwent hysterectomy, left oophorectomy, and small-bowel resection. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful.
Gutierrez, Luis B., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Stanford University, School of Medicine (United States); Bansal, Anshuman K., E-mail: email@example.com [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Radiology (United States); Hovsepian, David M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Stanford University, School of Medicine (United States)
The key to the treatment of anal fistula lies in scavenging the infected anal gland thoroughly, which is the source of anal fistula infection. The fistula tract at the internal orifice of the anal fistula is cut 1 cm using laser with the infectious source completely degenerated and the wound gassified and scanned. The residual distal fistula softens and disappears upon the action of organic fibrinolysin.
We report on a clinicopathologic study in an animal model of treatment with a new bioabsorbable polymer plug (BAPP). Over a 2-week period, 6 porcine models, which each had 4 anal fistulae, were created using Blake drains. The pigs were divided into 2 groups: the BAPP-treatment group (n = 12 fistulae) and the control group (n = 12 fistulae). Two weeks later, the pigs were humanely killed, and the perianal sites were excised and examined with gross and pathologic studies. Each fistula in the BAPP group was completely cured. In the pathologic study, the treatment sites had little disarray, few defects in the muscular layer, and small numbers of inflammatory cells. The control group had a significantly greater number of inflammatory cells and microabscesses than the BAPP group. The newly developed BAPP reduced the infection and induced good healing in anal fistulae. The BAPP may be a useful new device for the clinical treatment of anal fistulae.
Personal experience with the treatment cryptogenic complex anal fistulas over the 10-year period from 1993 to 2002 is reported. Such fistulas accounted for 54 out of 255 fistulas observed (21.1%). Accurate anatomo-pathological classification, based on the connections between the fistulas and the sphincter and the musculature of the pelvic floor, is mandatory, as is thorough preoperative evaluation of ano-rectal function and of the risk of faecal incontinence. The surgical strategies used, in relation to the different kinds of complex fistulas treated, are schematically reported. A mixed technique consisting in fistulectomy-fistulotomy with setons was particularly preferred, because of the risk related to immediate dissection of the sphincter, especially when concurrent risk factors are present. As regards the results obtained, the surgical outcome consisted in healing in 49/54 cases (90.7%) as against recurrence or persistence of the fistula in 5/54 (9.3%). Minor complications occurred in 6/54 (11.1%); no major complications were observed and no cases of permanent faecal incontinence were reported. In conclusion, the surgical choice in cases of complex fistulas must lead to definitive, radical treatment of the lesion, at the same time avoiding irreversible anal incontinence due to severe lesions to the sphincter. PMID:15452991
Obstetric fistula is one of the most severe childbirth-related complications. The small size and physical weakness of many young pregnant girls makes it extremely difficult for them to give birth to a child. Delivery is therefore often prolonged. During childbirth, girls' perineum often tears, leaving holes between the bladder and/or the rectum and the vagina. The young mothers from then on lose control over their bladder and bowels, are unable to bear more children, and find sexual intercourse painful. Such fistula are common in Somalia, Ethiopia, most Sahelian countries, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, but particularly so in Niger. 23,000 girls and women in Niger have the condition, or 1% of all women of child-bearing age. Obstetric fistula can, however, be cured by a simple operation. France recently announced a $400,000 aid project to help teenage girls in Niger with fistula and to discourage parents, village elders, and women's groups from marrying girls at too young ages. Doctors in Niger will be trained to surgically repair fistula, cured women will be helped to reintegrate into society, local health workers will be trained to recognize the early signs of fistula, and female genital mutilation will be discouraged because of its role in increasing the likelihood of fistula development. PMID:12290458
Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of urogenital atrophy. Individuals with urogenital atrophy have symptoms that include vaginal dryness, vaginal and vulval irritation, vaginal soreness, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), increased vaginal discharge, vaginal odour, vaginal infections, recurrent urinary tract infections, pain associated with sexual activity (dyspareunia) and vaginal bleeding associated with sexual activity. Despite the frequency and effects of vaginal atrophy symptoms, they are often under-reported and, consequently, under-treated. Therefore, care of a menopausal woman should include a physical assessment of vaginal atrophy and a dialogue between the physician and the patient that explores existing symptoms and their effect on vulvovaginal health, sexuality and quality-of-life issues. The development of the ultra-low-dose 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablets is in line with the requirements of regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest effective hormonal dose. Because of its effectiveness and safety profiles, in addition to its minimal systemic absorption, the 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablet can offer greater reassurance to health-care providers and postmenopausal women with an annual estradiol administration of only 1.14 mg. PMID:22393176
Introduction. Vesicovaginal fistula has been a social and surgical problem for centuries. Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct this abnormality, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and endoscopic approaches. The best approach is probably the one with which the surgeon feels most experienced and comfortable. Laparoscopy has become increasingly popular in urology, reducing the invasiveness of treatment and shortening the period of convalescence. We report our results of transvesicoscopic approach for VVF repair. Materials and Methods. Patients with VVF were offered repair using the transvesicoscopic route. With the patient under general anaesthesia and in modified lithotomy position cystoscopy was performed with gas insufflation. Under cystoscopic guidance the bladder was fixed to anterior abdominal wall and ports inserted into the bladder. The fistula was repaired under endoscopic vision. Results. Four women, who had VVF following abdominal hysterectomy, underwent this procedure. The operating time ranged from 175 to 235 minutes. There was minimal bleeding. Post operative complications included ileus in one and fever in another. No recurrence of VVF was noted in any patient. Conclusions. Transvesicoscopic repair of VVF is feasible, safe, and results in lower morbidity and quicker recovery time.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of laser doppler flowmetry to pre- and posthysterectomy vaginal blood flow assessment. We used laser Doppler flowmetry to measure pre-and postoperational vaginal blood flow in 8 premenopausal women undergoing benign hysterectomies; we also measured serum E2, FSH, FT and administered a brief sexual function questionnaire. We analyzed data using two
A group of 120 women with gestations from 64 to 84 days received 800 ?g of vaginal misoprostol every 24 h for a maximum of three doses without performing postexpulsion systematic preventive curettage. Outcome measures included successful abortion (complete abortion without requiring a surgical procedure), side effects, and mean time of expulsion and vaginal bleeding. Complete abortion occurred in 104
J. L Carbonell Esteve; L Varela; A Velazco; E Cabezas; R Tanda; C Sánchez
Relatively simple and rapid procedures have been developed for evaluating the local efficacy of vaginal antifungal agents in vivo in a vaginal candidiasis model in ovariectomized rats. The results of this investigation indicate that the model and methods described are quite suitable for screening potential antifungal substances and for assessing the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of new antifungal agents and formulations before carrying out clinical studies.
McRipley, R. J.; Erhard, P. J.; Schwind, R. A.; Whitney, R. R.
Introduction Transverse vaginal septum occurs because there is a defect in vertical fusion during embryological development of the vagina.\\u000a It is quite rare and is infrequently encountered by most obstetricians and gynecologists in their practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report A 14-year-old unmarried student, Miss AUX, presented to a private gynecologist complaining of absent menses. Initial examination\\u000a and investigation revealed intact hymen, normal uterus but
Fahed Al-Abdulhadi; Michael Fidelis Diejomaoh; Assem El Biaa; Jiri Jirous; Mona Al-Qenae
Over 2 million women worldwide have an obstetric fistula, with the majority of cases occurring in resource-poor countries. Afflicted women tend to be young, primiparous, impoverished, and have little or no access to medical care. Incontinent of urine and/or stool, these women become ostracized and shunned by their community. Most obstetric fistulas are surgically correctible, although surgical outcomes have been poorly studied. Programs that improve nutrition, delay the age of marriage, improve family planning, and increase access to maternal and obstetric care are necessary to prevent obstetric fistula.
Gastropleural fistula is a rare condition, most frequently reported as a result of trauma, peptic ulcer disease or malignancy. We report a case of gastropleural fistula in a patient with metastatic ovarian cancer who presented with hydropneumothorax and mediastinal shift. She was successfully managed with an open partial gastrectomy, repair of diaphragmatic defect, and thoracoscopic washout and decortication. Based on our case and review of the literature, surgical repair of gastropleural fistula should be considered as a palliative procedure even in patients with end-stage cancer. PMID:24876505
Six cases of full spontaneous closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas, and one case of near closure, as seen by colour Doppler echocardiography, are presented. It is worth reconsidering the classical view that nearly all cases of spontaneous closure are eligible for surgical or percutaneous correction to prevent the development of significant and potentially fatal complications. As the natural course of coronary artery fistulas is still poorly defined, asymptomatic patients, especially those under 7 years old with small shunts, should be periodically followed up by echocardiography rather than be subjected to operative closure, even by catheterisation.???Keywords: congenital heart disease; coronary artery disease; coronary artery fistula; spontaneous closure
Cases of cholecystocutaneous fistulas are now a rare occurrence as a result of rapid diagnosis and treatment. We present a case of cholecystocutaneous fistula developing after the removal of a percutaneous drain for the treatment of acute cholecystitis. Re-occurring infection and presence of gallstones led to fistulization of the gallbladder fundus and the development of a tract along the path created by the drain. The patient presented with re-occurring right upper quadrant abdominal pain, purulent discharge from the fistulous opening and expulsion of multiple gallstones. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fistula excision.
Gastropleural fistula is a rare condition, most frequently reported as a result of trauma, peptic ulcer disease or malignancy. We report a case of gastropleural fistula in a patient with metastatic ovarian cancer who presented with hydropneumothorax and mediastinal shift. She was successfully managed with an open partial gastrectomy, repair of diaphragmatic defect, and thoracoscopic washout and decortication. Based on our case and review of the literature, surgical repair of gastropleural fistula should be considered as a palliative procedure even in patients with end-stage cancer.
Summary We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with an acute paraplegia due to venous congestion of the spinal cord caused by an exclusive epidural arteriovenous fistula. Diagnosed by MRI and selective spinal angiography the fistula was embolized during emergency treatment via transarterial access. Immediately after the intervention the paraplegia declined and the patient recovered completely. Epidural AV fistulae are a very rare and therefore relatively unknown cause of vascular myelopathy. They may require emergency management to avoid permanent neurological deficits.
\\u000a Purpose Long-term closure rates of anorectal fistulas using fibrin glue have been disappointing, possibly because of the liquid consistency\\u000a of the glue. A suturable bioprosthetic plug (Surgisis, Cook Surgical, Inc.) was fashioned to close the primary opening of fistula tracts. A prospective cohort study was performed\\u000a to compare fibrin glue vs. the anal fistula plug.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients with high transsphincteric fistulas, or
Eric K. Johnson; Janette U. Gaw; David N. Armstrong
\\u000a Purpose The efficacy of Surgisis anal fistula plug in closure of Crohn’s anorectal fistula was studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients with Crohn’s anorectal fistulas were prospectively studied. Diagnosis was made by histologic, radiographic, or endoscopic\\u000a criteria. Variables recorded were: number of fistula tracts (primary openings), presence of setons, and current antitumor\\u000a necrosis factor therapy. Under general anesthesia and in prone jackknife position, patients underwent
Lynn O’Connor; Bradley J. Champagne; Martha A. Ferguson; Guy R. Orangio; Marion E. Schertzer; David N. Armstrong
A total of 132 pregnant women with average gestational age of 14.2 weeks (range 11-22 weeks) undergoing legal abortion volunteered for a trial utilizing vaginal administration of misoprostol. In 106 women a dose of 800 micrograms was utilized, whilst in 26 women 1,200-1,600 micrograms were given. Nonsurgical expulsion of the fetus was successful in 117 cases (88.6%). Four cases had to be excluded for various social reasons. A total of 11 did not achieve fetal expulsion within 56 h after application of misoprostol. These cases (11/132; 8.3%) were considered failures. Previous reports in the literature of toxicity trials on animals reporting no fetotoxic nor teratogenic effects of misoprostol at doses up to 10,000 micrograms/kg body weight seem to be of no validity in the human since we could demonstrate that almost 80% of pregnancies were interrupted at a dose of 10-15 micrograms/kg body weight. The conclusion is that vaginal administration of this prostaglandin analogue, not requiring cool temperature for storage, is remarkably effective in achieving safe interruption of pregnancy without any significant complications. PMID:8300007
Background The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Fifty-five patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent anterior vaginal wall darn. The anterior vaginal wall was detached using sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning 1 cm proximal to the external meatus and extending to the vaginal apex. The space between the tissues that attach the lateral vaginal walls to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis was then darned. Cough Stress Test, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, seven-item Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and six-item Urogenital Distress Inventory scores were performed 1-year postoperatively to evaluate recovery. Results One-year postoperatively, all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No patient had vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complication. Conclusions One-year postoperative findings for patients in this series indicate that patients with stage II–III anterior vaginal wall prolapse were successfully treated with the anterior vaginal wall darn technique.
Cocaine fistulae require repair with well-vascularized material. In the technique used this is accomplished by closure of the nasal layer by delayed palatal flaps and the oral layer with a tongue flap. Three cases are presented. PMID:19131723
Jackson, Ian T; Kelly, Chris; Bello-Rojas, Gustavo
Case reports of transdiaphragmatic fistulas connecting subphrenic collections and empyemas are uncommon. We report the rare complication of a fistulous connection between a subphrenic collection and the bronchial tree.??
Aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas constitute a problem in therapy because of the high rates of morbidity and mortality associated with operation. From May 1996 to March 2000, we treated by an endovascular procedure one aortoesophageal and three aortobronchial fistulas. There was no postoperative death. We noted one peripheral vascular complication that required a surgical procedure, one postoperative confusion, and one inflammatory syndrome. In one case, because of a persistent leakage after 21 months, we had to implant a second endovascular stent graft. A few weeks later the reopening of this patient's esophageal fistula led to his death by mediastinitis 25 months after the first procedure. The few cases published seem to bear out the interest, observed in our 4 patients, of an endovascular approach to treat complex lesions such as fistulas of the thoracic aorta especially in emergency or palliative cases. PMID:12118773
Enterovesical fistulae are difficult to demonstrate by conventional radiographic methods. Computed tomography (CT), a sensitive, noninvasive method of documenting the presence of such fistulae, is unique in its ability to outline the extravesical component of the primary disease process. Twenty enterovesical fistulae identified by CT were caused by diverticulitis (nine), carcinoma of the rectosigmoid (two), Crohn disease (three), gynecologic tumors (two), bladder cancer (one), cecal carcinoma (one), prostatic neoplasia (one), and appendiceal abscess (one). The CT findings included intravesical air (90%), passage of orally or rectally administered contrast medium into the bladder (20%), focal bladder-wall thickening (90%), thickening of adjacent bowel wall (85%), and an extraluminal mass that often contained air (75%). CT proved to be an important new method in the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae.
Background A gastroesophageal anastomotic fistula remains a potentially life-threatening post-esophagectomy complication. To promote fistula closure, we developed a modified endoscopic method of trans-fistula drainage with persistent negative pressure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this endoscopic therapy. Methods Between June and November 2013, five male patients with post-surgical esophageal leakages who had undergone trans-fistula drainage therapy were treated with the modified endoscopic trans-fistula negative pressure drainage (E-TNPD) method. We placed a nasogastric silicone tube into the paraesophageal cavity through the fistula and accomplished drainage of the infected effusion with continuous negative pressure, resulting in shrinkage of the para-anastomotic cavity and eventual fistula closure. We withdrew the trans-fistula drainage when there were no signs of leakage, as confirmed by esophagography. Final closure was confirmed by esophagography before the patient was allowed to begin oral intake. Results E-TNPD was successful in all five patients. The median duration of drainage until tube removal was 34 days (range: 18 to 81 days). The duration for Cases 1 to 4 was 18 to 28 days. Case 5 suffered from multiple separate leaks at the anastomotic site and the gastric conduit. Complete restoration was achieved in 81 days for this patient. We found that in general, the earlier that trans-fistula drainage was established, the shorter the duration of hospitalization until complete defect closure. Conclusions E-TNPD provided reliable and convenient management of post-surgical gastroesophageal anastomotic fistula and esophageal perforation. This method promoted fistula closure and prevented unnecessary repeated endoscopic examinations, extra equipment and expense.
Hydrometrocolpos, occurring in approximately 1/6000 newborn girls, can be caused by a stenotic urogenital sinus, a severe cloacal malformation, but also by other conditions such as an imperforate hymen, a midline vaginal septum and vaginal atresia. The prenatal differential diagnosis of this wide spectrum of conditions is not easy and requires a multidisciplinary approach with follow-up scans and MRI to access the severity of the condition. A non-consanguineous couple was referred in the first pregnancy at 30 weeks. The father, 30 years of age, of Kaukasian origin, and the mother of Asian origin, 26 years of age. Ultrasound at 30 weeks revealed ambiguous genitalia (with suspicion of clitoral hypertrophy), a septated structure located behind the bladder compatible with hydrometrocolpos with a uterine malformation (uterus didelphys), a single umbilical artery, mild ascites and growth on the tenth centile. The differential diagnosis included a vaginal atresia, a urogenital sinus and a more severe cloacal malformation. After serial scans, MRI and counselling by an experienced surgeon the preferential diagnosis of a cloacal malformation was made and a late pregnancy termination was performed. Pathological examination revealed: low vaginal atresia with uterus didelphys, anal atresia with rectovaginal fistula and a normal urinary tractus. The differential diagnosis between hydrometrocolpos due to vaginal atresia or due to a more severe cloacal malformation is not straightforward. Care should be taken in decision making and counselling patients with these complex prenatal malformations. PMID:23431753
A female patient with a preotic fistula caused by a defect in the development of the first branchial arch is described. Repeated surgeries for lateral fistula of the neck brought no success. The pathogenesis of the defect and difficulties in its diagnosis are discussed; the authors claim that fistulography with contrast agents may be effective. Histologic verification is needed in all the cases. PMID:8713409
Semkin, V A; Bezrukov, V M; Rabukhina, N A; Grigorian, A S; Katanova, N I
Chronic pancreas transplant rejection with enteric exocrine drainage can lead to significant long-term complications. We report a case of a 47-year-old male insulin-dependent diabetic who survived the complications of peripancreatic abscess, enterocutaneous fistula, and arterioenteric fistula related to pancreas transplantation. To avoid these long-term complications, we now recommend elective removal of nonfunctioning, enterically drained pancreas allografts.
