Sample records for vesico vaginal fistula

  1. Large Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body

    PubMed Central

    Massinde, AN; Kihunrwa, A

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications. PMID:24116334

  2. Aspects of psychosocial problems of patients with vesico-vaginal fistula.

    PubMed

    Gharoro, E P; Agholor, K N

    2009-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate psychosocial problems among patients presenting with vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF), and their close relatives. All patients presenting with VVF and their spouses or attendant close relatives were administered a structured questionnaire followed by an in-depth interview. A total of 20 patients and 10 attendant relatives were interviewed. The average age of patients was 24.7 years, range 16-38 years. A total of 11 patients (55%) had their first marriage between the ages of 15-20 years, with one nulliparous, unmarried patient, who acquired VVF following infertility treatment with herbs. Of the interviewed respondents, 19 affirmed that prolonged labour was the cause of VVF, while four patients developed VVF sequel to unsupervised vaginal birth after a previous caesarean section. Reported medical problems were dermatitis (20%), foul smell of urine (15%), recurrent UTI (10%), infertility (5%), amenorrhoea (5%), in that order. Socially, 45% felt ostracised and 50% were economically impoverished by job loss. The divorce rate was 25%, with one case of remarriage and childbirth with an unrepaired VVF. Some 56.6% respondents suggested hospital delivery was a preventive measure, while 33.3% felt avoidance of premarital sex and early marriage would prevent VVF. VVF is still a major social and reproductive health problem and most patients and relatives understand the place of difficult childbirth in VVF formation. The need to empower patients to timely access standard maternity and emergency obstetric care is recommended. PMID:19757273

  3. [Vesico-sigmoidal fistulas of diverticular origin].

    PubMed

    Benchimol, D; Lagautrière, F; Richelme, H

    1995-01-01

    From 1984 to 1993, 11 patients (7 men and 4 women, mean aged 70 years) underwent surgical procedure for sigmoido-vesical fistula due to diverticulitis. Fecaluria and/or pneumaturia was present in 10 patients. The diagnosis of sigmoido-vesical fistula due to diverticulitis was confirmed by urologic and colonic investigations. All patients underwent surgical treatment. One patient underwent creation of a diverting colostomy alone because of a poor general status. Definitive surgical correction of the fistula with resection of the diverticular colon was attempted in the remaining 10 patients, including colo-rectal anastomosis. A temporary diverting colostomy was performed in 5 cases. There was no post operative death. One small wound infection occurred. All the diverting colostomies have been closed, meanly 2 months after the operation. Concerning long-term results, 3 patients died from an independant reason. All the other patients are alive and asymptomatic from the urologic as well as the digestive point of view. Based on these results, we advocate single stage repair, including correction of the fistula and resection of the diverticular colon with colo rectal anastomosis, in cases of good local and general conditions. PMID:7771753

  4. Vaginal calculi secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with vaginal stenosis in a 14-year-old girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Liu; Xiao Huang; Junjie Lu; Zhigen Zhang; Ping Wang; Zheng Huang

    2008-01-01

    The author reports a case of vaginal calculi secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with vaginal stenosis in a 14-year-old girl.\\u000a The initial urethrovaginal fistula and vaginal stenosis resulted from pelvic trauma after a traffic accident, with subsequent\\u000a surgical urethral realignment and anterior colporrhaphy without success. The patient had continuous urinary incontinence for\\u000a a duration of 11 years after surgery, and was finally

  5. Patch repair of ileoanal pouch-vaginal fistula with Permacol collagen implant.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maurice; Hooks, Vendie H; Jenkins, Barry

    2007-05-01

    Though uncommon, ileoanal pouch-vaginal fistulas after restorative proctocolectomy present quite a challenge. Multiple salvage procedures, including endoanal, transabdominal, and trans-vaginal, have been used. Because of high recurrence rates, multiple operations are not uncommon, and ultimate pouch failure rates have been reported as high as 45 per cent. The Permacol Collagen Implant is a surgical implant that has been used successfully in a variety of operations ranging from urological to maxillofacial. Its properties allow fibroblast infiltration and revascularization so that it gradually becomes permanently incorporated into the surrounding tissue, providing strength and inhibiting scarring and contraction. We report the first documented case of Permacol use in repair of ileoanal pouch-vaginal fistula and we feel that it warrants further investigation as an option in the treatment of these fistulas. PMID:17521010

  6. A new method to repair recto-vaginal fistula: Use of human amniotic membrane in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Roshanravan, Reza; Ghahramani, Leila; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Mohammadipour, Mastoureh; Moslemi, Sam; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recto-vaginal fistula is primarily one of the co-morbidities of vaginal delivery. These patients suffer from persistent malodor vaginal discharge. Various surgical techniques have been employed by surgeons in the course of time. This is the first trial of applying Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) as a bio-prosthesis in repairing recto-vaginal fistula. Materials and Methods: In a prospective animal study, 8 mixed-breed female dogs weighing 23-27 kg with the age of 12-18 months were selected. They were randomly divided into two groups for standard recto-vaginal fistula repair and fistula repair with human amniotic membrane. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were performed to indicate statistical differences. Results: After 6 weeks, fistulas were evaluated both grossly and microscopically. In gross examination, there were no difference between the two groups and healing of fistula seemed to have been occurred in all dogs expect for one which had a persistent patent fistulous tract. Microscopic healing was scored according to epithelialization, collagenization inflammation, ulcer and necrosis of samples. Healing score was significantly higher in the HAM group than the standard group (P = 0.029). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that using HAM as a bio-prosthesis to repair recto-vaginal fistula would result in better surgical and histological outcomes comparing to simple repair. PMID:24804188

  7. Vaginitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common vaginal infections are Bacterial Vaginosis Trichomoniasis Vaginal Yeast Infection Some vaginal infections are transmitted through sexual contact, but others, such as yeast infections, probably are not. Other Causes of Vaginitis ...

  8. Uterine peaking – sonographic sign of vesico-uterine adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Walid, Mohammad Sami; Heaton, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this paper we present our observation of a specific sign on transvaginal ultrasound that may help basic minimal invasive surgeons diagnose vesico-uterine adhesions preoperatively. Methods: The ultrasound images of the latest eleven patients who were preoperatively diagnosed with vesico-uterine adhesions using transvaginal ultrasound were compared with their intraoperative findings. Results: Ultrasonography showed a spectrum of changes from obliterated anterior cul-de-sac to dense fibrosis between the lower uterine segment and cervix with the bladder. Horn- or beak-shaped streaks of tissue with the same density of uterine myometrium is a sign of fundal attachment of vesico-uterine adhesions or of complete anterior cul-de-sac obliteration with adhesions going between the uterus and the anterior abdominal wall. Fine papillary peaking is seen in cases of dense lower uterine segment and cervical fibrosis without fundal involvement. These signs combined with limited mobility of the cervix and bladder base correlated with the presence of dense vesico-uterine adhesions. Conclusion: The described sonographic signs, two static and the other dynamic, may help basic minimal invasive gynecological surgeons who do not have advanced laparoscopic skills and do not feel comfortable dealing with an obliterated anterior cul-de-sac or dense vesico-uterine space fibrosis predict the presence of dense vesico-uterine adhesions allowing them to choose another route that they may be more comfortable with such as vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy or request assistance from a more experienced colleague. PMID:21921998

  9. Rupture of the Left Renal Fornix after Vaginal Repair of Postpartum Vesicovaginal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Rendtorff, R.; Knispel, H. H.; Tunn, R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical repair of vesicovaginal fistulas carries a risk of postoperative obstruction of the upper urinary tract. In the case described here, a postoperative intramural edema led to urinary retention and subsequent rupture of the renal pelvis. This is a rare but typical urological emergency. If patients complain postoperatively of flank pain, ultrasound should be carried out promptly. If the findings are unclear (no urinary retention despite clinical symptoms), additional computed tomography should be performed to determine whether rupture of the fornix has occurred. PMID:25076795

  10. Long-term analysis of the use of transanal rectal advancement flaps for complicated anorectal\\/vaginal fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokhan Ozuner; Tracy L. Hull; John Cartmill; Victor W. Fazio

    1996-01-01

    Transanal rectal advancement flap (TRAF) is a surgical option in the management of rectovaginal and other complicated fistulas involving the anorectum. Most reported series have a short follow-up. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the long-term success, safely, applicability, and factors affecting recurrence in patients managed with TRAF, including patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS\\/MATERIALS: Retrospective analysis of all patients

  11. Surgical mistake causing an high recto-vaginal fistula. A case report with combined surgical and endoscopic approach: therapeutic considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) have multiple causes, size and location on which the surgical treatment depends. Description The Authors consider different approaches to RVFs and describe a clinical case of recurrent high RVF. Conclusions Most RVFs can be successfully repaired, although many interventions may be necessary. A colostomy with delayed repair may improve RVFs outcome. Moreover, several authors indicate Mucosal Advancement Flap and Babcock-Bacon technique as the treatments of choice respectively for low and high RVFs (complex and recurrent) and emphasize the placement of endoscopic prothesis in cases of difficult healing of the anastomosis. PMID:24266908

  12. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... the problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. The main symptom is smelly vaginal discharge, but ...

  13. Delayed vaginal reconstruction in the fibrotic pelvis following radiation or previous reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Berek, J.S.; Hacker, N.F.; Lagasse, L.D.; Smith, M.L.

    1983-06-01

    Vaginal reconstruction was performed in 14 patients who had developed vaginal stenosis secondary to extensive pelvic fibrosis after pelvic radiation therapy (12 patients) or prior vaginal reconstruction (2 patients). Sixteen procedures were performed using a split-thickness skin graft. All patients had satisfactory vaginal restoration, and 12 patients reported good vaginal function. No fistula developed as a result of the operative procedure, but one patient later developed a rectovaginal fistula resulting from tumor recurrence. Successful vaginal reconstruction can be achieved even years after initial therapy in patients who develop an obliterated vagina from previous radiation or surgery.

  14. Ureteroduodenal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhavin; Yande, Shirish; Kumar, Santosh; Talaulikar, Amol

    2015-01-01

    Ureteroduodenal fistula is a rare complication in urology. We report a case of 29-year-old man who presented with ureteroduodenal fistula. We have also discussed the management and treatment of this condition. PMID:26141504

  15. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  16. Cholecystocolonic Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Balent, Eric; Lin-Hurtubise, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The cholecystocolonic fistula is an atypical variant of biliary disease. When presenting with symptomatic disease, surgical treatment with cholecystectomy, fistula takedown and possible colonic resection are indicated, however the role of surgery in asymptomatic patients, especially those deemed higher risk is less clear. Herein we present a case of an incidentially discovered asymptomatic cholecystocolonic fistula in a higher risk surgical patient managed nonoperatively. The presentation and treatment options for this disease are discussed in relation to their application to this patient. PMID:22787563

  17. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  18. Estrogen Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

  19. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  20. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Vaginal Cancer Key Points Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... to the pelvis . Stages of Vaginal Cancer Key Points After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  1. Vaginal anus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fidel Ruiz-Moreno; Amable Gerdo-Ceballo; Gilberto Lozano-Saldivar

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described by which congenital ectopic anorectum with normal intestinal tissue opening into the vulva (“vaginal\\u000a anus”) was successfully corrected in two teen-age patients. The technique has several advantages: a new anal canal is formed\\u000a and the wounds heal promptly with little postoperative pain and reduced risk of postoperative anal stenosis.

  2. [Ureterovaginal fistulae].

    PubMed

    Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Tombolini, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Ureterovaginal fistulae are pathological communications between the ureter and the vagina; it commonly occur as a rare but serious sequela of unrecognized distal ureteral injuries during pelvic operations. Patients may present symptoms as leakage of urine from the vagina, flank pain and fever; in some cases it could be possible also the loss of renal function. The purpose of this study is to review the articles from 1991 to 2014 to evaluate the most correct diagnostic procedures and endourological and surgical techniques used in the management of ureterovaginal fistula. Nowadays computered tomography and retrograde pielography are the most commonly diagnostic modalities used to identify fistulous tract and to describe its anatomical position. The major of ureterovaginal fistulae can be successfully managed by conservative methods. Modern endourological treatment will result in resolution of a ureterovaginal fistula if retrograde or anterograde passage of a suitable internal stent is feasible. When stenting failed or in complicated cases, ureteral reimplantation is necessary. Ureteroneocystostomy, psoas hitch and Boari flap are three different possible surgical techniques used to realized an ureteral reimplantation. Both open and mini invasive (laparoscopy and robot assisted) surgical approach have proved successful. PMID:25754410

  3. Our experience with salvage genitourinary fistulae repair: technique and outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetrios K. Radopoulos; Georgios P. Dimitriadis; Ioannis K. Vakalopoulos; Stavros S. Ioannidis; Konstantinos A. Tzakas; Ioannis E. Vasilakakis

    2008-01-01

    Objectives  The objectives are to present the long-term results of vaginal reconstructive operations using the labial fat pad flap (Martius\\u000a flap) interposition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Eight women, 27–65 years old (mean 40), suffering from urinary fistulae (five urethrovaginal and three vesicovaginal) who\\u000a failed primary repair underwent salvage vaginal reconstruction for damaged urethra or bladder. Urethral or bladder and vaginal\\u000a defect was closed and

  4. Voiding urosonography: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound cystography to diagnose vesico-ureteric reflux: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ramesh; Gopinath, Vinu; Sai, Venkata

    2015-01-01

    We report two children with hydronephrosis, in whom we have utilized voiding urosonography (VUS) in the evaluation of vesico-ureteric reflux. With wider availability of ultrasound contrast agents and high-end ultrasound machines, VUS is likely to become a popular tool to diagnose or exclude VUR. PMID:25552831

  5. General Information about Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Vaginal Cancer Key Points Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... to the pelvis . Stages of Vaginal Cancer Key Points After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  6. Vaginal Evisceration: An Unexpected Complication of Conization

    PubMed Central

    Ghassani, Ali; Andre, Benoit; Simon-Toulza, Caroline; Tanguy le Gac, Yann; Martinez, Alejandra; Vidal, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Background. Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) is routinely performed for the management of high grade intracervical neoplasia (CIN). Several uncommon complications have been described, including postoperative peritonitis, pseudoaneurysm of uterine artery, and bowel fistula. We report a unique case of postoperative vaginal evisceration and the subsequent management. Case. A 73-years-old woman underwent LLETZ for high grade CIN. On postoperative day 3, she was admitted for small bowel evisceration through the vagina. Surgical management was based on combined laparoscopic and transvaginal approach and consisted in bowel inspection and reinstatement, peritoneal washing, and dehiscence repair. Conclusions. Vaginal evisceration is a rare but potentially serious complication of pelvic surgery. This case report is to make clinicians aware of such complication following LLETZ and its management. PMID:25506010

  7. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Cancer Home Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... body parts later. When cancer starts in the vagina, it is called vaginal cancer. The vagina, also ...

  8. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Vaginal Yeast Infection Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Vaginal yeast infection, or vulvovaginal candidiasis, is a common cause ...

  9. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL L. FIDEL; WEI LUO; CHAD STEELE; JOSEPH CHABAIN; MARC BAKER

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection

  10. The Human Vaginal Microbiome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda A. Wilson; Susan M. Thomas; Mengfei Ho

    \\u000a Humans live in association with abundant, complex, and dynamic microbial populations (the microbiome) that colonize many body\\u000a sites, including the vaginal tract. Interactions between the host and the vaginal microbiota greatly affect women’s health,\\u000a where they often serve a protective role in maintaining vaginal health. Disruption of the microbial composition can lead to\\u000a increased susceptibility to various urogenital diseases, including

  11. JAMA Patient Page: Vaginal Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Vaginal Symptoms V aginal symptoms are one of the ... includes an article about diagnosing vaginal symptoms. DIAGNOSING VAGINAL SYMPTOMS FOR MORE INFORMATION • American College of Obstetricians ...

  12. Management of persistent vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-12-01

    With vaginitis remaining a common condition that leads women to seek care, it is not surprising that some women develop chronic vulvovaginal problems that are difficult to diagnose and treat. With a differential diagnosis that encompasses vulvar disorders and infectious and noninfectious causes of vaginitis, accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of choosing effective therapy. Evaluation should include a symptom-specific history, careful vulvar and vaginal examination, and office-based tests (vaginal pH, amine test, saline and 10% potassium hydroxide microscopy). Ancillary tests, especially yeast culture with speciation, are frequently crucial to obtaining a correct diagnosis. A heavy but normal physiologic discharge can be determined by excluding other causes. With vulvovaginal candidiasis, differentiating between Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida infection has important treatment ramifications. Most patients with C albicans infections can be successfully treated with maintenance antifungal therapy, usually with fluconazole. Although many non-albicans Candida, particularly Candida glabrata, may at times be innocent bystanders, vaginal boric acid therapy is an effective first choice for many true non-albicans Candida infections. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis, a difficult therapeutic challenge, can often be controlled with maintenance therapy. Multiple options, especially high-dose tinidazole, have been used for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis. With the aging of the U.S. population, atrophic vaginitis and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, both associated with hypoestrogenism, are encountered frequently in women with persistent vaginitis. PMID:25415165

  13. Vaginal erotic sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heli Alzate; Maria Ladi Londono

    1984-01-01

    Vaginal erotic sensitivity was investigated in a group of 48 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. It was found that 45 subjects reported erotic sensitivity located in most cases on the upper anterior wall, and of those, 30 (66. 7%) either reached orgasm or requested to stop stimulation short of orgasm. This study

  14. Traumatic thoracobiliary fistula.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, M L; Klingman, R R; Peetz, D; Ferraris, V A; Berry, W R

    1994-02-01

    Thoracobiliary fistulas are a commonly reported complication of subphrenic or liver abscesses and biliary tract obstruction. However, they are a rare and unusual complication of traumatic thoracoabdominal wounds. Due to their rarity, the experience of any one surgeon is minimal, and there is a paucity of information available in the literature regarding their treatment. We describe a case of a traumatic thoracobiliary fistula, review the existing literature, and discuss the proper management of this potentially lethal sequela of trauma. PMID:8311617

  15. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What are vaginal ...

  16. Review of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated. PMID:18475337

  17. Vaginitis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of all ages. It can be caused by: Yeast , bacteria, viruses, and parasites Bubble baths, soaps, vaginal ... Creams or suppositories are used to treat yeast infections in the ... at drug stores, some grocery stores, and other stores. Treating ...

  18. Dextranomer\\/hyaluronic acid copolymer implantation for vesico-ureteral reflux: A randomized comparison with antibiotic prophylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Capozza; Paolo Caione

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Dextranomer\\/hyaluronic acid (Dx\\/HA) copolymer has favorable properties for endoscopic treatment of vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). This open, randomized study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Dx\\/HA copolymer with antibiotic prophylaxis in children with VUR. Methods: Children >1 year of age with VUR grade II to IV (confirmed by voiding cysto-urethrogram) received endoscopic treatment with Dx\\/HA copolymer (n

  19. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePLUS

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  20. Aerobic vaginitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Donders, Ggg; Bellen, G; Rezeberga, D

    2011-09-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alteration in vaginal bacterial flora that differs from bacterial vaginosis (BV). AV is characterised by an abnormal vaginal microflora accompanied by an increased localised inflammatory reaction and immune response, as opposed to the suppressed immune response that is characteristic of BV. Given the increased local production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-8 associated with AV during pregnancy, not surprisingly AV is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis and funisitis of the fetus. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment for AV in pregnant or non-pregnant women, but a broader spectrum drug such as clindamycin is preferred above metronidazole to prevent infection-related preterm birth. The exact role of AV in pregnancy, the potential benefit of screening, and the use of newer local antibiotics, disinfectants, probiotics and immune modulators need further study. PMID:21668769

  1. Vaginal Toxic Shock Reaction Triggering Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods Case report of two patients, one with an acute and one with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with DIV on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pre- and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Results Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial cultures following oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Conclusions DIV may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction. PMID:23222054

  2. Coronary Fistulas: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Fennich, Nada; Elouali, Fedoua; Saghi, Ghita; Bouzammour, Nadia; Haddour, Leila; Zarzur, Jamila; Cherti, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon finding during angiographic exams. We report a case series of five patients with congenital coronary fistulas. The first patient was 56 years old and had a coronary fistula associated with a partial atrio ventricular defect, the second patient was 54 years old and had two fistulas originating from the right coronary artery with a severe atherosclerotic coronary disease, the third patient was 57 years old with a fistula originating from the circumflex artery associated with a rheumatic mitral stenosis, the fourth patient was 50 years old and had a fistulous communication between the right coronary artery and the right bronchial artery, and the last patient was 12 years old who had bilateral coronary fistulas draining into the right ventricle with an aneurismal dilatation of the coronary arteries. Angiographic aspects of coronary fistulas are various; management is controversial and depends on the presence of symptoms. PMID:24501660

  3. [Intersphincteric ligation of perianal fistula].

    PubMed

    Schouten, W R Ruud; Gosselink, Martijn P; Thijsse, Sjoerd; van Onkelen, Robbert S

    2013-01-01

    Fistulotomy is inappropriate for patients with a high transsphincteric fistula, passing through the upper or middle third of the external anal sphincter, because this procedure requires division of a large part of the anal sphincter, with subsequent risk of fecal incontinence. Therefore, sphincter preserving procedures have been developed for the treatment of high transsphincteric fistulas, such as flap repair. In most hospitals, fistulotomy is still the treatment of choice for low transsphincteric fistula, passing through the lower third of the external anal sphincter. Although this procedure is considered simple and effective with a minimal risk of incontinence, data suggest that the risk of diminished fecal continence is not insignificant. Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a new sphincter preserving technique. This technique may be a sphincter preserving alternative for fistulotomy in low transsphincteric fistulas and for flap repair in high transsphincteric fistulas. PMID:24152365

  4. Jejunouterine fistula: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. C. McFarlane; J. M. Plummer; T. Remy; L. Christie; D. Laws; H. Richards; T. Cherrie; R. Edwards; C. Coward

    2008-01-01

    Jejunouterine fistula is a rare type of fistulous communication between the small intestine and the genital tract. This fistula\\u000a may result from pelvic tumours, obstetric or surgical intervention and inflammatory disease. Cross-sectional imaging modalities,\\u000a including ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), are useful investigations which\\u000a may demonstrate the site and track of the fistula. Traditional contrast investigations,

  5. Laser welding of vesicovaginal fistula.

    PubMed

    Dogra, P N; Nabi, G

    2001-01-01

    The management of vesicovaginal fistula remains a source of debate, despite extensive literature on the subject. It is difficult to prove the superiority of one surgical technique over another by randomized trials, given the variabilities of fistula etiology, the location and clinician expertise. Small epithelized fistulae following conservative treatment and residual or recurrent cases following transabdominal or transvaginal repair pose a therapeutic challenge. A case of a small vesicovaginal fistula following abdominal hysterectomy is presented, in which a successful outcome was achieved using endoscopic Nd-YAG laser fulguration. PMID:11294535

  6. Aneurysmal coronary cameral fistula.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Gohar; Khan, Asad; Malik, Azhar; Qureshi, Anwer

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old asymptomatic man, being medically managed for ventricular septal defect since childhood, presented to the outpatient clinic for a second opinion. Clinically, he was well built with normal vital signs. Cardiac auscultation was significant for a diastolic murmur over the praecordium. An ECG showed non-specific ST changes, and a subsequent transthoracic echocardiography performed revealed diastolic flow from the left ventricular (LV) anteroseptal wall into the LV cavity. A diagnosis of coronary-cameral fistula was confirmed by a multidetector CT which showed a 2.5×2 cm aneurysmal left anterior descending artery fistula to the LV. In addition to starting aspirin, transcatheter closure with occlusion device was considered knowing the potential risk of thrombus formation in the aneurysm and subsequent systemic embolisation. The patient however refused any percutaneous or surgical intervention. He remains asymptomatic 1 year after returning to his home country. PMID:23737570

  7. Aneurysmal coronary cameral fistula

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Gohar; Khan, Asad; Malik, Azhar; Qureshi, Anwer

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old asymptomatic man, being medically managed for ventricular septal defect since childhood, presented to the outpatient clinic for a second opinion. Clinically, he was well built with normal vital signs. Cardiac auscultation was significant for a diastolic murmur over the praecordium. An ECG showed non-specific ST changes, and a subsequent transthoracic echocardiography performed revealed diastolic flow from the left ventricular (LV) anteroseptal wall into the LV cavity. A diagnosis of coronary–cameral fistula was confirmed by a multidetector CT which showed a 2.5×2?cm aneurysmal left anterior descending artery fistula to the LV. In addition to starting aspirin, transcatheter closure with occlusion device was considered knowing the potential risk of thrombus formation in the aneurysm and subsequent systemic embolisation. The patient however refused any percutaneous or surgical intervention. He remains asymptomatic 1?year after returning to his home country. PMID:23737570

  8. Malignant sigmoidoduodenal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Shapey, I.M.; Mahmood, K.; Solkar, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenocolic fistula is a rare complication of malignant colonic disease especially when involving and originating from the sigmoid colon. We aim to discuss the unusual clinical presentation of this case as well as the investigation and management of duodenocolic fistulas. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 91 year old lady presented as an emergency to a general surgical service at a District General Hospital with diarrhoea, vomiting and weight loss. Computed Tomography (CT) reported a large ovarian cyst elevating the sigmoid colon into immediate proximity of the duodenum. Adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology obtained by colonoscopy. A classic apple core lesion with fistulating tract from the sigmoid colon to the duodenum was synchronously demonstrated on barium enema. DISCUSSION Sigmoido-duodenal fistulae represent a complex manifestation of gastrointestinal pathologies. CONCLUSION Management options must be considered in the context of patient wishes, their co-morbidities, and predicted post-operative outcome. In most cases this is likely to represent a non-operative approach, however surgical resection may benefit selected cases on occasion. PMID:25460456

  9. Rectovaginal fistula with anal atresia in 5 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Sheila C.; Vicente, Cristiane S.; Mortari, Ana C.; Mamprim, Maria J.; Caporalli, Evelyn H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Five dogs with rectovaginal fistula and atresia ani that had been treated by surgical correction of the malformations were studied retrospectively. Ages at presentation varied from 1 to 3 months and weight from 350 g to 7.5 kg. The histories included voiding of feces through the vulva, with or without tenesmus, usually observed after weaning. Atresia ani, presence of feces in the vaginal canal, abdominal distention, and discomfort on abdominal palpation were observed during clinical examination. Also, 3 dogs had partial tail agenesis. In all dogs, the rectovaginal fistula was isolated and transected, the vulvar and rectal defects were closed separately, and the atresia ani was repaired. Normal defecation was restored, but 1 dog had fecal incontinence that subsequently resolved. One dog died 2.5 months postoperatively, and follow-up was done on the others for periods ranging from 1.6 year to 7.7 years. Surgical correction in dogs with rectovaginal fistula and atresia ani may result in a favorable outcome, if it is done early. PMID:17824325

  10. Modern management of anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of new sphincter-preserving techniques. PMID:25574077

  11. Modern management of anal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of new sphincter-preserving techniques. PMID:25574077

  12. Delayed sigmoid colon perforation and enterocutaneous fistula due to tension free transvaginal tape operation for stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Kyu; Sohn, Dong Wan

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient presented with sustained sigmoid colon perforation at the time of a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure and subsequently developed enterocutaneous fistula and subcutaneous abscess. She came to our emergency department complaining of left lower abdominal tenderness and swelling for 2 weeks previously. Her right thigh also was tender and swollen. A foreign body in sigmoid colon and subcutaneous abscess were found on computed tomography scan. We diagnosed the perforation of sigmoid colon and enterocutaneous fistula by TVT mesh. We performed laparoscopic excision of the mesh in sigmoid colon. We performed transobturator tape surgery for recurrence of stress urinary incontinence after 6 months. PMID:26085881

  13. Heterogeneity of vaginal microbial communities within individuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I; Frank, Jeremy A; Yeater, Kathleen M; Biggs, Diana R; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R; Tapping, Richard I; Blanke, Steven R; Slauch, James M; Gaskins, H Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S; Olsen, Gary J; Hoyer, Lois L; Wilson, Brenda A

    2009-04-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health. PMID:19158255

  14. Treatment of vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Domoney, Claudine

    2014-03-01

    Vaginal or vulvovaginal atrophy is a widespread but poorly recognized condition of peri- and post-menopausal women. It causes urogenital symptoms of dryness, reduced lubrication, itching, burning, irritable bladder symptoms and painful intercourse. This impacts quality of life and sexual health, but increases with time rather than reduces, as with most other menopausal symptoms. With early identification, treatments can improve these symptoms and reverse the physical changes. However, when embedded, bladder and sexual changes have occurred and these may be more difficult to remedy. Therefore, it is important to educate both healthcare professionals and women about these symptoms and advise on the range of interventions available. PMID:24601810

  15. Vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jantien J. Boomgaard; Karin S. Dekker; Elsabet van Rensburg; Corlia van den Berg; Illse Niemand; Roosmarie H. Bam; Hendrik S. Cronjé

    1999-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the possible association among vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy. Study Design: Primigravid volunteers, between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation (n = 210), were examined. Vaginitis was diagnosed by pH determination and wet mount smear, cervicitis was diagnosed by cervicography, and cervical length was diagnosed by vaginal ultrasonographic measurement. Patients with both vaginitis and

  16. [Treatment of uterine prolapse and vaginal vault by vaginal route].

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, R; Letouzey, V; Costa, P; Haab, F; Delmas, V

    2009-12-01

    All the prolapses of the median compartment (uterine or vault prolapse) of the pelvis have the same physiopathology. The surgical treatment must be reserved to symptomatic patients. Hysterectomy is discussed. The gold standard of the vaginal way is the sacrospinofixation (Richter procedure) Many other procedures are possible: colpofixation or colpocléisis. On young premenopausal women, the abdominal sacrofixation is the gold standard, but in postmenopausal ones, the vaginal way, specially the sacrospinofixation, is quicker and with less morbidity and hospitalization. PMID:19969278

  17. Endocaval suture of aortocaval fistula.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Calió, F G; Bertagni, A; Caratozzolo, M; Vietri, F

    1997-05-01

    A case of aortocaval fistula complicating a ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm is reported. As the length of the defect and the thickness of the aortic wall made repair from within the aorta unsafe, the defect was repaired from within the vena cava. The details of the technique are reported. It can be a useful alternative to inferior vena cava ligation, when standard repair of aortocaval fistulae from within the aorta is risky or difficult to attempt. PMID:9128225

  18. Transverse vaginal septum with congenital vesical-vaginal communication and cyclical hematuria.

    PubMed

    Chin, Arnold I; Rutman, Matthew; Raz, Shlomo

    2007-03-01

    Cyclical hematuria is an unusual presentation of a müllerian fusion anomaly. We report a patient with transverse vaginal septum and menstruation by way of the lower urinary tract because of a vesical-vaginal communication. A defect of vertical fusion, transverse vaginal septum results from failure of canalization of the vaginal plate. Reconstruction using a transvaginal and transabdominal approach created a direct anastomosis between the proximal vaginal segment and the distal vaginal pouch. Previously described cases are reviewed. PMID:17382175

  19. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Oates, J K; Rowen, D

    1990-01-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an uncommon cause of an intractable vaginitis often accompanied by serious dyspareunia, which can occur at any stage of reproductive life and after the menopause. The cytological changes are identical with those seen in atrophic vaginitis yet the disorder often occurs in the presence of apparently normal ovarian function. Vaginal synechiae and stenosis develop in an appreciable number of patients. Treatment is unsatisfactory though there is some response to either local or systemic steroid therapy. The literature is reviewed and the association of some cases with lichen planus of the mouth and genitals discussed. Its causation and natural history remain largely unknown and there is as yet, insufficient evidence to regard it as a single entity. It is likely that the incidence of the disorder is underestimated. PMID:2202657

  1. Treatment of non-IBD anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Lilli; Hagen, Kikke; Christensen, Peter; Buntzen, Steen; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Andersen, Jens; Krupa, Marek; Qvist, Niels

    2015-05-01

    The course of the fistula tract in relation to the anal sphincter is identified by clinical examination under general anaesthesia using a fistula probe and injection of fluid into the external fistula opening. In the event of a complex fistula or in the case of fistula recurrence, this should be supplemented with an endoluminal ultrasound scan and/or an MRI scan. St. Mark's fistula chart should be used for the description. Simple fistulas are amenable to fistulotomy, whereas treatment of complex fistulas requires special expertise and management of all available treatment modalities to tailor the right operation to the individual patient. The given levels of evidence and grades of recommendations are according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (www.cemb.net). PMID:26050835

  2. Frequent Hemodialysis Fistula Infectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Charmaine E.; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Faratro, Rose; Chan, Christopher T.; Zimmerman, Deborah Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined if infectious arteriovenous access complications vary with the cannulation technique and whether this is modified by dialysis frequency. We compared the infection rate between fistulas cannulated using buttonhole versus stepladder techniques for patients treated with short daily (SDH) or nocturnal hemodialysis at home (NHD). We also compared patients receiving conventional intermittent hemodialysis (CIHD) using stepladder cannulation. Methods Data were prospectively collected from 631 patients dialyzed with a fistula from 2001 to 2010 (Toronto and Ottawa, Canada). We compared the person-time incidence rate of bacteremia and local fistula infections using the exact binomial test. Results Forty-six (7.3%) patients received SDH (?5 sessions/week, 2-4 h/session), 128 (20.3%) NHD (?4 sessions/week, ?5 h/session) and 457 (72%) CIHD (3 sessions/week, ?4 h/session). Fifty percent of SDH and 72% of NHD patients used the buttonhole technique. There were 39 buttonhole-related bacteremias (rate: 0.196/1,000 fistula days) and at least 2 local buttonhole site infections. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 85% of the bacteremias. There were 5 (13%) infection-related hospitalizations and 3 (10%) serious metastatic infections, including fistula loss. In comparison, there was 1 possible fistula-related infection in CIHD during follow-up (rate: 0.002/1,000 fistula days). Conclusions The rate of buttonhole-related infections was high among patients on frequent hemodialysis and more than 50 times greater than that among patients on CIHD with the stepladder technique. Most bacteremias were due to S. aureus – with serious consequences. The risks and benefits of buttonhole cannulation require individual consideration with careful monitoring, prophylaxis and management. PMID:25473405

  3. Surgery for fistula-in-ano in a specialist colorectal unit: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several techniques have been described for the management of fistula-in-ano, but all carry their own risks of recurrence and incontinence. We conducted a prospective study to assess type of presentation, treatment strategy and outcome over a 5-year period. Methods Between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2011 247 patients presenting with anal fistulas were treated at the University Hospital Tor Vergata and were included in the present prospective study. Mean age was 47 years (range 16-76 years); minimum follow-up period was 6 months (mean 40, range 6-74 months). Patients were treated using 4 operative approaches: fistulotomy, fistulectomy, seton placement and rectal advancement flap. Data analyzed included: age, gender, type of fistula, operative intervention, healing rate, postoperative complications, reinterventions and recurrence. Results Etiologies of fistulas were cryptoglandular (n = 218), Crohn's disease (n = 26) and Ulcerative Colitis (n = 3). Fistulae were classified as simple -intersphincteric 57 (23%), low transphincteric 28 (11%) and complex -high transphicteric 122 (49%), suprasphincteric 2 (0.8%), extrasphinteric 2 (0.8%), recto-vaginal 7 (2.8%) Crohn 26 (10%) and UC 3 (1.2%). The most common surgical procedure was the placement of seton (62%), usually applied in case of complex fistulae and Crohn's patients. Eighty-five patients (34%) underwent fistulotomy, mainly for intersphincteric and mid/low transphincteric tracts. Crohn's patients were submitted to placement of one or more loose setons. The main treatment successfully eradicated the primary fistula tract in 151/247 patients (61%). Three cases of major incontinence (1.3%) were detected during the follow-up period; Furthermore, three patients complained minor incontinence that was successfully treated by biofeedback and permacol injection into the internal anal sphincter. Conclusions This prospective audit demonstrates an high proportion of complex anal fistulae treated by seton placement that was the most common surgical technique adopted to treat our patients as a first line. Nevertheless, a good outcome was achieved in the majority of patients with a limited rate of faecal incontinence (6/247 = 2.4%). New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management particularly in case of complex fistulas. There is, however, a real need for high-quality randomized control trials to evaluate the different surgical and non surgical treatment options. PMID:22070555

  4. Outcome of surgical intervention for rectoneovaginal fistulas in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schult, M; Wolters, H H; Lellé, R J; Winde, G; Senninger, N

    2001-04-01

    Creation of a neovagina to treat vaginal atresia or aplasia in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser syndrome must always be followed by long-term application of dilators to avoid shrinkage. However, rectoneovaginal fistulas are caused by chronic alteration and consecutive necrosis of the posterior neovaginal wall. We evaluated retrospectively the postoperative outcome of rectal wall and neovaginal reconstruction using a standardized surgical technique in an exclusive collection of women. Eight women with a mean age of 28 years (range 22-31 years) were treated for rectoneovaginal fistulas in our clinic. Preoperatively, proctoscopy, sphincter manometry, endoluminal rectal ultrasonography, and colonoscopy were performed; and regular postoperative follow-up by digital examination and rectoscopy were obligate. The standard surgical procedure via a perineal approach included fistulectomy and closure of the mucosa and rectal wall followed by a levatorplasty. All but one woman had a temporary colostomy. After 2 weeks the patients were allowed to wear vaginal dilators of a smaller size. Within the mean follow-up period of 20 months, reintervention was necessary twice because of late fistula relapse detected by proctoscopy, barium enema, and subjective symptoms. Morbidity was 25% (n = 2) due to secondary superficial wound healing or urinary tract infection. The average time of the hospital stay was 13 days (10-14 days). One patient complained of vaginal shrinkage and underwent local estrogen therapy with a good functional result 3 months later. Proper fistulectomy and surgical reconstruction with interpositioning of well perfused muscle layers achieved good functional outcome with an acceptable number of minor morbidities. Local estrogen treatment is helpful for avoiding scarification and decreasing the neovaginal size. PMID:11344394

  5. Elbow arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, Teun

    2014-01-01

    Multiple superficial veins in different anatomical configurations exist in the elbow. The resulting variety of elbow arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) is described in this paper. A classification of elbow AVF in nontransposed AVF, transposed AVF and multiple outflow AVF is proposed. The nontransposed brachiocephalic AVF has the lowest primary failure rate and a good medium-term survival particularly in the elderly. The simplest technique is an end-to-side anastomosis of the median cubital vein to the brachial artery. In cases of small upper arm veins, a perforating vein AVF, using multiple outflow tracts, may be helpful to lower primary failure risk. In the era of vein mapping with portable ultrasound elbow AVF should be made when forearm veins are exhausted or too small. A side-to-side AVF in order to enhance retrograde flow in the median forearm vein seems rarely indicated, in particular considering the greater risk of steal and venous hypertension. A transposed brachiobasilic AVF is a tertiary access procedure after the simpler alternatives have been exhausted. There is conflicting evidence of the benefits of one-stage versus two-stage procedures. Therefore, the type of operation should be tailored to the individual patient. PMID:24817455

  6. Use of a free bladder mucosal graft for simple repair of vesicovaginal fistulae.

    PubMed

    Ostad, M; Uzzo, R G; Coleman, J; Young, G P

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a simple, fast, and effective method for repair of difficult vesicovaginal fistulae by means of a free bladder mucosal graft. Six patients with high, large, multiple, or recurrent vesicovaginal fistulae were treated using a free bladder mucosal graft. Three patients underwent "early" repair (less than 3 months from time of injury) and 3 "late" repair (more than 6 months from time of injury). Via a suprapubic cystotomy, the mucosa of the fistulous tract was debrided without any attempt to excise the tract or close the bladder or vaginal defects. A free bladder mucosal graft was harvested from an unaffected portion of the bladder and placed over the fistulous tract, and mucosal approximation was made using interrupted 5-0 chromic stay sutures. The donor urothelial defect was allowed to re-epithelialize. A Foley catheter, suprapubic tube, and vaginal packing were left in place. Five patients noted an immediate result, with no evidence of leakage, and the suprapubic tube was removed by week 3. One patient required prolonged catheter drainage, and the tube was successfully removed by week 6. This patient had undergone irradiation. All patients remain dry at follow-up, which ranges from 2 to 6 years. We describe a simple and effective method for transabdominal vesicovaginal fistula repair, involving minimal mobilization, decreased dissection, and no need for rotational or interposition flaps, obviating the need to open the peritoneum. A free bladder mucosal graft can be used regardless of the individual anatomy or proximity to the ureteral orifices, because it can easily be tailored. This technique represents an important repair of difficult, recurrent, or multiple vesicovaginal fistulae. PMID:9671883

  7. High uterosacral vaginal vault suspension with fascial reconstruction for vaginal repair of enterocele and vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Karram; S. Goldwasser; S. Kleeman; A. Steele; B. Vassallo; P. Walsh

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review retrospectively the functional and anatomic outcomes of women who underwent vaginal repair of enterocele and vault prolapse with the use of an intraperitoneal suspension of the vaginal vault to the uterosacral ligaments in conjunction with fascial reconstruction of the anterior and posterior vaginal wall. Study Design: Two hundred two women with

  8. Uterosacral ligament fixation for vaginal vault suspension in uterine and vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Jenkins

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the simplicity, safety, anatomic, and functional success of using the uterosacral ligaments for correction of significant complex uterine and vaginal vault prolapse by the vaginal route. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty women with uterine or vaginal vault prolapse with descent of the cervix or the vaginal vault to the introitus or greater were

  9. Symptoms of Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Knowledge Campaign Print Materials Brochure Fact Sheets Symptoms Diaries Posters Public Service Announcements Survivor Stories Dee Toni ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Vaginal Cancer Early on, most vaginal cancers do ...

  10. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaginal Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Vaginal Cancer Talking With ... and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer ...

  11. Vaginal birth after C-section

    MedlinePLUS

    VBAC ... section in the past. This is called a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). ... Most women who try VBAC are able to deliver vaginally. If you can have a VBAC, there are many good reasons to try it rather ...

  12. Anal fistula. Past and present.

    PubMed

    Zubaidi, Ahmad M

    2014-09-01

    Anal fistula is a common benign condition that typically describes a miscommunication between the anorectum and the perianal skin, which may present de novo, or develop after acute anorectal abscess. Athough anal fistulae are benign, the condition can still negatively influence a patient's quality of life by causing minor pain, social hygienic embarrassment, and in severe cases, frank sepsis. Despite its long history and prevalence, anal fistula management remains one of the most challenging and controversial topics in colorectal surgery today. The end goals of treatment include draining the local infection, eradicating the fistulous tract, and minimizing recurrence and incontinence rates. The goal of this review is to ensure surgeons and physicians are aware of the different imaging and treatment choices available, and to report expected outcomes of the various surgical modalities so they may select the most suitable treatment.  PMID:25228174

  13. Pharmacokinetic fundamentals of vaginal treatment with clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Ritter, W; Patzschke, K; Krause, U; Stettendorf, S

    1982-01-01

    Absorption of clotrimazole after vaginal application was estimated to be between 3 and 10%. In order to investigate the fate of clotrimazole reaching systemic circulation, pharmacokinetic studies following oral and intravenous administration were carried out. The concentrations of clotrimazole in vaginal fluid and in blood plasma after vaginal application of 200 and 500 mg were determined using a specific assay by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. Fungicidal concentrations of clotrimazole in vaginal fluid up to 3 days after application of one vaginal tablet containing 500 mg were found. In contrast, clotrimazole plasma levels were lower than 0.01 micrograms/ml, demonstrating that clotrimazole is rapidly metabolized. PMID:7160239

  14. Repair of recurrent rectovaginal fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. Halverson; Tracy L. Hull; Victor W. Fazio; James Church; Jeffery Hammel; Crina Floruta

    2001-01-01

    Background. Recurrent rectovaginal fistulas (RRVFs) pose a challenging problem, which can be treated by different surgical procedures. We performed this study to determine the ultimate success rate of various repair techniques. Methods. Using a standard data collection form, we retrospectively reviewed charts of patients treated for RRVF. Results. Between 1991 and 2000, 57 procedures were performed in 35 women who

  15. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Challoumas, Dimitris; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakaki, Inetzi A.; Danelatos, Christos; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Coronary arteriovenous fistulae are a coronary anomaly, presenting in 0.002% of the general population. Their etiology can be congenital or acquired. We present a review of recent literature related to their epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic management. PMID:24940026

  16. How Is Vaginal Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... present and, if so, what type it is. Imaging tests Chest x-ray If vaginal cancer is diagnosed, a plain x- ... possible metastases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays to make images of the body. The energy ...

  17. Pancreaticoenteric fistula: no longer a surgical disease?

    PubMed

    Wolfsen, H C; Kozarek, R A; Ball, T J; Patterson, D J; Traverso, L W; Freeny, P C

    1992-03-01

    We report our experience with eight patients with severe persistent pancreatitis associated with peripancreatic fluid collections requiring placement of drainage catheters who subsequently developed pancreatic fistula. The fistulas were diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, contrast tube study, or Hypaque enema at a mean of 13 weeks after diagnosis of pancreatitis and drain placement. These fistulas involved the duodenum in five patients and colon in three patients. Six patients had fistula resolution with medical therapy (after removal of percutaneous drainage catheters in three and with drain removal in conjunction with transpapillary stenting of a disrupted pancreatic duct in another three). We conclude that in patients with ongoing pancreatitis, pancreaticoenteric fistulas are probably caused by erosion of percutaneous drainage catheters. Such fistulas resolved with conservative treatment in six of eight patients. PMID:1556424

  18. Saving a brachiocephalic fistula using lipectomy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that functioning AVFs provide better vascular access outcomes compared to prosthetic devices. In April 2004, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) launched a "safe vascular access through collaborative fistula first initiative" (CMS, 2004). This breakthrough proposal cites studies that show increased mortality in patients who do not dialyze with a fistula. Veins too deep for needle cannulation are usually free of scars from intravenous (IV) sticks and, thus, are excellent options for fistula creation. Lipectomy can remove barriers, such as vein depth and limb obesity, creating an opportunity to have a functioning fistula. PMID:16035473

  19. The vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335

  20. Vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have a major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others are composed of a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal condition and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the normal vaginal microbiota. A better understanding of normal and healthy vaginal ecosystems that is based on their true function and not simply on their composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335

  1. Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura DonatiAugusto; Augusto Di Vico; Marta Nucci; Lorena Quagliozzi; Terryann Spagnuolo; Antonietta Labianca; Marina Bracaglia; Francesca Ianniello; Alessandro Caruso; Giancarlo Paradisi

    2010-01-01

    Background  The vaginal microflora of a healthy asymptomatic woman consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera\\u000a and species dominated by the facultative, microaerophilic, anaerobic genus Lactobacillus. The activity of Lactobacillus is essential to protect women from genital infections and to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal flora. Increasing\\u000a evidence associates abnormalities in vaginal flora during

  2. Epidemiologic determinants of vaginal pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat García-Closas; Rolando Herrero; Concepción Bratti; Allan Hildesheim; Mark E. Sherman; Lidia Ana Morera; Mark Schiffman

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and factors related to cervical cancer. Study Design: In a population-based sample of 9161 women from Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica women were categorized into 2 groups, those with vaginal pH in the reference range (4.0-4.5) and those with elevated vaginal pH (5.0-5.5). Odds ratios were used to

  3. Continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring versus estriol vaginal cream for urogenital atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Barentsen; Peter H. M. van de Weijer; Jan H. N. Schram

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if the efficacy of continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring is equivalent to estriol vaginal cream regarding improvement of the patient's subjective feeling of vaginal dryness and to determine if there is a preference for either of the two study treatments. Methods: Open-label randomized parallel group trial with active control with a blind evaluation

  4. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  9. What Are the Key Statistics about Vaginal Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for vaginal cancer? What are the key statistics about vaginal cancer? Vaginal cancer is rare. Only ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  10. Management of twins: vaginal or cesarean delivery?

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N

    2015-06-01

    Recent level I evidence from a single randomized-controlled trial has shown that there is no difference in fetal or neonatal outcomes (composite of fetal/neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity) between planned cesarean delivery and planned vaginal delivery for twins between 32 and 38 6/7 weeks. As long as the presenting twin is vertex, vaginal delivery should be considered regardless of the presentation of the second twin. To avoid unnecessary cesarean deliveries and maternal morbidity, it is important to continue to train residents to perform obstetrics maneuvers necessary for vaginal delivery of twins such as vaginal breech extraction. PMID:25851847

  11. Hemodynamic Simulations in Dialysis Access Fistulae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick McGah; Daniel Leotta; Kirk Beach; James Riley; Alberto Aliseda

    2010-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease. It has long been hypothesized that the hemodynamic and mechanical forces (such as wall shear stress, wall stretch, or flow- induced wall vibrations) constitute the primary external influence on the remodeling process. Given that nearly 50% of fistulae fail after one year, understanding

  12. Ophthalmoplegia in carotid cavernous sinus fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Leonard; I. F. Moseley; M. D. Sanders

    1984-01-01

    The aetiology of ophthalmoplegia in 15 patients with carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is discussed, and the clinical findings are correlated with angiographic and orbital CT appearances. After closure of the fistula the majority of patients with generalised ophthalmoplegia recovered full ocular movements rapidly, while patients with an isolated abduction weakness required much longer to return to normal. Orbital CT studies showed

  13. Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Demba; Linda Morison; Maarten Schim van der Loeff; Akum A Awasana; Euphemia Gooding; Robin Bailey; Philippe Mayaud; Beryl West

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge

  14. A proposed angiographic classification of intracranial arteriovenous fistulae and malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Houdart; Y. P. Gobin; A. Casasco; A. Aymard; D. Herbreteau; J. J. Merland

    1993-01-01

    We propose an angioarchitectural classification of intracranial vascular lesions as arteriovenous, arteriolovenous and arteriolovenulous fistulae. In order to validate this classification, 99 intracranial arteriovenous lesions were reviewed in 98 patients. Arteriolovenulous fistulae included 39 isolated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and 1 AVM associated with a giant arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Arteriovenous fistulae included 8 giant AVFs of the brain, 6 vein

  15. Vesicovaginal fistula repair: a simple suprapubic transvesical approach.

    PubMed

    Cetin, S; Yazicio?lu, A; Ozgür, S; Ilker, Y; Dalva, I

    1988-01-01

    Simple suprapubic closure operations were performed for complicated vesicovaginal fistulas in 23 patients. Fistulas with previous unsuccessful attempts (13 patients), fistulas located above the interureteric ridge (5 patients) and fistulas including the ureteral orifice (5 patients) were considered as good candidates for suprapubic approach. There have been 3 failures and, thus, the initial success rate is 86.9 per cent. PMID:3403195

  16. [Postauricular cutaneous mastoid fistula: a case report].

    PubMed

    Müderris, Togay; Berçin, Sami; Sevil, Ergün; K?r??, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    Infections which involve the middle ear mucosa may easily cause mastoiditis due to the relation between the middle ear space and mastoid cavity. Postauricular cutaneous mastoid fistula is a rare complication of chronic otitis media. While most of the simple mastoid fistulas tend to heal spontaneously with the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, cutaneous mastoid fistulas tend to heal very slowly, as the ingrowth of the skin surrounding the fistula is followed by necrosis or epithelization of the skin edges. In this article, we report a 46-year-old female case of automastoidectomy secondary to the chronic otitis and postauricular cutaneous mastoid fistula in the light of surgical closure technique. PMID:24010803

  17. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal resection of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Possover; Herbert Diebolder; Karin Plaul; Achim Schneider

    2000-01-01

    Background: We wanted to establish a technique of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal surgery for deep endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum with extensive rectal involvement.Technique: The procedure is started by vaginally excising the involved area which is left on the rectum, followed by bilateral dissection of the pararectal and retrorectal spaces. Para- and retrosigmoido-rectal spaces are developed laparoscopically along the coccygeosacral

  18. Vaginal Lactobacillus Flora of Healthy Swedish Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandra Vasquez; Tell Jakobsson; Siv Ahrne; Urban Forsum; Goran Molin

    2002-01-01

    Species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are generally considered to constitute most of the vaginal Lactobacillus flora, but the flora varies between studies. However, this may be due to difficulties in identifying the closely related species within the L. acidophilus complex by using traditional methods and to variations in the vaginal status of the participants. Two hundred two isolates from

  19. Introducing the operation method for curing anal fistula by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Bingzhi

    1993-03-01

    The key to the treatment of anal fistula lies in scavenging the infected anal gland thoroughly, which is the source of anal fistula infection. The fistula tract at the internal orifice of the anal fistula is cut 1 cm using laser with the infectious source completely degenerated and the wound gassified and scanned. The residual distal fistula softens and disappears upon the action of organic fibrinolysin.

  20. Excision of high vaginal septum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahed Al-Abdulhadi; Michael Fidelis Diejomaoh; Assem El Biaa; Jiri Jirous; Mona Al-Qenae

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Transverse vaginal septum occurs because there is a defect in vertical fusion during embryological development of the vagina.\\u000a It is quite rare and is infrequently encountered by most obstetricians and gynecologists in their practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 14-year-old unmarried student, Miss AUX, presented to a private gynecologist complaining of absent menses. Initial examination\\u000a and investigation revealed intact hymen, normal uterus but

  1. A newly designed anal fistula plug: clinicopathological study in an experimental iatrogenic fistula model.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Masayasu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Okada, Katsuya; Akimoto, Naoe; Koyama, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Ikada, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    We report on a clinicopathologic study in an animal model of treatment with a new bioabsorbable polymer plug (BAPP). Over a 2-week period, 6 porcine models, which each had 4 anal fistulae, were created using Blake drains. The pigs were divided into 2 groups: the BAPP-treatment group (n = 12 fistulae) and the control group (n = 12 fistulae). Two weeks later, the pigs were humanely killed, and the perianal sites were excised and examined with gross and pathologic studies. Each fistula in the BAPP group was completely cured. In the pathologic study, the treatment sites had little disarray, few defects in the muscular layer, and small numbers of inflammatory cells. The control group had a significantly greater number of inflammatory cells and microabscesses than the BAPP group. The newly developed BAPP reduced the infection and induced good healing in anal fistulae. The BAPP may be a useful new device for the clinical treatment of anal fistulae. PMID:23701146

  2. Colocutaneous fistula secondary to amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Owain P; Murphy, John A; Hamid, Bushra N; Vimalachandran, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an interesting and extremely rare case of a 66 year old male who developed a colocutaneous fistula secondary to amoebiasis. The patient presented with an acute history of right lower abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable mass. A CT scan demonstrated a fluid filled cavity in the right iliac fossa consistent with an appendiceal abscess which was drained under radiological guidance. However, following drainage his symptoms remained requiring open surgical drainage, and a controlled caecostomy was performed due to a small caecal perforation. Despite appropriate conservative therapy he failed to progress, and developed localised sepsis in the right iliac fossa with a colocutaneous fistula, requiring a formal right hemicolectomy. The histological examination confirmed the presence of abundant trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica.We highlight the fact that in the modern age of immigration and long distance travel, it will become increasingly likely that the so-called 'tropical' diseases will present throughout the world. This case also highlights the need to keep an open mind in cases that do not progress as expected, and to react accordingly to any unusual developments. PMID:22096684

  3. Endotherapy of leaks and fistula.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha

    2015-06-25

    Perforations, leaks and fistula involving gastrointestinal (GI) tract are increasing encountered in clinical practice. There is a changing paradigm for their management with surgical approach being replaced by conservative approach including endoscopic therapy. Clips (through the scope and over the scope) and covered stent are front runners for endotherapy for GI leaks and fistula. Over the scope clips introduced recently, can treat larger defects compared to through the scope clips. Covered stents are suited for larger defects and those associated with luminal narrowing. However cervical esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction, stomach and right colonic lesions may be better for clip therapy rather than stenting. Recent developments in this field include use of endovac therapy which consists of a sponge with suction device, biodegradable stent, use of fibrin glue and some endo-suturing device. Conservative therapy with no surgical or endoscopic intervention, may be suitable for a small subset of patients. An algorithm based on location, size of defect, associated stricture, infection and available expertise needs to be developed to reduce the mortality and morbidity of this difficult clinical problem. PMID:26140097

  4. Endotherapy of leaks and fistula

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Perforations, leaks and fistula involving gastrointestinal (GI) tract are increasing encountered in clinical practice. There is a changing paradigm for their management with surgical approach being replaced by conservative approach including endoscopic therapy. Clips (through the scope and over the scope) and covered stent are front runners for endotherapy for GI leaks and fistula. Over the scope clips introduced recently, can treat larger defects compared to through the scope clips. Covered stents are suited for larger defects and those associated with luminal narrowing. However cervical esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction, stomach and right colonic lesions may be better for clip therapy rather than stenting. Recent developments in this field include use of endovac therapy which consists of a sponge with suction device, biodegradable stent, use of fibrin glue and some endo-suturing device. Conservative therapy with no surgical or endoscopic intervention, may be suitable for a small subset of patients. An algorithm based on location, size of defect, associated stricture, infection and available expertise needs to be developed to reduce the mortality and morbidity of this difficult clinical problem.

  5. Early results of a novel technique for anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair: anterior vaginal wall darn

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Fifty-five patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent anterior vaginal wall darn. The anterior vaginal wall was detached using sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning 1 cm proximal to the external meatus and extending to the vaginal apex. The space between the tissues that attach the lateral vaginal walls to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis was then darned. Cough Stress Test, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, seven-item Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and six-item Urogenital Distress Inventory scores were performed 1-year postoperatively to evaluate recovery. Results One-year postoperatively, all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No patient had vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complication. Conclusions One-year postoperative findings for patients in this series indicate that patients with stage II–III anterior vaginal wall prolapse were successfully treated with the anterior vaginal wall darn technique. PMID:24973955

  6. Broncho-pleuropericardial fistula complicating staphylococcal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Abeer A.; Kattan, Maan A.; Alyafi, Walid A.; Alhashemi, Jamal A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a rare case of broncho-pleuropericardial fistula in a 12-year-old female who presented with fever, painful joint swelling, and pleural and pericardial effusion secondary to disseminated methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection. The pleural and pericardial effusion were drained, however, air leak was observed from both tubes and was synchronous with mechanical inspiration. A broncho-pleuropericardial fistula was suspected and confirmed with computed tomography. This case report demonstrated that disseminated S. aureus bacteremia could result in broncho-pleuropericardial fistula. The ability of disseminated staphylococcal infection to produce pnemopericardium should be added to the list of other complications associated with disseminated staphylococcal sepsis. PMID:22144936

  7. A Minimally Invasive Approach for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Shintaro [Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Ohyaguchi kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Third Department of Surgery (Japan)], E-mail: yamazaki-nmed@umin.ac.jp; Kuramoto, Kenmei [National Hospital Tokyo, Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Department of Radiology (Japan); Itoh, Yutaka [National Hospital Tokyo, Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Department of Surgery (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshika [Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Ohyaguchi kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Third Department of Surgery (Japan); Ueda, Toshisada [National Hospital Tokyo, Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Department of Surgery (Japan)

    2003-11-15

    Pancreas fistula is a well-known and severe complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. It is difficult to control with conservative therapy, inducing further complications and severe morbidity. Until now, re-operation has been the only way to resolve pancreatic fistula causing complete dehiscence of the pancreatic-enteric anastomosis (complete pancreatic fistula). Percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage is one of the treatments for pancreatic fistula. This procedure allows both pancreas juice drainage and anastomosis re-construction at the same time. This is effective and minimally invasive but difficult to adapt to a long or complicated fistula. In particular, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct is indispensable. This paper reports the successful resolution of a postoperative pancreatic fistula by a two-way-approach percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage procedure. Using a snare catheter from the fistula and a flexible guidewire from the transgastric puncture needle, it can be performed either with or without main pancreatic duct dilatation.

  8. Vaginitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources for press Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute ...

  9. Evaluation of the Cost Effectiveness of Vesico-Amniotic Shunting in the Management of Congenital Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (Based on Data from the PLUTO Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Lavanya; Morris, Rachel K.; Barton, Pelham; Middleton, Lee J.; Kilby, Mark D.; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of in-utero percutaneous Vesico Amniotic Shunt (VAS) in the management of fetal lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) Design Model based economic analysis using data from the randomised controlled arm of the PLUTO (percutaneous vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction) trial. Setting Fetal medicine departments in United Kingdom, Ireland and Netherlands. Population or Sample Pregnant women with a male, singleton fetus with LUTO. Methods Costs and outcomes were prospectively collected in the trial; three separate base case analyses were performed using the intention to treat (ITT), per protocol and uniform prior methods. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore data uncertainty. Main Outcome Measures Survival at 28 days, 1 year and disease free survival at 1 year. Results VAS was more expensive but appeared to result in higher rates of survival compared with conservative management in patients with LUTO. Using ITT analysis the incremental cost effectiveness ratios based on outcomes of survival at 28 days, 1 year, or 1 morbidity-free year on the VAS arm were £15,506, £15,545, and £43,932, respectively. Conclusions VAS is a more expensive option compared to the conservative approach in the management of individuals with LUTO. Data from the RCT suggest that VAS improves neonatal survival but does not result in significant improvements in morbidity. Our analysis concludes that VAS is not likely to be cost effective in the management of these patients given the NICE (National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence) cost threshold of £20,000 per QALY. PMID:24376546

  10. Popliteal pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula after acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Soumer, K; Benomrane, S; Derbel, B; Laribi, J; Benmrad, M; Elleuch, N; Kalfat, T; Khayati, A

    2015-02-01

    Most popliteal arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm formation are related to trauma. Few cases have previously been reported after acupuncture therapy. Such events are typically observed when the procedure is performed by non-medical acupuncturist. They may present with acute ischemia, recent claudication, distal emboli, or less commonly rupture. Duplex ultrasound should be considered as the 1st method of investigation. Computed tomography scanning is particularly accurate in making the diagnosis. Treatment strategies consist of surgery or endovascular management. The most commonly performed surgical technique for popliteal pseudoaneurysm repair is resection with bypass grafting, whereas popliteal arteriovenous fistula are usually treated surgically with ligation and primary repair. Endovascular procedure using a stent-graft is thought to be a reasonable option for treating popliteal false aneurysm or even arteriovenous fistula. We will describe two cases of an arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery that developed after acupuncture needling in the region of the popliteal artery. PMID:25623503

  11. Vaginal atrophy in breast cancer survivors: role of vaginal estrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luciano; Gadducci, Angiolo; Vizza, Enrico; Tomao, Silverio; Vici, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Early menopause and related vaginal atrophy is a well known side-effect of hormone adjuvant treatment in breast cancer patients, particularly during aromatase-inhibitors therapy. Due to estrogens contra-indication, proper therapy for such symptom remains often an inadequately addressed clinical problem. After an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit ratio, vaginal low-dose estrogen treatment (better with estriol) [corrected] may have a role in controlling vaginal atrophy in selected and informed breast cancer women. PMID:22994445

  12. Three Distinct Urethral Fistulae 35 Years After Pelvic Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arindam; Kurtz, Michael P.; Eswara, Jairam R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: While the development of fistulae is a well-known complication of radiotherapy, such fistulae can often be challenging to manage. Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 37 year old male who developed in succession a urethrocutaneous fistula to the thigh, a rectourethral fistula and a peritoneo-urethral fistula 35 years after radiotherapy for pediatric pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. These complications were managed successfully after multiple surgical procedures. Discussion: We subsequently discuss the different approaches currently employed for the management of radiation induced urinary fistulas and describe the rationale behind our approach towards their surgical management. PMID:24783170

  13. Anorectal conditions: anal fissure and anorectal fistula.

    PubMed

    Fox, Audralan; Tietze, Pamela H; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan

    2014-04-01

    Anal fissures are linear splits in the anal mucosa. Acute fissures typically resolve within a few weeks; chronic fissures persist longer than 8 to 12 weeks. Most fissures are posterior and midline and are related to constipation or anal trauma. Painful defecation and rectal bleeding are common symptoms. The diagnosis typically is clinical. High-fiber diet, stool softeners, and medicated ointments relieve symptoms and speed healing of acute fissures but offer limited benefit in chronic fissures. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical management of choice for chronic and refractory acute fissures. Anorectal fistula is an abnormal tract connecting the anorectal mucosa to the exterior skin. Fistulas typically develop after rupture or drainage of a perianal abscess. Fistulas are classified as simple or complex; low or high; and intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, or extrasphincteric. Inspection of the perianal area identifies the skin opening, and anoscopy visualizes internal openings. The goal of management is to obliterate the tract and openings with negligible sphincter disruption to minimize incontinence. Fistulotomy is effective for simple fistulas; patients with complex fistulas may require fistulectomy. Other procedures that are used include injection of fibrin glue or insertion of a bioprosthetic plug into the fistula opening. PMID:24742084

  14. Treatment of refractory perianal fistulas with ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael L; Abboud, Elia Charbel; Dolberg, Michael E; Sanchez, Jaime E; Marcet, Jorge E; Rasheid, Sowsan H

    2013-07-01

    Several surgical options exist for management of fistula in ano. The goal of treatment is to achieve closure of the fistula while maintaining continence. Sphincter-sparing operations to close perianal fistulas include advancement flap, anal fistula plug, fibrin glue, and fistulectomy. Variable success rates from 30 to 80 per cent have been reported. Ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT), first described in 2007, has a reported success rate from 40 to 94 per cent. The objective of this study was to study our results of the LIFT procedure for refractory perianal fistulas. We conducted a retrospective 18-month review of consecutive patients with refractory perianal disease treated with the LIFT procedure at an academic, tertiary, colorectal practice. All patients undergoing a LIFT procedure for anal fistula from August 2010 to August 2012 were included in the study. The primary end points were success rates at 1 month and 3 months. Secondary end points were postoperative complications and maintenance of continence. Twenty patients underwent LIFT procedures of whom nine had previously failed treatments. Mean age was 45 years and included 12 male and eight female patients. Success rate at 1 month was 70 per cent (14 patients) and at 3 months was 80 per cent (16 patients). Success rates for patients with previously failed attempts were 67 per cent at 1 month and 89 per cent at 3 months. Continence was maintained in 100 per cent of patients. Our data support the use of the LIFT procedure for refractory perirectal fistulas. PMID:23816007

  15. Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Hafsa U; Handa, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is an important event in a woman’s life. Vaginal childbirth is the most common mode of delivery and it has been associated with increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders later in life. In this article, the authors review and summarize current literature associating pelvic floor disorders with vaginal childbirth. Stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are strongly associated with vaginal childbirth and parity. The exact mechanism of injury associating vaginal delivery with pelvic floor disorders is not known, but is likely multifactorial, potentially including mechanical and neurovascular injury to the pelvic floor. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist in clusters; hence, the isolated effect of these variables on the pelvic floor is difficult to study. PMID:23638782

  16. Development of Vaginal Microbicides and Related Information

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... Search FDA Submit search. ... draft FDA guidance for vaginal microbicides, select presentations from public meetings, and literature publications in ...

  17. Extremely preterm vaginal breech delivery en caul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane R Richmond; Lucie Morin; Alice Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To describe an alternative method of vaginal birth to the conventional assisted delivery for extremely preterm breech infants within intact amnions, and to compare the immediate neonatal outcomes with those delivered by cesarean.METHODS:Retrospective review of singleton breech deliveries under 26 weeks’ gestation after spontaneous labor with intact membranes. Nine “en caul” vaginal births after tocolysis and six cesarean deliveries performed

  18. Emerging therapies for postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Pickar, James H

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms related to vaginal atrophy are a significant problem for postmenopausal women and estrogen has been the gold standard for its treatment. A number of recent reviews of vaginal estrogen products are available. This review will, therefore, focus on other products and potential products for this indication, including the tissue selective estrogen complex and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Additionally, lesser-studied approaches will be discussed. PMID:23434231

  19. Mixed vaginitis-more than coinfection and with therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jack D; Subramanian, Chitra; Foxman, Betsy; Fairfax, Marilyn; Gygax, Scott E

    2013-04-01

    Mixed vaginitis is due to the simultaneous presence of at least two vaginal pathogens, both contributing to an abnormal vaginal milieu and, hence, symptoms and signs of vaginitis. In mixed vaginitis, both pathogens require specific therapy for complete eradication of concurrent manifestations. In coinfection, although two pathogens are identified, a potential pathogen may be present but may not be a cause of existing vaginal symptoms. Although data remain sparse, mixed vaginitis occurs rarely (<5 %). By contrast, pathogen coinfection occurs frequently in women with vaginitis. Approximately 20 %-30 % of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are coinfected with Candida species. Coexistence of BV pathogens and T. vaginalis is even more common, with coinfection rates of 60 %-80 %. Both coinfection and mixed vaginitis have significant clinical and therapeutic implications and are worthy of further investigation. PMID:23354954

  20. Endovascular Management of Acute Bleeding Arterioenteric Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, Henrik [Sahlgrenska University Hospital S, Department of Radiology (Sweden)], E-mail: henrik.leonhardt@vgregion.se; Mellander, Stefan [Sahlgrenska University Hospital S, Department of Vascular Surgery (Sweden); Snygg, Johan [Sahlgrenska University Hospital S, Department of Anesthesiology (Sweden); Loenn, Lars [Sahlgrenska University Hospital S, Department of Radiology (Sweden)

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this study was to review the outcome of endovascular transcatheter repair of emergent arterioenteric fistulas. Cases of abdominal arterioenteric fistulas (defined as a fistula between a major artery and the small intestine or colon, thus not the esophagus or stomach), diagnosed over the 3-year period between December 2002 and December 2005 at our institution, were retrospectively reviewed. Five patients with severe enteric bleeding underwent angiography and endovascular repair. Four presented primary arterioenteric fistulas, and one presented a secondary aortoenteric fistula. All had massive persistent bleeding with hypotension despite volume substitution and transfusion by the time of endovascular management. Outcome after treatment of these patients was investigated for major procedure-related complications, recurrence, reintervention, morbidity, and mortality. Mean follow-up time was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). All massive bleeding was controlled by occlusive balloon catheters. Four fistulas were successfully sealed with stent-grafts, resulting in a technical success rate of 80%. One patient was circulatory stabilized by endovascular management but needed immediate further open surgery. There were no procedure-related major complications. Mean hospital stay after the initial endovascular intervention was 19 days. Rebleeding occurred in four patients (80%) after a free interval of 2 weeks or longer. During the follow-up period three patients needed reintervention. The in-hospital mortality was 20% and the 30-day mortality was 40%. The midterm outcome was poor, due to comorbidities or rebleeding, with a mortality of 80% within 6 months. In conclusion, endovascular repair is an efficient and safe method to stabilize patients with life-threatening bleeding arterioenteric fistulas in the emergent episode. However, in this group of patients with severe comorbidities, the risk of rebleeding is high and further intervention must be considered. Patients with cancer may only need treatment for the acute bleeding episode, and an endovascular approach has the advantage of low morbidity.