Gritsch, H. Albin; Shapiro, Ron; Egidi, Francesca; Randhawa, Parmjeet S.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Corry, Robert J.
Bronchobiliary fistula is a rare cause of chronic cough. Here we describe a 70-year-old woman complaining of chronic cough and copious dark-yellow watery sputum. The presence of air in the biliary tract in the lower cuts of a computerized tomography scan of the chest and positive bile in the sputum led to the suspicion of bronchobiliary fistula. The diagnosis was
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is prevalent in the developing world, with recent estimates suggesting that 2 million women live with fistula, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. VVF is associated with urogenital infections and ammonia dermatitis, and the psychosocial ramifications may be devastating, as women may be socially isolated from their families and community. VVF also remains a challenging condition for the gynecologic surgeon. We present a case of a giant supratrigonal VVF repaired using an abdominal (suprapubic) transperitoneal transvesical approach.
Summary Eighty-two cases of anal fistula have been retrospectively reviewed, and their clinical presentations, pathology, and management\\u000a presented. Most of the fistulas were primary and, except for the four cases due to tuberculosis, there does not seem to have\\u000a been any underlying systemic or gastrointestinal causative factor. A preoperative fistulogram is essential in the management\\u000a of this condition.
This study is to assess the feasibility and outcome of vaginal hysterectomies using bicoagulation forceps. Eighty patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for several diagnoses were enrolled. In 40 patients, bicoagulation forceps were used for the entirety of the operation. In 19 patients, only vaginal hysterectomy was performed; in 21 patients, vaginal hysterectomy was part of surgery for pelvic floor repair. Forty
Wolfgang Zubke; Sven Becker; Bernhard Krämer; Diethelm Wallwiener
BACKROUND: Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. METHODS: We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal
Andreas Schwiertz; David Taras; Kerstin Rusch; Volker Rusch
Introduction: While the development of fistulae is a well-known complication of radiotherapy, such fistulae can often be challenging to manage. Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 37 year old male who developed in succession a urethrocutaneous fistula to the thigh, a rectourethral fistula and a peritoneo-urethral fistula 35 years after radiotherapy for pediatric pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. These complications were managed successfully after multiple surgical procedures. Discussion: We subsequently discuss the different approaches currently employed for the management of radiation induced urinary fistulas and describe the rationale behind our approach towards their surgical management.
Sharma, Arindam; Kurtz, Michael P.; Eswara, Jairam R.
In the past ten years four sportsmen with a traumatic perilymphatic fistula were treated. Three of these four patients were surgically treated: two of them underwent a labyrinthectomy and with one of them, the oval window was grafted. After the analysis of these cases, we have made a study of the literature. Careful attention to the patient history and accurate review of the recurrent vestibulocochlear symptomatology isolate a clinical "audiovestibular syndrome of perilymphatic fistule". There is lack of precise preoperatoire diagnostic test. Nevertheless, entire positionnal audiometric test is a reliable and easy to perform test. The medical management is based on bed rest during a reasonable period. Only patients with significant suggestive symptomatology are surgically explored . They sometimes need destruction of vestibular function without preservation of hearing. PMID:9687651
Roguet, E; Poncet, J L; Verdalle, P; Courtois, A; Kossowski, M; Raynal, M
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The present paper describes the newly developed classification of congenital parotid fistulas that distinguishes between 4 forms of these entities depending on the shape and the size of the canal. A total of 61 patients at the age from 7 to 80 years presenting with congenital parotid fistulas were available for the observation during the period from 1985 to 2011. Twenty seven (44.2%) patients underwent surgery for the excision of congenital parotid fistulas under local anesthesia. A 7-year old child and a 17-year old girl were treated by the same method using intravenous calypsol narcosis. The patients having forms 1 and 2 of congenital parotid fistulas did not apply for medical aid. Forms 3 and 4 of this pathology manifest themselves in the early childhood; they are frequently associated with inflammation and recurrence as well as the development of abscesses. It was shown that only the complete removal of congenital parotid fistula prevents its inflammation and suppuration. The hereditary nature of congenital parotid fistula was documented in 23 (37.7%) of the patients included in the present study. PMID:23250530
Anal fissures are linear splits in the anal mucosa. Acute fissures typically resolve within a few weeks; chronic fissures persist longer than 8 to 12 weeks. Most fissures are posterior and midline and are related to constipation or anal trauma. Painful defecation and rectal bleeding are common symptoms. The diagnosis typically is clinical. High-fiber diet, stool softeners, and medicated ointments relieve symptoms and speed healing of acute fissures but offer limited benefit in chronic fissures. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical management of choice for chronic and refractory acute fissures. Anorectal fistula is an abnormal tract connecting the anorectal mucosa to the exterior skin. Fistulas typically develop after rupture or drainage of a perianal abscess. Fistulas are classified as simple or complex; low or high; and intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, or extrasphincteric. Inspection of the perianal area identifies the skin opening, and anoscopy visualizes internal openings. The goal of management is to obliterate the tract and openings with negligible sphincter disruption to minimize incontinence. Fistulotomy is effective for simple fistulas; patients with complex fistulas may require fistulectomy. Other procedures that are used include injection of fibrin glue or insertion of a bioprosthetic plug into the fistula opening. PMID:24742084
Effective hemodialysis requires a reliable vascular access. Clinical practice guidelines strongly recommend the fistula as the preferred option followed by arteriovenous (AV) grafts, with central venous catheters being least preferred. Recently, there has been a growing awareness of the limitations of the fistula, its high rate of primary failure and that a fistula may not be appropriate for all patients initiating or on hemodialysis. However, determinates for fistula eligibility have not been clearly defined. The creation and use of a fistula requires the complex integration of patient, biological, and surgical factors, none of which can be easily predicted or planned. There have been several successful initiatives over the last decade addressing patient suitability for AV access, but none have validated defined criteria for fistula eligibility. We discuss these initiatives by addressing: 1) process of care, 2) radiological and nonradiological tests and procedures, and 3) alternative surgical approaches. Careful clinical judgment, appropriate vascular access assessment and placement, and an individualized approach to the risks and benefits will optimize patient health outcomes while minimizing prolonged catheter dependence among hemodialysis patients. PMID:24494627
A test included 40 women in the reproductive age with clinical symptoms of vaginitis and microbiological examination. They were treated by combined therapy of vaginal tablets of nifuratel, 500 mg and nistatin 200 000 i. u. during six days, after which they underwent gynaecological reexamination and repeated microbiological examination of vaginal and cervical smears. An analiysis of vaginal secretion found bacterial flora in 34 smears (65%), fungus (Candida albicans) in 15 (24%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in 7 (11%). Local vaginal therapy in vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis was successfull in all 7 patients, vaginitis caused by Candida albicans was successly treated in 14 (93%) patients. Bacterial vaginitis was cured in 29 (71%) patients during this tharapy. Local vaginal combined therapy of nifuratel and nistatin is eficient in patients with vaginitis caused by fungi and Trichomonas vaginalis too. PMID:20387731
... cavity) Pulmonary arteriovenous (in a lung, the pulmonary artery and vein are connected, allowing the blood to bypass the oxygenation process in the lung) Umbilical (connection between the navel and gut) Types of ...
30 patients with mycologically confirmed vaginal candidosis on culture were treated with econazole vaginal cream (Gyno-Pevaryl) applied intravaginally once a day for 2 wk. 8 days after the end of treatment, mycological and clinical cures were demonstrated in 26 patients. Symptoms generally subsided rapidly, and the drug was well tolerated. This study confirms the efficacy of econazole in the treatment of vaginal candidosis. PMID:264069
The objective of this study is, within a broadly inclusive selection strategy for benign vaginal hysterectomy, to determine\\u000a whether the most commonly invoked “contraindications” to vaginal hysterectomy—fibroid enlargement >14 weeks, prior cesarean,\\u000a need for oophorectomy—result in increased risk of complications. This study is of retrospective design within a rural community\\u000a hospital. All vaginal hysterectomies performed by a single practitioner over an
The majority of extraoral facial fistulas are of odontogenic origin. Although the differential diagnosis of draining lesions should include various types of skin infection, infected tumour, specific infections, failed wound healing, foreign body, salivary gland fistula, sebaceous cysts and developmental cysts and fistulas. This report documents a group of patients with extraoral draining skin lesions and illustrates that their diagnosis is very important because clinically they can resemble many pathologic entities. One hundred and twenty-eight cases of extraoral fistulas are presented in this paper. This study aims to analyse a number of fistula cases so as to give a clear idea about relative frequency of etiology and to attract to some cases of non odontogenic etiology. PMID:3153689
Antoniadis, K; Triaridis, C; Dimitriou, C; Kommata, A; Karakasis, D
Background Purpose of this study was to identify predictors of vaginal ulcer after CT based three-dimensional image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for gynecologic malignancies. Methods Records were reviewed for 44 female (14 with primary disease and 30 with recurrence) with gynecological malignancies treated with HDR-ISBT with or without external beam radiation therapy. The HDR-ISBT applicator insertion was performed with image guidance by trans-rectal ultrasound and CT. Results The median clinical target volume was 35.5 ml (2.4-142.1 ml) and the median delivered dose in equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) for target volume D90 was 67.7 Gy (48.8-94.2 Gy, doses of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy were combined). For re-irradiation patients, median EQD2 of D2cc for rectum and bladder, D0.5cc, D1cc, D2cc, D4cc, D6cc and D8cc for vaginal wall was 91.1 Gy, 100.9 Gy, 260.3 Gy, 212.3 Gy, 170.1 Gy, 117.1 Gy, 105.2 Gy, and 94.7 Gy, respectively. For those without prior radiation therapy, median EQD2 of D2cc for rectum and bladder, D0.5cc, D1cc, D2cc, D4cc, D6cc and D8cc for vaginal wall was 56.3 Gy, 54.3 Gy, 147.4 Gy, 126.2 Gy, 108.0 Gy, 103.5 Gy, 94.7 Gy, and 80.7 Gy, respectively. Among five patients with vaginal ulcer, three had prior pelvic radiation therapy in their initial treatment and three consequently suffered from fistula formation. On univariate analysis, re-irradiation and vaginal wall D2cc in EQD2 was the clinical predictors of vaginal ulcer (p?=?0.035 and p?=?0.025, respectively). The ROC analysis revealed that vaginal wall D2cc is the best predictor of vaginal ulcer. The 2-year incidence rates of vaginal ulcer in the patients with vaginal wall D2cc in EQD2 equal to or less than 145 Gy and over 145 Gy were 3.7% and 23.5%, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p?=?0.026). Conclusions Re-irradiation and vaginal D2cc is a significant predictor of vaginal ulcer after HDR-ISBT for gynecologic malignancies. Three-dimensional image-guided treatment planning should be performed to ensure adequate target coverage while minimizing vaginal D2cc in order to avoid vagina ulcer.
A modified apical dissection of the prostate to improve the efficiency of vesico-urethral anastomosis (VUA) in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) was reported. A total of 42 patients were randomly selected and enrolled in this study. A standard LRP was performed in 21 patients (group 1), whereas a novel, modified apical dissection of the prostate in LRP was performed in another 21 patients (group 2). Surgical data, total operative time, VUA time, extravasation rate, catheterisation time, occurrence of anastomotic strictures, and the early and late continence rates were analysed statistically. No differences in clinical or pathological characteristics were determined between the two groups. The total operative time, VUA time, blood loss and catheterisation time were lower in group 2, which received the novel, modified technique compared with group 1, which received the standard technique to dissect the apex of the prostate (P<0.01 for each variable). Regarding the extravasation rate and the occurrence of anastomotic strictures, no significant differences were found between the two groups (P>0.05 for each). After catheter removal, a statistically significant difference in the continence rates was present at 3 and 30 days post operation in the two groups (P<0.01, respectively). At 90 days post operation, the difference, although still present, was no longer statistically significant (P>0.05). The novel, modified apical dissection of the prostate facilitates the VUA and significantly improves the efficacy of the procedure and early restoration of continence.
Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae are rare intracranial fistulae, in which the fistula pocket is present within the leaves of tentorium cerebelli. These tentorial fistulae can be rarely present near the galenic complex, where they can engorge the deep venous system and cause symptoms of venous hypertension. We present an interesting case of endovascular treatment of a galenic tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula in a patient with headaches and imbalance. The fistula was accessed through the artery of Davidoff and Schecter from the posterior cerebral artery supplying the fistula. The fistula was completely embolized using Onyx and with preservation of vein of Galen. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/igX2X5tfvrg . PMID:24983732
... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (often shortened to EA/TEF ) On this page: ... 2012 What is EA/TEF? Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a condition resulting from abnormal ...
A specialized Vulva Clinic with dedicated gynecologists and dermatologists was established in Oslo, Norway, in 2003. Fifty-eight women referred to the clinic in 2003-2009 were diagnosed with genital erosive lichen planus. All patients filled out a questionnaire. Gynecological examination, including vaginal inspection, was performed, if necessary in general anesthesia. Median age at symptom start was 51 years (range 17-78 years) with 15 women (26%) being younger than 40 years old. Sexual abstinence was reported by 36 women and dyspareunia by another 10. On examination, vaginal involvement was seen in 49 women, including vaginal synechiae in 29 and total obliteration of the vagina in 9. Of 56 women treated with topical corticosteroids for at least three months, two had complete response and 36 partial responses. Similarly, of 22 women treated with tacrolimus, three had complete and six partial response. We conclude that vaginal involvement is more common in genital erosive lichen planus than previously reported. PMID:20583940
Helgesen, Anne Lise Ording; Gjersvik, Petter; Jebsen, Peter; Kirschner, Rolf; Tanbo, Tom
... Announcements Radio Public Service Announcements Print Materials Campaign Research Doctors Who Use Social Media Poster Presentation Buttons and Badges Related Resources Gynecologic Cancer Symptoms Diary [PDF-503KB] Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer fact sheet [ ...
Childbirth is an important event in a woman’s life. Vaginal childbirth is the most common mode of delivery and it has been associated with increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders later in life. In this article, the authors review and summarize current literature associating pelvic floor disorders with vaginal childbirth. Stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are strongly associated with vaginal childbirth and parity. The exact mechanism of injury associating vaginal delivery with pelvic floor disorders is not known, but is likely multifactorial, potentially including mechanical and neurovascular injury to the pelvic floor. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist in clusters; hence, the isolated effect of these variables on the pelvic floor is difficult to study.
... vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...
Several models of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) have excellent patency and help in understanding the mechanisms of venous adaptation to the arterial environment. However, these models fail to exhibit either maturation failure or fail to develop stenoses, both of which are critical modes of AVF failure in human patients. We used high-resolution Doppler ultrasound to serially follow mice with AVFs created by direct 25-gauge needle puncture. By day 21, 75% of AVFs dilate, thicken, and increase flow, i.e., mature, and 25% fail due to immediate thrombosis or maturation failure. Mature AVF thicken due to increased amounts of smooth muscle cells. By day 42, 67% of mature AVFs remain patent, but 33% of AVFs fail due to perianastomotic thickening. These results show that the mouse aortocaval model has an easily detectable maturation phase in the first 21 days followed by a potential failure phase in the subsequent 21 days. This model is the first animal model of AVF to show a course that recapitulates aspects of human AVF maturation. PMID:24097429
Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D; Tsuneki, Masayuki; Hall, Michael R; Wong, Daniel J; Lu, Daniel Y; Assi, Roland; Williams, Willis T; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Bai, Hualong; Miyata, Tetsuro; Madri, Joseph A; Dardik, Alan
We report a case of Mirizzi syndrome type II associated with biliary enteric fistula. It is important to identify this combination early, as it is associated with high morbidity. In our case, intraoperative findings were cholecystoduodenal fistula and communication of Hartmann’s pouch with common bile duct (CBD). A subtotal cholecystectomy with excision of cholecystoduodenal fistula was performed. A minimal surgical maneuver of Calot’s Triangle with repair of cholecystoduodenal fistula is required during the intraoperative period.
Design and development of a portable and self-contained vaginal probe, consisting of an acetone-filled silver cylinder attached to a pressure gauge, is described. Qualitative changes in vaginal thermal conductance were inferred from rates of thermal expansion of precooled acetone measured as a pressure rise. Administration of 10 mg estradiol-17 beta i.v. to ovariectomized heifers resulted in significant increases in rate of thermal expansion. PMID:1176036
Abrams, R M; Thatcher, W W; Gwazdauskas, F C; Sharp, D C; Bazer, F W; Wilcox, C J; Stolwijk, J A
This study investigated the relation between self-reported vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and preterm birth in a prospective cohort of 2,829 pregnant women enrolled from prenatal clinics between 1995 and 2000 in central North Carolina. The overall association between vaginal bleeding and preterm birth was modest (risk ratio (RR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.6). Bleeding in the first
Juan Yang; Katherine E. Hartmann; David A. Savitz; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Andrew F. Olshan; John M. Thorp
It was the purpose of this study to design and evaluate a chitosan derivative as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery systems. The chemical modification of chitosan was achieved by conjugation of thioglycolic acid (TGA) resulting in 1594 ?mol thiol groups per gram of polymer followed by the linkage of mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA) to the immobilized thiol groups via disulfide bonding leading to 702 ?mol ligand per gram of preactivated polymer. The mucoadhesive properties of these polymers within newly designed vaginal formulations (Chitosan-TGA and Chitosan-TGA-MNA) and commercially available vaginal formulations (Candibene®, Daktarin®, Dalacin®, GynoPevaryl®) were tested over a time period of 24 h via a mucoadhesion test system simulating vaginal conditions, tensile studies and mucus polymer interaction studies via viscosity measurements. Within the vaginal test system simulating vaginal in situ conditions, a 1.5-fold increase in mucoadhesion could be observed for preactivated thiomer formulations after 24 h in comparison to commercially available formulations. Similar results were achieved for tensile studies, as the chitosan-TGA-MNA containing formulation resulted in a 4.9-fold increase in total work of adhesion (TWA) in comparison to Candibene which showed the highest TWA value of all tested commercial formulations. Also in terms of rheology investigations of mucus/formulation mixtures, a 5.8-fold increase in dynamic viscosity for chitosan-TGA-MNA containing mixtures could be observed in comparison to the mucus-free control. In contrast, commercially available formulations achieved a maximum enhancement of 1.9-fold. These outcomes confirm that the newly developed polymer is a promising tool for vaginal drug delivery likely providing a prolonged vaginal residence time due to its comparatively high mucoadhesive properties. PMID:23886732
Friedl, Heike E; Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Waldner, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas
Chylous fistulas in cases treated surgically for breast cancer only, are rare. We encountered four chylous fistula cases after breast cancer operations out of a total of 851 cases, all of which involved the left breast. Chylous fistulas were confirmed by axillary white fluid and were unrelated to obesity, surgical method or the area of axillary lymph node dissection. All
A case of 18 years old male with tracheoesophageal fistula as a result of esophageal foreign body (chestnut) is described. Foreign body was removed using esophagoscopy. Bronchofiberoscopy performed because of difficulties with swallowing and frequent airway infections revealed tracheoesophageal fistula. Fistula was closed from intratracheal access. Symptoms of dysfagia disappeared after surgery. PMID:10689920
Stent-graft exclusion of an ischemic, hilar portobiliary fistula after liver transplantation has not been reported. Isolated reports have described peripheral or nonischemic fistulas, and alternative treatment options have ranged from balloon tamponade to surgical repair. We present a unique case of a hilar portobiliary fistula successfully treated to resolution by unilateral placement of a stent-graft.