  1. Vaginoperineal Fistula as a Complication of Perianal Surgery in a Patient with Sjögren's Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Beksac, Kemal; Turgal, Mert; Aran, Omer; Beksac, M. Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Forty-seven-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome had been operated on because of transsphincteric perianal fistula secondary to perianal abscess. Vaginal wall injury occurred during the course of the operation and injured tissue was repaired primarily. Three months later, patient suffered from the recurrence of perianal fistula symptoms and fistulectomy was performed once again under antibiotic suppression. Several months later, perineal discharge continued, and, therefore, patient was admitted to the hospital for the third time and a fistulotomy was performed. Two months after the third operation, patient was admitted with leukorrhea and a perineovaginal fistula was detected. This time, not only her surgical problem but also her immune system disorder was considered in the preoperative workup. Then, patient was hospitalized for the fourth time and “fistulectomy/perineoplasty” was performed successfully. We believe that patients with autoimmune disorders with or without medical treatment may have healing problems during the course of surgical processes and therefore such medical problems must be taken into consideration by the surgeons. PMID:25295212

  2. Vaginoperineal Fistula as a Complication of Perianal Surgery in a Patient with Sjögren's Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Kemal; Turgal, Mert; Basaran, Derman; Aran, Omer; Beksac, M Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Forty-seven-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome had been operated on because of transsphincteric perianal fistula secondary to perianal abscess. Vaginal wall injury occurred during the course of the operation and injured tissue was repaired primarily. Three months later, patient suffered from the recurrence of perianal fistula symptoms and fistulectomy was performed once again under antibiotic suppression. Several months later, perineal discharge continued, and, therefore, patient was admitted to the hospital for the third time and a fistulotomy was performed. Two months after the third operation, patient was admitted with leukorrhea and a perineovaginal fistula was detected. This time, not only her surgical problem but also her immune system disorder was considered in the preoperative workup. Then, patient was hospitalized for the fourth time and "fistulectomy/perineoplasty" was performed successfully. We believe that patients with autoimmune disorders with or without medical treatment may have healing problems during the course of surgical processes and therefore such medical problems must be taken into consideration by the surgeons. PMID:25295212

  3. Postoperative biliocutaneous fistula: successful treatment by insertion of an endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, W; Haemers, A; Pelemans, W; Ponette, E; Vanwing, J; Verbeken, E; Fevery, J

    1987-01-01

    An elderly patient with a postoperative biliocutaneous fistula, the persistence of which was due to an unrecognized fibro-malignant stricture of the distal common bile duct, was treated by the insertion of an endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis. Immediately after the procedure, bile discharge through the fistula ceased completely, and the fistula closed in three days. Endoscopic treatment methods are worth trying before surgical revision of a biliocutaneous fistula is performed. PMID:3830090

  4. Influence of endometriosis on visceromotor and cardiovascular responses induced by vaginal distention in the rat

    E-print Network

    Berkley, Karen J.

    Influence of endometriosis on visceromotor and cardiovascular responses induced by vaginal; accepted 30 April 2007 Abstract This study examined pseudoaffective responses elicited by vaginal. Distendable latex balloons were inserted into the vaginal canal. While an increasing series of vaginal

  5. Vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ostle, Zoe

    2015-06-11

    This article asks the question 'Should nurses recommend vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women?' The article will review the evidence for use of vaginal oestrogen and consider the potential side-effects and risks. The main finding is that vaginal oestrogen is effective for treatment of overactive bladder in post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy. However, vaginal atrophy is undertreated. This article identifies some of the barriers that may prevent diagnosis and treatment, and suggests changes in practice. Nurses should take the initiative and ask post-menopausal women about symptoms. Nurses should be trained to examine women, diagnose vaginal atrophy and discuss treatment. PMID:26067792

  6. Treatment of Ureteroarterial Fistulae with Covered Vascular Endoprostheses and Ureteral Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose I., E-mail: jibilbao@unav.es; Cosin, Octavio; Bastarrika, Gorka [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology (Spain); Rosell, David; Zudaire, Javier [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Department of Urology (Spain); Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    Background. Ureteroarterial fistulae (UAFs) are a rare entity, often difficult to identify, and associated with a high mortality rate. This fact has been attributed to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Five conditions that can predispose to the development of this uncommon entity have been described: prior pelvic surgery, prolonged ureteral stenting, radiation therapy, previous vascular surgery and vascular pathology. Methods. We present 4 patients with UAFs and at least three of the above-mentioned conditions. Ureteral ischemia and subsequent necrosis promote the formation of these fistulae. The constant pulsation of the iliac artery is transmitted to an already compromised ureter containing a stiff intraluminal foreign body, resulting in pressure necrosis, most likely where the ureter crosses the iliac artery. Results and Conclusion. Cases were managed percutaneously with a combination of the deployment of a covered prosthesis and, when needed, with mechanical occlusion of the ureter. Hematuria stopped in all the patients with no evidence of immediate rebleeding. One patient presented a new episode of vaginal bleeding 13 months after endograft placement and ureteral embolization. Arteriography showed the presence of a hypogastric artery pseudoaneurysm that was occluded using coils. No new bleeding has occurred in this patient 12 months after the second embolization. At present all 4 patients are alive with follow-up periods of 5, 9, 11 and 25 months since the first procedure.

  7. Neck Infection Associated with Pyriform Sinus Fistula: Imaging Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Won Park; Moon Hee Han; Myung Hoon Sung; Kwang Hyun Kim; Hyun Chang; Man Chung Han

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute suppurative neck infections associated with bran- chial fistulas are frequently recurrent. In this study, we describe the imaging findings of acute suppurative infection of the neck caused by a third or fourth branchial fistula (pyriform sinus fistula). METHODS: Imaging findings were reviewed in 17 patients (11 female and six male patients, 2 to 49 years old)

  8. [Tracheoesophageal fistula after the removal of esophageal foreign body].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Wa?niewska, E

    1999-01-01

    A case of 18 years old male with tracheoesophageal fistula as a result of esophageal foreign body (chestnut) is described. Foreign body was removed using esophagoscopy. Bronchofiberoscopy performed because of difficulties with swallowing and frequent airway infections revealed tracheoesophageal fistula. Fistula was closed from intratracheal access. Symptoms of dysfagia disappeared after surgery. PMID:10689920

  9. Hemodynamic instability during treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula and carotid cavernous fistula with Onyx: preliminary results and anesthesia considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Amiridze; R Darwish

    2009-01-01

    Background and aim9 patients with 10 arteriovenous fistulas were treated with Onyx at our institution over a period of 19 months: 4 direct and indirect carotid–cavernous fistulas (CCFs) and 6 dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVFs). Complete occlusion was achieved with no recurrences or permanent complications in our small series. We report hemodynamic instability, including severe bradycardia and asystole, during embolization of

  10. Sexual abuse of children as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nduati, R W; Muita, J W

    1992-07-01

    A retrospective study of 21 sexually abused children admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between January 1984 and December 1985 is presented. The peak incidence of sexual abuse was in the age group of 10-15 years (38.1%) followed by the 5-9 years age group (28.6%). Strangers and people familiar to the child were equally implicated as assailants. Fourteen out of the twenty one (66.7%) victims, presented with injuries ranging from perineal tears (19%), vaginal tears (19%), recto-vaginal fistulae (RVP) (4.8%) and vesico-vaginal-fistulae (VVF) and abdominal haematoma (4.8%). The victims presented to hospital within two days of the event usually accompanied by their mothers. PMID:1396187

  11. Administration of oral and vaginal prebiotic lactoferrin for a woman with a refractory vaginitis recurring preterm delivery: appearance of lactobacillus in vaginal flora followed by term delivery.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Katsufumi; Tokunaka, Mayumi; Oba, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Shirato, Nahoko; Okai, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is one of the prebiotics present in the human body. A 38-year-old multiparous woman with poor obstetrical histories, three consecutive preterm premature rupture of membrane at the 19th, 23rd and 25th week of pregnancy, was referred to our hospital. She was diagnosed as having refractory vaginitis. Although estriol vaginal tablets were used for 4 months, the vaginitis was not cured. We administrated vaginal tablets and oral agents of prebiotic LF, resulting in a Lactobacillus predominant vaginal flora. When she was pregnant, she continued to use the LF, and the Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was continuously observed during pregnancy. An elective cesarean section was performed at the 38th week of pregnancy. When the administration of LF was discontinued after the delivery, Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was disappeared. PMID:24118573

  12. Effect of Vaginal Lubricants on Natural Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Long, D. Leann; Tanner, Catherine; Herring, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants have been shown to negatively affect in vitro sperm motility. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of vaginal lubricant use during procreative intercourse on natural fertility. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months completed a baseline questionnaire on vaginal lubricant use. Subsequently, women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding, intercourse, and vaginal lubricant use and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Diary data were used to determine the fertile window and delineate lubricant use during the fertile window. A proportional hazards model was used to estimate fecundability ratios with any lubricant use in the fertile window considered as a time-varying exposure. Results Of the 296 participants, 75 (25%) stated in their baseline questionnaire that they use vaginal lubricants while attempting to conceive. Based on daily diary data, 57% of women never used a lubricant, 29% occasionally used a lubricant, and 14% used a lubricant frequently. Women who used lubricants during the fertile window had similar fecundability to those women who did not use lubricants (fecundability ratio 1.05, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.85) after adjusting for age, partner race, and intercourse frequency in the fertile window. Conclusion Lubricants are commonly used by couples during procreative intercourse. Lubricant use during procreative intercourse does not appear to reduce the probability of conceiving. PMID:22914390

  13. A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

  14. Disturbed anal sphincter function following vaginal delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, J M; Myles, J L; Jones, I; Sapsford, R; Young, R E; Hattam, A; Cantamessa, S E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently interest in idiopathic (neurogenic) faecal incontinence has swung from denervation of the external anal sphincter to the internal sphincter. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of vaginal delivery on the internal sphincter. SUBJECTS: 1372 mothers were studied antenatally and 1202 were accepted into the study. METHODS: Sphincter pressures were measured antenatally, in the early postnatal period, and six to 10 weeks later in selected patients. RESULTS: 755 of 1202 subjects assessed antenatally were primiparous women and 447 multiparous women. Some 320 previous spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVD) (mean 59 mm Hg) and 67 previous forceps deliveries (mean 58 mm Hg) had lower resting pressures than 755 primiparous women (mean 66 mm Hg) (p < 0.01). A total of 493 subjects were reassessed postnatally. There were 372 SVDs, 47 vacuum extractions, 20 forceps, and 54 caesarean deliveries. All vaginal deliveries but not caesarean sections dropped their resting anal pressures from antenatal values (p < 0.001). Some 227 first SVDs had a much greater fall than 145 subsequent SVDs. In 162 subjects who had undergone their first vaginal delivery and who were followed up there was some recovery but the resting pressures were still lowered at six to 10 weeks post partum. CONCLUSIONS: The first vaginal delivery causes a permanent lowering of resting anal pressures. The possible reasons for this are discussed. PMID:8881822

  15. Successful tubes treatment of esophageal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Chen, Wei-xing; Li, You-ming; Xiang, Zhun; Gao, Ping; Fang, Ying

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the merits of “tubes treatment” for esophageal fistula (EF). Methods: A 66-year-old female who suffered from a bronchoesophageal and esophagothoratic fistula underwent a successful “three tubes treatment” (close chest drainage, negative pressure suction at the leak, and nasojejunal feeding tube), combination of antibiotics, antacid drugs and nutritional support. Another 55-year-old male patient developed an esophagopleural fistula (EPF) after esophageal carcinoma operation. He too was treated conservatively with the three tubes strategy as mentioned above towards a favorable outcome. Results: The two patients recovered with the tubes treatment, felt well and became able to eat and drink, presenting no complaint. Conclusion: Tubes treatment is an effective basic way for EF. It may be an alternative treatment option. PMID:17910112

  16. Enterovesical Fistula Caused by a Toothpick

    PubMed Central

    Tombolini, Flavia; Lacetera, Vito; Muzzonigro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of enterovesical fistula caused by an accidental ingestion of a foreign body. A 23-year-old man presented to our hospital with pneumaturia, fecaluria, and abdominal pain but no recent possible causes of enterovesical fistula at anamnesis. Cystoscopy, cystography, and also colonoscopy were not able to detect the fistulous tract. Computer tomography (CT) revealed a fistula between bladder and bowels caused by a toothpick accidentally swallowed 2 years earlier. We tried to remove the foreign body endoscopically by cystoscopy and colonoscopy but with no success. The failure of endoscopic procedures required a surgical treatment. The patient underwent laparoscopic segmental resection of the sigmoid colon to remove the fistulous tract and the foreign body. The cystography revealed no external leakage of contrast from the bladder with complete resolution of the problem. PMID:25838964

  17. Angioarchitectural Evolution of Clival Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas in Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Andrew E.; Rabin, Richard L.; Karanjia, Rustum; Bababeygy, Simon R.; Amar, Arun P.; Sadun, Alfredo A.

    2015-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) may present in a variety of ways, including as carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. The ophthalmologic sequelae of carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas are known and recognizable, but less commonly seen is the rare clival fistula. Clival dAVFs may have a variety of potential anatomical configurations but are defined by the involvement of the venous plexus just overlying the bony clivus. Here we present two cases of clival dAVFs that most likely evolved from carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. PMID:25873894

  18. Chemocauterization of Congenital Fistula from the Accessory Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jik; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Congenital sialo-cutaneous fistula arising from the accessory parotid gland is extremely rare. Although the fistula tract can be successfully excised after making a skin incision along the skin tension line around the fistula opening, a facial scar inevitably remains. We here report a case of sialo-cutaneous fistula that was treated with chemocauterization with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA cauterization is an easy and effective option for the treatment of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland, especially from the aesthetic point of view. PMID:19434283

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of perianal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Vanbeckevoort, Dirk; Bielen, Didier; Vanslembrouck, Ragna; Van Assche, Gert

    2014-02-01

    Perianal fistulization is the result of a chronic inflammation of the perianal tissues. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from simple to complex fistulas, can be seen, the latter especially in patients with Crohn disease. Failure to detect secondary tracks and hidden abscesses may lead to therapeutic failure, such as insufficient response to medical treatment and relapse after surgery. Currently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the preferred technique for evaluating perianal fistulas and associated complications. Initially used most often in the preoperative setting, MR imaging now also plays an important role in evaluating the response to medical therapy. PMID:24238135

  20. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tellis, V A; Kohlberg, W I; Bhat, D J; Driscoll, B; Veith, F J

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 66 PTFE arteriovenous fistulae and 71 BCH arteriovenous fistulae for dialysis access, PTFE had a higher patency rate than BCH at 12 months (62.4 versus 32.5%). PTFE was easier to work with and easier to handle in the face of infection. The lateral upper arm approach to placement of the PTFE graft is desirable in patients who have had multiple previous access procedures because this area is usually free from scarring, is distant from neurovascular structures, and provides a greater length of graft for needle punctures. PMID:758853

  1. The preterm prediction study: Significance of vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Meis; Robert L. Goldenberg; Brian Mercer; Atef Moawad; Anita Das; Donald McNellis; Francee Johnson; Jay D. Iams; Elizabeth Thom; William W. Andrews

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the association of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginitis, and monilial vaginitis with spontaneous preterm birth at<35 weeks 0 days.STUDY DESIGN: A total of 2929 women at 10 centers were studied at 24 and 28 weeks' gestation by Gram stain of vaginal smear, wet mount, and 10% potassium hydroxide preparations to detect vaginal infections.RESULTS: The rates

  2. Effect of estradiol valerate and levonorgestrel on vaginal health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jittima Manonai; Apichart Chittacharoen; Urusa Theppisai

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) estradiol valerate\\/levonorgestrel on vaginal symptoms, vaginal health index, vaginal pH, and vaginal cytology. Study design: A prospective, open-label study involving 32 postmenopausal women was performed in Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. All the subjects received sequential oral estrogen–progestogen hormone replacement therapy, which contains 2mg estradiol valerate and

  3. Group A streptococcal vaginitis: an unrecognized cause of vaginal symptoms in adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte; Marleen Temmerman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Vaginal infection with group A streptococci (GAS) is an established cause of vaginitis amongst prepubescent girls, but largely\\u000a unrecognized in adult women and therefore often misdiagnosed as vulvovaginal candidosis. We sought to give an overview of\\u000a the epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, signs, and treatment of GAS vaginitis in adult women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Systematic literature search.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We identified nine case reports covering 12

  4. Randomized study of preoperative radiation and surgery or irradiation alone in the treatment of Stage IB and IIA carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.A.; Camel, H.M.; Kao, M.S.; Askin, F.

    1980-06-01

    A prospective randomized study in selected patients with Stage IB and IIA carcinoma of the uterine cervix was carried out. Patients were randomized to be treated with 1) irradiation alone consisting of 1000 rad whole pelvis, additional 4000 rads to the parametria with a step wedge midline block, and two intracavitary insertions for 7500 mgh; and 2) irradiation and surgery, consisting of 2000 rad whole pelvis irradiation, one intracavitary insertion for 5000 to 6000 mgh followed in two to six weeks later by a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The five-year, tumor-free actuarial survival for Stage IB patients treated with radiation was 87% and with preoperative radiation and surgery 82%. In Stage IIA, the actuarial five-year survival NED was 57% for the irradiation alone group and 71% for the patients treated with preoperative radiation and radical hysterectomy. Major complications of therapy were slightly higher in the patients trated with radiation alone (9.4%, consisting of one recto-vaginal fistula and one vesico-vaginal fistula and a combined recto-vesico-vaginal fistula in another patient). In the preoperative radiation group, only two ureteral strictures (4.1%) were noted. The present study shows no significant difference in therapeutic results or morbidity for invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix Stage IB or IIA treated with irradiation alone or combined with a radical hysterectomy.

  5. Fixation of the vaginal apex to the coccygeous fascia during repair of vaginal vault eversion with enterocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Peters; Maureen L. Christenson

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of fixation of the vaginal apex to the coccygeus fascia with fixation to the sacrospinous ligament during surgical repair of vaginal vault eversion with enetrocele.Study design: The records of 121 patients with postheysterectomy vaginal vault eversion with enterocele treated by the author between 1983 and 1994 were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative

  6. Immunity to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in adult mice: characterization of the immunoglobulins in vaginal mucus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl L Parr; John J Bozzola; Margaret B Parr

    1998-01-01

    Progestin-treated female mice are susceptible to vaginal infection by two sexually transmitted disease organisms: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis. Vaccination of mice with HSV-2 or chlamydial antigens elicits immunity to vaginal infection that may be due in part to secreted antibodies in the vaginal lumen. Analysis of the role of these antibodies in immunity would be

  7. Perilymphatic fistulas: can we predict the diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Musaed; Fadous, Raphaelle; Dufour, Jean-Jacque; Saliba, Issam

    2015-08-01

    This study intends to identify factors that could better predict the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistula (PLF) since exploration surgery is currently the only confirmatory method. This retrospective chart review in a tertiary care center is based on all 71 available patient files operated for a suspicion of PLF between 1983 and 2012. History of predisposing factors, clinical findings and investigations were documented pre- and postoperatively. Patients were divided according to intraoperative findings into two groups: group I (fistula negative) and group II (fistula positive). In addition, group II was divided into two subgroups: patients with or without a history of stapedectomy. Both groups were demographically similar. With the exception of history of previous partial stapedectomy (p = 0.04), no statistical difference could be identified in predisposing factors and in clinical findings between the two groups. The evolution of symptoms showed an overall improvement of vestibular symptoms (91 %) and cochlear symptoms (53 %) postoperatively. Audiograms showed a significant improvement postoperatively in the pure tone audiometry and bone conduction threshold of group II while the air-bone gap and speech discrimination score did not improve. Group I did not show any significant improvement postoperatively in any audiogram parameter. This study failed to identify factors that could better predict the diagnosis of PLF. However, it shows that middle ear exploration with oval and round window obliteration is effective in PLF especially to decrease vestibular symptoms even when fistula is unidentified intraoperatively. PMID:24652117

  8. Current management of fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J; Lees, N; Arnall, F

    2015-03-01

    Anal fistulae management is a balance of effective healing and the risk of incontinence from sphincter division. This review examines the heterogeneity in the literature of treatment options and the difficulties this presents for surgical training and decision making. PMID:25761803

  9. Anocutaneous advancement flap repair of transsphincteric fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. E. Zimmerman; John W. Briel; Martijn P. Gosselink; W. Rudolf Schouten

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healing rate of transsphincteric perianal fistulas after anocutaneous advancement flap repair and to examine the impact of this procedure on fecal continence. METHODS: Between January 1997 and June 1999, 26 consecutive patients with a transsphincteric perianal fistual passing through the middle or upper third of the external anal sphincter underwent

  10. Vaginal Lactobacillus: biofilm formation in vivo - clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ventolini, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli provide protection against intrusive pathogenic bacteria. Some Lactobacillus spp. produce in vitro a thick, protective biofilm. We report in vivo formation of biofilm by vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii. The biofilm formation was captured in fresh wet-mount microscopic samples from asymptomatic patients after treatment for recurrent bacterial vaginitis. In vivo documentation of biofilm formation is in our opinion noteworthy, and has significant clinical implications, among which are the possibility to isolate, grow, and therapeutically utilize lactobacilli to prevent recurrent vaginal infections and preterm labor associated with vaginal microbial pathogens. PMID:25733930

  11. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1? (IL-1?) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1? and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1? receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. PMID:26037125

  12. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Aftab Alam; Farhan Jalees Ahmad; Zeenat Iqbal Khan; Roop Krishen Khar; Mushir Ali

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion\\u000a experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for\\u000a an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4),\\u000a which is an attribute of a healthy vagina.

  13. [Neonatal outcomes after instrumental vaginal delivery].

    PubMed

    Baud, O

    2008-12-01

    Instrumental vaginal delivery is currently widely used among obstetrical practices and leads to significant decrease in fetal mortality and morbidity. However, these practices could be associated with several neonatal adverse effects. Very few of these complications are specific and most of them could be observed during normal vaginal delivery. Neonatal mortality is not changed by forceps or vacuum use if no other risk factors are associated. The main neonatal adverse outcomes described with both techniques are extra and intracranial haemorrhages. Usually, intra-cerebral haemorrhages have good neurological prognosis. However, few longitudinal studies are available in the literature on long term outcome of exposed newborns. Other traumatic complications observed when using forceps (facial nerve palsy, cranial skull) are not associated with long term functional consequences. Many of the most severe neonatal complications are observed when perinatal asphyxia has occurred. Extractor types and quality of use under defined criteria are closely associated with neonatal adverse outcomes in operative vaginal delivery. Forceps deliveries are as safe as vacuum deliveries to the neonate. In conclusion, operative vaginal delivery performed for maternal or fetal reasons are associated with several neonatal adverse events, usually non specific and with a short term good prognosis. PMID:19268202

  14. Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

  15. Postirradiation angiosarcoma of the vaginal vault

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.W.; SenGupta, S.K. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, (Ontario))

    1991-05-01

    We describe a unique case of an angiosarcoma arising in the vaginal vault 21 years after hysterectomy and radiotherapy for stage I carcinoma of the cervix. We also review the literature regarding angiosarcomas arising after previous radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies.

  16. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Guide to Body Image Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth > ...

  17. Vaginal misoprostol compared with vaginal gemeprost in termination of second trimester pregnancy. A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, K S; Ngai, C S; Wong, A Y; Tang, L C; Ho, P C

    1998-10-01

    A prospective randomized trial was conducted in 140 women to compare the efficacy of vaginal gemeprost with vaginal misoprostol for termination of second trimester pregnancy. Women requesting termination of second trimester pregnancy were randomized into two groups. Group A women were given 1 mg vaginal gemeprost every 3 h for a maximum of five doses in the first 24 h, whereas group B women were given 400 micrograms vaginal misoprostol every 3 h for a maximum of five doses in 24 h. The median induction-abortion interval in the vaginal misoprostol group (14.1 h) was significantly shorter than that in the gemeprost group (19.5 h). The percentage of women who achieved successful abortion within 24 h in the misoprostol group (80.0%) was significantly higher than that in the gemeprost group (58.6%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects between the two groups except for diarrhea, which was more common in the gemeprost group. The incidence of fever was more common in the misoprostol group. It is concluded that vaginal misoprostol is more effective than gemeprost in termination of second trimester pregnancy. PMID:9866000

  18. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Joanne; Pahouja, Gaurav; Andersen, Barbara; Lustberg, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors. PMID:25815692

  19. Vaginal Douching Among Latinas: Practices and Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices. PMID:18297379

  20. Traumatic anterior communicating artery pseudoaneurysm with cavernous sinus fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeyuki Sakamoto; Masaaki Shibukawa; Yoshihiro Kiura; Ryu Tsumura; Takahito Okazaki; Toshinori Matsushige; Kaoru Kurisu

    2009-01-01

    Summary  A traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula and an intracranial pseudoaneurysm are uncommon but well-known complications of head\\u000a trauma. A rare subtype of arteriovenous fistula may occur from a pseudoaneurysm of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA)\\u000a instead of the internal carotid artery. We describe a patient with a traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the AcoA with a cavernous\\u000a sinus fistula treated with endovascular treatment. A

  1. Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Matis, Georgios K.; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed. PMID:24653807

  2. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ? 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p < 0.001) for 38/74 species in BV+ in comparison to BV- women. Counts of four lactobacilli species were higher in BV- women (p < 0.001). Independent of BV diagnosis, women with gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p < 0.001), and Prevotella disiens (p < 0.001). P. bivia, P. disiens, M. curtisii and M. mulieris (all at the p < 0.01 level) were found at higher levels in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group. The sum of bacterial load (74 species) was higher in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group (p < 0.05). The highest odds ratio for the presence of bacteria in vaginal samples (> 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p < 0.001) and 3.6 for P. disiens (95%CI: 1.8–7.5, p < 0.001), and a diagnosis of BV for P. bivia (odds ratio: 5.3, 95%CI: 2.6 to 10.4, p < 0.001) and P. disiens (odds ratio: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.2 to 8.8, p < 0.001). Conclusion Higher vaginal bacterial counts can be found in women with BV and gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  3. Our Experience with MR Imaging of Perianal Fistulas.

    PubMed

    Baskan, Ozdil; Koplay, Mustafa; Sivri, Mesut; Erol, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts infectious foci in the perianal region better than any other imaging modality. MRI allows definition of the fistula, associated abscess formation and its secondary extensions. Accurate information is necessary for surgical treatment and to obtain a decrease in the incidence of recurrence and complications. Radiologists should be familiar with anatomical and pathological findings of perianal fistulas and classify them using the MRI - based grading system. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview for evaluation of perianal fistulas, examples of various fistula types and their classification. PMID:25550766

  4. Congenital bronchoesophageal fistula in an adult: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lei; Wei, Xiu-Qin; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Xu, Qing-Sheng; Ma, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Bronchoesophageal fistulas are usually diagnosed in the neonatal period. As such, the condition is rare in adults. We present a case of a congenital bronchoesophageal fistula in a 62-year-old man with the complaint of severe bouts of cough and choking after swallowing liquid. His workup included a barium esophagogram that revealed a fistula between the esophagus and a right lower lobe bronchus. The diagnosis should be considered in certain individuals with suggestive symptomatology and unexplained respiratory pathology. The fistula was divided and resected, The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:17659748

  5. A new minimally invasive treatment for anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Shen, Lin; Wang, Caoyuan; Yang, Yanping; Chen, Rui; Fang, Hen; Xu, Xiaojuan

    2015-03-01

    In colorectal surgery, eradicating the fistula and maintaining continence are still complex challenges for a colorectal surgeon. A minimally invasive method using a novel device was performed to consecutively treat 14 patients with anal fistula from August 2008 to November 2009. After a follow-up period of 36 months, 13 patients achieved successful closure of their fistula tracts, and recurrence occurred only in one patient. Recurrence was due to the delay of dressing change. No patient had interference with continence, and no major intra- and postoperative complications were identified. Using the novel device with invasive methods can be a promising alternative for managing anal fistulas. PMID:25238933

  6. Our Experience with MR Imaging of Perianal Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Baskan, Ozdil; Koplay, Mustafa; Sivri, Mesut; Erol, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts infectious foci in the perianal region better than any other imaging modality. MRI allows definition of the fistula, associated abscess formation and its secondary extensions. Accurate information is necessary for surgical treatment and to obtain a decrease in the incidence of recurrence and complications. Radiologists should be familiar with anatomical and pathological findings of perianal fistulas and classify them using the MRI – based grading system. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview for evaluation of perianal fistulas, examples of various fistula types and their classification. PMID:25550766

  7. Socio-demographic profile and obstetric experience of fistula patients managed at the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital.

    PubMed

    Muleta, Mulu

    2004-01-01

    Obstetric experience, clinical and socio-economic characteristics, and reasons for preference of place of delivery of 639 fistula patients admitted to the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital between May 1999 and February 2000 are described About 94% of fistula patients were married and 83.6% had been through with the delivery caused the fistula before the age of 20. The mean ages at the first marriage and at the causative delivery were 14.7 (sd=2.6) and 17.8 (sd=3.2) years respectively. Mean height of fistula patients studied was 149 cms (sd=8). About 64% were primiparous, 44% (279) delivered at home, and labor lasted for 3.8 days on average. Majority of fistula patients mentioned distance as a main problem for the delays. Lack of money, poor knowledge and delay in referral were the other frequently mentioned reasons for the delays. About 62%(399) of fistula patients owned nothing valuable. Of 279 patients delivered at home 186 were those who owned nothing. Out of 180-fistula patients mentioned distance as the major problem, 103 (57%) stayed at home for delivery. About 54% of fistula patients were already divorced on arrival to the hospital and this figure varied among women with different parity and among those owning different property. Teenage and short stature are observed features of fistula patients. The study also showed the huge problems faced by fistula patients in accessing emergency obstetric care services. Analytic study is recommended to compare the magnitude of these problems among other mothers with different obstetric outcome. Meanwhile, community education about problems following teenage pregnancy, sign and symptoms of obstructed labor and the advantage of institutional delivery might reduce the occurrence rate of obstetric fistula. Community organized fund and maternity waiting areas for young and short expecting mothers are among other recommendations to be considered. PMID:15884272

  8. Bedside Ultrasonography for Arteriovenous Fistula Cannulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan A; Stern, Aaron S; Brown, Maritza; Bhatti, Saad

    2015-07-01

    Difficulty in accessing a new arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a common technical issue in hemodialysis patients, which often leads to interventional radiology and/or vascular surgery referral. As a consequence, the patient who needs dialysis may require a temporary dialysis catheter with its known potential complications. We present a case where bedside ultrasonography facilitated successful cannulation of a difficult AVF. Ultrasonography (US) training in this procedure may allow early cannulation of new AVFs when the venous diameter is large enough (>0.6 cm) but the fistula is too deep (>0.6 cm). Real-time, US-guided AVF cannulation may also decrease the number of failed venous punctures per hemodialysis (HD) session minimizing vessel wall damage and subsequent potential hematoma and aneurysm formation. PMID:26014904

  9. Treatment of anal fistula and abscess.

    PubMed

    Pigot, F

    2015-04-01

    The glands of Hermann and Desfosses, located in the thickness of the anal canal, drain into the canal at the dentate line. Infection of these anal glands is responsible for the formation of abscesses and/or fistulas. When this presents as an abscess, emergency drainage of the infected cavity is required. At the stage of fistula, treatment has two sometimes conflicting objectives: effective drainage and preservation of continence. These two opposing constraints explain the existence of two therapeutic concepts. On one hand the laying-open of the fistulous tract (fistulotomy) in one or several operative sessions remains the treatment of choice because of its high cure rates. On the other hand surgical closure with tract ligation or obturation with biological components preserves sphincter function but suffers from a higher failure rate. PMID:25261376

  10. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-10-10

    Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90). In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively) and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment. PMID:25317769

  11. Ultra-low-dose vaginal estrogen tablets for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Simon, J A; Maamari, R V

    2013-08-01

    Vaginal atrophy is a common chronic condition affecting up to 57% of postmenopausal women. The decrease in estrogen following cessation of menses can lead to bothersome symptoms that include vaginal dryness and irritation, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), urinary tract infections, and pain (dyspareunia) and bleeding during sexual activities. These symptoms can be safely and effectively managed with the use of local estrogen therapy, which reduces the risks associated with long-term systemic hormone therapy. The ultra-low-dose 10 ?g estradiol vaginal tablet is the lowest approved dose available and has an annual estradiol exposure of only 1.14 mg. Its development addresses recommendations from regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest hormonal dose. The 10 ?g vaginal tablet displays minimal estradiol absorption, causes no increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma, and provides significant symptom relief. The clinical evidence presented here may offer greater reassurance to health-care professionals and postmenopausal women that vaginal atrophy can be treated safely and effectively. PMID:23848490

  12. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1). PMID:18181530

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, T; Banerjee, S; Mandal, S C; Maity, T K; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    2001-05-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated by inducing hepatotoxicity with paracetamol in rats. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt. exhibited orally, significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The effects produced were comparable to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. PMID:11417916

  14. Sacrospinous ligament fixation for vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lantzsch; C. Goepel; M. Wolters; H. Koelbl; H. D. Methfessel

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. To assess intra- and postoperative complications and to look for long term follow-up results in women with sacrospinous ligament\\u000a fixation. Methods. Between 1988 and 1999, 200 women (mean age 59.8 years, range 33 to 83 years) underwent vaginal unilateral sacrospinous ligament\\u000a fixation. 172 patients had had prior hysterectomy. In 28 patients concomitant hysterectomy and sacrospinous ligament fixation\\u000a was performed.

  15. Complications of anterior compartment vaginal surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Rovner

    2007-01-01

    Many complications can be associated with anterior compartment surgery of the vagina. With the integration of synthetic materials\\u000a into the surgical armamentarium for the repair of stress urinary incontinence in the form of midurethral slings, and for the\\u000a repair of vaginal prolapse as a primary procedure or to augment an existing repair, the spectrum of complications related\\u000a to this type

  16. Vaginitis: Making Sense of Over-the-Counter Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David

    2007-01-01

    Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis. PMID:18253469

  17. Vaginal retention of locally administered clindamycin.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Katarina; Larsson, Per-Göran; Nilsson, Maud; Forsum, Urban

    2011-06-01

    Since bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a lack of, or very few, lactobacilli and high numbers of small, mostly anaerobic bacteria, an obvious treatment modality would be eradication of the BV-associated bacterial flora followed by reintroduction of lactobacilli vaginally. As probiotic treatment with lactobacilli is one tool for improving the cure rate when treating BV, it is necessary to know the length of time after treatment that clindamycin can be found in the vagina and if this could interfere with the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli. We evaluated the vaginal concentration of clindamycin in 12 women for 8 days to obtain data on the concentration of clindamycin in the vagina after intravaginal treatment with the drug. The participants were examined five times between two menstrual periods: before treatment, the day after treatment was finished, and 3, 5 and 8 days post-treatment. The first day post-treatment clindamycin 0.46 × 10(-3) to 8.4 × 10(-3) g/g vaginal fluid (median 2.87 × 10(-3)) was found. Thereafter, the concentration of clindamycin decreased rapidly. In 10 patients clindamycin was found after 3 days. A very low concentration was still present 5 days after treatment in four patients. After 8 days no clindamycin was found. Clindamycin is rapidly eliminated from the vagina, within 3-8 days, after local administration. Our results indicate that treatment with probiotic lactobacilli could be problematic if carried out within 5 days after cessation of clindamycin treatment. PMID:21569095

  18. [Congenital coronary artery fistulas: clinical and therapeutic consideration].

    PubMed

    Mal?i?, Ivan; Berti?, Mia; Eicken, Andreas; Kniewald, Hrvoje; Kašnar-Samprec, Jelena; Šari?, Dalibor; Schreiber, Christian; Bartoni?ek, Dorotea; Dilber, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A coronary artery fistula is a link between one or more coronary arteries with another heart cavity or a segment of systemic or pulmonary circulation. Arterial blood from a coronary vessel enters another segment via myocardial capillary bed. These are very rare anomalies which constitute approximately 0.2 - 0.4% of all congenital heart defects. Still, they are clinically significant if they are of medium or large size and are manifested with a series of clinical symptoms such as angina pectoris, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, endocarditis, progressive dilatation, heart failure and cardiomyopathy, pulmonary hypertension, thrombosis of the fistula and formation of aneurysms with possible ruptures. We present six patients with a coronary arterial fistula, their history, diagnostic procedures and outcomes. Therapeutic closure of coronary artery fistulas is recommended in all symptomatic, but also in asymptomatic patients, if there are significant roentgenographic, electrocardiographic and other abnormalities. In recent times transcatheter closure of coronary fistulas has become a possible alternative to surgery and is becoming increasingly used thanks to improved diagnostic possibilities and technology. If possible, interventional closure of fistulas is precisely the method preferred in pediatric patients. The choice of method depends on the anatomy of the fistula, presence or absence of additional defects, and on the experience of an interventional cardiologist or a heart surgeon. If performed well, the effects of both methods are good. This paper presents two children with a fistula between the right coronary artery and the right ventricle (RV), one child with a fistula between LAD and RV, one child with a fistula between the main tree of the left coronary artery (LCA) and RV, one child with a fistula between LCA and the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), and one child with a fistula between LCA and the right atrium (RA). The last one (LCA-RA) is not described in the latest classification of anomalies of coronary blood vessels in children based on MSCT coronarography, so we consider our presentation to be a contribution to the new classification. Along with the descriptions of fistulas and presentations of interventional and cardiosurgical interventions, we are also presenting a rare case of spontaneous closing of the fistula within the first six months and of a reopening of the fistula between the right coronary artery and the right ventricle after six years. PMID:25632771

  19. The treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with ovestin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kicovic; J. Cortesprieto; S. Milojevic; A. A. Haspels; A. Aljinovic

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-four postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal atrophy were treated with either Ovestin® vaginal cream (Group A, 23 women: 1 mg\\/day E3; Group B, 30 women: 0.5 mg\\/day E3) or vaginal suppositories (Group C, 21 women: 0.5 mg\\/day E3), applied daily for 3 wk (A and B) or 2 wk (C) before retiring. Ten women from A and 10 from B

  20. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  5. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation...importation of certain vaginal ring birth control devices by reason of infringement...importation of certain vaginal ring birth control devices that infringe claim...

  6. Surgical and nutritional management of postoperative duodenal fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. James Garden; Evelyn H. Dykes; David C. Carter

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with postoperative external duodenal fistulas were managed in general surgical units over a six-year period. Management included aggressive nutritional support, localization and drainage of intraabdominal sepsis, and definitive surgical closure for those fistulas which did not close spontaneously. Spontaneous closure occurred in 92% of cases. All but one patient survived admission to hospital, and one patient died following

  7. Pancreaticoportal fistula: a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Steenbergen, W; Ponette, E

    1990-01-01

    We report a patient with chronic alcoholic calcifying pancreatitis in whom a pancreaticoportal fistula was demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. No complications could be ascribed to this fistula except for thrombosis of the portal, splenic, and superior mesenteric veins. An expectant conservative management was adopted. A short review of the six other cases reported in the literature is presented. PMID:2210199

  8. Isolated Oculomotor Nerve Palsy due to Dural Cavernous Sinus Fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pérez Sempere; Martinez Menéndez; Cabeza Alvarez; Calandre Hoenigsfeld

    1991-01-01

    Two patients with a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula presented with unilateral oculomotor nerve palsies without signs of ocular congestion or proptosis. According to this, dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula should be included in the differential diagnosis of any case of painful ophthalmoplegia, even in the absence of other ocular signs.Copyright © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula associated with situs inversus totalis.

    PubMed

    Barman, Shibsankar; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath

    2014-06-01

    Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula with situs inversus totalis is an extremely rare association. We are presenting a case of a preterm neonate suffering from similar condition. Fistula ligation with primary repair was done via left thoracotomy to avoid technical difficulties. Preoperative echocardiography should be done to confirm dextrocardia and disposition of the aortic arch. PMID:25177126

  10. Transvaginal approach for repair of rectovaginal fistulae complicating Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, J J; Sher, M E; Jaffin, H; Present, D; Gelerent, I

    1991-01-01

    The management of rectovaginal fistulae complicating Crohn's disease is difficult and often unsatisfactory. Between December 1983 and November 1988, 13 patients with Crohn's disease underwent repair of rectovaginal fistulae via a transvaginal approach. All patients had a diverting intestinal stoma either as part of the initial step in the staged management of intractable perianal disease or concurrent with the repair of the rectovaginal fistula. Each of the patients had low or mid septal fistulae; high fistulae generally are treated transabdominally and are not the focus of this discussion. Fistulae were eradicated in 12 of the 13 women and did not recur during the follow-up period, which averaged 50 months (range, 9 to 68 months). The only treatment failure was a patient who had a markedly diseased colon from the cecum to the rectum and a very low-lying fistula. It is concluded that a modified transvaginal approach is an effective method for repair of rectovaginal fistulae secondary to Crohn's disease. PMID:1992942

  11. Subclavian vein repair in patients with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne S. Gradman; Paul Bressrnan; J. David Sernaque

    1994-01-01

    Management of subclavian vein occlusive disease in persons with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula can be challenging. From July 1991 to May 1993, nine patients underwent direct exploration and repair of an obstructed subclavian vein following medial claviculectomy. Eight patients had polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts; one patient had a Brescia-Cimino fistula. Intractable arm edema was the major symptom in five of eight.

  12. Management of Fistula-in-Ano-The Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Parvez; Baakza, Atef

    2014-12-01

    Successful treatment for fistula in ano has eluded most surgeons. To choose the right surgery has been made more difficult, with new surgeries being added in the last decade. This article discusses the various accepted surgeries for fistula in ano - their pros & cons, & attempts to provide the status of the various procedures as it stands today. PMID:25614724

  13. Transanal approach in repairing acquired rectovestibular fistula in females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Jun Chen; Ting-Chong Zhang; Jin-Zhe Zhang

    AIM: To summarize the operative experience of the transanal approach in acquired rectovestibular fistula repair. METHODS: Ninety-six cases of acquired rectovestibular fistula in young females were analyzed retrospectively. The etiology and operative procedure were discussed. Operative essential points were, the patient was laid in prone frog position, with the knees and hips flexed at 90o; the perineum was elevated; and

  14. Vault Prolapse II: Restoration of Dynamic Vaginal Supports by Infracoccygeal Sacropexy, an Axial Day-Case Vaginal Procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Papa Petros

    2001-01-01

    :   Our objective was to present and critically analyze the first 75 infracoccygeal sacropexy (ICS) operations for cure of vault\\u000a prolapse. Level 1 reconstruction was achieved by the insertion of a tension-free vaginal tape (nylon) via the ischiorectal\\u000a fossa into a transversely incised posterior vaginal fornix. Level 2 defects were repaired by cutting a central ‘bridge’ in\\u000a the posterior vaginal

  15. Percutaneous treatment of a duodenocutaneous high-flow fistula using a new biological plug

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Eduardo Crespo; Martinez-Galdamez, Mario; Del Olmo Martínez, Lourdes; Brunet, Eduardo Crespo; Martin, Ernesto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula is a challenging entity and a gold-standard treatment is not settled so far. Here, we describe the successful closure of a duodenocutaneous fistula with the use of the Biodesign enterocutaneous fistula plug (Cook Medical), which is derived from a biological plug that has been used in recent years in order to close anorectal fistula tracts. PMID:25835076

  16. Vaginal fold histology reduces the variability introduced by vaginal exfoliative cytology in the classification of mouse estrous cycle stages

    PubMed Central

    Arnon, Gal; Po-Ching, Lin; Anne M, Barger; Amy L, MacNeill; CheMyong, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used in biomedical and toxicological research to classify the stages of the rodent estrous cycle. However, mouse vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used as a stand-alone tool and has not been evaluated in reference to vaginal histology and serum sex hormone levels. In this study, the direct and Giemsa-stained methods of vaginal exfoliative cytology were compared in reference to vaginal fold histology and serum sex hormone levels. Both methods predicted the estrous stages similarly with mean discordance rates of 55%, 77%, 46% and 31%, for diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus, respectively. From these results we conclude that vaginal exfoliative cytology may be used as a general guide to determine the desired estrous stage endpoint, and that a definitive confirmation of the estrous stage should obtained from evaluation of vaginal fold histology. Confirmation of the stage of the estrous cycle by vaginal fold histology will decrease the variability otherwise introduced by misclassification of estrous cycle stages with vaginal exfoliative cytology. PMID:24705880

  17. Update on anal fistulae: Surgical perspectives for the gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    Tabry, Helena; Farrands, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Anal fistulae are common and debilitating; they are characterized by severe pain and discharge. They arise following infection near the anal canal, or as a primary event from an abscess in the abdomen, fistulating into the vagina or perianal skin. The term ‘cryptoglandular’ is given to abscesses arising from the anal glands. For many years, the treatment of choice was to lay open the fistula; however, this risks causing incontinence with potentially devastating consequences. Alternative surgical treatments include setons, fibrin glue, collagen plugs and flaps to cover the internal fistula opening. These have achieved varying degrees of success, as will be discussed. The present review also discusses anal fistulae in light of much recently published literature. Currently, anal fistulae remain challenging and require specialist expertise; however, new treatment options are on the horizon. PMID:22175058

  18. MRI of perianal fistulas: bridging the radiological-surgical divide.

    PubMed

    Gage, Kenneth L; Deshmukh, Swati; Macura, Katarzyna J; Kamel, Ihab R; Zaheer, Atif

    2013-10-01

    Perianal fistula is a clinical entity with multiple surgical treatment options. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an important imaging modality in the management of perianal fistulas. It provides accurate description of the fistula within the anal canal in relation to the sphincter complex and other pelvic floor structures as well as the associated complications such as abscess. By understanding the surgical viewpoint, the appearance of perianal fistulas, associated complications, and post-treatment findings of commonly used surgical interventions can more accurately be interpreted to aid clinicians. The objective of the article is to review MRI indications and findings, radiological versus surgical classification schemes, and surgical treatment options for perianal fistulas. PMID:23242265

  19. [Report of 2 cases of arterio-ureteral fistula].

    PubMed

    Demailly, M; Gastaud, O; Hakami, F; Petit, J

    2001-06-01

    Uretero-arterial fistulas are exceptional complications: only about forty cases have been reported in the literature. The authors report new two cases of fistula between the common iliac artery and the ureter. One fistula occurred in a context of prolonged ureteric stenting after radiotherapy and pelvic surgery for cancer of the uterus, and the other occurred after an aorto-bifemoral allograft. These fistulas generally occur in a particular clinical context, associating several aetiological factors. The clinical presentation is dominated by often massive and intermittent haematuria. The most useful diagnostic examinations are retrograde ureteropyelography and arteriography. The proposed treatment options (nephrectomy, vascular bypass graft and even embolization) depend on the urgency of the situation and involve both the blood vessel and the urinary tract. The prognosis depends on early diagnosis, but preventive measures can be envisaged to decrease the risk of appearance of these fistulas in high-risk patients. PMID:11512471

  20. Minimally invasive surgery for pyriform sinus fistula by transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Daisuke; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Maeda, Mayuka; Utsunomiya, Kazuho; Yamashita, Taku; Araki, Koji; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Pyriform sinus fistula is a rare branchial anomaly that manifests as recurrent cervical infection resulting from contamination of the fistula internal orifice in the pyriform sinus. Although open neck surgery to resect the fistula has been recommended as a definitive treatment, identifying the fistula within the scar is difficult and occasionally results in recurrence. Here, we describe a novel transoral surgical technique for pyriform sinus fistula using transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) as a definitive treatment to resect and close the fistula without skin incision. Needle cautery enables fine excision and delicate dissection of the fistula tract. TOVS is a safe, easy, and reliable treatment and is a suitable first line treatment. PMID:25748690

  1. Fistulotomy or seton in anal fistula: a decisional algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cariati, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Fistula in ano is a common proctological disease. Several authors stated that internal and external anal sphincters preservation is in the interest of continence maintenance. The aim of the present study is to report our experience using a decisional algorithm on sphincter saving procedures that achieved us to obtain good results with low rate of complications. From 2008 to 2011, 206 patients underwent surgical treatment for anal fistula; 28 patients underwent perianal abscess drainage plus seton placement of trans-sphincteric or supra-sphincteric fistula (13.6 %), 41 patients underwent fistulotomy for submucosal or low inter-sphincteric or low trans-sphincteric anal fistula (19.9 %) and 137 patients underwent partial fistulectomy or partial fistulotomy (from cutaneous plan to external sphincter muscle plan) and cutting seton placement without internal sphincterotomy for trans-sphincteric anal fistula (66.50 %). Healing rates have been of 100 % and healing times ranged from 1 to 6 months in 97 % of patients treated by setons. Transient fecal soiling was reported by 19 patients affected by trans-sphincteric fistula (11.5 %) for 4-6 months and then disappeared or evolved in a milder form of flatus occasional incontinence. No major incontinence has been reported also after fistulotomy. Fistula recurred in five cases of trans-sphincteric fistula treated by seton placement (one with abscess) (1/28) (3.5 %) and four with trans-sphincteric fistula (4/137) (3 %). Our algorithm permitted us to reduce to 20 % sphincter cutting procedures without reporting postoperative major anal incontinence; it seems to open an interesting way in the treatment of anal fistula. PMID:23729353

  2. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence in Robotic-Assisted Total Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Shabnam; Gallo, Taryn; Sargent, Anita; ElSahwi, Karim; Silasi, Dan-Arin

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence in robotic-assisted total hysterectomies in our patients and to provide recommendations to decrease the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: This was an observational case series, Canadian Task Force Classification II-3 conducted at an academic and community teaching hospital. A total of 654 patients underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy for both malignant and benign reasons from September 1, 2006 to March 1, 2011 performed by a single surgeon. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Results: There were 3 cases of vaginal cuff dehiscence among 654 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, making our cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence 0.4%. The mean time between the procedures and vaginal cuff dehiscence was 44.3 d (6.3 wk). All patients were followed up twice after surgery, at 3 to 4 wk and 12 to 16 wk. Conclusion: In our study, the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy compares favorably to that of total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Our study suggests that the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence is more likely related to the technique of colpotomy and vaginal cuff suturing than to robotic-assisted total hysterectomy per se. With proper technique and patient education, our vaginal dehiscence rate has been 0.4%, which is 2.5 to 10 times less than the previously reported vaginal cuff dehiscence rate in the literature. PMID:23484559

  3. Human papillomavirus in vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chao, Angel; Chen, Tse-Ching; Hsueh, Chuen; Huang, Chu-Chun; Yang, Jung-Erh; Hsueh, Swei; Huang, Huei-Jean; Lin, Cheng-Tao; Tang, Yun-Hsin; Liou, Jui-Der; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2012-08-01

    There are limited data on the prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). We sought to clarify this issue in a series of 450 VAIN cases with a confirmed diagnosis between 1990 and 2006. HPV genotyping was performed using paraffin-embedded specimens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Multiple HPV types were validated by E6 type-specific PCR and direct sequencing. The HPV genotypes of the vaginal and cervical neoplasms were compared for those with incident VAIN and a history of previous/concomitant cervical neoplasms. Ki-67 was performed for supporting diagnosis of VAIN. Of these 450 VAIN cases (median age, 59 years; range, 19-93), two with missing paraffin blocks and 54 with poor DNA quality were excluded. HPV was detected in 273/394 (69.3%) VAIN, and multiple infections were found in 17.9% of HPV-positive samples. The leading types were HPV16 (35.5%), HPV58 (9.9%), HPV52 (9.9%), HPV39 (8.4%), HPV33 (7.3%) and HPV53 (7.0%). Among the 156 cases with a history of previous cervical neoplasia, 29.0% had concordant HPV genotypes, while synchronous VAIN samples (n = 49) were more likely to harbor concordant genotypes (58.7%) with the concomitant cervical neoplasm (p = 0.0003). Whether those HPV types in the incident VAIN lesions had existed in the vaginal epithelium at the time of the previous cervical neoplasia or a new acquisition needs to be clarified in prospective follow-up studies. PMID:22095387

  4. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G Maria; Koenig, Sara S K; McCulle, Stacey L; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O; Brotman, Rebecca M; Davis, Catherine C; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J

    2011-03-15

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?(2)(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  5. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G. Maria; Koenig, Sara S. K.; McCulle, Stacey L.; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Davis, Catherine C.; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?2(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  6. Quantitation of vaginally administered nonoxynol-9 in premenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Barditch-Crovo; Frank Witter; Fayez Hamzeh; Jason McPherson; Pamela Stratton; Nancy J. Alexander; Carol Braun Trapnell

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed in 11 healthy nonpregnant premenopausal women to determine a method for collection and recovery of vaginally administered nonoxynol-9. We also determined if nonoxynol-9 could be quantitated in vaginal lavage fluid obtained 2 h after instillation of a standard precoital dose of a foam formulation of nonoxynol-9. Samples were analyzed in batch using a validated normal

  7. Women's Psychological Adjustment Following Emergency Cesarean versus Vaginal Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padawer, Jill A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated psychological adjustment and satisfaction in women who had given birth vaginally or by cesarean section. Cesarean mothers reported significantly less satisfaction with the delivery than did vaginal mothers; however no differences were found in postpartum psychological adjustment as measured by depression, anxiety, and confidence in…

  8. Liposomes containing drugs for treatment of vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Željka Paveli?; Nataša Škalko-Basnet; Ivan Jalšenjak

    1999-01-01

    To develop a novel vaginal delivery system, able to effectively deliver entrapped drugs during an extended period of time at the site of action, liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine were prepared by two different methods, namely the polyol dilution method and the proliposome method. Liposomes containing three commonly applied drugs in the treatment of vaginal infections: clotrimazole, metronidazole and chloramphenicol were

  9. Vaginal Eroticism and Female Orgasm: A Current Appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heli Alzate

    1985-01-01

    In the light of very recent studies, this paper reviews two controversial issues in the area of female sexuality: vaginal eroticism and female orgasm. From the available evidence, it is concluded that most (and probably all) women possess vaginal zones, mainly located on the anterior wall, whose tactile stimulation can lead to orgasm. The apparent contradiction between this finding and

  10. Efficacy and tolerability of fitostimoline (vaginal cream, ovules, and vaginal washing) and of benzydamine hydrochloride (tantum rosa vaginal cream and vaginal washing) in the topical treatment of symptoms of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Boselli, F; Petrella, E; Campedelli, A; Muzi, M; Rullo, V; Ascione, L; Papa, R; Saponati, G

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0-3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV. PMID:23209922

  11. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fitostimoline (Vaginal Cream, Ovules, and Vaginal Washing) and of Benzydamine Hydrochloride (Tantum Rosa Vaginal Cream and Vaginal Washing) in the Topical Treatment of Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Boselli, F.; Petrella, E.; Campedelli, A.; Muzi, M.; Rullo, V.; Ascione, L.; Papa, R.; Saponati, G.

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0–3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV. PMID:23209922

  12. 2005 Nature Publishing Group Protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    © 2005 Nature Publishing Group Protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV challenge by vaginally delivered inhibitors of virus­cell fusion Ronald S. Veazey1 , Per Johan Klasse2 , Susan M. Schader2 , Qinxue. Shattock3 , Martin S. Springer6 & John P. Moore2 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues

  13. Pharmacological profiling of neuropeptides on rabbit vaginal wall and vaginal artery smooth muscle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Aughton, K L; Hamilton-Smith, K; Gupta, J; Morton, J S; Wayman, C P; Jackson, V M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypothalamic neuropeptides centrally modulate sexual arousal. However, the role of neuropeptides in peripheral arousal has been ignored. Vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle relaxation in the vagina is important for female sexual arousal. To date, in vitro studies have focused on vaginal strips with no studies on vaginal arteries. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sexual hypothalamic neuropeptides on rabbit vaginal wall strips and arteries. Experimental approach: Tissue bath and wire myography techniques were used to measure isometric tension from strips and arteries, respectively. Key results: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) relaxed both preparations, effects that were only antagonized by the VIP/PACAP antagonist VIP6–28 (10?nM) and the PAC1 antagonist PACAP 6–38 (1??M). The melanocortin agonist ?-melanocortin-stimulating hormone (1??M), but not bremelanotide (1??M), also relaxed both preparations. Oxytocin and vasopressin contracted vaginal preparations, which could be antagonized by the V1A antagonist SR 49059. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the NPY Y1 agonist Leu31, Pro34 NPY only contracted arteries, which was antagonized by the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH; 1??M) contracted arteries. Conclusion and implications: Hypothalamic neuropeptides can exert contractile and relaxant effects on vaginal strips and arteries. NPY Y1, V1A, MCH1 antagonists as well as VIP/PAC1 agonists may have therapeutic potential in both central and peripheral female sexual arousal. Differences in effect of neuropeptides between preparations raise the question of which preparation is important for female sexual arousal. PMID:18587425

  14. Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from chronic perianal fistula.

    PubMed

    Hisham, Raja B; Sabariah, A R; Yunus, A G

    2006-03-01

    Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor which may be associated with long-standing chronic perianal sepsis. Early diagnosis is challenging and is based on a high index of clinical suspicion and specific histological features. Definitive treatment is surgical, in the form of an abdomino-perineal resection. We hereby describe a case of a perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from long-standing recurrent perianal fistula and complement this with a brief review of the literature pertaining in particular to the management of this condition. PMID:16708740

  15. [Congenital bronchobiliary fistula: a case report].

    PubMed

    Najdi, T; Sibai, H; Zineddine, A; Sakhi, A; Habzi, A; Lahbabi, M S; Benomar, S

    2009-08-01

    Congenital bronchobiliary fistulas (CBBF) are rare developmental anomalies. We report a case of a 6-day-old newborn who presented with respiratory distress and bilioptysis, originally involving a meconium aspiration syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed by bronchoscopy. Surgery was performed at the age of 26 days and the newborn died the following day. Operative opacification showed communication between the carina and the biliary system. We review the clinical characteristics of CBBF and the value of early diagnosis and surgical treatment to prevent pulmonary complications due to bile salts. PMID:19586763

  16. Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickson, H.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  17. Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Terzakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidou, Georgia; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion 5 × 4.5?cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3?cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:23970985

  18. Vaginal primary malignant melanoma: a rare and aggressive tumor.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Terzakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidou, Georgia; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion 5 × 4.5?cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3?cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:23970985

  19. Incomplete restoration of homeostatic shear stress within arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Eugene Zierler, R; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are surgically created to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is, in part, a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. We present computational hemodynamic simulations in four patient-specific models of mature arteriovenous fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Our results suggest that these mature fistulae have remodeled to return to ''normal'' shear stresses away from the anastomoses: about 1.0?Pa in the outflow veins and about 2.5?Pa in the inflow arteries. Large parts of the anastomoses were found to be under very high shear stresses >15 Pa, over most of the cardiac cycle. These results suggest that the remodeling process works toward restoring mechanical homeostasis in the fistulae, but that the process is limited or incomplete, even in mature fistulae, as evidenced by the elevated shear at or near the anastomoses. Based on the long term clinical viability of these dialysis accesses, we hypothesize that the elevated nonhomeostatic shear stresses in some portions of the vessels were not detrimental to fistula patency. PMID:23363216

  20. Percutaneous treatment of subarachnoid-pleural fistula with Onyx.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Steven; Parker, Fabrice; Herbrecht, Anne; Court, Charles; Saliou, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Subarachnoid-pleural fistula is a well-described complication after anterior surgery for thoracic disc herniation, but is difficult to treat by means of traditional chest and lumbar drains due to interference by positive ventilation pressures that may keep the fistula open and prevent proper closure. Current treatment strategies include surgical repair, which is technically challenging, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, which can take several weeks to be effective. In this report, the authors describe a novel treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula using percutaneous obliteration with Onyx. Surgery for removal of a T7-8 disc herniation associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was performed in a 56-year-old woman via an anterior transthoracic transpleural approach. Ten days after surgery, she presented with diplopia due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula that was confirmed by CT myelography. Percutaneous injection of Onyx was performed under local anesthesia. Postprocedure CT showed complete obliteration of the fistula with no adverse events. A CT scan obtained 1 month later showed complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Neurological examination at 3 months postsurgery was normal. Clinical and radiological follow-up at 1 year showed complete recovery and no sign of fistula recurrence. Percutaneous treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula is an easy, safe, and effective strategy and can therefore be proposed as a first-line option for this challenging complication. PMID:23432323

  1. Perilymph Fistula: Fifty Years of Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Perilymph fistula (PLF) is defined as a leak of perilymph at the oval or round window. It excludes other conditions with “fistula” tests due to a dehiscent semi circular canal from cholesteatoma and the superior canal dehiscence syndrome. It was first recognized in the early days of stapedectomy as causing disequilibrium and balance problems before sealing of the stapedectomy with natural tissue became routine. It then became apparent that head trauma and barotraumatic trauma from flying or diving could be a cause of PLF. Descriptions of “spontaneous” PLF with no trauma history followed. A large literature on PLF from all causes accumulated. It became an almost emotional issue in Otolaryngology with “believers” and “nonbelievers.” The main criticisms are a lack of reliable symptoms and diagnostic tests and operative traps in reliably distinguishing a perilymph leak from local anaesthetic. There are extensive reviews on the whole topic, invariably conveying the authors' own experiences and their confirmed views on various aspects. However, a close examination reveals a disparity of definitions and assumptions on symptoms, particularly, vestibular. This is an intentionally provocative paper with suggestions on where some progress might be made. PMID:23724269

  2. [Rare cervicofacial cysts and fistulas in children].

    PubMed

    Pech, A; Cannoni, M; Triglia, J M; Zanaret, M; Thomassin, J M

    1985-01-01

    Among the various congenital cervicofacial swellings observed in children, three types are rarely encountered in general practice: auriculobranchial cysts and fistulae, thymic cysts and cystic lymphangiomas. To resolve diagnostic and therapeutic problems related to these rare lesions it is essential that their etiopathogenic bases be understood. Auriculobranchial cysts and fistulae present clinical symptoms (cervical, parotid, auricular) that are only poorly evidenced and are related mainly to infection. Surgical excision requires a wide approach route of the parotidectomy type with preliminary isolation of the facial nerve. Thymic cysts result from embryogenic anomalies leading to remnants from the 3rd endobranchial pouch and/or degenerative disorders of Hassal's corpuscles. Of mainly perioperative detection their exeresis requires investigation of possible inferior mediastinal prolongations and preservation of healthy thymic parenchyma. Cystic lymphangiomas arise from dysembryoplasia of the lymphatic system, two opposing pathogenic theories existing to explain their origin. They are serious lesions because of their dissecting tendencies and their inexorable growth in the vast majority of cases. Two forms of lymphangioma, from the embryologic, diagnostic and therapeutic points of view, can be distinguished: those of extraparotid origin and those developing from the parotid. PMID:4091402

  3. Endovascular treatment in spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Rajendra V; Bhattacharyya, Avik; Handique, Akash; Jain, Krishan; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Vivek; Baruah, Deb; Kumar, Tushant; Patwari, Sriram; Mohan, B Madan

    2014-01-01

    This study includes 20 patients with 21 spinal perimedullary fistulae. There were nine Type IVa (42.8%) lesions, ten Type IVb (47.6%) and two Type IVc (9.5%) lesions. The dominant arterial supply was from the anterior spinal artery (47.6%), posterior spinal artery (19%) and directly from the radiculomedullary artery (28.5%). Sixteen lesions in 15 patients were treated by endovascular route using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Endovascular treatment was not feasible in five patients. Of the ten patients with microfistulae, catheterization failed/was not attempted in 40%, complete obliteration of the lesion was seen in 60% but clinical improvement was seen in 40% of patients. Catheterization was feasible in all ten patients with macrofistulae (nine type IVb and two type IVc lesions). Complete obliteration of the lesions was seen in 60% and residue in 30%. Clinical improvement was seen in 80% and clinical deterioration in 10%. In conclusion, endovascular glue embolization is safe and efficacious in type IVb and IVc spinal perimedullary fistulae and should be considered the first option of treatment. It is also feasible in many of the type IVa lesions. PMID:24976100

  4. Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula of the superficial temporal artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grzegorz Miekisiak; Maciej Mis; Adam Sandler; Adam Druszcz

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  The temporal artery courses superficially over the temporal bone and thus can be vulnerable to trauma. Although traumatic\\u000a lacerations of this vessel are indeed common, trauma-induced arteriovenous fistulae involving the temporal artery are relatively\\u000a rare. Arteriovenous fistulae caused by iatrogenic injury to the temporal artery are rarer still.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion and conclusion  We report a case of an ateriovenous fistula involving the

  5. Evolution of computed tomography findings in secondary aortoenteric fistula.

    PubMed

    Bas, Ahmet; Simsek, Osman; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Rafiee, Babak; Gulsen, Fatih; Numan, Furuzan

    2015-04-01

    Aortoenteric fistula is a rare but significant clinical entity associated with high morbidity and mortality if remain untreated. Clinical presentation and imaging findings may be subtle and prompt diagnosis can be difficult. Herein, we present a patient who initially presented with abdominal pain and computed tomography showed an aortic aneurysm compressing duodenum without any air bubbles. One month later, the patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and computed tomography revealed air bubbles within aneurysm. With a diagnosis of aortoenteric fistula, endovascular aneurysm repair was carried out. This case uniquely presented the computed tomography findings in progression of an aneurysm to an aortoenteric fistula. PMID:25901259

  6. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the scalp. Case report.

    PubMed

    Badejo, L; Rockwood, P

    1987-05-01

    A case of an arteriovenous fistula resulting from an air-rifle pellet injury to the scalp is reported. Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas of the scalp are rare lesions. A suggested pathogenesis is a disruption of the arterial wall and its vasa vasorum with endothelial proliferation to adjacent veins. Classically, these fistulas are described as single channels, but more commonly they consist of multiple connections. Angiography is necessary to delineate the full extent of the lesions unless they are extremely small. Careful complete excision is the definitive management, as recurrences are common. PMID:3572503

  7. Bouveret's Syndrome with Severe Esophagitis and a Purulent Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bonam, Rami; Vahora, Zahid; Leland, William

    2014-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is a rare variant of gallstone ileus with an overall incidence of 1–3%. It is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from the passage and impaction of a large gallstone through a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. A combination of diagnostic modalities is often required for a diagnosis. Management options include endoscopy and surgery. The most commonly performed procedures are enterolithotomy or gastrostomy, either alone or with cholecystectomy and fistula repair. We describe a unique variant of chronic Bouveret's syndrome with the unusual associations of severe esophagitis and a purulent fistula.

  8. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  9. [Perianal fistulae and abscesses in children: consider Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Coblijn, Usha K; de Meij, Tim G J; Heij, Hugo A; Kneepkens, C M F Frank

    2013-01-01

    While perianal fistulae and abscesses in infants usually occur as an isolated phenomenon, in older children Crohn's disease might be the underlying etiologic factor. We present four children of different ages with recurrent perianal fistulae and abscesses. Only after the diagnosis Crohn's disease was established and adequate treatment was initiated, the perianal lesions disappeared without further surgical treatment. Perianal fistulae and abscesses in older children should raise the suspicion of Crohn's disease, in which case therapy is indicated to induce and maintain remission of the underlying disease instead of surgical intervention. PMID:24063673

  10. Managing complications II: conduit failure and conduit airway fistulas.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Shari L; Mehta, Christopher K

    2014-05-01

    Conduit failure and conduit airway fistula are rare complications after esophagectomy, however they can be catastrophic resulting in high mortality. Survivors can expect a prolonged hospital course with multiple interventions and an extended period of time prior to being able to resume oral nutrition. High index of suspicion can aid in early diagnosis. Conduit failure usually requires a period of proximal esophageal diversion and staged reconstruction. Conduit airway fistulas may be amenable to endoscopic repair but this has a high failure rate and many patients will require surgical repair with closure of the fistula and interposition of vascularized tissue to minimize recurrence. PMID:24876943

  11. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control.

  12. Left atrio-esophageal fistula of a possibly iatrogenic aetiology.

    PubMed

    Arkuszewski, Piotr; Barzdo, Maciej; Ostrowski, Stanis?aw; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jaros?aw

    2015-07-01

    The study presents an exceptionally rare case of an esophago-left atrial fistula, which was diagnosed during a forensic post-mortem examination. Due to complex nature of the disease and many attempts to cure the patient, the authors did not manage to identify the aetiology of the fistula. It was only implied that the fistula might have been a distant complication of intraoperative endocardial ablation or it might have appeared as a consequence of perforation of the esophageal wall or left atrial wall of the enlarged heart with the end of an intubation tube or nasogastric tube. PMID:25952079

  13. Traumatic spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistula: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hongqi; Chen, Yanfei; Ling, Feng

    2010-08-01

    Spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistula, a subtype of spinal arteriovenous malformation, is generally considered to be a congenital lesion by maldevelopment of the spinal vascular system. However, several cases of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula had been reported in the literature, which were thought to be acquired lesions. We presented a case of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula, which was believed to be derived from spinal cord trauma. The etiology and pathophysiology of this case were discussed, and it might provide further insight into the pathogenesis of such lesions. PMID:20333416

  14. Repair of a recurrent rectovaginal fistula with a biological graft.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kate; Faro, Jonathan; Faro, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    This case involves a patient with the congenital absence of the lower third of the vagina. While undergoing surgical restoration of the vagina, she sustained a laceration, which ultimately led to the development of a rectovaginal fistula. After two unsuccessful attempts at repair, the recommendation was for a diverting colostomy with another attempted repair, and she presented to our clinic to discuss other possible surgical options. The patient underwent repair of the fistula using a porcine-derived small intestinal submucosal extracellular matrix graft, which resulted in the repair of the rectovaginal fistula without recurrence at 18 months' follow-up. PMID:25941124

  15. Development of an in vitro alternative assay method for vaginal irritation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyoum Ayehunie; Chris Cannon; Karen LaRosa; Jeffrey Pudney; Deborah J. Anderson; Mitchell Klausner

    2011-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and\\/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant

  16. [A novel device for treating enteroatmospheric fistulae in the open abdomen].