Lorenz, Jonathan M.; Zangan, Steven M., E-mail: email@example.com; Leef, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Thuong G. Van [University of Chicago Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)
PURPOSE: The surgical management of complex perineal fistulas, such as high transsphincteric and suprasphincteric fistulas, or those associated with Crohn’s disease, radiotherapy, surgical trauma, or cavity or a secondary tract, is associated with the risk of sphincter injury and significant discomfort. Fibrin glue may close fistula tracts without muscle division. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the
Oded Zmora; Nelly Mizrahi; Nicolas Rotholtz; Alon J. Pikarsky; Eric G. Weiss; Juan J. Nogueras; Steven D. Wexner
Background. Ureteroarterial fistulae (UAFs) are a rare entity, often difficult to identify, and associated with a high mortality rate. This fact has been attributed to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Five conditions that can predispose to the development of this uncommon entity have been described: prior pelvic surgery, prolonged ureteral stenting, radiation therapy, previous vascular surgery and vascular pathology. Methods. We present 4 patients with UAFs and at least three of the above-mentioned conditions. Ureteral ischemia and subsequent necrosis promote the formation of these fistulae. The constant pulsation of the iliac artery is transmitted to an already compromised ureter containing a stiff intraluminal foreign body, resulting in pressure necrosis, most likely where the ureter crosses the iliac artery. Results and Conclusion. Cases were managed percutaneously with a combination of the deployment of a covered prosthesis and, when needed, with mechanical occlusion of the ureter. Hematuria stopped in all the patients with no evidence of immediate rebleeding. One patient presented a new episode of vaginal bleeding 13 months after endograft placement and ureteral embolization. Arteriography showed the presence of a hypogastric artery pseudoaneurysm that was occluded using coils. No new bleeding has occurred in this patient 12 months after the second embolization. At present all 4 patients are alive with follow-up periods of 5, 9, 11 and 25 months since the first procedure.
Bilbao, Jose I., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Cosin, Octavio; Bastarrika, Gorka [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology (Spain); Rosell, David; Zudaire, Javier [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Department of Urology (Spain); Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology (Spain)
Vesicouterine fistulas (VUF) are a pathological and uncommon connection between the uterus and the bladder. Although rare, they are usually related to cesarean section. Nowadays, their incidence increases because of the increase in Cesarean sections. Patients with VUF may have various clinical presentations. The main symptoms are urinary incontinence, which may be associated with hematuria. Vesicouterine fistulas are usually associated with psychological distress and have a negative effect on quality of life. The accurate and early diagnosis of VUF can be difficult. There are multiple ways to investigate VUF and several examinations may be required to confirm the diagnosis; these examinations may include a cystoscopy, a retrograde cystography, methylene blue test and a computed tomography scan. We present 3 cases of vesicouterine fistula with successful surgical repair in which 2 patients had an early repair. One patient had an early surgical repair because of intractable pain and the other patient because of the large size of the fistula. The fistula repair surgeries were uneventful and the patients had an unremarkable recovery. We report that early surgical management is technically feasible without significantly increasing the difficulty of the surgery, with an excellent outcome in selected patients.
Bettez, Mathieu; Breault, Guy; Carr, Lesley; Tu, Le Mai
Vesicouterine fistulas (VUF) are a pathological and uncommon connection between the uterus and the bladder. Although rare, they are usually related to cesarean section. Nowadays, their incidence increases because of the increase in Cesarean sections. Patients with VUF may have various clinical presentations. The main symptoms are urinary incontinence, which may be associated with hematuria. Vesicouterine fistulas are usually associated with psychological distress and have a negative effect on quality of life. The accurate and early diagnosis of VUF can be difficult. There are multiple ways to investigate VUF and several examinations may be required to confirm the diagnosis; these examinations may include a cystoscopy, a retrograde cystography, methylene blue test and a computed tomography scan. We present 3 cases of vesicouterine fistula with successful surgical repair in which 2 patients had an early repair. One patient had an early surgical repair because of intractable pain and the other patient because of the large size of the fistula. The fistula repair surgeries were uneventful and the patients had an unremarkable recovery. We report that early surgical management is technically feasible without significantly increasing the difficulty of the surgery, with an excellent outcome in selected patients. PMID:21806894
Bettez, Mathieu; Breault, Guy; Carr, Lesley; Tu, Le Mai
Perilymph fistula is defined as a leak of perilymph at the oval or round window. It excludes other conditions with "fistula" tests due to a dehiscent semicircular canal from cholesteotoma and the superior canal dehiscence syndrome. First recognized as a complication of stapedectomy, it then became apparent that head trauma and barotraumatic trauma from flying or diving could be a cause. Descriptions of "spontanenous" perilymph fistulas with no trauma history followed. It is likely that most perilymph fistula patients have a congential potential weakness of the otic capsule at the round or oval window. The vestibular symptoms have been assumed to be due to endolymphatic hydrops, but there is poor evidence. Their unilateral disequilibrium, nausea, and subtle cognitive problems suggest they are due to otolith disfunction and that these patients have a specific balance abnormality, unlike subjects with unilateral vestibular hypofuction. In this series of twenty patients with a confirmed fistula a logical simplification of Singleton's "eyes-closed turning" test predicted a PLF in twelve with a trauma history. In four no cause was found. In three a prior traumatic event was later recalled, but one patient had concealed it. PMID:23028388
Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closure and esophageal exclusion with a Jpeg tube. The patient was eventually successfully treated with a three-stage procedure consisting of firstly a posterior approach to reinforce the posterior stabilization of the cervical spine that was felt to be inadequate, secondly an anterior approach with removal of all the anterior instrumentation followed by iliac crest bone graft and thirdly a superior based sternocleidomastoid flap that was interposed between the esophagus and the anterior cervical spine. The patient's fistula healed successfully. However, yet asymptomatic, the anterior iliac crest bone graft resorbed almost completely at 16 months follow up. In light of this complication, we discuss the surgical options for the treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistulae and the closure of this fistula using a superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle flap.
Perilymph fistula is defined as a leak of perilymph at the oval or round window. It excludes other conditions with “fistula” tests due to a dehiscent semicircular canal from cholesteotoma and the superior canal dehiscence syndrome. First recognized as a complication of stapedectomy, it then became apparent that head trauma and barotraumatic trauma from flying or diving could be a cause. Descriptions of “spontanenous” perilymph fistulas with no trauma history followed. It is likely that most perilymph fistula patients have a congential potential weakness of the otic capsule at the round or oval window. The vestibular symptoms have been assumed to be due to endolymphatic hydrops, but there is poor evidence. Their unilateral disequilibrium, nausea, and subtle cognitive problems suggest they are due to otolith disfunction and that these patients have a specific balance abnormality, unlike subjects with unilateral vestibular hypofuction. In this series of twenty patients with a confirmed fistula a logical simplification of Singleton's “eyes-closed turning” test predicted a PLF in twelve with a trauma history. In four no cause was found. In three a prior traumatic event was later recalled, but one patient had concealed it.
Pulmonary thromboembolism is the leading direct cause of maternal deaths in the UK. The majority of deaths occur in the puerperium. Caesarean section has been recognised as a risk factor but there is concern that more attention to thromboprophylaxis after vaginal births is needed. The hospital maternity unit in Dumfries has written guidelines on thromboprophylaxis after vaginal births. This audit assessed the compliance with these guidelines within this maternity unit. The case notes relating to spontaneous vaginal births over a 2-month period (n=148) and instrumental vaginal births over a 7-month period (n=29) were reviewed. Information concerning venous thromboembolism risk and any thromboprophylaxis given was extracted. The audit showed that 9% of spontaneous vaginal births and 62% of instrumental vaginal births required specific thromboprophylaxis. However, only 31% of the spontaneous vaginal births and 22% of the instrumental vaginal births in which thromboprophylaxis was indicated did indeed receive the required treatment. Failure to respond to venous thromboembolism risk factors was common. Measures to increase the awareness of maternity staff to these factors are suggested. PMID:16390705
Objectives: We determined the efficacy of the use of a tension free prolene mesh to correct a grade III anterior vaginal wall prolapse recurrence.Methods: Twelve women (mean age 65.6 years) with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (4 type II and 1 type III) and bladder prolapse entered the study. After vaginal incision a pretailored polypropylene mesh was fixed to its four
Roberto Migliari; Michele De Angelis; Giuliana Madeddu; Tiziano Verdacchi
Vaginal atrophy is common in postmenopausal women. This clinical guide provides the evidence for the clinical use of vaginal estrogens for this condition focussing on publications since the 2006 Cochrane systematic review. Use after breast cancer, before assessment of cervical cytology and prolapse surgery is also discussed. PMID:22818886
Leiomyomas of the vagina are very rare tumors of the female genital tract with only 300 cases reported so far. A case of removal of the vaginal leiomyoma presenting as tumor previa in advanced pregnancy is described. Removal of the tumor allowed vaginal birth three weeks after surgery. PMID:22873113
Boskovic, V; Vrzic-Petronijevic, S; Petronijevic, M; Atanackovic, J; Bratic, D
Preauricular sinus and fistulas are minor developmental anomalies. They are bilateral in 35% to 50% of cases. We describe the application of a combined technique in a rare case of bilateral congenital preauricular fistulas. Initial fistula probing serves as a surgical guide, and further methylene blue infection helps to avoid leaving viable squamous epithelial remnants. PMID:12361081
Martín-Granizo, R; Pérez-Herrero, M C; Sánchez-Cuéllar, A
This retrospective study describes a series of 191 children treated for congenital cysts and fistulas of the neck between 1984 and 1999 in the pediatric ORL Department of La Timone Children's Hospital. Preauricular fistulas and cystic hygromas were not included. The anomalies in this series were classified as either malformations of the midline or malformations of laterocervical region. Malformations of the midline included the thyroglossal duct cysts (n=102) and dermoid cysts (n=21). The most common malformations of the laterocervical region were cysts and fistulas of the second cleft (n=37) followed by those of the first cleft (n=20),those of the fourth pouch (n=7), and thymic cysts (n=4). Diagnosis of malformations of the midline is usually straightforward. However, diagnosis of malformation of the laterocervical region can be problematic. Misdiagnosis often leads to inadequate treatment with recurrence and functional as well as cosmetic sequelae. PMID:11006451
Introduction Colouterine fistula is a very rare condition; most cases described in the literature are secondary to complications of diverticulitis in elderly patients. Case presentation We report the case of a 34-year-old African woman who presented with a colouterine fistula secondary to polymyomectomy, which was diagnosed in the setting of severe endometritis. She had a Hartmann procedure and abundant irrigation of her abdominal and uterine cavities followed by placement of a double drainage in order to preserve fertility. This is the first case of a conservative management of the uterus in such conditions. Conclusion Conservative surgery in colouterine fistula should be discussed as an alternative to hysterectomy in young infertile women.
Coronary-cameral fistulas are usually congenital, rarely acquired; the complication of this anomaly with ventricular pseudoaneurysm is exceptional. We report a new case of acquired coronary-cameral fistula, occurred in a patient who had received a bypass graft and who had suffered from angina 1 year after the surgery. On computed tomography coronary angiography, the fistula seems to communicate the first diagonal to a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm. Embolization of the fistula and filling of the pseudoaneurysm by neurocoil were successfully performed. The clinical and angiographic control after 3 months showed symptoms improvement and absence of recanalization of the fistula. PMID:24119773
Hammami, R; Bosmans, J; Voormolen, M; Vermeulen, T; Salgado, R; Vrints, C
The aim of this work is to describe a relatively new technique for closure of large oroantral fistulas. Fistulas were treated surgically using autograft septal cartilage and a buccal pyramidal flap. There were 11 patients, 8 of whom had chronic oroantral fistulas. Four cases had extensive sinusitis and were managed by endoscopic sinus surgery. Complete closure of the fistula was obtained in 10 cases (90.9%), whereas 1 case (9.1%) failed. No other complications occurred. The septal cartilage and pyramidal buccal flap technique is a viable alternative for the closure of large oroantral fistulas. PMID:23520068
Congenital lacrimal fistulae are rare in Down syndrome and bilateral presentation is very unusual. It can be associated with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We report a 3-year-old female with Down syndrome who presented with watering and discharge from both eyes and bilateral fistulous openings present inferonasal to the medial canthus. Upon examination, the lacrimal sac regurgitation test was positive on both sides. Our case report documents a distinctive case of bilateral congenital lacrimal fistulae in association with Down syndrome. It was managed successfully by primary fistulectomy and nasolacrimal duct probing.
Perianal fistulization is the result of a chronic inflammation of the perianal tissues. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from simple to complex fistulas, can be seen, the latter especially in patients with Crohn disease. Failure to detect secondary tracks and hidden abscesses may lead to therapeutic failure, such as insufficient response to medical treatment and relapse after surgery. Currently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the preferred technique for evaluating perianal fistulas and associated complications. Initially used most often in the preoperative setting, MR imaging now also plays an important role in evaluating the response to medical therapy. PMID:24238135
Vanbeckevoort, Dirk; Bielen, Didier; Vanslembrouck, Ragna; Van Assche, Gert
A neovesicocutaneous fistula is a rare complication after orthotopic bladder reconstruction, particularly in the late postoperative period. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who had undergone ileal neobladder construction 17 months previously. He presented with urinary retention concomitant with urinary tract infection due to a neovesicourethral anastomotic stricture. After a combination of transurethral catheter drainage and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for 3 weeks, the fistulous tract completely closed. Therefore, conservative treatment may be regarded as a valid option for a delayed neovesicocutaneous fistula.
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) involving the craniocervical junction are uncommon lesions that may result in neurological deficits referable to posterior fossa structures and/or the spinal cord. We report on two patients with craniocervical junction DAVF whose venous drainage involved the cervical spinal cord. Both cases presented with progressive quadriparesis and parenchymal magnetic resonance signal abnormality of the cervical spinal cord. Both patients improved following embolization of the fistulas. AVF of the craniocervical junction are an uncommon, but important cause of treatable neurological deficits referable to this region of the nervous system. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p4-bFigure 3
Hurst, Robert W.; Bagley, Linda J.; Scanlon, Mary; Flamm, Eugene S.
Aortopulmonary fistula has been documented in adult patients with acute aortic dissection, atherosclerotic disease, and other comorbidities. However, until now we believe this was not previously reported as a complication after the arterial switch operation in a patient with transposition of the great arteries. We report the case of a 3-month-old boy who underwent an arterial switch operation as a neonate. After balloon dilation to relieve a postoperative supravalvular pulmonary stenosis, he presented with severe congestive heart failure due to an undiagnosed but previously present fistula between the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery. He underwent successful surgical repair and recovered uneventfully. PMID:20103260
Congenital urethrocutaneous fistula is a very rare anomaly with about 40 odd cases reported in literature till 2008 .We present here 9 such cases all of whom were uncircumcised at presentation.7 out of 9 cases had a fistula in the distal shaft and the rest 2 cases had a fistula in the mid-shaft of the penis with an associated chordee.Associated congenital anomaly was present in only one case which had an associated imperforate anus . When the fistula was present distally , we did a primary repair of the fistula which was reinforced by a Bayer's Flap. When the fistula was present in the mid shaft we did a Primary repair of the fistula & reinforced it by a Tunica Vaginalis Flap. PMID:24891786
Transverse vaginal septum is a defect of vertical fusion during embryogenesis of the vagina. The estimated incidence is 1 per 30,000 to 84,000 women. It is infrequently associated with genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, musculoskeletal, and cardiac malformations. Previous reports of transverse vaginal septum have included unilateral absence of the fallopian tube and ovary and absence of the proximal portion of the fallopian tube. This report describes bilateral tubal atresia associated with a transverse vaginal septum. A 17-year-old nulligravida sought medical assessment because of primary amenorrhea and cyclic pelvic pain. Physical examination revealed a blind vaginal pouch and a tender pelvic mass. Radiologic studies showed a transverse vaginal septum 1.5 cm distal to the cervix. The septum was resected with laparoscopic guidance, and bilateral fallopian tubal atresia was noted. The pelvis was otherwise normal. Patients commonly have a pelvic or abdominal mass, pain, and amenorrhea at time of expected menarche. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Postoperative dilation may be necessary to prevent restenosis. Outlook for pregnancy is encouraging despite a higher than normal incidence of spontaneous abortion and endometriosis in such patients. PMID:7564549
Three percent to 4% of term fetuses will be breech at delivery. Evidence from randomized controlled trials has found a policy of planned cesarean section to be significantly better for the singleton fetus in breech presentation at term compared to a policy of planned vaginal birth. However, some women may wish to avoid cesarean section and for others, cesarean section may not be possible. We undertook this review to identify factors associated with higher and lower risk of adverse fetal or neonatal outcome at term during vaginal breech delivery. We searched MEDLINE from 1966 to 2002 using the search terms vaginal breech delivery and breech presentation and retrieved all relevant articles. We also reviewed personal references and reference lists of articles retrieved. Women who are older or who have a fetus that is either in footling presentation, has a hyperextended head or is estimated to weigh <2500 g or >4000 g may be at higher risk of adverse fetal outcome. Prolonged labor or not having an experienced clinician at vaginal breech birth may also increase the risk. Women with a fetus in breech presentation at term should be offered the option of delivery by planned cesarean section and should be informed that this will reduce their risk of adverse fetal or neonatal outcome. Practitioners should develop and maintain skills at vaginal breech delivery for those women not wishing or not able to be delivered by cesarean section. PMID:12641301
In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 microg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing. PMID:18670079
Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD), which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1?cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP) was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST), Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.