    PubMed

    Jannasch, O; Lippert, H; Tautenhahn, J

    2011-12-01

    The formation of an enteroatmospheric fistula in the open abdomen is a severe complication. In comparison to enterocutaneous fistulae the management remains a challenge. Safety of the surrounding bowel or granulation tissue is a major problem. Suturing of the fistula is rarely successful. Otherwise limited resection and a new anastomosis of the intestine is often not possible. A variety of therapeutic procedures exists to separate the fistula from the surrounding wound. Combinations using vacuum therapy seem to be most effective. But none of the therapies used will match every situation. We present a novel -device for managing enteroatmospheric fistulae in combination with vacuum therapy. In most -cases separation of the fistula from the negative pressure on the surrounding wound is achieved. The fistula adapter allows for a safe build-up of granulation tissue with an effective drainage of fistula secretion. The novel device also supports split thickness skin grafting around the fistula. PMID:21469055

  17. Formation of abnormal fistula on arteriovenous fistula in a patient with buttonhole cannulation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen; Chen, Lin; Shi, Mei; Zhou, Li; Fu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Buttonhole cannulation has been suggested as a technique that may lead to a reduction in many complications when compared with other techniques such as rope-ladder cannulation. Despite all above, some complications still continue, which may lead to a dysfunction of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and inadequate dialysis, having an impact on the quality of life of the patients or eventually making the vascular access unusable. We report a 47-year-old Chinese male with end-stage renal disease who had maintenance hemodialysis three times a week for 5 years. The AVF on the left wrist was operated 5 years ago and proved to be functionally effective with some monitoring and surveillance measures in the fourth year of hemodialysis. Two months later, the buttonhole cannulation technique was applied due to fistula punctuation difficulty by previous aneurysmal dilatation. After 10 times of buttonhole cannulation, the edema on the left forearm of the patient indicated a dysfunction of the AVF. This was further confirmed by the HD02 hemodialysis monitor and a vascular ultrasound, revealing a recirculation of 87%, an abnormal fistula between the AVF and the vein together with thrombus, and aneurysmal dilatation near the anastomosis. The site of cannulation was changed to avoid heavy recirculation (reduced to 25%), and a new AVF on the left wrist was successfully operated. Abnormal fistula on the AVF and vein during buttonhole cannulation is rarely reported, which reminds us that vascular access surveillance should be done regularly before and during the process of construction to find a possible dysfunction of the AVF in patients undergoing buttonhole cannulation. PMID:25874197

  18. Long-term vaginal antibody delivery: delivery systems and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, W M; Sherwood, J K; Adams, D R; Castle, P; Haller, P

    2000-02-01

    Topical delivery systems can provide prolonged delivery of antibodies to the vaginal mucosal surface for long-term protection against infectious diseases. We examined the biodistribution of antibodies during 30 days of vaginal antibody delivery in mice. Different antibody preparations (including monoclonal IgG and IgM, as well as several different (125)I-labeled IgGs) were administered by polymer vaginal rings, which were designed to provide continuous antibody delivery. Antibody concentrations remained high in the vaginal secretions for up to 30 days after disk insertion; radiolabeled antibody was also found, at approximately 100 times lower concentration, in the blood and other tissues. The measured concentrations agreed reasonably well with a simple pharmacokinetic model, which was used to calculate mucosal and systemic concentrations as a function of antibody delivery and elimination rates. Results from the model were consistent with previously reported antibody pharmacokinetic measurements: the half-life for antibody elimination for the vagina was approximately 3 h; the half-life for IgG(1) clearance from the blood was >1 day; and the overall permeability constant for vaginal uptake of IgG was approximately 0.01 to 0.03 h(-1). These results provide important information for the design of controlled antibody delivery devices for vaginal use, and suggest that high-dose, long-term vaginal administration of antibodies may be a reasonable approach for achieving sustained mucosal and systemic antibody levels. PMID:10620255

  19. Local Probiotic Therapy for Vaginal Candida albicans Infections.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Stefan Miladinov; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza Stefanova

    2015-03-01

    The high rate of vaginal Candida albicans recurrence is attributed to azole resistance rates as high as 15 %. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and microbiological efficacy of standard azole therapy for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infection alone and in combination with local probiotic as well as the effects on vaginal microbiota. This study included 436 women with vaginal candidiasis randomly assigned to two treatment groups. The first group, with 207 patients (12 dropouts), was administered 150 mg fluconazole and a single vaginal globule of fenticonazole (600 mg) on the same day. The second group of 209 patients (8 dropouts) followed the same treatment schedule; however, ten applications of a vaginal probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were also administered beginning the fifth day after azole treatment. Microbiological analysis of the therapy efficacy in the first treatment group showed C. albicans resistance in over 30 % of patients. Clinical complaints persisted after treatment administration in 79.7 % (n = 165) of women in this group. Clinical complaints in the second group decreased to 31.1 % (n = 65) and microbiological efficacy also improved among investigated parameters, from 93.7 % (n = 193) to 95.2 % (n = 198). The local application of probiotics after administration of combined azoles for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infections increases therapy efficacy and could prevent relapse. PMID:25362524

  20. A Temperature-Monitoring Vaginal Ring for Measuring Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Peter; Desjardins, Delphine; Kumar, Sandeep; Fetherston, Susan M.; Le-Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Helgadóttir, Berglind; Bjarnason, Ásgeir; Narasimhan, Manjula; Malcolm, R. Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background Product adherence is a pivotal issue in the development of effective vaginal microbicides to reduce sexual transmission of HIV. To date, the six Phase III studies of vaginal gel products have relied primarily on self-reporting of adherence. Accurate and reliable methods for monitoring user adherence to microbicide-releasing vaginal rings have yet to be established. Methods A silicone elastomer vaginal ring prototype containing an embedded, miniature temperature logger has been developed and tested in vitro and in cynomolgus macaques for its potential to continuously monitor environmental temperature and accurately determine episodes of ring insertion and removal. Results In vitro studies demonstrated that DST nano-T temperature loggers encapsulated in medical grade silicone elastomer were able to accurately and continuously measure environmental temperature. The devices responded quickly to temperature changes despite being embedded in different thickness of silicone elastomer. Prototype vaginal rings measured higher temperatures compared with a subcutaneously implanted device, showed high sensitivity to diurnal fluctuations in vaginal temperature, and accurately detected periods of ring removal when tested in macaques. Conclusions Vaginal rings containing embedded temperature loggers may be useful in the assessment of product adherence in late-stage clinical trials. PMID:25965956

  1. Effects of estroprogestins containing natural estrogen on vaginal flora.

    PubMed

    De Seta, Francesco; Restaino, Stefano; Banco, Rubina; Conversano, Ester; De Leo, Rossella; Tonon, Maddalena; Maso, Gianpaolo; Barbati, Giulia; Lello, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Estroprogestins with "natural oestrogen" has represented a new option in terms of combined hormonal contraception. So, the aim of this study is to investigate how estroprogestins with natural estrogen may modify the vaginal niche. In literature, very few studies focused on the interaction between hormonal contraception and vaginal milieu. This is a prospective comparative study. We enrolled 60 women from January 2013 to September 2013, 30 of them were administered estradiol valerate dienogest (E2V+DNG - Klaira®) in a quadriphasic regimen, while the other 30 women were administered 17-? estradiol with nomestrol acetate (EV+NOMAC - Zoely®) in a monophasic regimen. After a baseline study of vaginal milieu at recruitment of patients (Gram stain with Nugent score, vaginal pH, vaginal wet mount for the quantification of leukocytes, Lactobacilli and/or presence of Candida), we performed the same follow-up after six months of estroprogestin therapy. Our results showed that the women treated with E2V+DNG had a trend of an improvement of vaginal health in terms of increase of lactobacillar flora and reduction of vaginal pH in place of women treated with EV+NOMAC that showed a reduction of cervical mucus. Finally, our data about the effects on vaginal flora exerted by two estroprogestin pills (EPs) containing a natural estrogen suggest slight, but interesting differences in terms of vaginal ecology. These differences could be related to the type of estrogen, type of progestin, regimen of administration and, after all, to the net balance between estrogenic and progestin component of the EPs. PMID:24993504

  2. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha [Department of Education and Training, Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO (United States); Goddu, S. Murty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  3. Stripping of a fistula for complete second branchial cleft.

    PubMed

    Van Zele, Thibaut; Katrien, Bonte; Philippe, Deron; Hubert, Vermeersch

    2010-06-01

    Complete fistulas of the second branchial cleft have a complicated course between the internal and external carotid arteries, crossing the hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve. Therefore, surgical excision implies a tedious dissection of the fistula between the neck vessels and nerves and the multiple or large incisions have major cosmetic consequences. In cases of complete fistulas, we report a more simple method by stripping. Using a guide wire fixed to the first 2cm of the fistula, the fistulous tract is stripped completely inside out to its pharyngeal opening by pulling the oral end of the guide wire. This technique uses a limited skin incision with an excellent cosmetic result and very low morbidity; and furthermore, it shortens the procedure and hospitalisation time. PMID:20005791

  4. Treatment of peri-anal fistula in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn’s disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence. PMID:25309057

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  6. Endovascular repair of an actively hemorrhaging aortoduodenal fistula.

    PubMed

    Barleben, Andrew R; Baig, Mirza S; Kubaska, Stephen M; Fujitani, Roy M; Gordon, Ian A; Lane, John S

    2007-09-01

    Aortoenteric fistulae require urgent definitive intervention and traditionally carry a high mortality. We describe a patient who suffered a traumatic aortic dissection following an auto versus pedestrian collision. He underwent open fenestration of his infrarenal aorta and visceral resection, complicated by abdominal sepsis and enterocutaneous fistulae. One month later he developed massive hematemesis, and endoscopic examination revealed an aortoduodenal fistula. Due to an impassable abdominal wall, a stent-graft repair was performed. This report describes the successful use of endovascular techniques to achieve immediate hemostasis in an actively hemorrhaging aortoduodenal fistula. An endovascular approach provides a valuable option in settings where a hostile abdomen precludes the traditional open technique and may serve as a bridge to later definitive repair. PMID:17532604

  7. Treatment of peri-anal fistula in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia

    2014-10-01

    Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn's disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence. PMID:25309057

  8. Sphincter-sparing techniques for fistulas-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Pommaret, E; Benfredj, P; Soudan, D; de Parades, V

    2015-04-01

    Anal fistulas require surgical treatment to cure the fistula. Fistulotomy is the treatment of choice because of its high success rate, but it also carries a risk of postoperative incontinence. Different methods have been proposed to overcome the need for dividing part or all of the sphincter, so-called "sphincter saving techniques" (SST), such as flap advancement, intrafistular injection of glue, or the insertion of a bio-prosthesis (collagen plug). However, the success rate of SSTs is lower than that of fistulotomy. Ligation of the Intersphincteric Fistula Tract (LIFT) is one of the most recent SSTs. It aims to ligate and transect the fistula by an approach through the intersphincteric space. The methodological quality of most published studies has been only average, but several studies have reported attractive success rates of 70 to 95% without postoperative incontinence. Other techniques such as endo-anal clip or injection of autologous stem cells are still anecdotal. PMID:25280598

  9. Traumatic Coronary Artery Fistula Closure with Stent Graft

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Morteza; Ebrahim, Nematollah Pour; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Saadat, Habibollah; Vakili, Hosein; Hekmat, Manuchehr

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of a symptomatic acquired large coronary fistula and aneurysm secondary to chest trauma that was successfully closed using stent graft. This case is followed by review of the literature. PMID:22891139

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Md; Zafaryab, Md; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M Moshahid A

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe(3+) reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  11. Performing vaginal lavage, crystal violet staining, and vaginal cytological evaluation for mouse estrous cycle staging identification.

    PubMed

    McLean, Ashleigh C; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A L

    2012-01-01

    A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

  12. Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kingsberg, SA; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M

    2010-01-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms. PMID:21072280

  13. Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886

  14. Norepinephrine Potentiates Proinflammatory Responses of Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Witta, Samantha R.; Dai, Yuying; Jones, Bryan J.; Brown, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal epithelium provides a barrier to pathogens and recruits immune defenses through the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Several studies have shown that mucosal sites are innervated by norepinephrine-containing nerve fibers. Here we report that norepinephrine potentiates the proinflammatory response of human vaginal epithelial cells to products produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen that causes menstrual toxic shock syndrome. The cells exhibit immunoreactivity for catecholamine synthesis enzymes and the norepinephrine transporter. Moreover, the cells secrete norepinephrine and dopamine at low concentrations. These results indicate that norepinephrine may serve as an autocrine modulator of proinflammatory responses in the vaginal epithelium. PMID:23571017

  15. Policy for Prevention of a Retained Sponge after Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Garry, David J.; Asanjarani, Sandra; Geiss, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policies for sponge count are not routine practice in most labor and delivery rooms. Ignored or hidden retained vaginal foreign bodies has potentially significant health care morbidity. Case. This was a case of a retained vaginal sponge following an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery. Delivery room policy resulted in the discovery of the sponge on X-ray when an incorrect sponge count occurred and physical exam did not find the sponge. Conclusion. This emphasizes the use of protocols to enhance patient safety and prevent medical error. PMID:22312370

  16. Pelviscopic Compared to Laparotomic and Vaginal Intrafascial Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lutzewitsch, N.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1994, 368 women underwent hysterectomies for benign disorders at the University of Kiel. Of these, 58.7% were performed either by pelviscopic or by laparotomy Classic Intrafascial Supracervical Hysterectomy (CISH). Of the remaining, 14.8% were performed by abdominal hysterectomy, 13.6% by Intrafascial Vaginal Hysterectomy (IVH), 12.2% by Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH), and only 0.05% by Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH). Comparative data of these six surgical techniques concerning patients characteristics, indications for operation, histological features, blood loss, operating time, hospital stay, uterine weights and postoperatively used analgesics are described. PMID:18493441

  17. Fibrin Glue Sandwich Prevents Pancreatic Fistula following Distal Pancreatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Ohwada; Tetsushi Ogawa; Yoshifumi Tanahashi; Seiji Nakamura; Izumi Takeyoshi; Toshihiro Ohya; Toshiroh Ikeya; Kenji Kawashima; Yoshiyuki Kawashima; Yasuo Morishita

    1998-01-01

    . Pancreatic fistula is a major form of morbidity following pancreatic resection. We conducted a nonrandomized clinical\\u000a trial comparing the sealing and sandwich techniques of spraying fibrin glue to prevent pancreatic fistula following distal\\u000a pancreatectomy. The pancreas was transected with a scalpel to identify and suture the main pancreatic duct and its small branches.\\u000a In the sealing group, fibrin glue

  18. Magnet induced perforated appendicitis and ileo-caecal fistula formation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrew J; Bingham, Janne; Thompson, Ronald LE

    2009-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common paediatric problem. In the majority of cases spontaneous passage occurs. Magnet ingestion is rare and solitary magnet ingestion usually does not cause any complications. A number of gastrointestinal complications have been reported, such as fistula formation, perforation and volvulus following multiple magnet ingestion. We review magnet ingestion and describe the first case in the literature of magnet induced perforated appendicitis with an associated ileo-caecal fistula. PMID:19252721

  19. Mycobacterium chelonae empyema with bronchopleural fistula in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonae is one of the rapidly growing mycobacteria that rarely cause lung disease. M chelonae more commonly causes skin and soft tissue infections primarily in immunosuppressed individuals. Thoracic empyema caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria and complicated with bronchopleural fistula is rarely reported, especially in immunocompetent patients. In this article we report the first immunocompetent Arabian patient presented with M chelonae-related empyema with bronchopleural fistula which mimics, clinically and radiologically, empyema caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:19881169

  20. Colovesical Fistula: A Rare Complication of Diverticulitis in Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mayank; Wagh, Snehjeet

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of colonic mucosa through the circular muscles at the point of penetration of blood vessels results in diverticuli formation. It is seen most commonly in the large bowel in sigmoid colon. Common complications of diverticular disease are inflammation and bleeding per rectum and rarely fistula formation which are seen mostly in elderly patients. A case of colovesical fistula with diverticulitis in young male aged 30 years is reported. PMID:26023598

  1. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bhakta; Pulok K. Mukherjee; Kakali Mukherjee; S. Banerjee; Subhash C. Mandal; Tapan K. Maity; M. Pal; B. P. Saha

    1999-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated in rats by inducing hepatotoxicity with carbon tetrachloride:liquid paraffin (1:1). The extract has been shown to possess significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The extract of C. fistula at a dose of 400 mg\\/kg showed significant

  2. Ni(II) biosorption by Cassia fistula (Golden Shower) biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Asif Hanif; Raziya Nadeem; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Najum Rashid Ahmad; Tariq Mehmood Ansari

    2007-01-01

    Cassia fistula is a fast-growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree which is now widely cultivated worldwide as an ornamental tree for its beautiful showy yellow flowers. Methods are required to reuse fallen leaves, branches, stem bark and pods when they start getting all over lawn. This investigation studies the use of these non-useful parts of C. fistula as naturally occurring biosorbent for

  3. Transforaminal approach for cerebral dural arteriovenous fistula embolization.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Pandey, Sachin; Ali Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    A transverse sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) not easily accessible by standard transfemoral (transarterial or transvenous) endovascular approaches is presented. An enlarged transosseous retromastoid foramen harboring the occipital artery branch feeding the lesion was identified on CT angiogram (CTA). Curative Onyx embolization was achieved via percutaneous CT-guided direct puncture of the transosseous occipital arterial branch followed by microcatheter navigation through the needle distally towards the site of the fistula. PMID:25943845

  4. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, T; Mukherjee, P K; Mukherjee, K; Banerjee, S; Mandal, S C; Maity, T K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1999-09-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated in rats by inducing hepatotoxicity with carbon tetrachloride:liquid paraffin (1:1). The extract has been shown to possess significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The extract of C. fistula at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed significant hepatoprotective activity which was comparable to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. PMID:10473173

  5. [Spontaneous bilio-digestive fistula of lithiasic origin].

    PubMed

    Marzocca, G; Botta, G; Lorenzini, L

    1990-02-01

    Personal experience about 11 cases of spontaneous biliary enteric fistula caused by lithiasic disease operated in the General Surgical Clinic of the University of Siena from 1969 to 1988, is reported. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, indications for operation and various operating techniques performed are discussed. In the gallstone intestinal obstruction, the authors prefer to resolve immediately the obstruction, deferring to a later moment the specific operation for the treatment of the biliary enteric fistula and the lithiasic disease. PMID:2192306

  6. Colovesical fistula: a rare complication of diverticulitis in young male.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mayank; Wagh, Snehjeet; Balsarkar, Dharmesh J

    2015-04-01

    Herniation of colonic mucosa through the circular muscles at the point of penetration of blood vessels results in diverticuli formation. It is seen most commonly in the large bowel in sigmoid colon. Common complications of diverticular disease are inflammation and bleeding per rectum and rarely fistula formation which are seen mostly in elderly patients. A case of colovesical fistula with diverticulitis in young male aged 30 years is reported. PMID:26023598

  7. Hallazgo de una leucorrea vaginal de carácter no inflamatoria en hembras bovinas. II. Pesquisaje microbiológico vaginal y uterino (Finding of a vaginal leucorrhea of non-inflammatory character in bovine females. II. Microbiological examination)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis O. Alba Gómez; Edgar Segredo Cañizare; Enrique A. Silveira Prado; Eduardo Cruz Muñoz; Luis O. Maroto Martín

    With the objective of demonstrating that the bovine vaginal leucorrhea was not produced by the aggressive action of the microbial agents, 660 genital organs of cows and heifers of different races and ages, slaughtered were examined. In 120 of those organs were found exudates, for a relative frequency of 18% of vaginal leucorrhea. In 40 of the vaginal samples (33.3%)

  8. Temporal Dynamics of the Human Vaginal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gajer, Pawel; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bai, Guoyun; Sakamoto, Joyce; Schütte, Ursel M.E.; Zhong, Xue; Koenig, Sara S.K.; Fu, Li; Ma, Zhanshan; Zhou, Xia; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women’s health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy, thus it appears that neither variation in community composition per se, nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis, in which there is microbial imbalance accompanied by symptoms. PMID:22553250

  9. Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gajer, Pawel; Brotman, Rebecca M; Bai, Guoyun; Sakamoto, Joyce; Schütte, Ursel M E; Zhong, Xue; Koenig, Sara S K; Fu, Li; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Zhou, Xia; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis. PMID:22553250

  10. Mesh repair of vaginal wall prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Krishan; Dalal, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, mesh augmented surgical repair is being increasingly used in pelvic organ prolapse. Perigee and Apogee are comprehensive, single-use needle suspension kits that provide a standardized delivery method for mesh or graft-augmented repairs. This study has been carried out to study the safety and efficacy of the Perigee and Apogee mesh repair systems. Methods 10 cases of posterior vaginal wall prolapse with or without Apical prolapse underwent Apogee mesh repair surgery and 10 cases of anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent Perigee mesh repair surgery. Depending on the findings either Apogee or Perigee or both were used. Patients were followed up for complications of the surgery if any, and for the relief of the symptoms related to prolapse and associated symptoms of bowel/bladder dysfunction. Objective cure rate was prolapse < stage 1 as per the POPQ system. Data collected was statistically analyzed. Results The objective and subjective cure rates were 100%. Postoperative complications were minor. No patient developed de novo urinary urge symptoms, stress urinary incontinence or UTI postoperatively. There were no operative complications like bladder injuries, hematoma and rectal injuries. The mean blood loss was 180 ml and the mean duration of surgery during the Apogee and Perigee mesh repair was 51.5 ± 2.99 min and 60.9 ± 4.65 min respectively. Conclusion In the present study there was a significant improvement in the degree of prolapse after the mesh repair surgeries and the results were consistent even at 12 months follow up. PMID:24843196

  11. Human epididymis protein 4 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in vaginal fluid: relation to vaginal components and bacterial composition.

    PubMed

    Orfanelli, Theofano; Jayaram, Aswathi; Doulaveris, Georgios; Forney, Larry J; Ledger, William J; Witkin, Steven S

    2014-04-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a protease inhibitor and a recently identified serum biomarker for ovarian cancer. Properties of HE4 in the genital tract of healthy women have not been evaluated. We evaluated associations between HE4 and a second vaginal protease inhibitor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), with vaginal concentrations of innate immune mediators or proteases and with the types of vaginal bacterial communities. Vaginal secretions were collected from 18 healthy reproductive age women and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for concentrations of HE4, SLPI, kallikrein 5, cathepsin B, interleukin 1? (IL-1), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8. The species composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 16 women was characterized by sequencing amplicons derived from 16S bacterial ribosomal RNA genes. Correlations between any 2 assays were analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation tests. Differences in the concentrations of HE4 and SLPI, and between soluble components and vaginal community types, were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U tests. Vaginal HE4 concentrations, but not SLPI levels, were positively correlated with levels of IL-1? (P = .0152), IL-1ra (P = .0061), MBL (P = .0100), and MMP-8 (P = .0315). The median vaginal HE4 level, as well as concentrations of MBL, IL-1?, IL-1ra, and MMP-8, was highest when Gardnerella vaginalis dominated a vaginal community. The association between HE4, elevated levels of proteases, immune mediators and high proportions of G vaginalis strongly suggests that HE4 is a component of the proinflammatory immune response in the female genital tract. PMID:24023032

  12. [Fistulas of the lower urinary tract in children].

    PubMed

    Tonegatti, Luca; Scarpa, Maria-Grazia; Goruppi, Ilaria; Olenik, Damiana; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2015-01-01

    A lower urinary tract fistula consist in an abnormal connection between bladder, urethra and adjacent abdominal organs or skin. There are several types of urinary fistulas in paediatric age and they may be congenital or acquired. Etiology may be due to embriological defects, infectious processes, malignant tumours, pelvic irradiation as well as complications following surgical procedures, especially postsurgical repair of hypospadia or epispadia. Clinical presentation depends on the type of fistula and diagnosis is based on signs, symptoms and radiological or endoscopic examinations. We performed PubMed research using terms such as lower urinary fistulae, urology and paediatrics and we consulted medical texts. We reviewed selected articles and used the relevant ones to perform our study concentrating on classification, diagnosis and treatment of different types of fistulas. Paediatric lower urinary fistulas are an uncommon pathology, but the knowledge of their etiology and classification is important to recognise them and lead the physician to an appropriate treatment, which is surgical in most cases. PMID:25820804

  13. Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).

  14. Metabolic support of the enterocutaneous fistula patient.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Hedrick, Traci

    2010-09-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) is a challenging clinical problem with many etiologies; however, the most common cause is iatrogenic, complicating abdominal surgery. Advances in the overall care of the ECF patient have resulted in dramatic reductions in morbidity and mortality over the last five decades. A structured approach to the management of ECF has been shown to result in improved outcomes. Initial physiologic stabilization of the postoperative patient, focused on hemodynamic and fluid support as well as aggressive sepsis control are the critical initial maneuvers. Subsequent optimization of nutrition and wound care allows the patient to regain a positive nitrogen balance, and allow for healing. Judicious use of antimotility agents as well as advanced wound care techniques helps to maximize healing as well as quality of life, and prepare patients for subsequent definitive surgery. PMID:21886463

  15. [An unusual lateral cervico-facial fistula].

    PubMed

    Skevas, A; Bliouras, K; Papadopoulos, N; Tsoulias, T

    1989-08-01

    Lateral cervical sinuses of fistula are usually derivatives of the branchial clefts and pouches and have a more or less typical course in the neck. We present a patient with an extremely long sinus extending from the left supraclavicular area, via the cheek up to the left infraorbital rim. We could not find a similar report in literature. The diagnostic evaluation as well as the successful surgical removal of the malformation through a skin incision in the neck and a second incision in the sulcus gingivobucalis are described. On the basis of a brief review in the embryology of the congenital anomalies of the neck and face some considerations about the possible origin of the cervico-facial sinuses are discussed. PMID:2789577

  16. Diversity of the vaginal microbiome correlates with preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Richard W; Fukushima, Marilyn; Jiang, Hui; Fung, Eula; Rand, Larry; Johnson, Brittni; Vo, Kim Chi; Caughey, Aaron B; Hilton, Joan F; Davis, Ronald W; Giudice, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive tract infection is a major initiator of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this prospective cohort study of 88 participants was to determine whether PTB correlates with the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy. Total DNA was purified from posterior vaginal fornix swabs during gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers, followed by chain-termination sequencing. Bacteria were identified by comparing contig consensus sequences with the Ribosomal Database Project. Dichotomous responses were summarized via proportions and continuous variables via means ± standard deviation. Mean Shannon Diversity index differed by Welch t test (P = .00016) between caucasians with PTB and term gestation. Species diversity was greatest among African Americans (P = .0045). Change in microbiome/Lactobacillus content and presence of putative novel/noxious bacteria did not correlate with PTB. We conclude that uncultured vaginal bacteria play an important role in PTB and race/ethnicity and sampling location are important determinants of the vaginal microbiome. PMID:23715799

  17. Diversity of the Vaginal Microbiome Correlates With Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Richard W.; Fukushima, Marilyn; Jiang, Hui; Fung, Eula; Rand, Larry; Johnson, Brittni; Vo, Kim Chi; Caughey, Aaron B.; Hilton, Joan F.; Davis, Ronald W.; Giudice, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive tract infection is a major initiator of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this prospective cohort study of 88 participants was to determine whether PTB correlates with the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy. Total DNA was purified from posterior vaginal fornix swabs during gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers, followed by chain-termination sequencing. Bacteria were identified by comparing contig consensus sequences with the Ribosomal Database Project. Dichotomous responses were summarized via proportions and continuous variables via means ± standard deviation. Mean Shannon Diversity index differed by Welch t test (P = .00016) between caucasians with PTB and term gestation. Species diversity was greatest among African Americans (P = .0045). Change in microbiome/Lactobacillus content and presence of putative novel/noxious bacteria did not correlate with PTB. We conclude that uncultured vaginal bacteria play an important role in PTB and race/ethnicity and sampling location are important determinants of the vaginal microbiome. PMID:23715799

  18. Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA. PMID:24987271

  19. Vaginal Estrogen Therapy for Patients with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moegele, M; Buchholz, S; Seitz, S; Lattrich, C; Ortmann, O

    2013-10-01

    On account of the good prognosis for patients with breast cancer, improving or maintaining the quality of life in the aftercare period is becoming more and more important. In particular, the increasing usage of aromatase inhibitors in the past few years has led to an increased incidence of vaginal atrophy with symptoms such as vaginal dryness, petechial bleeding, dyspareunia and recurrent cystitis. And just these symptoms have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Application of a topical estrogen therapy represents the most effective means to treat vaginal atrophy. The use of a systemic or, respectively, topical hormone therapy is, however, contraindicated for breast cancer patients. Further clinical trials are needed in order to assess the safety of vaginal estrogen therapy. PMID:24771890

  20. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations failed to reach. However, hypotonic formulations caused free drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. Minimally hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. We then describe an ex vivo method for characterizing particle transport on freshly excised mucosal tissues. By directly observing MPP transport on vaginal, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tissue, we were able to determine an innate difference in mucus mesh size at different anatomical locations. In addition, we were able to optimize particle size for gastrointestinal delivery in mice. As described here, there are numerous barriers to effective drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, including the mucus barrier. We go on to demonstrate that MPP can improve delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, both by rectal and oral administration. Finally, we describe the use of MPP for improving vaginal drug delivery. Incomplete drug coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We show that MPP provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas CP are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers in the rugae, more MPP were retained in the vaginal tract compared to CP. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then demonstrate that when administered 30 min prior to inoculum, anti-HSV-2 MPP protected

  1. HPV-Associated Vaginal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Vaginal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  2. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D.; Williams, David L.; DePond, Robert T.; Gantt, Pickens A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation. PMID:26078895

  3. Iliococcygeus or sacrospinous fixation for vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher F Maher; Christine J Murray; Marcus P Carey; Peter L Dwyer; Antony M Ugoni

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To compare iliococcygeus (prespinous) and sacrospinous fixation for vaginal vault prolapse.Methods:Between 1994 and 1998, 78 women underwent sacrospinous colpopexy and 50 underwent iliococcygeus fixation for the management of symptomatic vaginal vault prolapse. A matched case-control study was designed to compare the two approaches. The matched variables included age, parity, body mass index, degree of vault prolapse, menopause, sexual activity, constipation,

  4. The Sacrospinous Vaginal Vault Suspension: Critical Analysis of Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Meschia; F. Bruschi; F. Amicarelli; P. Pifarotti; M. Marchini; P. G. Crosignani

    1999-01-01

    :   One hundred and three women with a preoperative diagnosis of a pelvic support defect underwent right sacrospinous fixation\\u000a of the vaginal apex. The procedure was performed either therapeutically (in 63 subjects with vaginal vault eversion) or prophylactically\\u000a (40 patients with severe uterovaginal prolapse), and was associated with other reconstructive procedures to repair the coexisting\\u000a cystocele, enterocele or rectocele. Preoperative

  5. Vaginal laceration and perforation resulting from first coitus.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J; Ganti, S

    2001-04-01

    Vaginal laceration resulting from coitus is not uncommon and is well described. Perforation of the vagina during coitus is a very rare occurrence, and there is scant literature reporting it. This is a case of a 14-year-old female who suffered both laceration and perforation of the vagina as a result of her first coitus, which was consensual. The characteristics of vaginal laceration and perforation, presentation, treatment, complications, as well as predisposing factors, are discussed. PMID:11334091

  6. Preclinical evaluation of UC781 microbicide vaginal drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith R. Clark; Timothy J. McCormick; Gustavo F. Doncel; David R. Friend

    2011-01-01

    UC781 is a potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being investigated as a potential microbicide to prevent transmission\\u000a of HIV-1 both vaginally and rectally. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability\\/safety,\\u000a and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits of a vaginal gel prepared with micronized or nonmicronized UC781 (UC781m and UC781nm, respectively). Gels prepared with

  7. Robotic removal of eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. PMID:23600850

  8. Obstetric and gynecological diseases and complications resulting from vaginal dysbacteriosis.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Stefan Miladinov

    2014-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of vaginal microbial environment of a healthy woman is necessary for the understanding of normal flora and how to reduce the risk for diseases. Vagina and its microflora form a balanced ecosystem in which dominated bacteria are vaginal lactobacilli. There are dynamic changes in this ecosystem having structure and composition depending on many factors. The term dysbacteriosis defines any movement outside the normal range for the given biotope of obligate and/or facultative microflora. Such a change in the quantity and quality of the respective microbial balance is fraught with danger and requires correction and recovery. The purpose of this overview is to examine obstetric and gynecological diseases that can cause vaginal impaired microbial balance. Vaginal dysbacteriosis is a cause, predecessor, and often also consequence of vaginal infections. In essence, any vaginal infection can be seen as dysbacteriosis, developed to the most severe extent. Here, there is a dominant microorganism other than lactic acid bacteria in the vagina (clinically manifested or not, respectively), depletion of defense mechanisms of the vagina associated with the shift of lactobacilli from their dominant role in the vaginal balance, decrease in their number and species diversity, and a resulting change in the healthy status of the vagina. Vaginal dysbacteriosis can be found in pathogenetic mechanism, whereby many obstetric and gynecological diseases develop. Most of these diseases lead directly to increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, so it is important to understand the reasons for them and the arrangements for their prevention. PMID:24711012

  9. Management of Vaginal Erosion of Polypropylene Mesh Slings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN C. KOBASHI; FRED E. GOVIER

    2003-01-01

    PurposeThe SPARC (American Medical Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota) polypropylene sling has recently been introduced as an alternative delivery system to TVT (Ethicon, New Brunswick, New Jersey) tension-free vaginal tape for placement of a tension-free mid urethral sling. Erosion must always be considered a risk of synthetic materials. We present 4 cases of vaginal erosion of polypropylene mesh placed with this system

  10. Endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis in Polish women?

    PubMed

    Mnichowska-Polanowskai, Magdalena; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Klimowicz, Bogumia; Szymaniak, Ludmia; Krasnodebska-Szponder, Barbara; Szych, Zbigniew; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem of clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to explain its origin but only a few have included Polish women. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and similarity of oral, anal and vaginal Candida albicans strains isolated from Polish women with vaginal candidiasis. The study involved 20 from 37 recruited women. Swab samples were collected from their vagina, anus, and oral cavity at two-month intervals. All the women were treated with nystatin. Yeast were recovered and identified by the germ-tube test, API /Vitek system, typed by API ZYM and RAPD-PCR. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A total of 170 Candida albicans isolates were recovered from 180 samples collected 3 times from 3 sites of 20 women. Positive yeast vaginal cultures were found in all patients before administration of nystatin. Vaginal yeast recovery rate was decreased statistically significant in both follow-up visits (p= 0.001; p= 0.003). The same and different genotypes/biotypes were found concomitantly in a few body sites and/ or repeatedly at time interval from the same body site. The results support the concept of dynamic exchange of yeast within one woman and endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis. PMID:24459839

  11. Vaginitis in pregnancy is related to adverse perinatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fengqiu; Du, Xiaodong; Xie, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether education level and occupation are risk factors of vaginitis in pregnant women and to investigate relationship between vaginitis occurrence during pregnancy and perinatal mortality rates. Methods: A total of 319 women of early pregnancy or mid-pregnancy were enrolled. Six specimens were collected from posterior fornix of each pregnant woman and then cultured for identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, general bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and chlamydia, respectively. Results: The pregnant women in the “elementary school or below” group and the “middle school” group had significantly higher incidences of vaginitis compared with the pregnant women in the groups of “high school”, “skill education”, and “college or above”. The pregnant women in the groups of “Worker”, “Government employee”, “Company employee”, and “Professionals” had significantly lower vaginitis incidences. The women with infections of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, and general bacteria had higher perinatal mortalities (0.063 ± 0.011, 0.052 ± 0.012, and 0.017 ± 0.008, respectively) than women with infections of fungi, mycoplasma, and Chlamydia (0.002 ± 0.007, 0.003 ± 0.004, and 0.001 ± 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Education level and occupation are risk factors related to incidences of vaginitis in pregnant women. The bacteria-related vaginitis is a major reason of perinatal mortality.

  12. Bioadhesive Mini-Tablets for Vaginal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hiorth, Marianne; Nilsen, Susanne; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-01-01

    Different non-ionic cellulose ethers (methyl cellulose, MC; hydroxyethyl cellulose, HEC; hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC; hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, HPMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were investigated as matrix formers for preparation of mini-tablets targeting vaginal drug delivery. Hexyl aminolevulinat hydrochloridum (HAL) was used as a model drug. The mini-tablets were characterized with respect to their mechanical strength, bioadhesion towards cow vaginal tissue in two independent tests (rotating cylinder test, detachment test using texture analyzer), and dissolution rate in two media mimicking the pH levels of fertile, healthy and post-menopausal women (vaginal fluid simulant pH 4.5, phosphate buffer pH 6.8). Mini-tablets with a matrix of either HPMC or HPC were found to possess adequate mechanical strength, superior bioadhesive behavior towards vaginal tissue, and pH independent controlled release of the model drug, suggesting that both systems would be suited for the treatment of women regardless of age, i.e., respective of their vaginal pH levels. Bioadhesive mini-tablets offer a potential for improved residence time in the vaginal cavity targeting contact with mucosal tissue and prolonged release of the drug. PMID:25166286

  13. Complications of chronic suppurative otitis media: a left otogenic brain abscess and a right mastoid fistula.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yok Kuan; Cheong, Jack Pein; Khir, Abdullah; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sushil; Prepageran, Narayanan

    2012-10-01

    Otogenic brain abscess and postauricular fistula are complications of chronic suppurative otitis media. We describe a rare case of bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media that caused a left temporal lobe abscess and a right mastoid fistula. PMID:23076851

  14. Giant coronary cameral fistula with coarctation of aorta in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A coronary cameral fistula (CCF) involves a sizable communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber. We present a case of giant coronary cameral fistula associated with coarctation of aorta in a 13 days old neonate. PMID:26085776

  15. Giant coronary cameral fistula with coarctation of aorta in a neonate

    PubMed Central

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A coronary cameral fistula (CCF) involves a sizable communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber. We present a case of giant coronary cameral fistula associated with coarctation of aorta in a 13 days old neonate.

  16. Effect of vaginal ph on efficacy of the dinoprostone vaginal insert for cervical ripening\\/labor induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie S. DiMarco; Patrick S. Ramsey; Paul L. Ogburn; Denise Y. Harris; Robert H. Heise; Kirk D. Ramin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether vaginal pH has an effect on the relative efficacy of the dinoprostone vaginal insert (Cervidil) for cervical ripening\\/labor induction.Methods: Thirty-four gravidas, with an unfavorable cervix and indication for labor induction, were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded clinical evaluation. Baseline assessment of cervicovaginal pH and Bishop score were made at the time of enrollment by an independent

  17. Coronary fistula between the left anterior descending coronary artery and the pulmonary artery: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed F.; Sayed, Sameh; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Sallam, Ayman; Fadl, Mazin; Al Baradai, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery fistulae are rare congenital or acquired connections between the coronary vessels and the cardiac chambers or other vascular structures. We present two consecutive cases of coronary fistulae between the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the main pulmonary artery. Both cases where admitted with history of acute coronary syndromes and had multivessel coronary disease along with coronary pulmonary fistulae. The two cases were managed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and repair of the fistulae. PMID:24174833

  18. Arteriovenous fistula complicating iliac artery pseudo aneurysm: diagnosis by CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Huawei, L; Bei, D; Huan, Z; Zilai, P; Aorong, T; Kemin, C

    2002-01-01

    Fistula formation to the inferior vena cava is a rare complication of aortic aneurysm which is often misdiagnosed clinically. In one hundred of reported arteriocaval fistulae, none was originating from the right common iliac artery. We report a case of ileo-caval fistula due to a iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm. High resolution 3D imaging using breath-hold CT angiography is highly specific in identifying the location, extent of the aortocaval fistula as well as the neighbouring anatomic structures. PMID:12083621

  19. Preparation and Characterisation of Fluconazole Vaginal Films for the Treatment of Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, L.; Reddy, M. S.; Shirodkar, R. K.; Pai, G. K.; Krishna, V. T.; Verma, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption. PMID:24403660

  20. Three cases of hypertension and renal arteriovenous fistula with a de novo fistula.

    PubMed

    Melo, Natalia Correa Vieira; Mundim, Juliano Sacramento; Costalonga, Elerson Carlos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Santello, Jose Luiz; Praxedes, Jose Nery

    2009-05-01

    The Renal Arteriovenous Fistula (RAVF) is a rare and potentially reversible cause of hypertension and kidney and/or heart failure. The treatment of RAVF aims at preserving the most of the renal parenchyma and, concomitantly, eradicating the symptoms and hemodynamic effects caused by the RAVF. The present study reports three cases of RAVF, including one case of a de novo idiopathic RAVF, which presented with hypertension and kidney and/or heart failure and describes the therapeutic measures used to treat these patients as well as the outcomes. PMID:19629281

  1. Congenital coronary artery fistulae: a rare cause of heart failure in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery fistulae are uncommon, reported in 0.25% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Two patients with congenital coronary artery fistula and coronary artery disease who presented with symptoms of exacerbated congestive heart failure out of proportion to their atherosclerotic burden were successfully treated by epicardial fistula ligation and coronary artery bypass grafting with marked improvement in functional status. PMID:24886594

  2. Combined percutaneous antegrade and cystoscopic retrograde approach in the treatment of distal ureteric fistulae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry de Baere; Alain Roche; Christine Lagrange; Alban Denys; Bernard Court; Joël Isapoff; Paris Pappas

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a cystoscopic approach, as definitive treatment of ureteral fistulae, after failure of antegrade ureteral stent insertion. Methods: Of 43 ureter fistulae encountered over 4 years, 10 postoperative and\\/or postradiotherapy fistulae could not be stented via an antegrade approach alone. A cystoscopic approach was used, with the antegrade approach available as back-up, if necessary. Results:

  3. Interactive Direct Volume Rendering of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae in MRCISS Data

    E-print Network

    Blanz, Volker

    Interactive Direct Volume Rendering of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae in MR­CISS Data C. Rezk­Salama1, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany Abstract. Dural arteriovenous fistulae are the cause of various somatic Introduction Dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) are pathologic connections between arteri- ous and venous

  4. Increasing the Use of Arteriovenous Fistula in Hemodialysis: Economic Benefits and Economic Barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Schon; Steven W. Blume; Kimberly Niebauer; Christopher S. Hollenbeak; Gregory de Lissovoy

    2007-01-01

    The Fistula First Initiative set a goal of 66% arteriovenous (AV) fistula-based access among US hemodialysis patients. This study modeled the impact of achieving the target AV fistula placement rate on Medicare expenditures and on dialysis patient survival and also reviewed economic disincentives for providers that will inhibit achieving this target. The model projects lifetime costs and survival in the

  5. Three Cases of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Anterior Condylar Vein within the Hypoglossal Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ernst; Robert Bulas; Thomas Tomsick; Harry van Loveren; Khaled Abdel Aziz

    1999-01-01

    Summary: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the an- terior condylar vein are an uncommon but important sub- set of fistulas occurring at the skull base that can be con- fused with DAVFs of the marginal sinus on angiography. MR angiography source images can document the intraos- seous extent and the relationship to the hypoglossal canal of this type of fistula,

  6. Interventional embolization therapy of puerile congenital deep femoral arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tan, Xiao-Yun; Zhou, Shao-Yi; Chen, Kun-Shan; Li, Hai-Bo; Chuanqiang-Niu; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Lin, Que-Qing

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the treatment efficiency of interventional embolization therapy in puerile congenital deep femoral arteriovenous fistula. A retrospective analysis was conducted for 9 cases of congenital deep femoral arteriovenous fistulae treated in our department in the past 5 years. B-ultrasound examination indicated that all puerile patients suffered from deep femoral arteriovenous fistulae, which was confirmed by angiography examination. For all patients, endovascular interventional embolization therapy was conducted and angiography re-examination was implemented after 4 weeks. If there were residual orificium fistulae, the interventional embolization therapy was conducted again. In the 6 month to 2 year follow-up period, improvement of clinical symptoms was observed. Following interventional embolization, 9 cases of deep femoral arteriovenous fistulae were completely occluded and the clinical symptoms were improved. No relapses occurred. In addition, after three embolization treatments, the disease condition of one case was controlled well and the disease condition did not progress. Interventional embolization therapy has a number of advantages, including simple surgery and reliable treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is worthy of promotion and application in the clinic. PMID:23407852

  7. Need for a global obstetric fistula training strategy.

    PubMed

    Rushwan, Hamid; Khaddaj, Sinan; Knight, Louise; Scott, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    Obstetric fistula is a complication of childbirth that often follows obstructed labor and is almost exclusive to low-resource countries. The original Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD 1990 Study) reported an incidence of 8.68 per 100000 and a prevalence of 51.35 per 100,000 for women aged 15-44 years in low-resource regions. The most cited global prevalence estimate is 2 million women. Although the global burden of obstetric fistula remains unclear, the number of women suffering from the condition is increasing, while surgical treatment remains limited. There are few experienced fistula surgeons and past surgical training approaches have been inconsistent. The Global Competency-Based Fistula Surgery Training Manual developed by FIGO and partners contains a set curriculum and, to ensure its implementation, a global strategy and training program have been developed. This paper describes key elements of the training program and its implementation. The anticipated impact of the training program is a reduction in global morbidity caused by obstetric fistula. PMID:22884819

  8. A rare approach to entero-atmospheric fistula

    PubMed Central

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir; Al-Hariri, Abdulrazzak; Al-Zahir, Ali Ahmed; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Recurrent incisional hernia Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Limited ileo-cecal resection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Iatrogenic entero-atmospheric fistula is devastating and its management is extremely difficult because it is often associated with fluid and electrolyte disturbances, nutritional problems, and life-threatening sepsis. Case Report: A 60-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic repair of a recurrent incisional hernia that was complicated by iatrogenic cecal injury necessitating a limited ileocecal resection and onlay prosthetic mesh repair of the hernia. Postoperatively, sloughing of the overlying skin led to mesh exposure. An attempted rotational flap coverage was complicated by small bowel injury, which was recognized and repaired. However, an entero-atmospheric fistula developed after the removal of contaminated mesh. The fistula was initially treated by vacuum-assisted closure dressing and later was converted to a ‘stoma’. Six months later, the small bowel segment bearing the fistula was excised and bowel continuity was restored. Conclusions: In selected cases, the conversion of entero-atmospheric fistula to a ‘stoma’ allows the patient to be discharged home early and maintain good nutritional status while awaiting the definitive surgical intervention. PMID:24265846

  9. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  10. A case of a bleeding benign gastrocolic fistula in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Winata, Leon Shin-han; Kong, Cherng Huei; Thiruchelvam, Dhan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the era of proton pump inhibitors in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, the incidence of a gastrocolic fistula arising from unoperated gastric ulcers is extremely low. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a 68-year old farmer who presented with melaena and was found to have a benign gastrocolic fistula in the setting of untreated peptic ulcer disease, chronic NSAID ingestion and heavy alcohol intake. The diagnosis was made by gastroscopy. En bloc surgery was undertaken due to the size of the fistula and concomitant significant bleeding of the ulcer which would not have made it amenable to medical management. DISCUSSION The symptoms of a gastrocolic fistula are undifferentiated and the diagnosis can easily be missed in the setting of other complications such as bleeding or perforation of a hollow viscus. Barium enamas are the most accurate for the diagnosis but gastroscopy with biopsy is usually performed to rule out malignancy. The mainstay of treatment is usually surgical, though patients can be medically managed if he/she is not a surgical candidate. CONCLUSION Benign gastrocolic fistulas are rare and its diagnosis is easily missed. PMID:25460443

  11. Radial Artery Approach to Salvage Nonmaturing Radiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Mu-Yang; Lin, Lin; Tsai, Kuei-Chin; Wu, Chih-Cheng, E-mail: chihchengwumd@gmail.com [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Cardiology (China)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the usefulness of an approach through the radial artery distal to the arteriovenous anastomosis for salvaging nonmaturing radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas.MethodsProcedures that fulfilled the following criteria were retrospectively reviewed: (1) autogenous radiocephalic fistulas, (2) fistulas less than 3 months old, (3) distal radial artery approach for salvage. From 2005 to 2011, a total of 51 patients fulfilling the above criteria were enrolled. Outcome variables were obtained from angiographic, clinical and hemodialysis records, including the success, complication, and primary and secondary patency rates.ResultsThe overall anatomical and clinical success rates for the distal radial artery approach were 96 and 94 %, respectively. The average procedure time was 36 {+-} 19 min. Six patients (12 %) experienced minor complications as a result of extravasations. No arterial complication or puncture site complication was noted. The postinterventional 6-month primary patency rate was 51 %, and the 6-month secondary patency rate was 90 %. When the patients were divided into a stenosed group (20 patients) and an occluded group (31 patients), there were no differences in the success rate, complication rate, or primary and secondary patency rates.ConclusionAn approach through the radial artery distal to the arteriovenous anastomosis is an effective and safe alternative for the salvage of nonmaturing radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas, even for occluded fistulas.

  12. A Comparison of Laparoscopic and Abdominal Radical Parametrectomy for Cervical or Vaginal Apex Carcinoma and Stage II Endometrial Cancer After Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Qu, Lianxi; Hua, Keqin; Xu, Huan; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Radical parametrectomy (RP), performed either abdominally (ARP) or laparoscopically (LRP), is a viable alternative to radiotherapy in treating invasive cervical cancer, vaginal apex cancer, and endometrial cancer that is more advanced than initially suspected after hysterectomy. We carried out a comparative study on intra- and postoperative parameters between the two performed by similarly experienced surgeons. Methods: Forty consecutive patients indicative for RP were reviewed: 22 and 18 underwent ARP and LRP, respectively. Information was collected on demographics, indications for initial and this surgery, tumor characteristics, intra- and postoperative parameters, and complications. The lengths of resected parametrial and vaginal tissues were measured. Results: Compared with ARP, LRP resulted in shorter operative time (200 vs 239 min), less blood loss (627.8 vs 929.5 mL), shorter hospital stay (16.8 vs 19.9 days), and removal of more pelvic lymph nodes (27.4 ± 5.9 vs 23.1 ± 7.1). Although it was not attempted in ARP to remove lymph nodes in the deep obturator space, it was attempted in LRP and one positive node was found. In the ARP cohort there was one case of injury to the small intestine during surgery, whereas in LRP there was one instance of lower urologic fistula after surgery. Conclusion: LRP is superior to ARP in terms of shorter operative time, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay while still maintaining the completeness of the procedure. It can be safely performed in the hands of experienced surgeons for cervical or vaginal apex carcinoma and stage II endometrial cancer after hysterectomy. PMID:23925019

  13. Tracheo-Innominate Artery Fistula after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Jong Hyun; Jun, Po Sung; Sim, Young-Joo; Jeong, Ho Joong

    2012-01-01

    Tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIAF) is rare, yet the most fatal complication after tracheostomy. In the absence of immediate diagnosis and surgical management, the mortality rate is very high, because the complication can lead to sudden massive tracheal hemorrhage. Tracheal obstruction and hypovolemic shock are the major life threatening conditions. The 46-year-old woman received tracheostomy tube insertion after stroke. Three months later, there was occurrence of active bleeding at the site of tracheostomy in the patient, who participated in comprehensive rehabilitation program. Immediately, the patient received an endotracheal tube insertion into the tracheostomy site and thus massive bleeding was controlled. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, where her breathing was maintained by mechanical ventilation. Based on computed tomography and laryngoscopy, no remarkable findings about TIAF were detected. Nevertheless, transfemoral angiography findings revealed that innominate artery made small luminal outpouching to trachea at the carotid artery and at the subclavian artery bifurcation level, based on which a diagnosis of TIAF was made. She had an operation for TIAF, tracheoplasty with bypass graft. Subsequently, she was discharged after 15 weeks. In the present report, we describe a case of TIAF, which can occur in the patients with tracheostomy tube during rehabilitation. PMID:23342324

  14. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. How I do it: Martius flap for rectovaginal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Kniery, Kevin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2015-03-01

    Rectovaginal fistulas present a difficult problem that is frustrating for patients and surgeons alike. Surgical options range from collagen plugs and endorectal advancement flaps to sphincter repairs or resection with coloanal reconstruction. For recurrent or complex rectovaginal fistulas, especially in the setting of prior radiation, Crohn's disease, or large wounds, bringing in healthy tissue into the space provides an excellent opportunity for improved results. The bulbocavernosus muscle and its surrounding vascularized tissue pedicle, first described by Martius in 1928, is an excellent option for fistula closure. Surgeons caring for these patients should be aware of this technique and have it as one method in their operative armamentarium when faced with these challenging cases. PMID:25519082

  17. Arteriovenous fistula stent infection diagnosed with radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Miyeon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chang, Jee Won; Song, Heesung

    2015-07-01

    Infectious complications of haemodialysis in patients with arteriovenous fistula stent are rare. In addition, patients with low-grade infection are more difficult to diagnose. Here, we report the first case of low-grade infection of an arteriovenous fistula stent diagnosed using (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy. A 62-year-old man with end-stage renal disease was referred for prolonged fever. We performed (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy following a work-up according to fever of unknown origin. A focal uptake on the left forearm compatible with the arteriovenous fistula stent insertion site was shown, and the stent was removed. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy could be a suitable method for assessing vascular stent infection in low-grade fever. PMID:25768230

  18. Contemporary surgical management of rectovaginal fistula in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Michael A; Hull, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Rectovaginal fistula is a disastrous complication of Crohn’s disease (CD) that is exceedingly difficult to treat. It is a disabling condition that negatively impacts a women’s quality of life. Successful management is possible only after accurate and complete assessment of the entire gastrointestinal tract has been performed. Current treatment algorithms range from observation to medical management to the need for surgical intervention. A wide variety of success rates have been reported for all management options. The choice of surgical repair methods depends on various fistula and patient characteristics. Before treatment is undertaken, establishing reasonable goals and expectations of therapy is essential for both the patient and surgeon. This article aims to highlight the various surgical techniques and their outcomes for repair of CD associated rectovaginal fistula. PMID:25400993

  19. Endovascular Management of Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Govindarajan, E-mail: gnarayanan@med.miami.ed [University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Mohin, Geetika, E-mail: geetika77@yahoo.co [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Barbery, Katuska, E-mail: kbarbery@med.miami.ed [University of Miami, Department of Radiology (United States); Lamus, Daniel, E-mail: dlamus@med.miami.ed [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Resident of Department of Surgery (United States); Nanavati, Kunal, E-mail: knanavati@med.miami.ed [University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Yrizarry, Jose M., E-mail: jyrizarr@med.miami.ed [University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Vascular/Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The uncommon presentation of an arterioportal fistula (APF) involving the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with a pseudoaneurysm represents a therapeutic challenge. We present the case of a 24-year-old female admitted to the hospital after multiple gunshot wounds to the abdomen; the patient underwent multiple surgeries and, in the process, developed a SMA pseudoaneurysm and fistula. The vascular interventional radiology team was consulted for treatment of the pseudoaneurysm and fistula. A covered stent was inserted percutaneously to exclude the APF and the pseudoaneurysm in a single procedure. The patient returned to our service after 21 months for a follow-up CT scan, which demonstrated the stent and the distal vasculature to be patent.

  20. Embolization of a High-Output Postnephrectomy Aortocaval Fistula with Gianturco Coils and Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Cekirge, Saruhan; Oguzkurt, Levent; Saatci, Isil; Boyvat, Fatih; Balkanci, Ferhun [Department of Radiology, Vascular/Interventional Radiology Section, Hacettepe Universitesi Tip Fakueltesi, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-11-15

    The authors describe the endovascular treatment of a high-output, large-caliber, postnephrectomy aortocaval fistula using a mixture of cyanoacrylate and lipiodol combined with Gianturco coil embolization. Thirty-nine coils were used to decrease the flow through the fistula so that a fast-polymerizing glue mixture could be injected into the fistula. During rapid polymerization, the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) mixture was trapped within the coils, providing an easily controllable glue cast in the fistula, thereby preventing inadvertent embolization into the lungs. This approach can be of considerable benefit for the endovascular treatment of central high-output fistulas.

  1. Role of HIDA scanning in the assessment of external biliary fistulae

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, G.A.; Collier, N.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Blumgart, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Three patients with postoperative external biliary fistula are described. In each, radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc HIDA was used to define the anatomy of the fistula. The extent of the fistula and the presence of distal obstruction to bile flow could also be determined. This information was used to predict the likelihood of spontaneous fistula closure. HIDA scanning is a useful noninvasive alternative to other investigations, such as fistulography and cholangiography, which do not always provide useful information. The results of HIDA scanning can aid the clinical decision on the need for surgical intervention to correct an external biliary fistula.

  2. A Rare Etiology of Heart Failure: Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula Due to Stab Injury 17 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Hüseyin, Serhat; Yüksel, Volkan; Güçlü, Orkut; Y?lmaztepe, Mustafa; Canbaz, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although traumatic fistula is frequently encountered, high-output heart failure due to fistula is a very rare condition. Despite an indefinitive history of trauma, arteriovenous (AV) fistula may develop insidiously, and therefore identification of a shunt is highly important for treatment. Case Report: Here we report a 46-year-old male patient with heart failure due to traumatic femoral arteriovenous fistula developed following a penetrating stab injury 17 years ago. Conclusion: Traumatic AV fistula is a curable cause of heart failure. Also, careful examination of the patient is as significant as radiological imaging methods. PMID:26185721

  3. Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This procedure is used to repair the vaginal wall herniation that occurs with urethrocele, cystocele, or rectocele. ... release a portion of the anterior (front) vaginal wall that is attached to the base of the ...

  4. 77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-768] Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on...the United States after importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason of infringement of certain...

  5. Current management of cryptoglandular fistula-in-ano

    PubMed Central

    Bleier, Joshua IS; Moloo, Husein

    2011-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is a difficult problem that physicians have struggled with for centuries. Appropriate treatment is based on 3 central tenets: (1) control of sepsis; (2) closure of the fistula; and (3) maintenance of continence. Treatment options continue to evolve - as a result, it is important to review old and new options on a regular basis to ensure that our patients are provided with up to date information and options. This paper will briefly cover some of the traditional approaches that have been used as well as some newer promising procedures. PMID:21876615

  6. Current management of cryptoglandular fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Moloo, Husein

    2011-07-28

    Fistula-in-ano is a difficult problem that physicians have struggled with for centuries. Appropriate treatment is based on 3 central tenets: (1) control of sepsis; (2) closure of the fistula; and (3) maintenance of continence. Treatment options continue to evolve - as a result, it is important to review old and new options on a regular basis to ensure that our patients are provided with up to date information and options. This paper will briefly cover some of the traditional approaches that have been used as well as some newer promising procedures. PMID:21876615

  7. Biomaterials in the treatment of anal fistula: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    Scoglio, Daniele; Walker, Avery S; Fichera, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Anal fistula (AF) presents a chronic problem for patients and colorectal surgeons alike. Surgical treatment may result in impairment of continence and long-term risk of recurrence. Treatment options for AFs vary according to their location and complexity. The ideal approach should result in low recurrence rates and minimal impact on continence. New technical approaches involving biologically derived products such as biological mesh, fibrin glue, fistula plug, and stem cells have been applied in the treatment of AF to improve outcomes and decrease recurrence rates and the risk of fecal incontinence. In this review, we will highlight the current evidence and describe our personal experience with these novel approaches. PMID:25435826

  8. Alternative surgical management of oroantral fistula using auricular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Aydin; Durmaz, Can-Engin

    2015-04-01

    One of the clinical complications encountered by oral and maxillofacial surgeons is oroantral communication (OAC) with subsequent formation of oroantral fistula (OAF). Many techniques and treatment modalities have been described for the management of OAC and OAF. There are advantages and disadvantages of all these techniques. We report a 21-year-old male patient who was admitted to our department for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an auricular cartilage graft. This technique may be useful to treat OAF and to provide a solid alveolar bone site for subsequent pre-implant surgery. Key words:Auricular cartilage, implant surgery, oroantral fistula. PMID:26155358

  9. Complicated rectovaginal fistula secondary to Bartholin's cyst infection.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Haydar A; Mendes, Vanessa Marron; Zein, Farah; Tanios, Bassem Y; Berjaoui, Tarek

    2014-04-01

    Rectovaginal fistula formation secondary to Bartholin's cyst is a very rare complication, and to date only three cases were reported in the literature. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who suffered recurrent episodes of Bartholin's cyst infection with subsequent abscess formation that resulted in rectovaginal fistula formation. We treated her initially with transperineal repair; however, the fistulous tract recurred a month later. A laparoscopic colostomy and transperineal repair using biological graft was then performed, with excellent results. The patient underwent reversal of colostomy after 2 months, and remained asymptomatic upon follow-up 12 months later. PMID:24428845

  10. Angiographic and Interventional Management for a Esophagopericardial Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Keng, E-mail: zjwukeng@hotmail.com; You, Qiong, E-mail: qiong_you@yahoo.cn; He, Song-Jian; Mo, Hai-Liang [Affiliated hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Department of Cardiology (China)

    2013-06-19

    We reported a case of a 78-year-old patient with esophagopericardial fistula who was referred for angiographic and interventional management. Emergent implantation of the esophageal stent could not lengthen or even save the patient’s life. One week later, the patient died of multiple organ failure, which was probably from formation of granulation tissue and stent migration. Therefore, if the inflammatory to the esophagopericardial fistula had been better controlled initially, and the implantation of the esophageal stent delayed, our patient would have survived.

  11. Alternative surgical management of oroantral fistula using auricular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Can-Engin

    2015-01-01

    One of the clinical complications encountered by oral and maxillofacial surgeons is oroantral communication (OAC) with subsequent formation of oroantral fistula (OAF). Many techniques and treatment modalities have been described for the management of OAC and OAF. There are advantages and disadvantages of all these techniques. We report a 21-year-old male patient who was admitted to our department for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an auricular cartilage graft. This technique may be useful to treat OAF and to provide a solid alveolar bone site for subsequent pre-implant surgery. Key words:Auricular cartilage, implant surgery, oroantral fistula.

  12. Taking an Alternate Route Home: Stenting of Choledochoduodenal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chintanaboina, JayaKrishna; Mathew, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old male with adenocarcinoma of the rectum with metastasis to liver and porta hepatis region underwent biliary stenting due to aggressive distal common bile duct stricture. At the time of planned stent exchange, the guidewire could not be re-introduced, despite several techniques, including the SpyScope® system. A small fistula was noted by contrast fluoroscopy extending between proximal biliary tree/porta hepatis and the duodenal bulb, likely secondary to previous chemotherapy and radiation. A stent was placed in this fistula, as this was the only pathway available for biliary drainage.

  13. Failure of somatostatin or an analog to promote closure of end pancreatic fistulae.

    PubMed

    Miller, B M; Traverso, L W; Freeny, P C; Abumrad, N N

    1989-02-01

    Somatostatin has been reported to promote closure of pancreatic fistulae, but use of the analog SMS 201-995 (Sandoz, Inc.) has not previously been published. We used this analog to treat two patients with end pancreatic fistulae refractory to conventional therapy. One patient had disruption of a pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy and the other had acute necrotizing gallstone pancreatitis and disruption of the pancreatic duct in the tail. SMS 201-995 (100-150 micrograms/d) abruptly decreased fistula output by 50% in both patients but further increases in dosage had no further effect on output. Neither fistula healed after 3-4 wk of therapy. Treatment with somatostatin or its analogs alone will not lead to closure of a pancreatic fistula complicated by factors such as distal obstruction, infection, or foreign body. Somatostatin may promote closure of lateral fistulae and may simplify the management of patients with high output fistulae. PMID:2466917

  14. Study of the vaginal tolerance to acidform, an acid-buffering, bioadhesive gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliana Amaral; Anibal Faúndes; Lourens Zaneveld; Donald Waller; Sanjay Garg

    1999-01-01

    Vaginal tolerance tests were performed with a new potential microbicidal and spermicidal product, an acid-buffering vaginal gel (Acidform) without or with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). The potential advantages over other vaginal products include keeping a low pH, decrease of the irritating effect of N-9 on the cervix or vaginal mucosa associated with greater retention of the product after application, and decreasing “messiness”

  15. The effect of vaginally administered genistein in comparison with hyaluronic acid on atrophic epithelium in postmenopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Le Donne; Carmela Caruso; Alfredo Mancuso; Gregorio Costa; Raffaella Iemmo; Giovanni Pizzimenti; Vittorio Cavallari

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  The quality of life in postmenopause is seriously affected by the symptoms related to vaginal atrophy. To evaluate in a 3-month,\\u000a prospective, randomized, double blind, study whether vaginal suppositories containing genistein might improve genital symptoms,\\u000a colposcopical and cytologic findings or modify DNA cytometric features in postmenopausal women affected by vaginal atrophy,\\u000a in comparison with vaginal suppositories containing hyaluronic acid (HA).

  16. Use of synthetic mesh to prevent recurrent vaginal evisceration: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Jurus; Peter Finamore; Babak Vakili

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal evisceration of the bowel is a rare and life-threatening complication of gynecologic surgery; recurrence is even more\\u000a rare. Most cases in the literature discuss primary closure of the dehisced vaginal cuff with delayed absorbable sutures via\\u000a a vaginal, abdominal, or laparoscopic approach. The case presented here is of a patient who had a history of recurrent vaginal\\u000a evisceration treated

  17. BLT Humanized Mice as Model to Study HIV Vaginal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occur by sexual exposure, and vaginal transmission accounts for more than half of all newly acquired infections. Studies of vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus to nonhuman primates (NHPs) have suggested an important role for immune cell trafficking in the establishment of infection as well is in the process of viral dissemination. However, NHP models do not permit the study of HIV transmission and dissemination. The improvement of humanized mouse models with robust human immune cell reconstitution of the female genital tract renders these mice susceptible to intravaginal HIV infection. Thus humanized mouse models of HIV vaginal infection will allow the study of the mechanisms involved in HIV transmission and dissemination in vivo. PMID:24151319

  18. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition. PMID:19282975

  19. [Vaginal delivery safe for twins starting at 32 weeks?].

    PubMed

    Goossens, Simone M T A; Mol, Ben W J; Nijhuis, Jan G; Roumen, Frans J M E

    2014-01-01

    Compared with other countries, the elective caesarean section rate for twins is relatively low in the Netherlands. Worldwide, there is an increasing trend toward performing more elective caesarean sections for women with a twin pregnancy at term, be it for twins with the first child in breech or in cephalic presentation. The results of the 'Twin Birth Study' indicate that a planned caesarean section does not improve outcome as compared with planned vaginal birth for twins with the first child in cephalic position beyond 32 weeks gestation. During the study, an experienced obstetrician was present during planned vaginal delivery and there was a possibility of performing a secondary caesarean section within 30 minutes. This study provides an additional argument to guarantee the aforementioned conditions in all hospitals where women plan to deliver their twins vaginally. However, the definition of an experienced obstetrician is subject to debate. PMID:24735810

  20. Vaginal deployment and tenofovir delivery by microbicide gels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Yuan, A; Chuchuen, O; Ham, A; Yang, K H; Katz, D F

    2015-06-01

    Gels are one of the soft material platforms being evaluated to deliver topically acting anti-HIV drugs (microbicides) to the vaginal environment. For each drug, its loaded concentration, gel properties and applied volume, and frequency of dosing can be designed to optimize PK and, thence, PD. These factors also impact user sensory perceptions and acceptability. Deterministic compartmental modeling of vaginal deployment and drug delivery achieved by test gels can help delineate how multiple parameters characterizing drug, vehicle, vaginal environment, and dosing govern details of PK and PD and also gel leakage from the canal. Such microbicide delivery is a transport process combining convection, e.g., from gel spreading along the vaginal canal, with drug diffusion in multiple compartments, including gel, mucosal epithelium, and stroma. The present work builds upon prior models of gel coating flows and drug diffusion (without convection) in the vaginal environment. It combines and extends these initial approaches in several key ways, including: (1) linking convective drug transport due to gel spreading with drug diffusion and (2) accounting for natural variations in dimensions of the canal and the site of gel placement therein. Results are obtained for a leading microbicide drug, tenofovir, delivered by three prototype microbicide gels, with a range of rheological properties. The model includes phosphorylation of tenofovir to tenofovir diphosphate (which manifests reverse transcriptase activity in host cells), the stromal concentration distributions of which are related to reference prophylactic values against HIV. This yields a computed summary measure related to gel protection ("percent protected"). Analyses illustrate tradeoffs amongst gel properties, drug loading, volume and site of placement, and vaginal dimensions, in the time and space history of gel distribution and tenofovir transport to sites of its anti-HIV action and concentrations and potential prophylactic actions of tenofovir diphosphate therein. PMID:25874971

  1. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    PubMed Central

    Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546

  2. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane; Maamari, Ricardo; Reiter, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy, resulting from decreased estrogen production, frequently requires treatment. Estrogen preparations provide the most effective treatment; local application is preferred to systemic drugs when treating only vaginal symptoms. As local estrogen therapies have comparable efficacy, this study aimed to understand treatment practices, assess experiences with different forms of local estrogen-delivering applicators, and evaluate satisfaction. Women who were US residents aged ?18 years, menopausal (no spontaneous menstrual period for ?1 year or with a double oophorectomy), and receiving local estrogen therapy for 1-6 months (vaginal cream [supplied with a reusable applicator] or vaginal tablets [supplied with a single-use/disposable applicator]), completed an online questionnaire. Data from 200 women (100 cream users and 100 tablet users; mean therapy duration 3.48 months) showed that most stored medication in the room in which it was applied (88%) and applied it at bedtime (71%), a procedure for which cream users required, on average, more than twice the time of tablet users (5.08 minutes versus 2.48 minutes). Many cream users applied larger-than-prescribed amounts of cream, attempting to achieve greater efficacy (42%), or lower-than-recommended doses (45%), most frequently to avoid messiness (33%) or leakage (30%). More tablet users (69%) than cream users (14%) were "extremely satisfied" with their applicator. Postmenopausal women using local estrogen therapy were generally more satisfied with the application of vaginal tablets than cream. Patient satisfaction may help to facilitate accurate dosing. Positive perceptions of medication will help to optimize treatment, which, although not assessed in this study, is likely, in turn, to improve vaginal health. PMID:24648772

  3. Evaluation of risk factors of vaginal cuff dehiscence after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Ji; Kim, Seongmin; Bae, Hyo Sook; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of vaginal cuff dehiscence or evisceration according to the type of operation. Methods Medical records of 604 women who underwent hysterectomies at Korea University Anam Hospital between June 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. They were allocated to six groups. The six types of hysterectomies included robotic hysterectomy (n = 7), robotic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (RRHND, n = 9), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH, n = 274), laparoscopy assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH, n = 238), laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (n = 11), and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH, n = 63). The characteristics and outcomes of each groups were compared. Results There was no difference in the characteristics of patients between 6 groups. In total of 604 hysterectomies, 3 evisceration (0.49%) and 21 dehiscences (3.47%) occurred. Evisceration were found in RRHND (1/9, 11.1%), TLH (1/276, 0.36%), and ARH (1/63, 1.56%). Dehiscences occurred in TLH (15/274, 5.42%), LAVH (4/238, 1.68%), and ARH (2/63, 3.17%). In 169 cases of TLH with intra-corporeal continuous suture, 1 evisceration and 4 dehiscences occurred, whereas 11 dehiscences occurred in 105 TLH cases with vaginal continuous locking suture (2.96% vs. 10.47%, P = 0.02). Conclusion The incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscenceand eviscerationwas significantly higher in TLH than LAVH. The intra-corporeal cuff suture was superior to the vaginal suture to prevent the vaginal cuff complications in TLH. PMID:24678487

  4. Evaluating the potential impact of vaginal microbicides to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV in

    E-print Network

    Blower, Sally

    Evaluating the potential impact of vaginal microbicides to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV: The following questions were addressed: would the introduction of vaginal microbicides substantially reduce) is low. ß 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins AIDS 2005, 19:413­421 Keywords: vaginal microbicides, HIV

  5. Quantity and distribution of levator ani stretch during simulated vaginal childbirth

    E-print Network

    Majumdar, Amit

    Quantity and distribution of levator ani stretch during simulated vaginal childbirth Lennox Hoyte of levator ani stretch during simulated vaginal childbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199:198.e1-198.e5, Lien et al11 performed computer simulations of vaginal childbirth and demonstrated

  6. A multicenter randomized comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy in abdominal hysterectomy candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L Summitt; Thomas G Stovall; John F Steege; Gary H Lipscomb

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy among patients who are not eligible for vaginal hysterectomy.Methods: Study subjects were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy or standard abdominal hysterectomy. Intraoperative and postoperative management was similar for each group. Surgical characteristics, complications, length of hospital stay, charges, and convalescence were analyzed.Results:

  7. Resistance to vaginal or systemic infection with herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary C. Breinig; L. L. Wright; Margaret B. McGeorge; P. S. MORAItAN

    1978-01-01

    Summary Mortality due to vaginal or intravenous infection of female BALB\\/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was significantly reduced by treatment of mice with the immunomodulator pyran. Following intravaginal inoculation with virus, the incidence of vaginal infection and titers of virus present in the vaginal secretions were significantly reduced in pyran treated as compared with control mice.

  8. Molecular analysis of the vaginal response to estrogens in the ovariectomized rat and postmenopausal woman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A Jelinsky; Sung E Choe; Judy S Crabtree; Monette M Cotreau; Ewa Wilson; Kathryn Saraf; Andrew J Dorner; Eugene L Brown; Bryan J Peano; Xiaochun Zhang; Richard C Winneker; Heather A Harris

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal atrophy (VA) is the thinning of the vaginal epithelial lining, typically the result of lowered estrogen levels during menopause. Some of the consequences of VA include increased susceptibility to bacterial infection, pain during sexual intercourse, and vaginal burning or itching. Although estrogen treatment is highly effective, alternative therapies are also desired for women who are not candidates for

  9. Maturitas 41 (2002) 157165 Estrogen replacement reverses ovariectomy-induced vaginal

    E-print Network

    Berkley, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    of the mechanism is vaginal atrophy associated with the loss of ovarian hormones, particularly estrogen, because both vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia can be reversed by hormone or estrogen replacement therapy [3 and because vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia do not always vary to- gether [3]. Although there are studies

  10. Aetiology & risk factors of recurrent vaginitis & its association with various contraceptive methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Thulkar; Alka Kriplani; Nutan Agarwal; Sreenivas Vishnubhatla

    Background & objectives: Women who do not seek treatment for recurrent vaginitis have risk to acquire other sexually transmitted infections. Besides proper antibiotic treatment, male condom acts as a barrier to various infections. Present study was done to assess type of vaginitis, its association with various contraceptive methods and need of male condom in prevention of recurrent vaginitis. Methods: Prospective

  11. Molecular analysis of the diversity of vaginal microbiota associated with bacterial vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongxin Ling; Jianming Kong; Fang Liu; Haibin Zhu; Xiaoyi Chen; Yuezhu Wang; Lanjuan Li; Karen E Nelson; Yaxian Xia; Charlie Xiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of vaginal microbial communities; most of the earlier studies focused on predominant vaginal bacteria

  12. Laparoscopic Management of Congenital Cervico-Vaginal Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nutan; Sircar, Reema

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of cervical agenesis or lack of uterine cervix. It is a rare mullerian anomaly and occurs in 1 in 80,000-100,000 births. The patient presented to us with primary amenorrhea and cyclical left lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed to have cervical agenesis associated with vaginal agenesis and left endometriotic cyst. Neovagina was created laparoscopically. Utero-vaginal anastomosis was tried but it was not technically feasible. Subsequently, laparoscopic hysterectomy was done due to recurrent endometriotic cyst formation.