Introduction and hypothesis To estimate the risk of repeat surgery for recurrent prolapse or mesh removal after vaginal mesh versus native tissue repair for anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods We utilized longitudinal, adjudicated, healthcare claims from 2005 to 2010 to identify women ?18 years who underwent an anterior colporrhaphy (CPT 57420) with or without concurrent vaginal mesh (CPT 57267). The primary outcome was repeat surgery for anterior or apical prolapse or for mesh removal/revision; these outcomes were also analyzed separately. We utilized Kaplan–Meier curves to estimate the cumulative risk of each outcome after vaginal mesh versus native tissue repair. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for vaginal mesh versus native tissue repair, adjusted for age, concurrent hysterectomy, and concurrent or recent sling. Results We identified 27,809 anterior prolapse surgeries with 49,658 person-years of follow-up. Of those, 6,871 (24.7%) included vaginal mesh. The 5-year cumulative risk of any repeat surgery was significantly higher for vaginal mesh versus native tissue (15.2 % vs 9.8 %, p<0.0001) with a 5-year risk of mesh revision/removal of 5.9%. The 5-year risk of surgery for recurrent prolapse was similar between vaginal mesh and native tissue groups (10.4 % vs 9.3 %, p=0.70. The results of the adjusted Cox model were similar (HR 0.93, 95%CI: 0.83, 1.05). Conclusions The use of mesh for anterior prolapse was associated with an increased risk of any repeat surgery, which was driven by surgery for mesh removal. Native tissue and vaginal mesh surgery had similar 5-year risks for surgery for recurrent prolapse.
Funk, Michele Jonsson; Visco, Anthony G.; Weidner, Alison C.; Pate, Virginia
Women with recurrent vaginal candidosis were treated until the infection cleared and were then given one clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablet a month or an identical placebo as prophylaxis. Of 21 women who received placebo, 16 developed symptoms or signs within three months, compared with nine of 17 women given active treatment. Women who relapsed were treated and then given active prophylaxis once a month. Of 30 women given such treatment, 13 relapsed within three months. Women who relapsed were treated and then given two clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablets a month. Of 17 women given prophylaxis twice a month, four developed symptoms or signs within three months, but 10 remained clear for 12 months. No appreciable difference was seen in the incidence of mycological recurrence between the different regimens; within three months over half the women in all treatment groups had become recolonised.
Bushell, T E; Evans, E G; Meaden, J D; Milne, J D; Warnock, D W
A vaginal leiomyoma with heterologous paragangliomatous elements is reported. The patient was a 62-year-old woman who presented with uterovaginal prolapse and an asymptomatic vaginal mass that had been present for many years. Histology of the excised mass showed a leiomyoma in a submucosal location, with irregularly shaped islands of chief cells scattered throughout the lesion. These cells were arranged in nests and were surrounded by S100 protein-positive sustentacular cells. The chief cells showed immunoreactivity with chromogranin, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. Although various heterologous elements are commonly encountered within uterine leiomyomata, such elements have not been described within vaginal leiomyomata. Furthermore, the occurrence of paragangliomatous tissue within leiomyomata has not been reported to date. Int J Surg Pathol 8(4):359-365, 2000 PMID:11494018
A 13 yr old female spayed Labrador retriever presented for vulvar bleeding. Abdominal radiographs revealed a soft tissue mass in the ventral pelvic canal. A computed tomography (CT) exam and a CT vaginourethrogram localized the mass to the vagina, helped further characterize the mass, and aided in surgical planning. A total vaginectomy was performed and the histologic diagnosis was leiomyoma. Vaginal tumors make up 1.9-3% of all tumors. Seventy-three percent of vaginal tumors are benign, and 83% of those are leiomyomas. Leiomyomas often have a good long-term prognosis with surgical resection. The diagnostic investigation of this case report utilized a multimodal imaging approach to determine the extent and respectability of the vaginal mass. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing a CT vaginourethrogram. PMID:24051257
A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is an uncommon neurosurgical condition; in particular, it has been infrequently reported in Korea. To understand the general clinical characteristics of DAVFs, the authors reviewed 53 cases and analyzed factors affecting DAVF hemorrhage of and treatment outcome. Since 1980 we have encountered 480 pial and 53 DAVFs, a ratio of 9.1 to 1. The age
Myoung Soo Kim; Dae Hee Han; O-Ki Kwon; Chang-Wan Oh; Moon Hee Han
Summary A rare case of dural sinus malformation with dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant is presented. Presenting symptom was progressive macrocrania without hydrocephalus. A high flow arteriovenous of the sigmoid sinus associated with jugular bulb diaphragm was demonstrated. Reflux in the intracranial sinus was present. The shunt was successfully occluded by transarterial embolization. The natural history and treatment strategy are discussed.
Summary A rare case of dural sinus malformation with dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant is presented. Presenting symptom was progressive macrocrania without hydrocephalus. A high flow AVS of the sigmoid sinus associated with jugular bulb diaphragm was demonstrated. Reflux in the intracranial sinus was present. The shunt was successfully occluded by transarterial embolization. The natural history and treatment strategy are discussed.
Rhinolithiasis is a disease caused by deposition of organic and inorganic compounds in the nasal cavity, leading to unilateral nasal obstruction, fetid rhinorrhea, epistaxis, and it may cause complications. The authors present a case of rhinolithiasis with oronasal fistula and literature review. PMID:16446901
Dib, Gabriel Cesar; Tangerina, Rodrigo P; Abreu, Carlos E C; Santos, Rodrigo de Paula; Gregório, Luiz Carlos
Objective To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8–12, 17–21, 27–31, and 36–38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq. Results Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n?=?8), the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor. Conclusion Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in complications of pregnancy such as preterm labor and preterm delivery.
Walther-Antonio, Marina R. S.; Jeraldo, Patricio; Berg Miller, Margret E.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Nelson, Karen E.; Wilson, Brenda A.; White, Bryan A.; Chia, Nicholas; Creedon, Douglas J.
Vaginal sensitivity was investigated in a group of 60 volunteers by means of an electric stimulus and under nonerotic conditions. In comparison to the dorsum of the hand, the genital area has a low sensitivity for electric stimuli (p 0.001). Of the genital area, the vaginal wall measured 2 to 4 cm from the vaginal introitus was found to be
W. C. M. Weijmar Schultz; J. A. Klatter; B. E. Sturm; J. Nauta
A case occurred of imperforate, complete transverse vaginal septum in the lower third of the vagina. The patient presented at 16 years of age with primary amenorrhea and was found to have hematocolpos. The clinical impression was an imperforate hymen because of the very low position of the septum in the vagina. After excision the diagnosis of transverse vaginal septum was made histologically because of the presence of müllerian duct (mesodermal origin) tissue in the septum. The patient also had syndactyly of the second and third toes on her right foot. The association of these two congenital abnormalities has not been reported previously. PMID:7738932
Fibrin glue has been used in upper gastrointestinal and perianal fistula disease, but its success in proximal colorectal pathology has not been widely documented. This report describes the use of endoscopically injected fibrin glue as a successful adjunct to traditional methods in accelerating the closure of colorectal fistulas. A retrospective review was performed on cases of colon and rectal fistulas treated with fibrin glue using an endoscopic technique of injection. Fistulas were injected via a flexible fiberoptic endoscope with fluoroscopic guidance (three) or directly with a rigid proctoscope (one). Fibrin glue was mixed directly from cryoprecipitate, thrombin, and calcium (one) or using a Tisseel kit (three) (Baxter, Deerfield, IL). Four patients were identified and included: two J-pouch fistulas, a colocutaneous fistula, and a complex rectocutaneous fistula. The median duration of fistula was 33 days (range 4-365 days). Total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest were used in two patients and three required drainage of an abscess. All fistulas were obliterated and patients required a mean of one application of fibrin glue (range one to two). The mean time to resuming a regular diet postinjection was 2 days (range 1-5). No complications were identified. Fistula resolution was documented in all cases with a contrast enema and no patient has had a fistula recurrence at a median follow-up of 12 months (range 6-65). This preliminary series demonstrates that fibrin glue can be used to obliterate proximal rectal, colonic, and pouch fistulas. Endoscopy and fluoroscopy may aid in administering the fibrin glue. This adjunctive technique may shorten the time to fistula closure and may allow some patients to avoid further surgery. PMID:12132744
Lamont, Jeffrey P; Hooker, Glen; Espenschied, Jonathan R; Lichliter, Warren E; Franko, Edward
Alterations in regional hemodynamics were determined after construction of side to side femoral arteriovenous fistulas in dogs to quantitate the relationship between fistula size and reversal of distal arterial blood flow. When fistula size exceeded the t...
An acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal (ABBV) gel was developed for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections. Different bioadhesive polymers were evaluated on the basis of their bioadhesive strength, stability and drug release properties. Bioadhesion and release studies showed that guar gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcelullose K4M formed a good combination of bioadhesive polymers to develop the ABBV gel. Monosodium citrate was used as an acid buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4). The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. The ex vivo retention study showed that the bioadhesive polymers hold the gel for 12-13 hours inside the vaginal tube. Results of the in vitro antimicrobial study indicated that the ABBV gel had better antimicrobial action than the commercial intravaginal drug delivery systems and retention was prolonged in an ex vivo retention experiment. PMID:19103575
Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir
An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion\\u000a experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for\\u000a an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4),\\u000a which is an attribute of a healthy vagina.
Mohd Aftab Alam; Farhan Jalees Ahmad; Zeenat Iqbal Khan; Roop Krishen Khar; Mushir Ali
Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. Methods:…
Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.
This article discusses the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure, which attempts to recreate urethral support at the level of the pubourethral ligaments by placing a polypropylene sling at the midurethra as opposed to the bladder neck. The procedure has the proposed advantage of being done under local anesthesia and being an outpatient surgery and can be performed transvaginally or suprapubically. PMID:21353078
Objective: To describe vaginal bleeding and associated pain in pregnancies terminated by childbirth. Design: A descriptive study based on information obtained by questionnaires administered during pregnancy. Setting: Antenatal care clinic at the Obstetrical Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Subjects: Women (n = 8714) with singleton pregnancies attending routine antenatal care at the Department during a 2-year period from 1989 to
Findings. Six percent of the sample reported experiencing any type of IPV in the past year, and 23% reported douching in the past year. IPV is significantly associated with douching after controlling for sociodemographic and health-related covariates. This finding holds for women with and without current reproductive capacity. Conclusions. This is the first study to identify an association between vaginal
Carol S. Weisman; Diane M. Grimley; Lucy Annang; Marianne M. Hillemeier; Gary A. Chase; Anne-Marie Dyer
Anovaginal fistula may be a very distressing complication of Crohn's disease. We review the definitive repair of such fistulas in ten patients. The objectives were to cure the fistula, maintain continence and avoid proctectomy. The fistula was low trans-sphincteric in five patients, high trans-sphincteric in three and suprasphincteric in two. Loop ileostomies were formed in nine patients. Overall, after 14 repair procedures 8/10 fistulas are healed. Seven remain healed at a mean of 38 months (range 10-66 months) after ileostomy closure (six) or repair without ileostomy (one). All of the patients are continent. Definitive repair is effective and worthwhile in selected patients with Crohn's anovaginal fistula.
Anovaginal fistula may be a very distressing complication of Crohn's disease. We review the definitive repair of such fistulas in ten patients. The objectives were to cure the fistula, maintain continence and avoid proctectomy. The fistula was low trans-sphincteric in five patients, high trans-sphincteric in three and suprasphincteric in two. Loop ileostomies were formed in nine patients. Overall, after 14 repair procedures 8/10 fistulas are healed. Seven remain healed at a mean of 38 months (range 10-66 months) after ileostomy closure (six) or repair without ileostomy (one). All of the patients are continent. Definitive repair is effective and worthwhile in selected patients with Crohn's anovaginal fistula. PMID:9771223
Female urethral injury following pelvic fracture is a rare entity. Due to the absence of large series, management guidelines are still not standardized. Patients can have associated urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula, management of which poses a major challenge to the reconstructive urologist. Spontaneous closure of fistula produced by gynecological or obstetrical injuries have been described in the literature. Spontaneous closure of fistula caused due to pelvic fracture has not been described in the literature. PMID:24082449
Female urethral injury following pelvic fracture is a rare entity. Due to the absence of large series, management guidelines are still not standardized. Patients can have associated urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula, management of which poses a major challenge to the reconstructive urologist. Spontaneous closure of fistula produced by gynecological or obstetrical injuries have been described in the literature. Spontaneous closure of fistula caused due to pelvic fracture has not been described in the literature.
BackgroundSpinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal arteriovenous connections on the surface of the dura. The site of the fistula is most commonly in the thoracic and lumbosacral regions and they are rarely located in the cervical region.CasesThe patients had two asymptomatic dural arteriovenous fistulas of the cervicomedullary junction fed by the left posterior meningeal artery and draining to the dilated
Jun Niwa; Shigeki Matsumura; Yoshihiro Maeda; Hiroshi Ohoyama
A case of dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula is presented with detailed radiological and pathological findings. The complex hemodynamic alterations that may result from dural AV fistulas are described. Pathological examination in this case demonstrated widespread occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus with multiple abnormal fistulous communications between abnormal arteries and arterialized veins. A portion of the lesion resembled a recanalized blood clot, in support of the theory proposed by others that dural AV fistulas are acquired lesions. PMID:3701446
Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices.
Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison
A statistical study of the occurrence, in Japan, of fistula auris congenita was conducted in 15,114 subjects (8,018 elementary school and 7,096 junior high school students) in Kanagawa, Shizuoka, and Wakayama Prefectures. The incidence of fistula auris congenita was 2.6% (396 of 15,114 students). Many cases were unilateral and exhibited a single manifestation. The fistula sites were mainly in the preauricular region. Only 2.3% of the 396 fistula cases had a history of radical operation. PMID:9618835
The most common cause of vesicovaginal fistulasis injury to the bladder at the time of surgery. The operation most frequently responsible for vesicovaginal fistula formation is hysterectomy. The first successful transvaginal approach to vesicovaginal fistula repair was reported by Sims in 1838. Although many surgical procedures exist, there is no best approach for all patients with vesicovaginal fistula. However, it is an essential surgical principle that the fistulous tract and scar should be excised completely. Here we report our technique using a transurethral pointed electrode for the treatment of multiple, small vesicovaginal fistulas and its outcome.
Aortoduodenal fistula is a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, and carries high morbidity and mortality even in modern practice. Cervical carcinoma is a major health threat among adult women, and its recurrence is not uncommon. We herein present a case of primary aortoduodenal fistula because of recurrent cervical carcinoma. Our case demonstrated that diagnosis of primary aortoenteric fistula requires a high index of suspicion and a combination of diagnostic modalities to establish the diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and rapid treatment are critical in reducing mortality and morbidity. Although rare, metastatic carcinoma can lead to aortoenteric fistula. PMID:20800434
Acute suppurative thyroiditis is a rare disease because the thyroid gland is remarkably resistant to infection. We present a 2-year-old girl with refractory acute suppurative thyroiditis due to a pyriform sinus fistula (PSF). She complained of fever and painful anterior neck swelling. Her condition did not completely improved by multiple parenteral antibiotics along with incision and drainage. Barium esophagogram to detect PSF demonstrated no specific finding. Computed tomography scan showed air bubble superior to the left thyroid gland which indicated a possible fistula connected to the pyriform sinus. An intraoperative laryngoscopy revealed a 2-mm-sized fistula opening. The fistula was successfully treated by chemocauterization with trichloroacetic acid.
Purpose Management of anal fistula represents a balance between curing the condition and maintaining anal continence. Recent reports\\u000a of the results of the porcine anal fistula plug have demonstrated excellent fistula healing rates without reporting significant\\u000a complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The outcome of patients who underwent treatment for anal fistula with the Surgisis® anal plug was retrospectively reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Twenty patients were treated; three underwent
D. A. Lawes; J. E. Efron; M. Abbas; J. Heppell; T. M. Young-Fadok
Oral fistula (OAF) is a pathological communication between the oral cavity and maxillary sinus which has its origin either from iatrogenic complications or from dental infections, osteomyelitis, radiation therapy or trauma. OAF closures can be achieved using different flaps which show both advantages and limitations. Therefore they all need careful consideration in order to select the best approach depending on the situation. The most widely employed flaps are of three types: vestibular flap, palatal flap and buccal fat pad Flap(BFP). The authors present three cases of OAF with the different techniques. It is suggested that the buccal flap is best applied in the case of large fistulas located in the anterior region, the palatal flap is suitable to correct premolar defects and the BFP flap for wide posterior OAFs.
Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Berardinelli, Frederick Valerio; Favale, Marco; Maiorana, Carlo
INTRODUCTION We report on a patient cohort with dorsal horseshoe fistulas-in-ano. We sought to answer the question of whether these fistulas can be operatively treated, implementing a sphincter-preserving fistulectomy with primary closure of the internal opening, as is done when treating transsphincteric anal fistulas. Long-term clinical course is examined here and operative methods are discussed. METHODS During the time period
Andreas Koehler; Angelika Risse-Schaaf; Sotirios Athanasiadis
Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated by inducing hepatotoxicity with paracetamol in rats. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt. exhibited orally, significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The effects produced were comparable to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. PMID:11417916
Bhakta, T; Banerjee, S; Mandal, S C; Maity, T K; Saha, B P; Pal, M
AIM: Since 1987, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been widely used as the favored treatment for gallbladder lesions. Cholecystoenteric fistula (CF) is an uncommon complication of the gallbladder disease, which has been one of the reasons for the conversion from LC to open cholecystectomy. Here, we have reported four cases of CF managed successfully by laparoscopic approach without conversion to open cholecystectomy. METHODS: During the 4-year period from 2000 to 2004, the medical records of the four patients with CF treated successfully with laparoscopic management at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Taipei were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The study comprised two male and two female patients with ages ranging from 36 to 74 years (median: 53.5 years). All the four patients had right upper quadrant pain. Two of the four patients were detected with pneumobilia by abdominal ultrasonography. One patient was diagnosed with cholecystocolic fistula preoperatively correctly by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and the other one was diagnosed as cholecystoduodenal fistula by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Correct preoperative diagnosis of CF was made in two of the four patients with 50% preoperative diagnostic rate. All the four patients underwent LC and closure of the fistula was carried out by using Endo-GIA successfully with uneventful postoperative courses. The hospital stay of the four patients ranged from 7 to 10 d (median, 8 d). CONCLUSION: CF is a known complication of chronic gallbladder disease that is traditionally considered as a contraindication to LC. Correct preoperative diagnosis of CF demands high index of suspicion and determines the success of laparoscopic management for the subset of patients. The difficult laparoscopic repair is safe and effective in the experienced hands of laparoscopic surgeons.
Oesophageal atresia-tracheo-oesophageal fistula has featured in paediatric surgery since its beginnings. The first successful primary repair was in 1941. With overall survival now exceeding 90% in dedicated centres, the emphasis has changed to reducing morbidity and achieving improvements in the quality of life. An overview of current and emerging strategies in managing patients with this condition is presented. Advances in developmental biology and molecular genetics reflecting improved understanding of the pathogenesis are highlighted. PMID:16923940
Oesophageal atresia?tracheo?oesophageal fistula has featured in paediatric surgery since its beginnings. The first successful primary repair was in 1941. With overall survival now exceeding 90% in dedicated centres, the emphasis has changed to reducing morbidity and achieving improvements in the quality of life. An overview of current and emerging strategies in managing patients with this condition is presented. Advances in developmental biology and molecular genetics reflecting improved understanding of the pathogenesis are highlighted.
The surgical treatment of 13 posttraumatic arteriovenous (AV) fistulae and 32 pseudoaneurysmae (PsAn) treated in the last 5 years in the Center of vascular surgery of the institute of cardiovascular diseases, Clinical center of Serbia (Belgrade) was presented. Three women and 42 men (mean age 31.7 years) were examined. Twenty-one injuries occurred in a war, while 24 injuries occurred in the peacetime. In most of the cases the superficial femoral artery was involved. The average time elapsed from the moment of injury till surgery, was 9 months in patients suffering from AV fistulae, while in patients suffering from PsAn the elapsed time was one month. In all of those with AV fistulae, some reconstructions of artery and vein were performed, except in 2 cases where the vein was ligated. In twenty-six patients suffering from PsAn the arterial reconstruction was performed, while in 6 cases the artery was ligated. Considering the type of artery, none of the patients suffered from postoperative ischemia. Patients were followed up for 2 years and 2 months on the average after the operation. As far as the reconstructive operations were concerned, postoperative patency rate was 100%, while limb salvage was achieved in 96.9%. Namely, one amputation was done in spite of high arterial patency rate, but it was indicated by massive bone-muscle tissue loss, that occurred after an injury by the land-mine. Due to the rapid progress of the disease the authors suggested that the operative treatment of posttraumatic AV fistulae and PsAn should start as soon as possible. This was supported by good follow-up results in operatively treated patients. PMID:9235789
Primary intraventricular haemorrhage is a rare presentation of a dural arteriovenous fistula. We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with a past history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension who presented with sudden-onset severe headache. The CT scan on admission showed primary intraventricular haemorrhage with no associated haemorrhage in the brain parenchyma or the extra-axial compartment. The cerebral angiogram demonstrated a
Generic guidelines are applied to reconstructive vaginal operations, so as to convert them to ambulatory procedures. Prototype operations are described and analyzed. These included conceptualizing vaginal prolapse as a type of intussusception caused by vaginal and ligamentous laxity in the middle or posterior parts of the vagina; the avoidance of vaginal excision, excessive tension, and refashioning excess vaginal tissue from
Introduction Human tails and pseudotails are rare sacrococcygeal lesions that are associated with a wide variety of anomalies and syndromes. Anorectal malformations are also relatively uncommon congenital defects that often occur in conjunction with syndromes or other congenital abnormalities. The anomalies associated with both disorders determine the timing and approach to surgical correction. We present an unusual case of a patient with both imperforate anus and a pseudotail in the absence of a syndrome or other associated anomalies and we emphasize the necessity of a thorough preoperative evaluation. Case presentation A Caucasian girl was born at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy and was noted at birth to have a skin-covered posterior midline mass and imperforate anus with a fistula to the vaginal vestibule. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a predominately fatty lesion without presacral extension and ruled out associated spinal and cord abnormalities. The patient underwent diversion with colostomy and a mucous fistula in the newborn period as a fistulogram demonstrated a long fistulous tract to normal rectum and it was anticipated that anoplasty and resection of the mass would require extensive posterior dissection. The sacrococcygeal mass was removed during posterior sagittal anorectoplasty at the age of six weeks which was determined to be a pseudotail because of the composition of brown fat and cartilage. The patient is now 14 months old with normal bowel function after a colostomy takedown. Conclusion A comprehensive preoperative assessment and thoughtful operative plan were necessary in this unusual case because of the extensive differential diagnosis for sacrococcygeal masses in the newborn and the frequency of anomalies and syndromes associated with tail variants and imperforate anus. The pediatricians and neonatologists who initially evaluate such patients and the surgeons who correct these disorders must be aware of the potential pitfalls in their management.
Vaginal atrophy is a common chronic condition affecting up to 57% of postmenopausal women. The decrease in estrogen following cessation of menses can lead to bothersome symptoms that include vaginal dryness and irritation, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), urinary tract infections, and pain (dyspareunia) and bleeding during sexual activities. These symptoms can be safely and effectively managed with the use of local estrogen therapy, which reduces the risks associated with long-term systemic hormone therapy. The ultra-low-dose 10 ?g estradiol vaginal tablet is the lowest approved dose available and has an annual estradiol exposure of only 1.14 mg. Its development addresses recommendations from regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest hormonal dose. The 10 ?g vaginal tablet displays minimal estradiol absorption, causes no increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma, and provides significant symptom relief. The clinical evidence presented here may offer greater reassurance to health-care professionals and postmenopausal women that vaginal atrophy can be treated safely and effectively. PMID:23848490
BACKGROUND: Maternal cervicovaginal colonization with Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS) is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. About 15% of women are carriers of GBS. Usually, they are asymptomatic. CASES: We describe two patients with symptomatic vaginitis for which no apparent cause was found. Both patients were heavily colonized with GBS. After antibiotic treatment, both became asymptomatic and culture negative, but after recolonization with GBS, symptoms resumed. This phenomenon was repeatedly observed. After emergence of resistance to antibiotics, local application of chlorhexidine appeared to be the only useful treatment. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that GBS-vaginitis may be a possible disease entity. Although at present it is not clear why some patients become symptomatic, we speculate that the immunologic response is somehow selectively hampered in such patients.
Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus cause common sexually transmitted infections in humans and cattle, respectively. Mouse models of trichomoniasis are important for pathogenic and therapeutic studies. Here, we compared murine genital infections with T. vaginalis and T. foetus. Persistent vaginal infection with T. foetus was established with 100 parasites but T. vaginalis infection required doses of 10(6), perhaps because of greater susceptibility to killing by mouse vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection with T. vaginalis persisted longest after combined treatment of mice with estrogen and dexamethasone, whereas infection was only short-lived when mice were given estrogen or dexamethasone alone, co-infected with Lactobacillus acidophilus, and/or pretreated with antibiotics. Infection rates were similar with metronidazole-resistant (MR) and metronidazole-sensitive (MS) T. vaginalis. High dose but not low dose metronidazole treatment controlled infection with MS better than MR T. vaginalis. These murine models will be valuable for investigating the pathogenesis and treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:21976570
Cobo, Eduardo R; Eckmann, Lars; Corbeil, Lynette B
\\u000a Molar pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) comprise a group of interrelated diseases, including complete\\u000a and partial molar pregnancy, placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and choriocarcinoma, that have varying propensities\\u000a for local invasion and distal spread. Vaginal bleeding is a common presenting sign, seen in as many as 97% of women with a\\u000a complete molar pregnancy; it is also a frequent
Lisa M. Barroilhet; Donald Peter Goldstein; Ross S. Berkowitz
Sixteen patients with symptomatic dural caroticocavernous fistulae were treated by transvenous embolization, via the jugular vein and inferior petrosal sinus. The fistula was occuladed by thrombogenic coils. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs was achieved in 14 patients, and complete angiographic resolution was also obtained in 14 patients. Failures to achieve angiographic cure were attributed to failure to reach the
K. Yamashita; W. Taki; S. Nishi; A. Sadato; I. Nakahara; H. Kikuchi; Y. Yonekawa
Aim: To review 12 cases of anovestibular fistula with normal anal opening. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 children with anovestibular fistula and normal anal opening were treated between the years 2000 and 2007. Of these, 11 patients were diagnosed as having acquired anovestibular fistula with normal anal opening and were managed by conservative management. Results: Most of them presented with diarrhea and labial redness. One patient was considered to have fistula of congenital origin and was managed surgically. Eleven patients presented between the ages of 1.5–11 months and were considered as cases of acquired anovestibular fistula and only two of them required surgical management in the form of colostomy and fistula excision. Others were successfully managed by conservative treatment; the fistulous output and labial redness decreased gradually within a period of 5–19 (average 11.5) days. Conclusions: Not all presentations of anovestibular fistula with normal anal opening can be considered as congenital. Presence of inflammation, paramedian fistula, and a favourable response to conservative management/colostomy suggest acquired etiology. Trial of conservative management should be given in the acquired variety.
Jain, Prashant; Mishra, Pankaj; Shah, Hemanshi; Parelkar, Sandesh; Borwankar, S. S.
Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap. PMID:24647304
Enteric fistulas are a rare but serious complication following the repair of an incisional hernia using a prosthesis. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who developed an enterocolocutaneus fistula after incisional hernia repair with intra-abdominal polyester mesh. This case shows that one may want to avoid placing the parietal prostheses in direct contact with intestinal loops.
Traumatic tracheoesophageal fistula is a rare complication after blunt chest trauma, with all reported cases being more than 12 years of age. We report a 5-year-old boy with traumatic tracheoesophageal fistula after a blunt injury to the chest. PMID:17011255
Congenital coronary artery fistula is a rare disease and MRI is a promising technique that may be useful to demonstrate the coronary artery tree. We report three patients who underwent cardiac MRI to investigate right coronary artery fistulae. On clinical examination, a continuous murmur was heard along the left sternal border, and chest X-ray showed moderate cardiomegaly with enlargement of
J R PARGA; N M IKARI; L N P BUSTAMANTE; C E ROCHITTE; LFR DEAVILA; S A OLIVEIRA
Introduction: Anatomical studies on the bulbocavernosus muscle (BCM) and its supporting blood vessels were performed to explore the clinical roles of BCM flaps in the repair of complicated vesicovaginal fistulas. Methods: BCM and the supporting blood vessels of 15 female adult cadavers were anatomized. Pedicled BCM flaps were transposed to repair complicated vesicovaginal fistulas in 11 patients. Results: The left
We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.
Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin [Interventional Radiology, Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa (Spain); Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio [Interventional Radiology, State University Health Sciences Center (United States)
A 51-year-old man suffered from bleeding esophageal varices. He had undergone partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer 1 year before. An extrahepatic arterioportal fistula and resultant portal hypertension were found. We successfully performed transarterial embolization of the fistula using stainless steel coils. Portal hypertension improved dramatically. RID='''' ID='''' Correspondence to: K. Ishigami, M.D.
Ishigami, Kousei; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Honda, Hiroshi; Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Aibe, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculity of Medicine, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hashizume, Makoto [Department of Surgery II, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Masuda, Kouji [Department of Radiology, Faculity of Medicine, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)
To examine the predictive accuracy of Goodsall's rule, the records of 216 patients (155 men and 61 women) who underwent surgery for complete submuscular anal fistulas from 1982 to 1989 were retrospectively reviewed. In accordance with Goodsall's rule, 90 percent of 124 patients with an external opening posterior to the transverse anal line had anal fistulas tracking to the midline
Twenty-one patients with high transsphincteric fistulas treated by the seton technique were re-examined after two to 14 years.\\u000a None had recurrent fistulas, but 13 (62 percent) had some degree of continence disturbances. All patients with anal deformities\\u000a had continence disorders.
Asbjørn Christensen; Lisbeth Nilas; John Christiansen
PURPOSE: Successful management of anal fistulas depends upon accurate assessment of the primary tract and any secondary extensions. Preoperative imaging has, to date, been disappointing. METHODS: A prospective study of 35 patients with a clinical diagnosis of fistula-in-ano was performed comparing magnetic resonance imaging with the independently documented operative findings. Magnetic resonance imaging was also compared with anal endosonography in
Peter J. Lunniss; Peter G. Barker; Abdul H. Sultan; Peter Armstrong; Rodney H. Reznek; Clive I. Bartram; Karen S. Cottam; Robin K. Phillips
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the failure of fibrin sealant treatment for fistula-in-ano in an experimental porcine model and to determine histologic changes associated with the sealant and setons. METHODS: Three surgically created fistulas were treated by seton drainage in each of eight male pigs. After 26 days, magnetic resonance imaging was performed and setons were
Gordon N. Buchanan; Paul Sibbons; Mike Osborn; Clive I. Bartram; Tahera Ansari; Steve Halligan; C. Richard G. Cohen
Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis.
B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David
Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 ?g/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 ?g/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 ?g/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora.
Ocana, Virginia; Silva, Clara; Nader-Macias, Maria Elena
In Africa, the use of traditional herbal remedy is widespread. Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most serious complications. The use of herbal remedies (mostly orally) accounts for nearly 35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Development of renal failure following herbal vaginal pessary is rarely reported. In November 2003, a 35-year-old Nigerian female who is a petty trader and a primary school leaver with three children (all males) presented to us in the renal unit with oliguric ARF induced by herbal vaginal pessary. She had sought this alternative medicine in an attempt to have a female child as all her three children are males. Her condition was managed accordingly and required three sessions of hemodialysis. She started diuresing on the eighth day of admission. This case presentation highlights the potential tragedies of herbal preparation, of note, that herbal vaginal pessaries are as deleterious as the oral preparations, and that the dilemma of ignorance is still prevalent in our society.
Onyemekeihia, U. R.; Esume, C. O.; Oladele, C. O.; Oviasu, E.
Introduction Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a very unusual complication caused by inflammatory response to amniotic fluid spilled into the maternal peritoneal cavity. Twenty-seven cases have been reported, and all occurred after cesarean section. Case presentation We present a case of VCP following vaginal delivery; this may be the first case reported after vaginal delivery. Mrs. A, 28 years old, gravida 3, para 2, with one previous cesarean section, was admitted at 41 weeks gestation in active labor. Vacuum extraction was performed to deliver a healthy male baby, 4.410 kg, Apgar scores 7, 8. She developed fever, acute abdominal pain, and distension about 3 hours after delivery. A diagnosis of acute abdomen was made. Laparotomy was performed and it revealed neither uterine scar rupture nor other surgical emergencies, but 500 mL of turbid fluid and some cheesy material on the serosal surface of all viscera. Biopsies were taken. She had a course of antibiotics and her recovery was complete. Histology of the peritoneal fluid and tissue biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of VCP. Conclusion Clinical diagnosis of peritonitis due to vernix caseosa should be considered in patients presenting postpartum with an acute abdomen after vaginal delivery.
Sadath, Shameema A.; Abo Diba, Fathiya I.; Nayak, Surendra; Shamali, Iman Al; Diejomaoh, Michael F.
Vaginal sponges offer women control over protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Spermicide-impregnated sponges combine the actions of a physical barrier that blocks the cervix with a material that absorbs the ejaculate and a spermicide. Commercially available spermicides contain 1-5% of nonoxynol-9, shown to inhibit organisms responsible for gonorrhea, chlamydia, candidiasis, genital herpes, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and HIV. On the other hand, nonoxynol-9 is associated with a significantly higher risk of vaginal colonization with bacterial agents, ulcerative genital diseases, and vulvitis. A lower dose of nonoxynol-9 appears to avert vaginal irritation without compromising contraceptive efficacy. Use of chlorhexidene, a spermicide less irritating to mucosal cells than nonoxynol-9 but active against HIV in vivo and in vitro, is under investigation. Also promising are initial findings regarding the Protectaid contraceptive sponge with F-5 gel. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials should provide quantitative estimates of the level of protection offered by barrier methods and identify the method that combines the highest protection, ease of use, and user acceptability. PMID:9238301
Hassan, E; Creatsas, G; Gravanis, A; Georgoulias, V; Psychoyos, A
In Africa, the use of traditional herbal remedy is widespread. Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most serious complications. The use of herbal remedies (mostly orally) accounts for nearly 35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Development of renal failure following herbal vaginal pessary is rarely reported. In November 2003, a 35-year-old Nigerian female who is a petty trader and a primary school leaver with three children (all males) presented to us in the renal unit with oliguric ARF induced by herbal vaginal pessary. She had sought this alternative medicine in an attempt to have a female child as all her three children are males. Her condition was managed accordingly and required three sessions of hemodialysis. She started diuresing on the eighth day of admission. This case presentation highlights the potential tragedies of herbal preparation, of note, that herbal vaginal pessaries are as deleterious as the oral preparations, and that the dilemma of ignorance is still prevalent in our society. PMID:20535252
Onyemekeihia, U R; Esume, C O; Oladele, C O; Oviasu, E
Aim: Objective of this study is to report our experience with sigmoid vaginoplasty in adolescents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children with vaginal atresia and Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser syndrome. The sigmoid segment was used for vaginoplasty in all the cases. Results: Eight children were studied over a period of 7 years. The postoperative complications were ileus in 2, mucosal prolapse of the neovagina in 1, and minor wound infection in 1 patient. Seven patients are on regular follow-up. All the neovaginas were patent and functional. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance, that is, badly scarred perineum as a late complication. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis or excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Out of the 7 patients, 2 patients are sexually active and satisfied. Conclusions: Sigmoid vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure for vaginal agenesis with good cosmetic results and acceptable complications rate. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty is the treatment of choice because of its large lumen, thick walls resistant to trauma, adequate secretion allowing lubrication, not necessitating prolonged dilatation, and short recovery time.