  13. The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti-microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection-related preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Witkin, S S

    2015-01-01

    Ascending bacterial infection is implicated in about 40-50% of preterm births. The human vaginal microbiota in most women is dominated by lactobacilli. In women whose vaginal microbiota is not lactobacilli-dominated anti-bacterial defence mechanisms are reduced. The enhanced proliferation of pathogenic bacteria plus degradation of the cervical barrier increase bacterial passage into the endometrium and amniotic cavity and trigger preterm myometrial contractions. Evaluation of protocols to detect the absence of lactobaciili dominance in pregnant women by self-measuring vaginal pH, coupled with measures to promote growth of lactobacilli are novel prevention strategies that may reduce the occurrence of preterm birth in low-resource areas. PMID:25316066

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:35–43. PMID:25356286

  15. Vaginal colonization and activity of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum L23 in a murine model of vaginal tract infection.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Liliana; Ruiz, Francisco; Giordano, Walter; Barberis, Isabel Lucila

    2010-03-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum L23, was selected from among 100 strains isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy, non-pregnant, pre-menopausal women. L. fermentum L23 was chosen on the basis of its bacteriocinogenic ability and its properties relevant to colonization, i.e. self-aggregation, adherence to vaginal epithelial cells and co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens. The antimicrobial preventative and curative effects produced by the probiotic L. fermentum L23 administered locally against Escherichia coli in a murine vaginal tract infection model were studied. One dose of the human strain L23 containing 10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1) colonized and persisted in the vaginal tract of the female BALB/c mice for 5 days. Infection with the pathogen at 10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) in the vaginal tract was maintained for more than 7 days. A single dose of L23 administered 24 h pre-infection inhibited E. coli growth on day 3 post-infection, showing the preventative effect displayed by this Lactobacillus strain. Treatment with L. fermentum L23 during the post-infection period showed complete inhibition of pathogen growth from day 5. Thus, this in vivo study indicated that the probiotic bacterium L. fermentum L23 produced both preventative and curative effects on E. coli growth. The beneficial properties and the production of antimicrobial metabolites may act in situ to inhibit a pathogenic micro-organism within the vaginal environment. Strain L23 could be a good natural alternative to other therapies used for genital infections. PMID:19926731

  16. Vaginal micronized progesterone capsule versus vaginal progesterone gel for lutheal support in normoresponder IVF/ICSI-ET cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Kenan; Gun, Ismet; Sahin, Sadik; Ozden, Okan; Tosun, Oktay; Eroglu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of luteal phase support by micronized progesteron vaginal capsule 600mg/day and progesterone vaginal gel 180mg/day in the normoresponder IVF/ICSI-ET cycles of the patients down-regulated via GnRH agonist long protocol or fixed antagonist protocol below 40 years of age. Methods: A total of 463 normoresponder cycles between January 2013 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Those with a BMI>28 kg/m2, any kind of uterine, ovarian or adnexial pathology, any significant systemic, endocrine or metabolic disease or who were reported as azoospermia, were excluded from the study. The patients were grouped according to the usage of micronized progesterone vaginal capsule 600mg/day (Group 1) or progesterone vaginal gel 180mg/day (Group 2) as luteal phase support. Treatment cycle characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were compared between groups. Results: Group-I included 220 cycles and group 2 included 243 cycles. Although the MII oocyte percentage among the total number of MII oocytes was significantly higher in Group-II (77.5% and 80.2%; p=0.034), positive ß-hCG (32.3% and 21.8%; p=0.015) and clinical pregnancy (27.3% and 17.7%; p=0.018) rates were significantly higher in Group-I. No difference was observed between groups regarding the ongoing pregnancy rates (23.2% and 17.3%; p=0.143). Conclusion: Micronized progesterone vaginal capsule 600mg daily used for luteal support in the IVF/ICSI-ET cycles was observed to significantly increase the biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates compared to progesterone vaginal gel 180mg daily. However, no difference was observed between two groups regarding ongoing pregnancy rates.

  17. Stent-Graft Repair of Peroneal Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Piffaretti, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.piffaretti@tiscali.it; Tozzi, Matteo; Lomazzi, Chiara; Rivolta, Nicola [University of Insubria, Ospedale di Circolo, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery (Italy); Lagana, Domenico; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [University of Insubria, Ospedale di Circolo, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy); Caronno, Roberto; Castelli, Patrizio [University of Insubria, Ospedale di Circolo, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are infrequently seen in the civilian health-care system; traditionally, these lesions have been treated with ligation, or direct surgical repair with concomitant revascularization. We describe a rare case of a peroneal AVF treated with a stent-graft.

  18. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: The Question of Perilymph Fistula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backous, Douglas D.; Niparko, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Perilymph fistula (PLF) is an abnormal communication between the fluid-containing spaces of the inner ear and the air-containing spaces of the temporal bone that can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness, vertigo, and postural instability. Diagnosis of PLF and management of those with presumed PLF are discussed. (Contains extensive…

  19. Neonatal perforated Amyand's hernia presenting as an enterocutaneous scrotal fistula.

    PubMed

    Panagidis, Antonios; Sinopidis, Xenophon; Zachos, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Vasileios; Vareli, Anastasia; Varvarigou, Anastasia; Georgiou, George

    2015-07-01

    Perforation of the vermiform appendix in a septic neonate with an Amyand's hernia resulted in the formation of a scrotal enterocutaneous fistula. In conclusion from this exceptional complication, active parental awareness for any neonatal scrotal swelling is required, and an early operative policy for the neonatal inguinal hernia is significant. PMID:24751296

  20. A Pancreatic Fistula after the Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Özbalc?, Gökhan Selçuk; Polat, Ayfer Kamal?; Tar?m, ?smail Alper; Derebey, Murat; Nural, Mehmet Selim; Tümentemur, Volkan; Karabacak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular surgical weight-loss procedure in the treatment of morbid obesity. There are some complications regarding this procedure in the literature. This report presents a pancreatic fistula (PF) case, which has not been previously seen.

  1. Early presentation of postintubation tracheoesophageal fistula: Perioperative anesthetic management

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Depinder; Anand, Saurabh; Sharma, Prakash; Kumar, Ashwini

    2012-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) in adults occurs as a result of trauma, malignancy, cuff-induced tracheal necrosis from prolonged mechanical ventilation, traumatic endotracheal intubation, foreign body ingestion, prolonged presence of rigid nasogastric tube, and surgical complication. Anesthetic management for repair of TEF is a challenge. Challenges include difficulties in oxygenation or ventilation resulting from placement of endotracheal tube in or above the fistula; large fistula defect causing loss of tidal volume with subsequent gastric dilatation, atelactasis, and maintenance of one lung ventilation. The most common cause of acquired nonmalignant TEF is postintubation fistula, which develops after prolonged intubation for ventilatory support. Acquired TEF, which occurs after prolonged intubation, usually develops after 12–200 days of mechanical ventilation, with a mean of 42 days. We present a rare case of TEF that developed after 7 days of intubation. It was a difficult case to be diagnosed as patient had a history of polytrauma, followed by emergency intubation and both these conditions can contribute to tracheobronchial injury. PMID:22345958

  2. Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

  3. Marginal sinus fistula supplied exclusively by vertebral artery feeders

    PubMed Central

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman is reported with severe pulsatile tinnitus. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula of the marginal sinus with feeders arising exclusively from bilateral vertebral arteries. Patient underwent successful transarterial Onyx embolization with complete angiographic and clinical cure. PMID:24358414

  4. Endovascular treatment of a congenital dural caroticocavernous fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sait Albayram; Hakan Selcuk; Sila Ulus; Dogan Selcuk; Naci Kocer; Civan Islak

    2004-01-01

    Carotico-cavernous sinus fistula is a rare anomaly in infancy. We report a 3-month-old boy with progressive symptoms and threatened visual loss requiring urgent therapeutic intervention. Embolization using n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate was performed with immediate and dramatic results.

  5. Gallbladder Papillomatosis and Cholecystocolonic Fistula: A Rare Combination

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Jenn-Yuan; Jao, Yeun Tarl Fresner Ng

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 81 Final Diagnosis: Gallbladder papillomatosis Symptoms: Epigastric pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Biliary papillomatosis (BP) with sole involvement of the gall bladder or gall bladder papillomatosis (GBP) is very rare. Biliary-enteric fistula, particularly the cholecystocolonic fistula (CCF) type, is also very rare. The combination of both types of lesions in a single patient has never previously been reported in the English literature. Case Report: We report herein the case of an 81-year-old woman who was diagnosed with both disease entities, which occurred in a cause-and-effect relationship. She underwent resection of the gall bladder with closure of the fistula, and was discharged improved afterwards. Conclusions: GBP is a premalignant condition that warrants extensive resection. An absent Murphy’s sign or jaundice on physical examination should not rule out this disease or accompanying biliary tract infection because a biliary-enteric fistula may be present. Thorough review of the radiologic images should be performed, since subtle details could be easily missed or dismissed, thus affecting the postoperative course. A CCF should alert the physician that another disease entity is present. PMID:25351203

  6. Cholecystocutaneous fistula containing multiple gallstones in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Fabbi, Martina; Volta, Antonella; Quintavalla, Fausto; Zubin, Elena; Manfredi, Sabrina; Martini, Filippo M.; Mantovani, Luciana; Tribaudino, Mario; Gnudi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old dog was presented with a history of an open lesion on the right thoracic wall, discharging honey-like fluid and small stones. Ultrasonography and computed tomographic fistulography identified a cholecystocutaneous fistula; cholecystectomy was curative. Veterinarians should consider this disease in patients with long-term discharging lesions on the right thoracic or abdominal wall. PMID:25477544

  7. Endovascular repair of bleeding aortoenteric fistulas: A 5-year experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Burks; Peter L. Faries; Edwin C. Gravereaux; Larry H. Hollier; Michael L. Marin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Aortoenteric fistula (AEF) is an uncommon but catastrophic complication that can occur either primarily or after aortic reconstruction. Untreated, it is uniformly fatal. Conventional surgical management is associated with a perioperative mortality rate of 25% to 90% and frequent major complications. We reviewed our experience with the endovascular treatment of both primary and secondary AEFs in an effort to

  8. Subclavian vein repair in patients with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Gradman, W S; Bressman, P; Sernaque, J D

    1994-11-01

    Management of subclavian vein occlusive disease in persons with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula can be challenging. From July 1991 to May 1993, nine patients underwent direct exploration and repair of an obstructed subclavian vein following medial claviculectomy. Eight patients had polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts; one patient had a Brescia-Cimino fistula. Intractable arm edema was the major symptom in five of eight. The site of the occlusive disease ranged from the midsubclavian vein to the proximal innominate vein. Pathology varied from a focal occluding web to a long segment of intimal fibroplasia. Five veins were occluded; four were stenotic. Surgical procedures consisted of endovenectomy and vein patch (four), endovenectomy and PTFE patch (one), resection of a focal stricture with end-to-end anastomosis (two), resection with PTFE interposition (one), and end-to-end internal jugular to subclavian vein transposition (one). Postoperative contrast venograms revealed a patent subclavian vein in eight of eight patients. One patient died postoperatively from unrelated causes; two patients died with a functioning fistula 8 and 12 months, respectively, after surgery. Two grafts were removed for infection and one deteriorated graft was abandoned because of repeated thrombosis. Only three of nine original grafts are currently in use, including one in which the ipsilateral subclavian vein rethrombosed. Although stent placement may now be the preferred treatment for subclavian vein stenosis, vein repair may still have a role in the treatment of subclavian vein occlusion, particularly in patients with a Brescia-Cimino fistula. PMID:7865393

  9. Aortoesophageal Fistula: Recognition and Diagnosis in the Emergency Department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Heckstall; Judd E. Hollander

    1998-01-01

    An aortoesophageal fistula is a life-threatening cause of gastrointestinal bleeding where an abnormal communication between the esophagus and the aorta may result from a thoracic aortic aneurysm, foreign body ingestion, esophageal malignancy, or postoperative complications. The diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical findings alone. Classic patients present with the triad of midthoracic pain, sentinel arterial hemorrhage, and

  10. Dental implant complications - extra-oral cutaneous fistula.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, R; Puthussery, F J; Flood, T; Shekhar, K

    2013-07-01

    Dental implants have shown great success in recent years. However, in certain circumstances they can suffer from complications. It usually results from a combination of infection and host inflammatory responses or a lack thereof. This report documents an extra-oral cutaneous fistula associated with an osseointegrated dentoalveolar implant. PMID:23887526

  11. Condylomata acuminata within perianal fistulae tracts: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Panidis, Stavros; Paramythiotis, Daniel; Papadopoulos, Vasileios N; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sights of appearance of condylomata acuminata are in the genital and anal regions. Herein we present two cases of condylomata within perianal fistulae tracts, resulting in recurrence in one case and a malignant-like tumour in the second. To our knowledge, these are the first cases reported in the literature. PMID:24872374

  12. Hemodynamics in the Cephalic Arch of a Brachiocephalic Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Boghosian, M.; Cassel, K.; Hammes, M.; Funaki, B.; Kim, S.; Qian, X.; Wang, X.; Dhar, P.; Hines, J.

    2014-01-01

    The care and outcome of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis is directly dependent on their hemodialysis access. A brachiocephalic fistula (BCF) is commonly placed in the elderly and in patients with a failed lower-arm, or radiocephalic, fistula. However, there are numerous complications such that the BCF has an average patency of only 3.6 years. A leading cause of BCF dysfunction and failure is stenosis in the arch of the cephalic vein near its junction with the axillary vein, which is called cephalic arch stenosis (CAS). Using a combined clinical and computational investigation, we seek to improve our understanding of the cause of CAS, and to develop a means of predicting CAS risk in patients with a planned BCF access. This paper details the methodology used to determine the hemodynamic consequences of the post-fistula environment and illustrates detailed results for a representative sample of patient-specific anatomies, including a single, bifurcated, and trifurcated arch. It is found that the high flows present due to fistula creation lead to secondary flows in the arch owing to its curvature with corresponding low wall shear stresses. The abnormally low wall shear stress locations correlate with the development of stenosis in the singular case that is tracked in time for a period of one year. PMID:24695337

  13. System identification of perilymphatic fistula in an animal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Casselbrant, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    An acute animal model has been developed in the chinchilla for the study of perilymphatic fistulas. Micropunctures were made in three sites to simulate bony, round window, and oval window fistulas. The eye movements in response to pressure applied to the external auditory canal were recorded after micropuncture induction and in preoperative controls. The main pressure stimulus was a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) that rapidly changed between plus and minus 200 mm of water. The PRBS stimulus, with its wide frequency bandwidth, produced responses clearly above the preoperative baseline in 78 percent of the runs. The response was better between 0.5 and 3.3 Hz than it was below 0.5 Hz. The direction of horizontal eye movement was toward the side of the fistula with positive pressure applied in 92 percent of the runs. Vertical eye movements were also observed. The ratio of vertical eye displacement to horizontal eye displacement depended upon the site of the micropuncture induction. Thus, such a ratio measurement may be clinically useful in the noninvasive localization of perilymphatic fistulas in humans.

  14. Naso-cutaneous fistula following transcanalicular laser dacrocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ruchi; Garg, Sonam; Nagpal, Smriti; Kumar, Sushil; Kamal, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of naso-cutaneous fistula due to thermal injury during transcanalicular laser dacryocystorhinostomy followed by superadded infection with coagulase negative staphylococcus in a diabetic patient. The case highlights the importance of meticulous wound care in the management and possibility of its occurrence even with minor thermal injury in immunocompromised patients. PMID:24526863

  15. Unilateral Subcortical Calcification: A Manifestation of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Shiang Yang; Clayton Chi-Chang Chen; Yung-Yi Cheng; Da-Ming Yeh; San-Kan Lee; Yeu-Sheng Tyan

    Summary: We describe the imaging findings in a dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with unilateral subcortical calcification. A 50-year-old woman patient suffered from hypertension and chronic headache. Recently, marked headache and a changed consciousness level were noted. The imaging studies demonstrated left subcortical calci- fication and cerebral sulcus effacement. MR imaging and angiography revealed multiple abnormal tortuous vessels, mainly from left

  16. Cholecystocutaneous fistula containing multiple gallstones in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fabbi, Martina; Volta, Antonella; Quintavalla, Fausto; Zubin, Elena; Manfredi, Sabrina; Martini, Filippo M; Mantovani, Luciana; Tribaudino, Mario; Gnudi, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    A 7-year-old dog was presented with a history of an open lesion on the right thoracic wall, discharging honey-like fluid and small stones. Ultrasonography and computed tomographic fistulography identified a cholecystocutaneous fistula; cholecystectomy was curative. Veterinarians should consider this disease in patients with long-term discharging lesions on the right thoracic or abdominal wall. PMID:25477544

  17. Risk factors for obstetric fistulae in north-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Melah, G S; Massa, A A; Yahaya, U R; Bukar, M; Kizaya, D D; El-Nafaty, A U

    2007-11-01

    This prospective comparative study of obstetric fistulae (OF) was aimed at identifying risk factors. A total of 80 obstetric fistulae treated at the gynaecological unit of the FMCG, and 80 inpatients without fistulae recruited randomly as controls formed the basis of this study. Through interview and case record review, information on age, parity and marital status was collected. Other features were educational status, occupation and booking status of the pregnancy that might have led to this condition. The duration of labour, place of birth and mode of delivery, including its outcome were also collected. The data were analysed using the Epi Info. The majority of the patients were Hausa/Fulani 87.5%, Muslims 91.2%, with large vesicovaginal fistulae (average size 5.0 cm) mainly resulting from obstructed labour (93.7%). Major risk factors included early age at first marriage (average 14 years), short stature (average height 146.2 cm) and illiteracy (96.3%). Also low social class and lack of gainful employment were factors. Failure to book for antenatal care (93.7%), and rural place of residence (95%) were also factors associated with acquiring the fistulae. Living far away (>3 km) from a health facility also contributed or predisposed to the development of an obstetric fistula. Social violence and stigma associated with the fistulae included divorce, being ostracised as a social outcast, and lack of assistance from relations in terms of finding and funding treatment. This study supports improved access to basic essential obstetric care, family planning services, and timely referral when and where necessary. Universal education will provide a long-term solution by improving the standard of living and quality of life. Especially important are media- and community-based programmes on the ills of teenage marriage and child pregnancy using cultural and religiously-based values to give sound advice. In a male dominated society, reaching out to men with traditionally palatable messages that will change their attitude and practices to taking responsibility in reproductive health could be a winning strategy. PMID:18097903

  18. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    PubMed Central

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  19. A rare case of foreign body causing recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal child.

    PubMed

    Gobbur, Vijayalakshmi R; Gobbur, Raghavendra H; Patil, Ashwini G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  20. Considerations to improve the evidence-based use of vaginal hysterectomy in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Moen, Michael; Walter, Andrew; Harmanli, Oz; Cornella, Jeffrey; Nihira, Mikio; Gala, Rajiv; Zimmerman, Carl; Richter, Holly E

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal hysterectomy fulfills the evidence-based requirements as the preferred route of hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease. Despite proven safety and effectiveness, the vaginal approach for hysterectomy has been and remains underused in surgical practice. Factors associated with underuse of vaginal hysterectomy include challenges during residency training, decreasing case numbers among practicing gynecologists, and lack of awareness of evidence supporting vaginal hysterectomy. Strategies to improve resident training and promote collaboration and referral among practicing physicians and increasing awareness of evidence supporting vaginal hysterectomy can improve the primary use of this hysterectomy approach. PMID:25162260

  1. Effectiveness of vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli versus pH tablets on vaginal health and inflammatory cytokines: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, R; Mastromarino, P; Ramalaxmi, B A; Balakrishna, N V; Sesikeran, B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lactobacilli on vaginal health and proinflammatory cytokines. Sixty-seven patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV), 50 with intermediate flora and 42 with normal vaginal flora were enrolled in this double-blind study. The subjects were randomized to receive probiotic lactobacilli vaginal tablets (L. brevis CD2, L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, L. plantarum) or the vaginal pH tablet (active comparator). Cervico-vaginal lavage was collected to measure the concentrations of IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 by ELISA. Neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also quantified in both arms before and after treatment. The probiotic vaginal tablet was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. The study demonstrated a cure rate of nearly 80 %; i.e., 32 % of the women could restore normal vaginal flora and 47 % had improved Nugent score, whereas 20 % of the subjects did not clear BV in the first follow-up (after 8 days treatment). The pH tablet containing pH lowering compounds induced resolution of BV and restoration of normal vaginal flora in 74 % and 26 %, respectively. The lactobacilli tablet was found to be better than the pH tablet in preventing BV in healthy subjects. A significant reduction in IL-1? and IL-6 vaginal cytokines was observed after treatment with lactobacilli, while the active comparator did not have any effect on local proinflammatory cytokines. Vaginal neutral sphingomyelinase activity was not modified in either group. Vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli can cure BV and reduce vaginal inflammatory response. PMID:22777592

  2. Endovascular techniques for treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula.

    PubMed

    Gemmete, Joseph J; Ansari, Sameer A; Gandhi, Dheeraj M

    2009-03-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal arteriovenous communications in the cavernous sinus. Direct CCFs result from a tear in the intracavernous carotid artery. Indirect CCFs generally occur spontaneously and cause more subtle signs. Direct CCFs, which typically have high flow, usually present with ocular-orbital venous congestive features and cephalic bruit. Indirect CCFs, which typically have low flow, present with similar but more muted clinical features. Direct CCFs are always treated with endovascular methods. The goal is to occlude the fistula but preserve the patency of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Agents include detachable coils or liquid embolic agents delivered transarterially or transvenously. Arterial porous or covered stents are often used adjunctively. In rare cases, the ICA must be occluded. Indirect CCFs are only treated if symptoms are intractable or intolerable or if vision is threatened. The goal is to interrupt the fistulous communications and decrease the pressure in the cavernous sinus. The traditional approach has been transarterial embolization with liquid agents, particularly n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA). However, the multiplicity of arterial feeders and the low success rate in occluding indirect CCFs by the arterial route has led to a preference for transvenous embolization, most commonly via the inferior petrosal sinus. If that sinus is impassable, alternative routes include the pterygoid venous plexus, superior petrosal sinus, facial vein, or ophthalmic veins. The cavernous sinus is occluded with coils, liquid embolic agents, or both. The use of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx), an agent that may be superior to n-BCA because it may allow better distal fistula penetration. However, more safety and efficacy data must be accumulated. When experienced interventionalists are involved, the success rate for closing direct fistulas is 85%-99% and for closing indirect fistulas is 70%-78%. Serious complications are relatively infrequent. PMID:19458580

  3. Lymphocutaneous fistulas: pre-therapeutic evaluation by magnetic resonance lymphangiography

    PubMed Central

    Lohrmann, C; Foeldi, E; Langer, M

    2011-01-01

    Objective Lymphocutaneous fistulas with intractable lymphatic leakage represent a serious clinical condition leading to a severe impairment of quality of life for the affected patients. To date, no adequate diagnostic imaging modality is in existence to allow selection of the correct treatment option. The aim of this study was to perform a pre-therapeutic evaluation of the lymphatic system in patients with lymphocutaneous fistulas by magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL). Methods Eight lower extremities in four patients with lymphocutaneous fistulas were examined by MRL. Three locations were examined: first, the lower leg and foot regions; second, the upper leg and the knee region; and third, the pelvic and retroperitoneal regions. A T1 weighted three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient echo and a heavily T2 weighted 3D turbo spin echo (3D-TSE) sequence were utilised to undertake MRL. Results In all four patients (100%), the clinically suspected lymphocutaneous fistulas (groin and forefoot) were exactly delineated by MRL. In two patients (50%) adjacent diffuse lymphangiomatous changes were detected, extending into the upper leg, pelvis, retroperitoneum, abdomen and abdominal walls. In one patient (25%) with primary lymphoedema of the right lower extremity, MRL revealed an aplasia of the lymphatic collectors at the levels of the lower and upper leg. All patients (100%) suffered from an ipsilateral lymphoedema of the lower extremity, whereby in two patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis the lymphatic vessels were consecutively enlarged up to a diameter of 6 mm. Conclusion MRL is a safe and accurate imaging modality for a comprehensive evaluation of the lymphatic system in patients suffering from lymphocutaneous fistulas. PMID:21159808

  4. Ni(II) biosorption by Cassia fistula (Golden Shower) biomass.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Nadeem, Raziya; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Ahmad, Najum Rashid; Ansari, Tariq Mehmood

    2007-01-10

    Cassia fistula is a fast-growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree which is now widely cultivated worldwide as an ornamental tree for its beautiful showy yellow flowers. Methods are required to reuse fallen leaves, branches, stem bark and pods when they start getting all over lawn. This investigation studies the use of these non-useful parts of C. fistula as naturally occurring biosorbent for the batch removal of Ni(II) in a well stirred system under different experimental conditions. The data showed that the maximum pH (pHmax) for efficient sorption of Ni(II) was 6 at which evaluated biosorbent dosage, biosorbent particle size, initial concentrations of Ni(II) and sorption time were 0.1 g/100 mL, <0.255 mm, up to 200 mg/L and 720 min, respectively. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted well to data of Ni(II) biosorption by C. fistula biomass as compared to the model of Freundlich. The kinetic studies showed that the sorption rates could be described better by a second order expression than by a more commonly applied Lagergren equation. The magnitude of the Gibbs free energy values indicates spontaneous nature of the sorption process. The sorption ability of C. fistula biomass for Ni(II) removal tends to be in the order: leavesfistula biomass proved to be an excellent biomaterial for accumulating Ni(II) from aqueous solutions. PMID:16860463

  5. The effect of Replens® on vaginal cytology in the treatment of postmenopausal atrophy: cytomorphology versus computerised cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A W M van der Laak; L M T de Bie; H de Leeuw; P C M de Wilde; A G J M Hanselaar

    2002-01-01

    Background: After the menopause decreased concentrations of oestrogen may result in insufficient maturation of the vaginal epithelium, which can lead to a range of vaginal discomforts. This state of vaginal atrophy may be treated with oestrogen replacement treatment. Replens™, a non-hormonal alternative to oestrogen replacement treatment has been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms related to vaginal atrophy in

  6. Lotus petal flaps in vulvo-vaginal reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Yii; N. S. Niranjan

    1996-01-01

    The perineum is an area of rich blood supply with multiple arterial anastomoses. Flaps raised on perforators around the perineum resemble the petals of the lotus and can be used to reconstruct a variety of vulvo-vaginal defects. Thirteen such flaps have been used successfully without any loss of flaps in eight patients. Eight flaps in four patients were used for

  7. Protection Against Vaginal SIV Transmission with Microencapsulated Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preston A. Marx; Richard W. Compans; Agegnehu Gettie; Jay K. Staas; Richard M. Gilley; Mark J. Mulligan; Galina V. Yamshchikov; Dexiang Chen; John H. Eldridge

    1993-01-01

    Although protection in animal models against intravenous challenges with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been reported, no previous vaccines have protected against a heterosexual route of infection. In this study, five of six macaques were protected against vaginal challenge when immunized with formalin-treated SIV in biodegradable microspheres by the intramuscular plus oral or plus intratracheal route. Oral immunization alone did

  8. Vaginal molds for intracavitary curietherapy: a new method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, F.; Bertoni, G.; Bignardi, M.

    1983-10-01

    A new method of preparing vaginal molds for afterloading intracavitary brachytherapy is described. Our technique makes it possible to obtain the most accurate individualization of therapy as far as dose distribution is concerned by taking into account the patient's anatomy and target volume.

  9. Vaginal Douching among University Women in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Barbara Hansen; Close, Fran T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the knowledge, beliefs about, and practices of vaginal douching among women attending 2 universities in the southeastern United States. Participants: There were 416 participants in this study; 46.9% were black and 44.5% were white. Methods: The authors administered a 30-item questionnaire to women enrolled in…

  10. New strategies for treatment of Candida vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Magliani; Stefania Conti; Antonella Salati; Simona Arseni; Raffaele Frazzi; Lara Ravanetti; Luciano Polonelli

    2002-01-01

    New strategies for treatment of vaginal candidiasis have been recently exploited, due to widespread occurrence of this disease, in particular as recurrent infec- tions, limitations of safe and efficacious antifungals as well as the lack of reliable preventative approaches. In this review new chemotherapeutic and immunothe- rapeutic strategies, based on the improved understanding of the immunopatho- genesis of this prevalent

  11. Hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli in women with vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera D. Mija?; Slobodanka V. ?uki?; Nataša Z. Opavski; Milan K. ?uki?; Lazar T. Ranin

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveHydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli are isolated from the vaginas of a majority of healthy reproductive age women. Their toxic and inhibitory effect against the overgrowth of pathogens in the vagina is documented by in vitro studies. Clinical studies concerning the role of hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli in vaginal infections are controversial.

  12. Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL SAAVEDRA; BRAD TAYLOR; NICHOLAS LUKACS; PAUL L. FIDEL

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of child- bearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of

  13. Vaginal and rectal infection of cats with feline immunodeficiency virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Bishop; Christopher R. Stokes; Timothy J. Gruffydd-Jones; Christine V. Whiting; David A. Harbour

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of vaginal and rectal mucosal routes for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) uptake and infection, as a model of mucosal HIV infection, and to determine the fate of virus at these mucosal sites following transmission of infection. SPF cats were exposed to FIV isolates (PET, GL-8, T637), administered as either cell-associated

  14. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Brînzan; Lucian Paiusan; Voicu Dascau; Gheorghe Furau

    2011-01-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a

  15. Nanotechnological strategies for vaginal administration of drugs--a review.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Sato, Mariana Rillo; Bauab, Tais Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-09-01

    Women frequently develop disorders related to the vaginal area, including problems with the immune system, hygiene, genetic aspects and sexually transmitted diseases. Compared with other mucosal application sites, the vagina represents local effect as well as systemic drug delivery and is able to avoid the first-pass effect due to its large surface area, high blood supply and permeability to many active ingredients. It has been widely proposed that the use of drugs to treat vaginal disorders be combined with nanotechnology because nanosystems often potentiate the action of most active constituents, reducing the required dosage and side effects and improving the resulting activity in comparison with conventional treatments. Following the trend of using drug delivery systems based on nanotechology, many studies have encouraged the scientific community to turn to the development of new strategies for the vaginal administration of drugs. This study proposes to review the most common nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems that have been used to improve the effectiveness of active compounds administrated to treat vaginal disorders. PMID:25992455

  16. Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta/Increta after Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, S.; Reinhard, J.; Reitter, A.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to show that conservative management with preservation of the uterus and of fertility is possible in patients with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with placental attachment disorders after vaginal delivery was done in a perinatal centre between November 2009 and April 2011. The patient collective was identified using the ICD-10 codes for placenta accreta/increta/percreta, and patient records were analysed for risk factors, maternal morbidity, preservation of the uterus and of fertility, and neonatal outcome. Results: Three cases of placenta increta were identified in the last 1.5 years out of a total of 1457 vaginal deliveries, and all 3 cases were treated conservatively. Mean maternal age was 35.3 years; gestational age ranged from 39 to 41 weeks, and mean duration between delivery of the child and delivery of the placenta was 44.67 days (range: 14–100 days). Two patients developed symptoms of endomyometritis, including fever, leukocytosis and increased CRP levels. All 3 women were successfully managed with preservation of the uterus. Conclusion: In selected cases with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery, it is possible to avoid surgical procedures, particularly hysterectomy procedures, and successfully manage these patients conservatively with preservation of the uterus. PMID:25308979

  17. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. PMID:24031889

  18. Radiation Recall Reaction to Idarubicin Resulting in Vaginal Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Gabel; Patricia J. Eifel; Carmen Tornos; Thomas W. Burke

    1995-01-01

    Radiation recall reactions are uncommon delayed tissue reactions seen in previously irradiated sites following treatment with cytotoxic agents. We evaluated a 64-year-old who developed two episodes of acute vulvitis and vaginal necrosis after receiving idarubicin therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. Three years earlier she had undergone successful radiotherapeutic treatment of a stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Her

  19. The effect of antifungal treatment on the vaginal flora of women with vulvo-vaginal yeast infection with or without bacterial vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Donders; G. Bellen; J. Ausma; L. Verguts; J. Vaneldere; P. Hinoul; M. Borgers; D. Janssens

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial therapy may enhance the risk of symptomatic vulvo-vaginal candidosis in susceptible women. We addressed the\\u000a question whether oral antifungal treatment for vulvo-vaginal candidosis also influences the bacterial vaginal microflora.\\u000a One hundred and forty-two patients with a culture-proven acute episode of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis (RVC) were treated\\u000a with fuconazole according to the ReCiDiF regimen (induction dose of 600 mg orally per

  20. Application of the low-level laser therapy for the treatment of vaginitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeniouk, A. N.; Mikhailov, V. A.

    2000-06-01

    Vaginitis is the most common female infectious disease. Females suffering from this disorder are annually increasing in number. There are a lot of modalities of treatment of vaginitis, but because of drug allergy and microbe's stability to drug the treatment of vaginitis is difficult. Our study compares the efficacy of laser-therapy with drug therapy in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis. Thirty women reci4eed the LLLT by local action with antiseptic liquid daily during ten days, 20 women received metronidazole and fluconozole and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser-therapy is able to remove sights of vaginitis more efficiently and faster than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora, which is the best indicator of recovery, was significantly at a faster rate in laser-therapy group. There were no report of adverse reaction with vaginal laser- therapy, whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects. In conclusion, vaginal aser-therapy with antiseptic liquid is a suitable, effective, safe and chip alternative to drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis.

  1. Mucus-Penetrating Nanoparticles for Vaginal Drug Delivery Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Laura M.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Tse, Terence A.; Hoen, Timothy; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We investigated vaginal distribution, retention, and safety of nanoparticles with surfaces modified to enhance transport through mucus. We show that mucus-penetrating particles (MPPs) provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas conventional nanoparticles (CPs) that are mucoadhesive are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. Moreover, when delivered hypotonically, MPPs were transported advectively (versus diffusively) through mucus deep into vaginal folds (rugae) within minutes. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers, more MPPs were retained in the vaginal tract after 6 h compared to CPs. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then developed MPPs composed of acyclovir monophosphate (ACVp). When administered prior to vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge, ACVp-MPPs protected 53% of mice, compared to only 16% protected by soluble drug. Overall, MPPs improved vaginal drug distribution and retention, provided more effective protection against vaginal viral challenge than soluble drug, and were non-toxic when administered daily for one week. PMID:22700955

  2. Treatment of Locally Advanced Vaginal Cancer With Radiochemotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: Dose-Volume Parameters and First Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Schmid, Maximilian P., E-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Fidarova, Elena; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical feasibility of magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for patients with locally advanced vaginal cancer and to report treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with vaginal cancer were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45-50.4 Gy) plus IGABT with or without chemotherapy. Distribution of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages among patients were as follows: 4 patients had Stage II cancer, 5 patients had Stage III cancer, and 4 patients had Stage IV cancer. The concept of IGABT as developed for cervix cancer was transferred and adapted for vaginal cancer, with corresponding treatment planning and reporting. Doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy, applying the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy for tumor; {alpha}/{beta} = 3 for organs at risk). Endpoints studied were gross tumor volume (GTV), dose-volume parameters for high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and organs at risk, local control (LC), adverse side effects, and survival. Results: The mean GTV ({+-} 1 standard deviation) at diagnosis was 45.3 ({+-}30) cm{sup 3}, and the mean GTV at brachytherapy was 10 ({+-}14) cm{sup 3}. The mean D90 for the HRCTV was 86 ({+-}13) Gy. The mean D2cc for bladder, urethra, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 80 ({+-}20) Gy, 76 ({+-}16) Gy, 70 ({+-}9) Gy, and 60 ({+-}9) Gy, respectively. After a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 19-87 months), one local recurrence and two distant metastases cases were observed. Actuarial LC and overall survival rates at 3 years were 92% and 85%. One patient with Stage IVA and 1 patient with Stage III disease experienced fistulas (one vesicovaginal, one rectovaginal), and 1 patient developed periurethral necrosis. Conclusions: The concept of IGABT, originally developed for treating cervix cancer, appears to be applicable to vaginal cancer treatment with only minor adaptations. Dose-volume parameters for HRCTV and organs at risk are in a comparable range. First clinical results indicate excellent LC. Further prospective multicenter studies are needed to establish this method and to confirm these results.