Rawat, Jiledar; Ahmed, Intezar; Pandey, Anand; Khan, Tanvir R.; Singh, Sarita; Wakhlu, Ashish; Kureel, Shiv N.
Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature.
Celik, Ozlem; Buyuktas, Deram; Islak, Civan; Sarici, A Murat; Gundogdu, A Sadi
Perianal fistula is a clinical entity with multiple surgical treatment options. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an important imaging modality in the management of perianal fistulas. It provides accurate description of the fistula within the anal canal in relation to the sphincter complex and other pelvic floor structures as well as the associated complications such as abscess. By understanding the surgical viewpoint, the appearance of perianal fistulas, associated complications, and post-treatment findings of commonly used surgical interventions can more accurately be interpreted to aid clinicians. The objective of the article is to review MRI indications and findings, radiological versus surgical classification schemes, and surgical treatment options for perianal fistulas. PMID:23242265
A 79-year-old woman with pneumobilia and liver dysfunction was admitted to our hospital. ERCP and gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed choledochal stones and a cholecystogastric fistula at the greater curvature of the gastric antrum. The risk of cholecystectomy and fistulectomy appeared to be extremely high for this patient because of her advanced age and low respiratory function due to interstitial pneumonia. Therefore, only an endoscopic lithotomy was performed, and the cholecystogastric fistula remained. However, after 2 years of follow-up, she developed an advanced gallbladder carcinoma. This finding suggests that cholecystogastric fistula is a risk factor for gallbladder carcinoma. Because of the difficulty of early detection of gallbladder carcinoma associated with cholecystogastric fistula, both fistulectomy and cholecystectomy are necessary when cholecystogastric fistula is diagnosed. PMID:24806240
The objective was to identify proteins differentially expressed in vaginal cancer to elucidate relevant cancer-related proteins. A total of 16 fresh-frozen tissue biopsies, consisting of 5 biopsies from normal vaginal epithelium, 6 from primary vaginal carcinomas and 5 from primary cervical carcinomas, were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the 43 proteins identified with significant
K Hellman; A A Alaiya; S Becker; M Lomnytska; K Schedvins; W Steinberg; A-C Hellström; S Andersson; U Hellman; G Auer
Postpartum genital tract adhesions are unusual, and their cause has not been evaluated. However, severe dystocia and numerous pelvic examinations have been suggested as possible causes. Here, we report a case of vaginal adhesions following a difficult labor that presented as dyspareunia for 5 months. Pelvic examination and ultrasonography revealed a transverse vaginal septum that obstructed the vaginal cavity, and fluid collection proximal to this septum. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection and administration of antibiotics. PMID:24596821
Kim, Hyun Mi; Bae, Jin Young; Cho, Yoo Jin; Kim, Mi Ju; Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Cha, Hyun Wha; Seong, Won Joon
...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel; Availability AGENCY...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel.'' The guidance provides...new drug applications (ANDAs) for metronidazole vaginal gel. DATES: Although...
A young patient with a vaginal tumor in early pregnancy is presented. The difficulty in diagnosis and subsequent management is discussed. Vaginal tumors with special reference to vaginal leiomyoma are reviewed and a differential diagnosis is presented. PMID:3425255
...Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice...certain vaginal ring birth control devices by reason...issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders. ADDRESSES: The complaint...certain vaginal ring birth control devices...
Anal fistula is among the most common illnesses affecting man. Medical literature dating back to 400 BC has discussed this problem. Various causative factors have been proposed throughout the centuries, but it appears that the majority of fistulas unrelated to specific causes (e.g. Tuberculosis, Crohn’s disease) result from infection (abscess) in anal glands extending from the intersphincteric plane to various anorectal spaces. The tubular structure of an anal fistula easily yields itself to division or unroofing (fistulotomy) or excision (fistulectomy) in most cases. The problem with this single, yet effective, treatment plan is that depending on the thickness of sphincter muscle the fistula transgresses, the patient will have varying degrees of fecal incontinence from minor to total. In an attempt to preserve continence, various procedures have been proposed to deal with the fistulas. These include: (1) simple drainage (Seton); (2) closure of fistula tract using fibrin sealant or anal fistula plug; (3) closure of primary opening using endorectal or dermal flaps, and more recently; and (4) ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT). In most complex cases (i.e. Crohn’s disease), a proximal fecal diversion offers a measure of symptomatic relief. The fact remains that an “ideal” procedure for anal fistula remains elusive. The failure of each sphincter-preserving procedure (30%-50% recurrence) often results in multiple operations. In essence, the price of preservation of continence at all cost is multiple and often different operations, prolonged disability and disappointment for the patient and the surgeon. Nevertheless, the surgeon treating anal fistulas on an occasional basis should never hesitate in referring the patient to a specialist. Conversely, an expert colorectal surgeon must be familiar with many different operations in order to selectively tailor an operation to the individual patient.
So-called "vaginal rejuvenation", "designer vaginoplasty", "revirgination", and "G-spot amplification" are vaginal surgical procedures being offered by some practitioners. These procedures are not medically indicated, and the safety and effectiveness of these procedures have not been documented. Clinicians who receive requests from patients for such procedures should discuss with the patient the reason for her request and perform an evaluation for any physical signs or symptoms that may indicate the need for surgical intervention. Women should be informed about the lack of data supporting the efficacy of these procedures and their potential complications, including infection, altered sensation, dyspareunia, adhesions, and scarring. PMID:17766626
Anal fistula management has long been a challenge for surgeons. Presently, no technique exists that is ideal for treating all types of anal fistula, whether simple or complex. A higher incidence of poor sphincter function and recurrence after surgery has encouraged the development of a new sphincter-sparing procedure, ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT), first described by Van der Hagen et al. in 2006. We assessed the safety, feasibility, success rate, and continence of LIFT as a sphincter-saving procedure. A literature search of articles in electronic databases published from January 2006 to August 2012 was performed. Analysis followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews recommendations. All LIFT-related articles published in the English language were included. We excluded case reports, abstracts, letters, non-English language articles, and comments. The procedure was described in detail as reported by Rojanasakul. Thirteen original studies, including 435 patients, were reviewed. The most common fistula procedure type was transsphincteric (92.64 %). The overall median operative time was 39 (±20.16) min. Eight authors performed LIFT as a same-day surgery, whereas the others admitted patients to the hospital, with an overall median stay of 1.25 days (range 1-5 days). Postoperative complications occurred in 1.88 % of patients. All patients remained continent postoperatively. The overall mean length of follow-up was 33.92 (±17.0) weeks. The overall mean healing rate was 81.37 (±16.35) % with an overall mean healing period of 8.15 (±5.96) weeks. Fistula recurrence occurred in 7.58 % of patients. LIFT represents a new, easy-to-learn, and inexpensive sphincter-sparing procedure that provides reasonable results. LIFT is safe and feasible, with favorable short- and long-term outcomes. However, additional prospective randomized studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23893217
Parotid fistula is a very rare, unpleasant and painful complication following surgery in the maxillofacial region. Although there is consensus in the literature that acute parotid injury must be explored primarily and all injured structures be repaired accurately, the treatment of the chronic injury is controversial. Numerous methods of treatment, conservative as well as aggressive, have been described with varying success and morbidity. This paper presents a simple but effective and conservative method of treating this complication with the use of hot hypertonic saline.
Rao, J. K. Dayashankara; Gehlot, Neelima; Laxmy, Vijay; Siwach, Vijay
A 25-year-old man was brought in after a preliminary diagnosis of chronic, exacerbated right otitis media. Following our physical examination a granulated, purulen ear pit was found out behind the right auricle. At the base of the helix a non-purulent external opening of the ear pit was found out. The operation showed that we had to do with preauricular fistula embracing the auricle from above and ending with a purulent cyst above the upper back wall of the external auditory meatus. The ear pit and cyst were extirpated as a whole. A 1,5-year observation period has not shown any recurrence of the disease. PMID:9173393
INTRODUCTION We present a case of direct carotico-cavernous fistula (CCF) and its successful treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 55-year-old male presented with left eye discomfort, diplopia and pulsatile tinnitus. He had a recent history of head injury. Examination showed proptosis, chemosis, orbital bruit, and abducens nerve palsy. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed CCF, which was managed endovascularly. The patient recovered fully after treatment. DISCUSSION CCF has a variety of presenting clinical signs, imaging manifestations, and treatment options available. CONCLUSION CCF is a rare and dangerous neurological disorder that should be promptly diagnosed and treated.
Male urethral “play” has been described for centuries. There are serious potential complications in this. We present a bizarre case of a variant of such play. A 49-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and incontinence. He had created a “neovagina” at the perineum for self-pleasure. The handle of a toilet brush was placed in the neovagina for self-pleasure but retracted into the bladder via a vesicoperineal fistula. An open cystotomy was performed to remove the foreign body.
Potretzke, Aaron M.; Wong, Kelvin S.; Downs, Tracy M.
Four cases with hereditary combinations of branchial fistulas and middle ear malformations in three generations of one family are reported. We found preauricular fistulas and lateral cervical fistulas combined with different types of middle ear dysplasias. In one case a preauricular fistula running through the middle ear and ending in the dura could be exstirpated. Such rare varieties must be considered, when preauricular fistulas are found together with congenital middle ear deafness. PMID:763058
Summary and Conclusions A critical analysis of the records of 623 patients who had fistulas or fistulous abscesses and of three patients who had supralevator\\u000a abscesses of extrarectal origin was made. The 626 patients had a total of 657 fistulas or abscesses; 24 patients had two separate\\u000a fistulas, two patients had three fistulas, and one patient had four fistulas.\\u000a \\u000a Sixty-five per
Subarachnoid-pleural fistula is a well-described complication after anterior surgery for thoracic disc herniation, but is difficult to treat by means of traditional chest and lumbar drains due to interference by positive ventilation pressures that may keep the fistula open and prevent proper closure. Current treatment strategies include surgical repair, which is technically challenging, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, which can take several weeks to be effective. In this report, the authors describe a novel treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula using percutaneous obliteration with Onyx. Surgery for removal of a T7-8 disc herniation associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was performed in a 56-year-old woman via an anterior transthoracic transpleural approach. Ten days after surgery, she presented with diplopia due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula that was confirmed by CT myelography. Percutaneous injection of Onyx was performed under local anesthesia. Postprocedure CT showed complete obliteration of the fistula with no adverse events. A CT scan obtained 1 month later showed complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Neurological examination at 3 months postsurgery was normal. Clinical and radiological follow-up at 1 year showed complete recovery and no sign of fistula recurrence. Percutaneous treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula is an easy, safe, and effective strategy and can therefore be proposed as a first-line option for this challenging complication. PMID:23432323
Objective : To determine the incidence and most frequent anatomical locations of residual oronasal fistulas in children with different types of clefts who were treated at the University Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery in Ljubljana. Design : Retrospective analysis of 857 consecutive patients with cleft born between 1984 and 2003. Results : After primary surgical repair, 33 out of 857 (3.9%) children had residual oronasal fistulas. The incidence of clinically significant fistulas that required surgical repair was 17 of 857 (2.0%). In children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), or isolated cleft palate (CP), the incidence of palatal fistulas was 23 of 644 (3.6%). Of these palatal fistulas, 12 (1.9%) were clinically significant. Oronasal fistulas were most frequently found in children with BCLP (9 of 88, 10.2%), followed by UCLP (12 of 215, 5.6%) and CP (12 of 341, 3.5%). No fistulas were found in children with unilateral cleft lip and alveolar ridge. In 10 cases (30.3%), the oronasal fistula remained in the alveolar ridge, in 11 cases (33.3%) in the anterior part of the hard palate, and in 11 cases (33.3%) at the junction of the hard and soft palates. In one case (3%), the records were lost. Conclusion : The low incidence of oronasal fistulas is the result of a surgical technique and tensionless suturing, followed by a two-layer closure, two-stage palate repair in BCLP and UCLP patients, and preoperative orthopedics in UCLP cases. PMID:21740163
Bronchobiliary fistula is a rare and is an uncommon but severe complication of hydatid disease of the liver. Treatment has traditionally been surgical resection, but embolization and stent placement have been described. The invasive method seems to be a key component of patient treatment. We describe a case of a 58-year-old woman who, 25 years before, had undergone surgery for a hydatid cyst. A total cystectomy without previous puncture or parasite extraction was carried out. The lower aspect of the cyst was found to be completely perforated over the biliary duct. During the postoperative course, the patient had subphrenic right-sided pleural effusion and biliary fistula that subsided with medical treatment. Afterward, the patient came to the outpatient area of our hospital complaining of leakage of purulent exudate through the cutaneous opening, pain located on the right hypochondrium radiating to the right hemithorax, malaise, fever, chronic cough, and occasional vomiting of bile. Fistulography revealed an anfractuous cavity communicating with a residual cystic cavity on the right hepatic lobe. We observed communication with the intrahepatic canaliculi. Computed tomographic scan revealed a fistulous tract on the anterior liver border through the abdominal wall. There were no posttreatment complications. The patient is asymptomatic.
Prieto-Nieto, M. I., E-mail: email@example.com; Perez-Robledo, J. P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [La Paz Teaching Hospital, Department of General and Digestive Surgery (Spain); Alvarez-Luque, A., E-mail: email@example.com; Suz, J. I. Acitores, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Torres, J. Novo, E-mail: Joanemail@example.com [La Paz Teaching Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Spain)
Perilymph fistula (PLF) is defined as a leak of perilymph at the oval or round window. It excludes other conditions with "fistula" tests due to a dehiscent semi circular canal from cholesteatoma and the superior canal dehiscence syndrome. It was first recognized in the early days of stapedectomy as causing disequilibrium and balance problems before sealing of the stapedectomy with natural tissue became routine. It then became apparent that head trauma and barotraumatic trauma from flying or diving could be a cause of PLF. Descriptions of "spontaneous" PLF with no trauma history followed. A large literature on PLF from all causes accumulated. It became an almost emotional issue in Otolaryngology with "believers" and "nonbelievers." The main criticisms are a lack of reliable symptoms and diagnostic tests and operative traps in reliably distinguishing a perilymph leak from local anaesthetic. There are extensive reviews on the whole topic, invariably conveying the authors' own experiences and their confirmed views on various aspects. However, a close examination reveals a disparity of definitions and assumptions on symptoms, particularly, vestibular. This is an intentionally provocative paper with suggestions on where some progress might be made. PMID:23724269
Purpose. The carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal arteriovenous communication and its drainage pathways may affect the clinic presentation and change treatment approach. We evaluated drainage patterns of CCFs by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and categorized drainage pathways according to their types and etiology. Materials and Methods. Venous drainage patterns of 13 CCFs from 10 subjects were studied and categorized as anterior, posterior, superior, inferior, and contralateral on DSA. Drainage patterns were correlated to types and etiology of CCFs. Diagnosis of CCFs was first made by noninvasive imaging techniques. Results. On DSA, traumatic CCFs were usually high flow, direct type while spontaneous CCFs were usually slow flow, indirect type. Bilaterality and mixed types were observed among the indirect spontaneous CCFs. In all CCFs, anterior and inferior drainages were the most common. Contrary to the literature, posterior and superior drainages were noted only in high flow and long standing direct fistulas. Contralateral drainage was not observed in all, supporting plausible compartmentalization of cavernous sinuses. Conclusion. Types, etiology, and duration of the CCFs may affect their drainage patterns. DSA is valuable for categorization of CCFs and verification of drainage patterns. Drainage pathways may affect the clinic presentation and also change treatment approach.
We report the case of a patient, a 19-year-old young man, with a rare malformation of the pulmonary blood vessels--a complex arteriovenous (A-V) fistula. The disease was characterized by typical signs of the right-to-left shunt: cyanosis, clubbed fingers and exertional dyspnea. Hypoxemia and polyglobulia were present in the blood examination findings and functional tests showed significantly reduced diffusion lung capacity and progressive dyspnea, while ergometry revealed cyanosis. The physical examination, ECG and ultrasound of the heart were normal as well as aortography. The final diagnosis was made by pulmonary angiography which showed a complex A-V malformation of several feeding arteries and profuse initial multiple venous drainage. Following a successful surgical procedure the diagnosis was also confirmed histopathologically-diffuse teleangiectatic A-V fistula of the lower lobe of the left lung. Following surgery cyanosis, dyspnea, hypoxemia and polyglobulia disappeared and the young man has been well for the following two years. PMID:7651067
Zorici?-Letoja, I; Mikuli?, Z; Simuni?, S; Vladovi?-Relja, T; Krizanac, S
OBJECTIVE To compare the risk of ureteral compromise and of recurrent vault prolapse following vaginal vs. laparoscopic uterosacral vault suspension at the time of vaginal hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN In this retrospective, cohort study, uterosacral ligament suspension was performed using either a vaginal or laparoscopic approach. The primary outcome was intraoperative ureteral compromise; secondary outcomes were postoperative anatomic result and recurrent prolapse. The Canadian Task Force Classification was II-2. RESULTS One hundred eighteen patients were included: 96 patients in the vaginal group and 22 patients in the laparoscopic group. Ureteral compromise was identified intraoperatively in 4 (4.2%) cases in the vaginal group; no ureteral compromise was observed in the laparoscopic group (p = 0.33). Failure at the apex, defined as stage ? II for point C, was seen in 6.3% of patients in the vaginal group as compared with 0% in the laparoscopic group; this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Similarly, trends toward lower recurrent symptomatic vault prolapse (10% vs. 0%), any symptomatic prolapse recurrence (12.5% vs. 4.6%), and higher postoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C were observed in the laparoscopic group (p > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION Laparoscopic uterosacral vault suspension following vaginal hysterectomy is a safe alternative to the vaginal approach.
Rardin, Charles R.; Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Sung, Vivian W.; Ward, Renee M.; Myers, Deborah L.
In the light of very recent studies, this paper reviews two controversial issues in the area of female sexuality: vaginal eroticism and female orgasm. From the available evidence, it is concluded that most (and probably all) women possess vaginal zones, mainly located on the anterior wall, whose tactile stimulation can lead to orgasm. The apparent contradiction between this finding and
... it doesn't come back. Stage I Squamous cell cancers: Radiation therapy is used for most stage I vaginal cancers. ... for some patients with stage II vaginal squamous cell cancer if it is small ... already had radiation therapy for cervical cancer and who would not be ...
A 33-year old woman with nitroimidazole-resistant vaginal trichomoniasis is described. She was treated with intravaginal paromomycin (500mg daily for 2 days). This cured the trichomoniasis but resulted in severe local side effects. Paromomycin may be useful for difficult cases of nitroimidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis. The exact dosage still has to be determined.
The ratio of vaginal hysterectomy to abdominal hysterectomy in the UK is 1:3. It is well known that patients who have had a vaginal hysterectomy recover better compared with abdominal hysterectomy. However, abdominal hysterectomy is the preferred method in most hospitals because it is deemed easier to do. With ERBE Biclamp diathermy forceps, vaginal hysterectomy could be safely and easily performed by gynaecologists. This study showed a different surgical technique for performing vaginal hysterectomy. It allowed easier and safer operations in patients with large uterus, fibroid uterus, where there was no uterine descent and narrow introitus. Also it allowed the adnexal appendages to be removed easily by the vaginal route. We compared 100 patients who had a vaginal hysterectomy performed using this method, with patients who had a vaginal hysterectomy performed by the conventional method using sutures. We found that we could safely perform vaginal hysterectomy with greater ease. Also, the need for postoperative analgesia was less and the patients were discharged earlier. Consequently, the patients' convalescence period was shorter and better. PMID:17999303
We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman with a three-month history of persistent green vaginal discharge following vaginal delivery of her first child. Group C ?-haemolytic streptococcus was ultimately isolated, which appears to be an uncommon cause of this clinical presentation. PMID:23970614
Intramuscular methotrexate followed by vaginal misoprostol has been shown to be effective for abortion at ?49 days gestation. Oral dosing of the methotrexate may offer advantages over parenteral dosing. This pilot study was performed to evaluate if oral methotrexate would be effective when combined with vaginal misoprostol to effect abortion at ?49 days gestation. Twenty pregnant women were randomized to
Objective: To compare vaginal versus oral misoprostol for induction of labor. Method: Induction of labor was carried out in 40 women near term in two equal and randomized groups (according to a computer generated table) using misoprostol. Group I received vaginal misoprostol (100 ?g) every 3 h while group II patients were given the same dose via the oral route.
M. K. Toppozada; M. Y. M. Anwar; H. A. Hassan; W. S. El-Gazaerly
Mesh erosion is one of the major complications of prolapse surgery conducted by transvaginal approach. Following the extensive use of meshes and warning about potential complications, a new classification of mesh-related adverse events has been proposed. Due to the wide scope of clinical features, no standardized approach has been proposed. Surgery is required after failure of conservative management, mostly based on mesh partial or total excision by transvaginal route, following the classic rules of re-do vaginal surgery. Complex cases are best managed in tertiary reference centers. PMID:23873511
Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Peyrat, Laurence; Haab, François
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.
Dickson, H.; Mahood, L.; Manlucu, E. D.; Nath, Manju E.
Throughout the years 1978-1998, 13 patients, 9 months to 16 years of age, were treated for vaginal malignancy at the Medical City Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. The majority were found to have an embryonal sarcoma, an endodermal sinus tumour or a clear cell adenocarcinoma. Most were treated by genital resection combined with triple cytotoxic therapy. We have eight survivors for more than 3 years following surgery. This study also illustrates the potential curability of these tumours with preservation of urinary function. PMID:15512636
Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) is a typical surfactant. For more than 30 years that very property of N-9 has been successfully exploited for its spermicidal action. It is available as an over-the-counter, locally acting vaginal spermicide. The suitability of N-9 as a spermicide is elaborated in this article. The reasons why N-9 may fail as a contraceptive are discussed. In spite of many drawbacks, which are mentioned in the article, N-9 is still often resorted to as a locally acting contraceptive. The review ends with suggestions to alter the molecular structure of N-9 and to adjust the dosages. PMID:19117251
Malignant neoplasms in lateral cervical cysts and fistulae have been frequently described in the literature. In the following case, a tumor is reported which was found in the unusual localization of a preauricular fistula. The histologic diagnosis was basal cell carcinoma. In this 41-year-old male patient the tumor led to local recurrent inflammatory symptoms. Therapy consisted first of excision of the fistula. After final diagnosis was made, total parotidectomy and an additional excision of the skin were carried out. PMID:651483
Intestinal fistulae formation in the open abdomen is a rare, but devastating and complex complication for patients. Often, there will be no spontaneous healing or closure of the fistulae. Effective wound care is essential to contain fistulae effluent, protect surrounding tissue and skin, and promote granulation, and patient comfort and mobility. Management options include the use of wound management pouches and negative pressure wound therapy. Effective wound care needs to be underpinned by adequate nutrition, and fluid and electrolyte management. Despite the challenges involved in providing effective care for these patients, this aspect of nursing practice can be extremely rewarding. PMID:24547863
The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure is a major cause of morbidity in the hemodialysis population. Most AVFs fail due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). In this issue, Yang et al. delineated a mechanism responsible for transforming the fistula adventitia into a fertile soil for neointimal precursors. These authors pondered the role of hypoxia-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1?), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the activation of those adventitial myofibroblasts that may significantly contribute to the formation of the fistula neointima. PMID:24487362
Seventy-two cases of palatal fistulae are presented. The location on anterior part of secondary palate is due to lack of double layer closure. Vascular pattern of tongue is detailed. Operative details of using tongue flap as oral layer in closure of fistula are described. Undue mobility of tongue and prevention of breakdown of tongue flap repair incidence of which is low in present series are mentioned. It is suggested as excellent method of closure of palatal fistulae in difficult cases. PMID:1279921
The Kidney Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative and Fistula First Initiative have embraced the arteriovenous fistula as the gold standard for hemodialysis accesses. Despite this status, fistulae are fraught with complex issues ranging from a high primary failure rate to high flow resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity. It is important not to overlook the insidious peril of a hyperfunctioning access that may actively promote cardiac overload, cardiopulmonary recirculation, rapid access growth with aneurysm enlargement, recurrent venous stenosis resulting in access failure, and inflow/outflow mismatch. Once recognized, flow can and should be reduced to mitigate these and other negative effects. PMID:23217334
Summary Endovascular procedures are commonly used for treatment of vascular pathologies. These interventions are routinely performed under angiographic control. Angioplasty is increasingly more often used for correction of dialysis fistula – especially dilatation of stenosis. We describe the technique of dialysis fistula angioplasty under ultrasound control. Benefits of this procedure include lack of nephrotoxic contrast, what is especially important in chronic kidney disease patients in pre-dialysis period. Advantages of ultrasound guidance during dialysis fistula angioplasty lead to cause more and more frequent employment of this technique.
Bojakowski, Krzysztof; Gora, Rafal; Szewczyk, Dariusz; Andziak, Piotr
We describe three surgical methods used to repair salivary fistulas in different situations that are seen after reconstruction of the pharyngoesophagus in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. The principle of these methods is the same; a cervical skin flap next to the fistula is used as the internal lining and an anterior chest skin flap is rotated as an external lining to cover it. For the primary closure of heavily irradiated fistulas, this combination may not always be effective, and we emphasize that a combined use of a pedicled pectoralis major muscle flap with these two kinds of pedicled skin flap is extremely reliable.
A gastrocolocutaneous fistula after placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is a rare complication. This fistula is defined as an epithelial connection between the mucosa of the stomach, colon, and skin. We present an interesting case in which a PEG tube was placed inadvertently through the colon. During a subsequent fever workup, an abdominal computed tomography scan suggested that the feeding tube had traversed the colon. Gastrograffin enema and colonoscopy confirmed the location of the misplaced feeding tube. We review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, errors in procedural technique, and treatment of gastrocolocutaneous fistulas. PMID:11928047
Conduit failure and conduit airway fistula are rare complications after esophagectomy, however they can be catastrophic resulting in high mortality. Survivors can expect a prolonged hospital course with multiple interventions and an extended period of time prior to being able to resume oral nutrition. High index of suspicion can aid in early diagnosis. Conduit failure usually requires a period of proximal esophageal diversion and staged reconstruction. Conduit airway fistulas may be amenable to endoscopic repair but this has a high failure rate and many patients will require surgical repair with closure of the fistula and interposition of vascularized tissue to minimize recurrence.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results\\u000aconcerning recurrence and continence after sphincter-saving\\u000asurgery for fistula-in-ano. METHODS: Forty-two patients\\u000awith anal fistula traversing the sphincter were operated on\\u000awith fistula excision and closure of the internal opening.\\u000aPatients answered a questionnaire concerning bowel habits\\u000aand continence before and 3 and 12 months after surgery. A\\u000asubgroup
The aim of this study was to evaluate medical and economic justification of vaginal smears as a part of primary screening for cervical carcinoma and its precursors. Study included 245.048 participants whose VCE (vaginal, cervical, endocervical) smears were examined at Department of clinical cytology of University Hospital Center Osijek from 2003 till 2008. There were 12.639 (5.2%) abnormal findings, and they were divided into three groups: abnormal cells found only in vaginal smear (V), abnormal cells found in vaginal and in at least one other smear (V+) and abnormal cells not found in vaginal smear (C/E). These three groups were analysed in respect to cytological differential diagnosis and age of participants. It was estimated how many women could be additionally included in the screening, if vaginal smear would be included in the Pap test only after 50 years of age. In 6.9% of cytologically diagnosed lesions abnormal cells were found exclusively in vaginal smears (0.35% of all findings). As for squamous cell lesions, 91.2% were mild lesions (ASC and LSIL). Invasive squamous cell carcinoma was not diagnosed exclusively by vaginal smear in either woman under 50 years of age, while in women over 50 years of age it was diagnosed in 2.3% of cases. Exclusively by vaginal smear was diagnosed 3.9% of all AGC and 6.3% of adenocarcinoma, while in 85.0% of glandular epithelium lesions abnormal cells were not found in vaginal smears. Two thirds of adenocarcinoma diagnosed exclusively by vaginal smears were endometrial adenocarcinoma, but that is only 10.3% of all endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by Pap test. Obtained results show that taking of vaginal smears along with cervical and endocervical smears as a part of primary screening for cervical carcinoma and its precursors in women under 50 years of age is not justifiable, since vaginal smear only has a role in detection of endometrial carcinoma that are extremely rare in younger age groups. If vaginal smear would be taken only in women over 50 years of age, additional 37.7% of women under 50, or 25.1% women over 50 years of age could be included in the screening. PMID:20437636
Vaginal practices are a variety of behavioral techniques that women use to manage their sexual life and personal hygiene. Women perceive vaginal practices as a beneficial practice. However, vaginal cleansing has been identified as one of the main risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and is potentially implicated in Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection transmission. This study examined the prevalence of vaginal practices and the types of practices used among a sample of HIV positive women living in Lusaka, Zambia. Over 90% of all women recruited engaged in vaginal practices. Certain practices, such as use of water or soap, were more frequently used for hygiene reasons. Herbs and traditional medicines were mainly used to please sexual partner. Strategies to decrease VP appear urgently needed in the Zambian community. PMID:22041932
Alcaide, Maria L; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Jones, Deborah
Vaginal reconstruction can be challenging when there is a paucity of tissue, as the ideal donor source has yet to be determined. Many of the existing and commonly used techniques, such as vaginal replacement with skin grafts or bowel segments, have both advantages and disadvantages. A novel technique for vaginal replacement and reconstruction is with autologous buccal mucosa, an epithelium which is an excellent tissue match to the vagina. As urologists often have extensive experience with the use of oral mucosa for urethral reconstruction, it is fitting to apply these techniques to procedures where native vaginal tissue is lacking. This review presents the existing literature as well as the author's own experience with the use of autologous buccal mucosa for a variety of vaginal reconstructive procedures. PMID:24948036
The results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) led to a distinct decline in the routine use of estrogen as preventive therapy for vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Without estrogen replacement, one third of women experience symptoms of atrophic vaginitis including dryness, irritation, itching and or dyspareunia. Local application of estrogen has been shown to relieve these symptoms and improve quality of life for these women. In addition, local estrogen therapy may have a favorable effect on sexuality, urinary tract infections, vaginal surgery, and incontinence. This review examines the effects of vaginally applied estrogen on the vaginal epithelium, urethra and endometrium. An accompanying review examines the systemic effects of vaginally applied estrogen.
Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Snyder, Thomas E.; Richter, Holly E.
Objective To estimate whether tampon users are more likely to select the contraceptive vaginal ring than combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Methods The Contraceptive Choice Project is a longitudinal study of 10,000 St. Louis-area women promoting the use of long-acting, reversible methods of contraception and evaluating user continuation and satisfaction for all reversible methods. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses of the 311 women who were asked about tampon use at the time of enrollment and who chose the contraceptive vaginal ring or OCPs to assess the association of tampon use and choice of combined hormonal method. Results Among contraceptive vaginal ring and OCP users, 247 (79%) reported using tampons. Contraceptive vaginal ring users were not significantly different than OCP users in terms of age, race or ethnicity, marital status, insurance, BMI, and parity. Adjusted analysis indicates tampon users were more likely to choose the contraceptive vaginal ring instead of OCPs (adjusted RR=1.34; 95%CI: 1.01–1.78). Women with previous contraceptive vaginal ring experience were also more likely to choose the contraceptive vaginal ring (adjusted RR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.6–2.4). Recent OCP use did not influence method choice. Conclusion In our baseline analysis of the Contraceptive Choice Project, tampon users were more likely to choose the contraceptive vaginal ring than OCPs. Use of tampons could be considered an indicator for the initial acceptability of the contraceptive vaginal ring, but all women should be offered the contraceptive vaginal ring regardless of experience with tampon use.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge of vaginal atrophy among postmenopausal women (aged 55-65 years), using the Vaginal Health: Insights, Views & Attitudes (VIVA) survey. METHODS: An independent research organization conducted a quantitative Internet-based survey, to obtain information from 3520 women who were living in the UK, the USA, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Finland or Norway. Findings from Canada are presented (n = 500). RESULTS: Almost half of Canadian respondents had experienced vaginal discomfort since they had stopped menstruating, most commonly (88%) vaginal dryness; over half (56%) reported having experienced symptoms for three years or longer. Seven percent would have attributed vaginal symptoms to vaginal atrophy. Eighty-two percent of women felt that vaginal discomfort would have a negative impact on various aspects of their lives, most notably sexual intimacy (72%), 'having a loving relationship with a partner' (39%) and 'overall quality of life' (30%). While the majority of women (66%) who had experienced vaginal atrophy eventually sought the assistance of a health-care professional, a considerable proportion (34%) did not. Most women (58%) had tried lubricating gels and creams to treat their symptoms, but many were less aware of specific means of treating the underlying cause. However, compared with systemic hormone replacement therapy, more women indicated that they would consider local estrogen therapy (e.g. vaginal tablets or creams). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that many postmenopausal women in Canada have a low understanding of vaginal atrophy. Medical practitioners should proactively initiate dialogue about this chronic condition with their patients, and discuss appropriate treatment options. PMID:23201626
Frank, Sheldon M; Ziegler, Cleve; Kokot-Kierepa, Marta; Maamari, Ricardo; Nappi, Rossella E
Background Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section. Methods A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section. Results Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in 289 (51%) cases. Acute cesarean section was performed in 104 of the planned vaginal deliveries (36.3%). There were no neonatal deaths. Two cases of serious neonatal morbidity were reported in the planned vaginal group. One infant had seizures, brachial plexus injury, and cephalhematoma. The other infant had 5-minutes Apgar?4. Twenty-nine in the planned vaginal group (10.0%) and eight in the planned cesarean section group (2.9%) (p?0.001) were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. However, only one infant was admitted for ?4 days. According to follow-up data (median six years) none of these infants had long-term sequelae. Regarding maternal morbidity, blood loss was the only variable that was significantly higher in the planned cesarean section group versus in the vaginal delivery group (p?0.001). Conclusions Strict guidelines were followed in all cases. There were no neonatal deaths. Two infants had serious neonatal morbidity in the planned vaginal group without long-term sequelae.
Oophorectomized, estrogen-treated rats were susceptible to experimental vaginal infection by Candida albicans. After spontaneous clearing of the primary infection, the animals were highly resistant to a second vaginal challenge with the fungus. The vaginal fluid of Candida-resistant rats contained antibodies directed against mannan constituents and secretory aspartyl proteinase(s) of C. albicans and was capable of transferring a degree of anti-Candida protection to naive, nonimmunized rats. This passive protection was mediated by the immunoglobulin fraction of the vaginal fluid and was substantially abolished by preabsorption of the vaginal fluid with C. albicans, but not with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells. Vaginal anti-mannan antibodies were also produced by active immunization with heat-killed cells of C. albicans or with a mannan extract when administered via the vaginal route. The protection conferred was comparable to that resulting from clearing of the primary infection. In summary, the data suggest that acquired anticandidal protection in this vaginitis model is mediated at least in part by antibodies, among which those directed against the mannan antigen(s) might play a dominant role.
Cassone, A; Boccanera, M; Adriani, D; Santoni, G; De Bernardis, F
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp) cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202)-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6) and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated), but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15), and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28). Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12.8%. Overall, there was no association between BV and HIV, and among micro-organisms associated with BV, only Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. were associated with HIV. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with any of the factors relating to sexual hygiene practices (vaginal douching, menstrual hygiene, female genital cutting). Conclusion In this population, BV prevalence was higher than in corresponding populations in industrialised countries, but the pattern of vaginal micro-flora associated with BV was similar. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with HIV nor with any of the vaginal hygiene characteristics.
Demba, Edward; Morison, Linda; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Awasana, Akum A; Gooding, Euphemia; Bailey, Robin; Mayaud, Philippe; West, Beryl
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common problem in women that increases with age and adversely affects quality of life and sexual function. If conservative treatments fail, surgery becomes the main option for symptom abatement. For uterovaginal prolapse, treatment with or without hysterectomy can be offered, and operations must include a specific apical support procedure to be effective. Operations for apical prolapse include transvaginal, open, and laparoscopic or robotic options; few clinical trials have compared the effectiveness and risk of these various surgeries. Grafts can be used selectively for apical suspensions and may improve cure rates but also increase risk of some complications. Slings should be added selectively to reduce postoperative stress incontinence. For women interested in future sexual activity who require apical prolapse surgery, we suggest using transvaginal apical repairs for older patients, those with primary or less severe prolapse, and those at increased surgical risk. We recommend sacral colpopexy with polypropylene mesh (preferably by minimally invasive route) in younger women, those with more severe prolapse or recurrences after vaginal surgery, and women with prolapsed, short vaginas. In older women with severe prolapse who are not interested in sexual activity, obliterative operations are very effective and have high satisfaction rates. An interactive consent process is mandatory, because many decisions-about route of surgery; use of hysterectomy, slings, and grafts; and vaginal capacity for sexual intercourse-require an informed patient's input. Selective referral to specialists in Female Pelvic medicine and Reconstructive Surgery can be considered for complex and recurrent cases. PMID:23344287
In the past 15 years five neonates and children have been treated for high vaginal atresia at the Surgical Unit of Department of Pediatrics, University Medical School, Pécs, Hungary. In three of the six patients distal atresia of the vagina was found (Type III). Two of the three were neonates and had a large hydrometrocolpos and the third, a 13-year-old girl, hematometrocolpos. In the fourth patient the vaginal atresia was associated with cloacal and anorectal malformation (Type V). In the fifth there was a duplication of uterus and vagina; however, only one of the two vaginas was atretic. In three patients a pull-through of the vagina was carried out, in one of them according to Pena, in another a transvesical approach, as suggested by Monfort, was used. Following repeated surgeries in the patient with cloacal malformation the vagina was replaced with large intestine. In the case of duplication of vagina and uterus one half of the duplication was removed. PMID:8464627
This publication describes a redesigned esophageal fistula plug and an esophageal cannula. These closure devices set forth state-of-the-art structural design, are more rugged, require minimal time to construct, and are relatively light when compared with ...
D. M. Anderson D. L. Mertz W. E. Franklin P. J. Manz
Carotid cavernous sinus fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid system and the cavernous sinus. Several classification schemes have described carotid cavernous sinus fistulas according to etiology, hemodynamic features, or the angiographic arterial architecture. Increased pressure within the cavernous sinus appears to be the main factor in pathophysiology. The clinical features are related to size, exact location, and duration of the fistula, adequacy and route of venous drainage and the presence of arterial/venous collaterals. Noninvasive imaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, Doppler) is often used in the initial work-up of a possible carotid cavernous sinus fistulas. Cerebral angiography is the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis, classification, and planning of treatment for these lesions. The endovascular approach has evolved as the mainstay therapy for definitive treatment in situations including clinical emergencies. Conservative treatment, surgery and radiosurgery constitute other management options for these lesions.
For treatment of two consecutively opened into abdominal cavity perforating fistulas of small bowel in conditions of purulent peritonitis the author successfully used funnel-shaped obturators by Kolchenogov. In the same patients in later adhesive intestinal obstruction, which could not be eliminated by common surgical mode, continuous introduction of semifluid food and intestinal chyme collected from enterostoma (located above the obstruction) were carried out through enterostoma located above the obstruction. After resorption of inflammatory infiltrate bowel continuity was restored. Based on favourable results of treatment for perforation fistulas opening into free abdominal cavity, the author more than once in conditions of purulent peritonitis successfully applied sutureless suspending enterostomies on the catheter of Petzer, which principally is an analogue of the obturator by Kolchenogov, using the same method as in perforation fistulas. Inflamed bowel wall thus is well accreted with abdominal wall, and after withdrawal of catheter by Petzer the developed tubular bowel fistula is rapidly healing spontaneously. PMID:9825626
Acute suppurative thyroiditis is a rare disease because the thyroid gland is remarkably resistant to infection. We present a 2-year-old girl with refractory acute suppurative thyroiditis due to a pyriform sinus fistula (PSF). She complained of fever and painful anterior neck swelling. Her condition did not completely improved by multiple parenteral antibiotics along with incision and drainage. Barium esophagogram to detect PSF demonstrated no specific finding. Computed tomography scan showed air bubble superior to the left thyroid gland which indicated a possible fistula connected to the pyriform sinus. An intraoperative laryngoscopy revealed a 2-mm-sized fistula opening. The fistula was successfully treated by chemocauterization with trichloroacetic acid. PMID:25077095
Seo, Jee Hyue; Park, Yong Hoon; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Hyun Young
Background:Although the transposed basilic vein arteriovenous fistula (TBAVF) is increasingly performed for hemodialysis vascular access in patients lacking adequate superficial veins, little is known about the long-term patency or risk factors for failure.
Jonathan H. Segal; Liise K. Kayler; Peter Henke; Robert M. Merion; Sean Leavey; Darrell A. Campbell
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue. NF caused by an enterocutaneous fistula has special clinical characters compared with other types of NF. NF caused by enterocutaneous fistula may have more rapid progress and more severe consequences because of multiple germs infection and corrosion by digestive juices. We treated three cases of NF caused by postoperative enterocutaneous fistula since Jan 2007. We followed empirically the principle of eliminating anaerobic conditions of infection, bypassing or draining digestive juice from the fistula and changing dressings with moist exposed burn therapy impregnated with zinc/silver acetate. These three cases were eventually cured by debridement, antibiotics and wound management.
Gu, Guo-Li; Wang, Lin; Wei, Xue-Ming; Li, Ming; Zhang, Jie
There is little consensus on the optimal management of postparotidectomy salivary fistulas. Timely treatment is important since fistulas may result in wound dehiscence and infection. Management options include pressure dressings, total parotidectomy, tympanic neurectomy, graft interpositioning, surgical closure of the tract, radiation therapy, and pharmacotherapy. Unfortunately, many therapies require weeks to months for resolution and possess additional risks. The affected patient often suffers social embarrassment from the drainage. Through our work with neurologically impaired children with sialorrhea, we have had success with using glycopyrrolate, an anticholinergic frequently used to decrease salivary secretions. We present a case of a patient with a postparotidectomy fistula which was successfully treated with glycopyrrolate and pressure dressings. The rationale and potential use of glycopyrrolate for the treatment of a salivary fistula are the focus of this presentation. PMID:10321782
We present a patient with tracheoesophageal fistula as the initial manifestation of Hodgkin's disease with oesophageal involvement. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. The diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma was made at autopsy. Images Figure 1
Alba, D.; Lobato, S. D.; Alvarez-Sala, R.; Villasante, C.; Echevarria, C.
We present a rare case of a symptomatic acquired large coronary fistula and aneurysm secondary to chest trauma that was successfully closed using stent graft. This case is followed by review of the literature. PMID:22891139
Safi, Morteza; Ebrahim, Nematollah Pour; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Saadat, Habibollah; Vakili, Hosein; Hekmat, Manuchehr; Movahed, Mohammad Reza
We present a rare case of a symptomatic acquired large coronary fistula and aneurysm secondary to chest trauma that was successfully closed using stent graft. This case is followed by review of the literature.
For the closure of oroantral fistula, many techniques have been described. There are advantages and disadvantages of all these techniques. We present a technique in which nasoseptal cartilage graft is used for the closure of the oroantral communication. PMID:20644947
Rectovaginal fistula and imperforate anus were diagnosed and surgically corrected in a young toy Poodle. Radiology, surgical repair, and clinical course will be presented. Complications included occasional liquid incontinence, constipation, and anal gland...
We report on the successful treatment of hypertension by occlusion of a large iatrogenic renal transplant arteriovenous fistula using detachable embolization coils with concomitant flow reduction by occlusion balloon in two patients.
Barley, Fay L.; Kessel, David, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Nicholson, Tony [St. James University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Robertson, Iain [Gartnaval Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)
Saccular coronary artery aneurysm, associated with coronary artery fistula, is a very rare condition. A 48-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of an abnormal shadow on the left cardiac border from a chest X-ray film during regular medical health examination. A huge saccular aneurysm with organized thrombi in the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) and coronary artery fistulae from LAD and conus branch of the right coronary artery to pulmonary artery was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography, multi-detector computer tomography (MDCT), and coronary angiography. The patient received surgical treatment, including thrombectomy of aneurysm, ligation of the inlet and outlet of aneurysmal sac, coronary artery bypass graft (left internal mammary artery-to-distal LAD), and ligation of fistulae. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative echocardiography and MDCT revealed patent bypass graft; however, a small fistula from proximal LAD across aneurysmal sac to pulmonary artery was observed.
Jeong, Eun Haeng; Bang, Ki Bae; So, Min Suk; Sung, Ki Chul; Kim, Jung Tae; Kong, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Tae Ho
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue. NF caused by an enterocutaneous fistula has special clinical characters compared with other types of NF. NF caused by enterocutaneous fistula may have more rapid progress and more severe consequences because of multiple germs infection and corrosion by digestive juices. We treated three cases of NF caused by postoperative enterocutaneous fistula since Jan 2007. We followed empirically the principle of eliminating anaerobic conditions of infection, bypassing or draining digestive juice from the fistula and changing dressings with moist exposed burn therapy impregnated with zinc/silver acetate. These three cases were eventually cured by debridement, antibiotics and wound management. PMID:24976737
Gu, Guo-Li; Wang, Lin; Wei, Xue-Ming; Li, Ming; Zhang, Jie
Background: The study was carried out to discuss the pathogenesis and management protocol of seven different varieties of female uro-genital fistulas (FUGFs). Patients and Methods: During 2000–2007, total of 15 FUGFs were operated, which belonged to seven different varieties requiring different routes and surgical procedures for their repair. Different fistulas with different pathophysiological factors required specific examinations and investigations preoperatively. Results: The results of the repaired FUGFs, following the general surgical principles, were acceptable with formation of only one residual fistula. Conclusions: Successful correction of FUGFs is a surgical challenge. Detailed history, through examination and planning, atraumatic tissue handling, routine use of the interposition or onlay reinforcement flaps and vigilant postoperative care were found the key factors in successful outcome of the repaired fistulas.
Singh, R. B.; Dalal, Satish; Nanda, S.; Pavithran, N. M.
Damaged mucosal sites seem to be vulnerable to tumor cell implantation. We describe a case of exfoliated tumor cells from a sigmoid colon cancer seeding a long-standing anal fistula. The implications of this finding are reviewed.
Background Fistulas are abnormal communications between two epithelial surfaces, either between two portions of the intestine, between\\u000a the intestine and some other hollow viscus, or between the intestine and the skin of the abdominal wall. The etiology of intestinal\\u000a fistulas is in most cases a result of multiple contributing factors. Despite significant advances in their management over\\u000a the past decades, intestinal
Colonic fistulas in an open wound are always a challenge for colorectal surgeons, and this report provides a technique for the appropriate management of these cases. We communicate the use of a negative pressure dressing therapy as part of the palliative care for a patient following the development of an enterocutaneous fistula. The use of this therapy allowed us to keep the patient clean and comfortable during the last few days of his life. PMID:22928992
Ruiz-Lopez, Manuel; Titos, Alberto; Gonzalez-Poveda, Ivan; Carrasco, Joaquin; Toval, Jose Antonio; Mera, Santiago; Santoyo, Julio
Augmentation enterocystoplasty has been extensively used to attain high-capacity low-pressure urinary reservoirs in patients with neuropathic bladder, exstrophy-epispadias complex, valve bladder syndrome, and contracted bladder. Enterovesical fistula might occur as an early complication after enterocystoplasty. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy, who presented with chronic watery diarrhea 7 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty. A colovesical fistula was diagnosed. We discuss the clinical presentation, management plan, and operative findings. PMID:23830082
A 60-year-old man with esophageal carcinoma in the upper 3rd underwent palliative treatment including photodynamic therapy, brachytherapy, external beam irradiation, and esophageal stenting. He developed a symptomatic malignant esophagotracheo-bronchial fistula that could not be closed by telescope-stenting in the esophagus. Implantation of a self-expanding, covered metal, tracheal bifurcation stent by flexible bronchoscopy resulted in immediate closure of the fistula with an uneventful recovery. PMID:19515888
Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated in rats by inducing hepatotoxicity with carbon tetrachloride:liquid paraffin (1:1). The extract has been shown to possess significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The extract of C. fistula at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed significant hepatoprotective activity which was comparable to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. PMID:10473173
Bhakta, T; Mukherjee, P K; Mukherjee, K; Banerjee, S; Mandal, S C; Maity, T K; Pal, M; Saha, B P
PURPOSE: Although anorectal disease is common in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, little is known about the type and anatomic distribution of anal fistulas in this patient group. The aim of this study was to compare anatomic characteristics of anal fistulas in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with those in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients by use of a retrospective chart review. METHODS:
Carlo M. Manookian; Thomas P. Sokol; Charles Headrick; Phillip R. Fleshner
Predictors of adequacy of arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundDialysis access procedures and complications represent a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and cost for chronic dialysis patients. To improve the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures, recent clinical guidelines have encouraged attempts to place an arteriovenous (A-V) fistula, rather than an A-V graft, whenever possible in hemodialysis patients. There is little information,
Paul E. Miller; Ashita Tolwani; C. Peter Luscy; Mark H. Deierhoi; Robert Bailey; David T. Redden; Michael Allon
Upper pouch tracheoesophageal fistula occurs is less than 1% of all oesophageal atresia variants. Meconium peritonitis is a rare neonatal condition with an incidence of 1:30 000 live births. In this case report, we describe the presentation, clinical findings and management of a patient diagnosed with an oesophageal atresia with upper pouch fistula as well as meconium peritonitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case such as this described in published literature. PMID:22878767
Theron, Andre; Loveland, Jerome; Naidoo, Jaishree; Theron, Anne
. Pancreatic fistula is a major form of morbidity following pancreatic resection. We conducted a nonrandomized clinical\\u000a trial comparing the sealing and sandwich techniques of spraying fibrin glue to prevent pancreatic fistula following distal\\u000a pancreatectomy. The pancreas was transected with a scalpel to identify and suture the main pancreatic duct and its small branches.\\u000a In the sealing group, fibrin glue
In a five year period 227 patients with anal abscesses and\\/or fistulas of suspected cryptoglandular origin were observed and treated by one surgeon. In 201 patients the primary opening or the crypt of origin of the abscesses and\\/or fistulas were identified. These lesions were evaluated according to two classifications [1, 2]. The aim was to verify whether primary abscesses and\\/or
Summary Six hundred thirty-one cases of perianal abscess, fistula and sinus were reviewed to determine the pathogenesis and cause.\\u000a Of 19 patients in whom the supralevator space had been involved, seven apparently arose from primary anal disease. In 12 cases\\u000a the fistula resulted from rare or unusual local or general conditions. Study of these cases proved the following:\\u000a \\u000a Involvement of the
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide-enhanced, endoanal ultrasound in the assessment of fistula-in-ano and compare ultrasonographic results with the surgical outcome. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with anal fistula were studied prospectively by physical examination and endoanal ultrasound enhanced with hydrogen peroxide. We used standarized ultrasonography and operation notes. The results of these
Alberto Navarro-Luna; Josep Rius-Macías; Constancio Marco-Molina
Multiple SDAVFs are quite rare. We present two cases with double synchronous shunts and both were treated during one-stage interventional or surgical procedure. Unique images of the multiple SDAVFs as a PMAVF-like fistula were obtained. These interesting findings suggest the presence of multiple fistulas must be considered in patients being evaluated for SDAVF. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of multiple SDAVFs should depend on the anatomic location and angioarchitecture.
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a vaginal moisturizer in menopausal women with external vaginal dryness. We studied a nonhormonal topically applied external vaginal moisturizer in women with external vaginal (vulvar) dryness to see if we could approach the results of a topically applied hormonal product.Methods: The 4-week clinical study included 30 subjects who were randomly divided into two groups
Lila E. Nachtigall; Margaret J. Nachtigall; Erika Jacob
We present a difficult case of a recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula following primary surgical repair of esophageal atresia. After four unsuccessful attempts to close the fistula, which included three thoracotomies and one endoscopic obliteration using fibrin glue, successful recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula closure was attained with the endoscopic application of enbucrilate (Histoacrylate) combined with polidocanol. Enbucrilate was applied into the lumen of the fistula by bronchoscopy, and polidocanol (Sclerovein) was injected into the esophageal submucosa around the fistula by esophagoscopy. Three years after this treatment, the fistula remains apparently closed. PMID:12582778
Lopes, M F; Pires, J; Nogueria Brandão, A; Reis, A; Morais Leitão, L