  3. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  4. Forensic interlaboratory evaluation of the ForFLUID kit for vaginal fluids identification.

    PubMed

    Giampaoli, Saverio; Alessandrini, Federica; Berti, Andrea; Ripani, Luigi; Choi, Ajin; Crab, Roselien; De Vittori, Elisabetta; Egyed, Balazs; Haas, Cordula; Lee, Hwan Young; Korabecná, Marie; Noel, Fabrice; Podini, Daniele; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Valentini, Alessio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Identification of vaginal fluids is an important step in the process of sexual assaults confirmation. Advances in both microbiology and molecular biology defined technical approaches allowing the discrimination of body fluids. These protocols are based on the identification of specific bacterial communities by microfloraDNA (mfDNA) amplification. A multiplex real time-PCR assay (ForFLUID kit) has been developed for identifying biological fluids and for discrimination among vaginal, oral and fecal samples. In order to test its efficacy and reliability of the assay in the identification of vaginal fluids, an interlaboratory evaluation has been performed on homogeneous vaginal swabs. All the involved laboratories were able to correctly recognize all the vaginal swabs, and no false positives were identified when the assay was applied on non-vaginal samples. The assay represents an useful molecular tool that can be easily adopted by forensic geneticists involved in vaginal fluid identification. PMID:24365693

  5. Comparison of Storage Conditions for Human Vaginal Microbiome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guoyun; Gajer, Pawel; Nandy, Melissa; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Sakamoto, Joyce; Blanchard, May H.; Ravel, Jacques; Brotman, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 1H-NMR analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at ?80°C for 4 weeks or at ?20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to ?80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. 1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. Conclusions/Significance These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota. PMID:22655031

  6. Preclinical evaluation of UC781 microbicide vaginal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Meredith R; McCormick, Timothy J; Doncel, Gustavo F; Friend, David R

    2011-04-01

    UC781 is a potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being investigated as a potential microbicide to prevent transmission of HIV-1 both vaginally and rectally. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability/safety, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits of a vaginal gel prepared with micronized or nonmicronized UC781 (UC781m and UC781nm, respectively). Gels prepared with UC781m had greater in vitro release rates (Franz cells) and permeability/tissue-associated UC781 concentrations than gels prepared with UC781nm (EpiVaginal tissues). Both gels were well tolerated under in vitro conditions compared with controls using EpiVaginal tissues. Following intravaginal administration of both gels to rabbits, tissue concentrations typically ranged from 1,000 to over 10,000 ng/g regardless of dosing regimen (single dose or 7 days once daily dosing) and sampling times (2 and 24 h post-dose). Tissue-associated concentrations were highly variable, and no statistically significant differences were found between test conditions. Plasma levels were generally low after vaginal administration: following a single dose, the concentrations were between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL. After 7 days repeated once daily dosing, UC781 concentrations were slightly higher ranging from below 1.0 to about 2 ng/mL, although none of the differences were statistically significant. Based on these results, gels prepared with either form of UC781 led to tissue concentrations well in excess of UC781's EC50 under in vitro conditions (~3 ng/mL). PMID:25788115

  7. Nasal and Vaginal Vaccinations Have Differential Effects on Antibody Responses in Vaginal and Cervical Secretions in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVA-LIZ JOHANSSON; LOTTA WASSEN; JAN HOLMGREN; MARIANNE JERTBORN; ANNA RUDIN

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health problem worldwide, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how to induce an optimal immune response in the genital tract of humans. In this study we vaccinated 21 volunteers nasally or vaginally with the model mucosal antigen cholera toxin B subunit and determined the level of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and

  8. Diagnostic Value of Vaginal Discharge, Wet Mount and Vaginal pH – An Update on the Basics of Gynecologic Infectiology

    PubMed Central

    Frobenius, W.; Bogdan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of uncomplicated vulvovaginal complaints (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis) can be detected with uncomplicated basic infectiological tests and can usually be treated effectively without requiring further diagnostic procedures. Tests include measurement of vaginal pH, preparation and assessment of wet mount slides prepared from vaginal or cervical discharge, and the correct clinical and microbiological classification of findings. In Germany, at least in recent years, this has not been sufficiently taught or practiced. As new regulations on specialist gynecologic training in Germany are currently being drawn up, this overview provides basic information on gynecologic infectiology and summarizes clinically relevant aspects of recent microbiological findings on the physiology and pathology of vaginal flora. The clinical signs and symptoms of aerobic vaginitis, the pathogenesis of which is still not completely understood, are also reviewed. Finally, the symptoms, indications and risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are presented. In contrast to the above-listed infections, PID requires immediate culture of the pathogen from samples (e.g. obtained by laparoscopy) with microbiological diagnostic procedures carried out by specialist laboratories. A schematic summary of all pathologies discussed here is presented. PMID:26028693

  9. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and C31G as Microbicidal Alternatives to Nonoxynol 9: Comparative Sensitivity of Primary Human Vaginal Keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRED C. KREBS; SHENDRA R. MILLER; BRADLEY J. CATALONE; PATRICIA A. WELSH; DANIEL MALAMUD; MARY K. HOWETT; BRIAN WIGDAHL

    2000-01-01

    Received 16 November 1999\\/Returned for modification 19 January 2000\\/Accepted 25 April 2000 A broad-spectrum vaginal microbicide must be effective against a variety of sexually transmitted disease pathogens and be minimally toxic to the cell types found within the vaginal epithelium, including vaginal keratinocytes. We assessed the sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes to potential topical vaginal microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N-9), C31G,

  10. Protective Role of Antimannan and Anti-Aspartyl Proteinase Antibodies in an Experimental Model of Candida albicans Vaginitis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FLAVIA DE BERNARDIS; MARIA BOCCANERA; DANIELA ADRIANI; ELISABETTA SPREGHINI; GIORGIO SANTONI; ANTONIO CASSONE

    1997-01-01

    The role of antibodies (Abs) in the resistance to vaginal infection by Candida albicans was investigated by using a rat vaginitis model. Animals receiving antimannoprotein (anti-MP) and anti-aspartyl proteinase (Sap) Ab-containing vaginal fluids from rats clearing a primary C. albicans infection showed a highly significant level of protection against vaginitis compared to animals given Ab-free vaginal fluid from noninfected rats.

  11. Estimating the prevalence of obstetric fistula: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a severe condition which has devastating consequences for a woman’s life. The estimation of the burden of fistula at the population level has been impaired by the rarity of diagnosis and the lack of rigorous studies. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of fistula in low and middle income countries. Methods Six databases were searched, involving two separate searches: one on fistula specifically and one on broader maternal and reproductive morbidities. Studies including estimates of incidence and prevalence of fistula at the population level were included. We conducted meta-analyses of prevalence of fistula among women of reproductive age and the incidence of fistula among recently pregnant women. Results Nineteen studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence in population-based studies was 0.29 (95% CI 0.00, 1.07) fistula per 1000 women of reproductive age in all regions. Separated by region we found 1.57 (95% CI 1.16, 2.06) in sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, 1.60 (95% CI 1.16, 2.10) per 1000 women of reproductive age in sub Saharan Africa and 1.20 (95% CI 0.10, 3.54) per 1000 in South Asia. The pooled incidence was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) per 1000 recently pregnant women. Conclusions Our study is the most comprehensive study of the burden of fistula to date. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of fistula is lower than previously reported. The low burden of fistula should not detract from their public health importance, however, given the preventability of the condition, and the devastating consequences of fistula. PMID:24373152

  12. [Sigmoido-vesical fistula as a cause of recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Zych, Rafa?; Horzelska-Matyja, Anna; Zió?ko, Ewa; Piecuch, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe a case of sigmoido-vesical fistula in 64 years old woman. The fistula probably developed as a result of complications of sigmoidal diverticulitis. The main clinical manifestation were symptoms of recurrent urinary tract infections and pneumaturia. For the diagnosis of the fistula different methods such as urography, cystography, ultrasonographic examination, colonoscopy, bacteriological urine analysis and laboratory investigations were used. The patient was qualified to surgical treatment. One-stage operation performed appeared successful. PMID:17017499

  13. Blood Loss through AV Fistula: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Fahad; Kousar, Nadia; Sinnakirouchenan, Ramapriya; Ramalingam, Vijaya S.; Johnson, Philip B.; Holley, Jean L.

    2011-01-01

    Little has been written about acute blood loss from hemodialysis vascular access. We describe a 57-year-old Caucasian male with an approximately 7?gm/dL drop in hemoglobin due to bleeding from a ruptured aneurysm in his right brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF). There was no evidence of fistula infection. The patient was successfully managed by blood transfusions and insertion of a tunneled dialysis catheter for dialysis access. Later, the fistula was ligated and a new fistula was constructed in the opposite arm. Aneurysm should be considered in cases of acute vascular access bleeding in chronic dialysis patients. PMID:21716705

  14. Are Covered Stents Really Effective at Closing Esophagotracheal Fistulas? Results of an Animal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Hans-Joachim [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Stinner, Benno [Department of General Surgery, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Barth, Peter [Department of Pathology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany); Klose, Klaus-Jochen [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany)

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether covered self-expanding metal stents successfully exclude experimentally created esophagotracheal fistulas.Methods: Esophagotracheal fistulas were surgically created in the upper third of the esophagus in 12 minipigs and immediately sealed by implantation of a covered self-expanding metal stent (20 mm expanded diameter) in the esophagus. Before the animals were killed, after 3, 7, 14, 28, 30, and 36 days, the position of the stent and the sealing of the fistula were monitored fluoroscopically. The esophagus, trachea, and both lungs were examined histologically.Results: Creation of an esophagotracheal fistula was successful in all cases. All fistulas were widely patent at autopsy. The technical success rate for stent deployment and initial sealing of the fistula was 100%. During follow-up, five stents migrated distally, but none into the stomach. Therefore, the fistula was no longer excluded in five animals. In seven animals the stent sealed the fistula until the death of the animal. Tracheal narrowing necessitated additional tracheal stenting in three animals. Two minipigs died due to aspiration of food. Histologic examination showed signs of aspiration in all animals with stents in place for longer than 2 weeks.Conclusion: This experimental animal study revealed worse results for sealing of esophagotracheal fistulas with covered self-expanding metal stents than have been reported for the clinical use of these devices.

  15. Inferior Turbinate Flap for Nasal-side Closure of Palatal Fistula in Cleft Patients: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Residual palatal fistula after repair of palatal cleft is common. Repair of residual oronasal fistula is not always successful. Two-layer closure techniques that close these fistulas with soft tissue are a common practice. Turnover flaps are the most used flaps and often the sole method for nasal-side closure of fistula. Anteriorly based inferior turbinate flap can be used to provide soft tissue for nasal-side closure when turnover flaps will not provide sufficient tissue for this purpose. Under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation, inferior turbinate was released from posterior attachment. After removing the inferior conchal bone, mucoperiosteal flap was used for nasal-side closure of anterior palatal fistula in patients with cleft. Anteriorly based inferior turbinate flap was used for nasal-side closure of residual palatal fistula in 3 patients with cleft. Age of the patients was 14, 16, and 18, and recurrence of palatal fistula has not occurred. Anteriorly based inferior turbinate flap is an axial pattern flap with appropriate surface of the paddle and vicinity to the oral cavity roof. It can be used in large anterior, palatal fistula for reconstruction of nasal floor. Considering appropriate another flap for oral side coverage of such fistula is mandatory. PMID:25587499

  16. Recent developments in the surgical management of perianal fistula for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Geltzeiler, Cristina B; Wieghard, Nicole; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L

    2014-01-01

    Perianal manifestations of Crohn's disease (CD) are common and, of them, fistulas are the most common. Perianal fistulas can be extremely debilitating for patients and are often very challenging for clinicians to treat. CD perianal fistulas usually require multidisciplinary and multimodality treatment, including both medical and surgical approaches. The majority of patients require multiple surgical interventions. CD patients with perianal fistulas have a high rate of primary non-healing, surgical morbidity, and high recurrence rates. This has led to constant efforts to improve surgical management of this disease process. PMID:25331917

  17. Application of YAG laser technique in the treatment of anal fistula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-xun; Zhang, Xinrong

    1993-03-01

    The method of treating anal fistula with YAG laser technique is described in this essay. One-hundred-twenty patients have been treated successfully with this method and no recurrence was found in our series. Anal fistula is a common disorder in the anus and rectum. The tunnel of fistula zigzags around the external or internal sphincters. If the drainage is poor, and the skin around the external opening grows rapidly, false healing may occur and cause recurrent abscess. In this case, a fistula can not be cured except by operation.

  18. Optimal treatment of coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula: surgery, coil or stent graft?

    PubMed Central

    Lipiec, Piotr; Peruga, Jan Zbigniew; Jaszewski, Ryszard; Paw?owski, Witold; Kasprzak, Jaros?aw

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old man with typical angina due to a coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula, which was evident on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography with color Doppler flow mapping. The diagnosis was confirmed by coronary angiography. The patient underwent surgical ligation of the fistula. However, repeated transesophageal echocardiography and coronary angiography revealed persistence of the fistula with significant left-to-right shunt. The orifice of the fistula was then obliterated by stent-graft implantation, which was proven successful by angiography and echocardiography. PMID:24570733

  19. Collagen matrix injection combined with flap repair for complex anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Sileri, P; Boehm, G; Franceschilli, L; Giorgi, F; Perrone, F; Stolfi, C; Monteleone, G; Gaspari, A L

    2012-12-01

    Several biomaterials have been proposed to treat anal fistula alone or in combination with other surgical procedures aiming to reduce recurrence rates while minimizing continence impairment. More recently a porcine dermal matrix injection has been proposed as infill biomaterial to treat fistulae. We propose an approach consisting of non-cutting seton positioning followed several weeks later by flap repair associated with dermal matrix injection into the fistula tracts. We report our experience with this two-staged procedure on 24 consecutive patients with complex anal fistulae with a median follow up of > 12 months. In our experience this two-stage approach seems to be safe and effective. PMID:23136821

  20. Enterocutaneous Fistula From A Billroth II Afferent Limb: Successful Closure With Endoclips

    PubMed Central

    Knodell, Robert; Choueiri, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, indications for endoscopic clips have expanded to include closure of gastrointestinal fistulae and perforations. A 62-year-old man with remote history of surgery for peptic ulcer underwent right hemicolectomy for a large hepatic flexure mass with proximal colonic dilatation. During surgery, inadvertent pinpoint duodenotomy of the afferent Billroth II limb resulted in a duodeno-cutaneous fistula. Despite total parental nutrition, cutaneous bile drainage persisted. The duodenal fistula was closed during upper endoscopy using three endoclips. Cutaneous bile drainage stopped, and the abdominal wall defect healed. This is the first published case of endoclip closure of an iatrogenic duodenal fistula from a Billroth II afferent limb.

  1. Role of perioperative low dose vaginal oestrogens in improving the outcomes of pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

    PubMed

    Rachaneni, S; Latthe, P

    2013-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is the most common gynaecological disorder requiring surgical treatment in postmenopausal women. Surgical treatment of POP might include anterior or posterior vaginal repair, vaginal hysterectomy, vault fixation procedures like sacrocolpopexy and sacrospinous fixation. Complications of POP surgery include excessive bleeding, visceral injuries, postoperative wound infection, urinary tract infection (UTI), sexual dysfunction secondary to vaginal scarring and recurrence. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy may increase the risk of visceral injuries due to thinning of vaginal wall and also increases the risk of surgical site wound infections due to alteration of vaginal flora and urinary tract infections (UTI). Use of vaginal low dose oestrogens to treat atrophy of the vagina may improve the subjective cure rates and minimise surgical site wound infections by altering the vaginal flora to premenopausal levels. To date there has not been any data on the outcomes of POP surgery when low dose vaginal oestrogens are used perioperatively. Hence we want to study the effectiveness of vaginal low dose oestrogen on the outcome of POP surgery in postmenopausal women. PMID:24094982

  2. Assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics in simulated vaginal environment.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Kavita; Garg, Sanjay; Zaneveld, Lourens J D

    2002-10-01

    The vaginal route of administration offers a promising option for local and systemic delivery of drugs. Conventional vaginal formulations are associated with limitations of poor retention, leakage, and messiness, thereby causing inconvenience to users. To overcome these limitations, formulations that adhere to the vaginal mucosa for a sufficient period of time need to be developed. Bioadhesion and retention are desirable characteristics of a vaginal formulation to achieve desired efficacy. These properties can be built in during formulation development by the use of bioadhesive polymers. In the present study, assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics of vaginal formulations have been developed. A modified simulated vaginal fluid (SVFM) was used to simulate vaginal conditions for bioadhesion studies. Cellophane hydrated with SVFM and isolated sheep vaginal mucosa were used as model membranes. The bioadhesive potential of various polymers and their combinations was evaluated. Among the polymers evaluated, xanthan gum (XG), sodium alginate (SA), Polycarbophil (PC), and their combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were found to possess significant bioadhesive strength. In retention experiments, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were retained in isolated sheep vaginal tissue, while PC exhibited poor retention under experimental conditions. Based on the results of the study conducted, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) have been proposed as potential candidates for developing bioadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems. PMID:12455472

  3. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and colpitis infections with group B streptococci or (methicillin resistant) Staphylococcus aureus. Since the latter colonizations are frequent, but seldom inflammatory infections, we in general discourage the use of oral antibiotics in women with AV. In cases with a severe atrophy component (more than 10 % of epithelial cells are of the parabasal type), local estrogens can be used; and in postmenopausal or breast cancer patients with a contraindication for estrogens, even a combination of probiotics with an ultra-low dose of local estriol may be considered. PMID:25896749

  4. Effectiveness and safety of vaginal suppositories for the treatment of the vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: an open, non-controlled clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. COSTANTINO; C. GUARALDI

    2008-01-01

    Menopause, due to the physi- ological decrease in the estrogens levels, is of- ten associated with many symptoms related to vaginal atrophy such vaginal dryness, dyspare- unia, burning, itching, decreasing in libido and therefore a worsening of the quality of life and in particular of the sexual activity. There are many pharmacological remedies to solve these events, first of all

  5. Laparotomized Direct Puncture for Embolization of a Retroperitoneal Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Inagawa, Shoichi, E-mail: sinagawa@med.niigata-u.ac.j [Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Unno, Naoki [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Second Department of Surgery (Japan); Yamashita, Shuhei [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroki [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Second Department of Surgery (Japan); Sakahara, Harumi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    A 28-year-old woman was referred to our institution with hope for another child after having an abortion several months previously to avoid a potential risk of catastrophic hemorrhage from a retroperitoneal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with enlarged and twisted draining veins in the pelvis. Multiple branches coming from the right lumbar arteries and the right iliac arteries fed fistulae converging on an enlarged venous pouch anterior to the psoas major muscle in the right retroperitoneal space. It seemed impossible to achieve complete occlusion of the lesion in a single session by either transarterial or transvenous approach. A laparotomy and direct puncture of the enlarged draining vein immediately downstream of the venous pouch was performed and embolization was done with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and the aid of coils. Complete occlusion of the retroperitoneal AVF was achieved and confirmed in control angiography 5 months later.

  6. [Bronchobiliary fistula in carcinoma of the hepatic duct bifurcation].

    PubMed

    Junga, G; Caduff, B; Christen, B; Kistler, H J

    1992-12-11

    Carcinoma of the hepatic duct bifurcation was diagnosed in a 67-year-old women with obstructive jaundice. As metastatic spread could not be demonstrated the carcinoma was removed with a view of achieving a cure (hemihepatectomy, resection of the hepatic duct and the bifurcation, cholecystectomy and hepatojejunostomy). Histological examination indicated adenocarcinoma of the biliary tract. Seven months postoperatively the patient was found to be cachectic and cough up greenish liquid sputum. Bilirubin concentration in sputum was 500 mumol/l. There was no jaundice and total bilirubin concentration was 33 mumol/l. Alkaline phosphatase was 508 U/l, but GOT and GPT were normal (23 U/l and 21 U/l). Computed tomography confirmed the clinical diagnosis of a biliobronchial fistula. The patient died 9 days after renewed hospitalization of tumour cachexia. The biliobronchial fistula was found at necropsy. PMID:1459022

  7. Neuromeningeal access for transarterial intravenous carotid-cavernous fistula embolization.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Chavali, Ram

    2015-04-01

    While numerous endovascular access routes have been described for carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) treatment, transarterial embolization via the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery is typically avoided due to the risk of cranial nerve palsy or non-target embolization via external-to-internal carotid anastamoses. We present the case of a dural CCF in which access to the venous side of the fistula was achieved via the neuromeningeal trunk and allowed for curative transarterial intravenous coil/liquid embolic embolization of the lesion. The utility of a transarterial intravenous approach in the face of venous sinus occlusion is highlighted. The neuromeningeal trunk should not be overlooked as a potential access route for transarterial intravenous CCF embolization in cases where traditional endovascular access is limited; this approach does not carry the same risks that are generally associated with pure transarterial embolization along this pathway. PMID:25943849

  8. Current tools for prediction of arteriovenous fistula outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGrogan, Damian G.; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Khawaja, Aurang Z.; Inston, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains challenging to accurately predict whether an individual arteriovenous fistula (AVF) will mature and be useable for haemodialysis vascular access. Current best practice involves the use of routine clinical assessment and ultrasonography complemented by selective venography and magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this literature review is to describe current practices in relation to pre-operative assessment prior to AVF formation and highlight potential areas for future research to improve the clinical prediction of AVF outcomes.

  9. Endovascular treatment of anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianli Lv; Youxiang Li; Zhongxue Wu

    2008-01-01

    We describe the technique and results of the endovascular treatment of anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistulas\\u000a (DAVF) in four symptomatic patients. Catheterization was via the superior sagittal sinus in two patients and via the ophthalmic\\u000a artery in two patients. Embolization was performed using detachable platinum coils in the former two patients and a liquid\\u000a embolic system (Onyx-18, MTI) in

  10. Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Vesicovaginal Fistula: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Tabali, Rudresh; Ramkumar, Aravind

    2014-01-01

    A 56-year-old lady presented with a vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) along with past history of abdominal hysterectomy. Biopsy of the fistulous tract showed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Patient underwent radical cystourethrectomy, total vaginectomy, and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection along with ileal conduit. The final histopathology report of the resected specimen showed adenosquamous carcinoma in VVF. As this is a rare entity, we are reporting this case. PMID:24876979

  11. The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Motamedi, Hossein; Vafei, Mouzhan; Bakhtiari, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia fistula, is a flowering plant and a member of Fabaceae family. Its leaves are compound of 4 - 8 pairs of opposite leaflets. There are many Cassia species around the world which are used in herbal medicine. Objectives: This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-bacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula native to Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial inhibitory effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula was tested on 3 Gram positive: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and 5 Gram negative: Salmonella Typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis bacterial species using disc diffusion method at various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were measured by the tube dilution assay. Results: The extract of C. fistula was effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The most susceptible microorganisms to ethanolic and methanolic extracts were E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Also B. cereus and S. aureus showed the least sensitivity to ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of ethanolic extracts against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae were also determined. Conclusions: With respect to the obtained results and regarding to the daily increase of the resistant microbial strains to the commercial antibiotics, it can be concluded that these extracts can be proper candidates of antibacterial substance against pathogenic bacterial species especially S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. PMID:25147664

  12. Terminal ileum schistosomiasis with perianal fistula mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mohammad A; Ashraf, Sohail A

    2007-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease related to water contact in the agricultural fields, affecting millions of people in developing countries in tropical and subtropical parts of Africa, Asia, and South America. We report a case of a 27-year-old male, with intestinal schistosomiasis associated with perianal fistula mimicking Crohn's disease, where the terminal ileum showed a cobblestone appearance, and histopathological biopsy showed schistosoma granuloma. PMID:17768481

  13. Ileocutaneous fistula formation following laparoscopic polypropylene mesh hernia repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Miller; W. Junger

    1997-01-01

    .   A rare case of enterocutaneous fistula caused by chronic erosion of polypropylene mesh after laparoscopic repair of a recurrent\\u000a inguinal hernia is described. Successful treatment was achieved by fistulectomy, total resection of the implanted mesh, and\\u000a small-bowel segmental resection. The patient recovered well postoperatively, and at follow-up 18 months later, the herniorrhaphy\\u000a has remained intact. This complication needs to

  14. Isolated tracheoesophageal fistula in a 10-year-old girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris De Schutter; Françoise Vermeulen; Elke De Wachter; Caroline Ernst; Anne Malfroot

    2007-01-01

    Isolated tracheoesophageal fistula (H-TOF) is a rare type of tracheoesophageal anomaly and is in most cases diagnosed in the\\u000a neonatal period because of choking and cyanosis during feeding. Diagnosis may be delayed even until adulthood because of nonspecific\\u000a and sometimes intermittent symptoms, and because false-negative results of all diagnostic tools are not uncommon. We report\\u000a a 10-year-old child with H-TOF,

  15. Emergency Endovascular 'Bridge' Treatment for Iliac-Enteric Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Franchin, Marco [Varese University Hospital, University of Insubria, Department of Surgical Sciences, General Surgery 1, School of Medicine (Italy); Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.piffaretti@uninsubria.it [Varese University Hospital, University of Insubria, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery, School of Medicine (Italy); Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [Varese University Hospital, University of Insubria, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy); Castelli, Patrizio [Varese University Hospital, University of Insubria, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Aortic aneurysm has been reported to be the dominant cause of primary iliac-enteric fistula (IEF) in >70% of cases [1]; other less common causes of primary IEF include peptic ulcer, primary aortitis, pancreatic pseudocyst, or neoplastic erosion into an adjacent artery [2, 3]. We describe an unusual case of IEF managed with a staged approach using an endovascular stent-graft as a 'bridge' in the emergency setting to optimize the next elective definitive excision of the lesion.

  16. Sinus of valsalva aneurysm or fistula: management and outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J Takach; George J Reul; J. Michael Duncan; Denton A Cooley; James J Livesay; David A Ott; O. H Frazier

    1999-01-01

    Background. Few large or long-term series exist regarding the management of patients with sinus of Valsalva aneurysms or fistulas (SVAFs).Methods. Between 1956 and 1997, 129 patients presented with a ruptured (64 cases; 49.6%) or nonruptured (65 cases; 50.4%) SVAF. The patients included 88 men and 41 women, with a mean age of 39.1 years. Associated findings included a history of

  17. The management of genitourinary fistula in the third millennium

    PubMed Central

    Ghoniem, Gamal M.; Warda, Hussein A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is an abnormal fistulous tract between the bladder and vagina, causing continuous loss of urine via the vagina. VVF is a relatively uncommon condition, but there is a drastically higher prevalence in the developing world. Furthermore, iatrogenic postoperative VVF is most common in developed countries, compared to mainly obstetric trauma in developing countries. In this review we focus on the development of current management techniques for VVF. Methods Medline was searched to identify articles related to urogenital fistulae, including VVF. Based on these reports we focus on the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of VVF. This in-depth review includes the optimal surgical timing, different surgical approaches (including minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic and robotic surgery), recommendations for postoperative care, surgical complications, and the need for further research in the use of robotic surgery to treat this condition. Results In all, 60 articles were identified and included in this review; eight were related to the aetiology, 12 to diagnosis, and 40 to the management of VVF. A thorough evaluation of VVF is imperative for planning the repair. Although the surgeonís experience typically influences the surgical approach, special situations will dictate the best approach. Conclusion The treatment of genitourinary fistulae with robotic assistance continues to develop, but further research is necessary to fully understand the use of this technology. PMID:26019933

  18. Aneurysmorrhaphy is an easy technique for arteriovenous fistula salvage.

    PubMed

    Balaz, P; Rokosny, S; Klein, D; Adamec, M

    2008-01-01

    The life-saving procedures for patients in chronic renal failure (CRF) are hemodialysis (HD) or successful kidney transplantation. HD requires a properly placed and functioning vascular access, most often obtained by creating an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The long-term patency of AVFs is limited, in addition to other factors, by the development of intimal hyperplasia and the process results in venous wall thickening and progressive fistula occlusion. Another problem is limited patency, due to the development of pseudoaneurysm, which is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, infection and bleeding, difficult cannulation for dialysis, pain and cosmetic defects. Treatment is focused on rapidly progressing pseudoaneurysms, which can predispose to rupture, technical problems during cannulation because of pseudoaneurysm size or a growing intraluminal thrombus. Most of these patients are scheduled for pseudoaneurysm removal and new fistula construction or, occasionally, an endovascular procedure involving stent graft implantation. This paper describes a simple and inexpensive technique of managing an AVF pseudoaneurysm, i.e. aneurysmorrhaphy. To offset the weakening of the venous wall by suture following aneurysmorrhaphy, an external polyethylene terephthalate (PET) prosthesis was implanted in the vein to prevent the development of intimal hyperplasia in the de novo created AVF. PMID:18609522

  19. Chitosan/alginate complexes for vaginal delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, A; Bigucci, F; Cerchiara, T; Saladini, B; Gallucci, M C; Cruciani, F; Vitali, B; Luppi, B

    2013-01-16

    Chitosan/alginate complexes were prepared at different polycation/polyanion molar ratios and freeze-dried vaginal inserts were obtained for chlorhexidine digluconate local delivery in genital infections. Complex yield, FT-IR spectra, and TGA thermograms were studied to confirm the interaction between the two polyions. The influence of different complexes on physical handling, morphology, and drug distribution in the samples were evaluated by friability test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. In vitro water-uptake, mucoadhesion and release tests were performed as well as microbiological tests toward pathogenic vaginal microorganisms. The results showed that the selection of suitable chitosan/alginate molar ratio and drug loading allowed modulate insert ability to hydrate, adhere to the mucosa, and release chlorhexidine digluconate. The insert containing an excess of alginate was found to be the best performing formulation and showed good antimicrobial activity toward the pathogens Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. PMID:23121960

  20. Urinary Incontinence after Vaginal Delivery or Cesarean Section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guri Rortveit; Anne Kjersti Daltveit; Yngvild S. Hannestad; Steinar Hunskaar

    2003-01-01

    background It is uncertain whether women who deliver by cesarean section have an increased risk of urinary incontinence as compared with nulliparous women and whether women who deliver vaginally have an even higher risk. methods We studied 15,307 women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Trøndelag (EPINCONT) study, which involved a community-based cohort. The data base

  1. Ovarian function with a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Titia M. T. Mulders; Thom O. M. Dieben; Herjan J. T. Coelingh Bennink

    BACKGROUND: NuvaRing® is a combined contraceptive vaginal ring designed for 3 weeks continuous use followed by a 1 week ring-free period. The present study evaluated ovarian function in women who were instructed to either adhere to, or deviate from, the recommended regimen of use. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized study, 45 women aged between 18 and 35 years used NuvaRing

  2. Posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse: primary repair in 693 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice J. Webb; Michael P. Aronson; Linda K. Ferguson; Raymond A. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the results of primary repair of posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse in a current, large series of patients with long-term follow-up.Methods: From January 1976 to December 1987, 693 patients underwent primary repair of vault prolapse at the Mayo Clinic. The Mayo culdoplasty technique was used in 95% of these patients. Patients were followed up by reference to their

  3. Vaginal infections in human immunodeficiency virus–infected women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Helfgott; Nancy Eriksen; C. Michael Bundrick; Ronald Lorimor; Barbara Van Eckhout

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the frequencies of vaginal infections among human immunodeficiency virus–infected women with those among human immunodeficiency virus–seronegative women. Study Design: Human immunodeficiency virus–seropositive women attending a comprehensive care center for human immunodeficiency virus disease at the outpatient department of an inner-city hospital in Houston underwent rigorous gynecologic evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases, including evidence

  4. Midurethral sling outcomes: tension-free vaginal tape versus Pelvilace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart H. Shippey; Isabel C. Green; Lieschen H. Quiroz; Victoria L. Handa; Robert E. Gutman

    2008-01-01

    We sought to compare the complications and efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and Pelvilace. Chart reviews and telephone\\u000a questionnaires documented complications, urinary symptoms [Urogenital Distress Inventory short form (UDI-6) and Patient Global\\u000a Impression of Improvement (PGII)], and re-operations. Failure was defined as PGII???4 (no change or worse) or reoperation\\u000a for urinary incontinence. There were 91 TVT and 22 Pelvilace

  5. Voiding dysfunction after the tension-free vaginal tape procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtenay Moore; Marie Fidela R. Paraiso

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the past decade, pubovaginal slings have become the most widely used surgical procedure for the treatment of stress\\u000a urinary incontinence. However, despite its widespread use and success rates, it is associated with a significant complication\\u000a rate. In response to the high complication rate, the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) was introduced. Based on the integral\\u000a theory that stress urinary incontinence

  6. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Caldeira, João; Vaidya, Binod

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of such body parameters with certain womans’ body phenomena could not obtain better results. This article presents the design and implementation of a novel intra-body sensor for acquisition and monitoring of intra-vaginal temperatures. This novel intra-body sensor provides data collection that is used for studying the relation between temperature variations and female health conditions, such as anticipation and monitoring of the ovulation period, detection of pregnancy contractions, preterm labor prevention, etc.. The motivation for this work focuses on the development of this new intra-body sensor that will represent a major step in medical technology. The novel sensor was tested and validated on hospitalized women as well as normal healthy women. Finally our medical team has attested to the accuracy, usability and performance of this novel intra-body sensor. PMID:22574046

  7. Vaginal microbicides and the prevention of HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Blayne; Justman, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, nearly half of all individuals living with HIV are now women, who acquire the virus largely by heterosexual exposure. With an HIV vaccine likely to be years away, topical microbicide formulations applied vaginally or rectally are being investigated as another strategy for HIV prevention. A review of preclinical and clinical research on the development of microbicides formulated to prevent vaginal HIV transmission yielded 118 studies: 73 preclinical and 45 clinical. Preclinical research included in-vitro assays and cervical explant models, as well as animal models. Clinical research included phase I and II/IIb safety studies, and phase III efficacy studies. Whereas most phase I and phase II clinical trials have found microbicide compounds to be safe and well tolerated, phase III trials completed to date have not demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV transmission. Topical microbicides are grouped into five classes of agents, based on where they disrupt the pathway of sexual transmission of HIV. These classes include surfactants/membrane disruptors, vaginal milieu protectors, viral entry inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and a fifth group whose mechanism is unknown. The trajectory of microbicide development has been toward agents that block more specific virus—host cell interactions. Microbicide clinical trials face scientifically and ethically complex issues, such as the choice of placebo gel, the potential for viral resistance, and the inclusion of HIV-infected participants. Assessment of combination agents will most likely advance this field of research. PMID:18992405

  8. Embryotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride in vaginally treated rats.

    PubMed

    Buttar, H S

    1985-12-01

    The effects of the spermicide benzalkonium chloride (BKC) were studied on the conceptus of rat. Single doses (0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg kg-1) of aqueous solutions of BKC were administered intravaginally (1 ml kg-1) on gestational day 1. The vulval metallic clips, used to prevent leakage of the solution, were removed 24 h post-treatment. Fetuses were obtained and examined for malformations on day 21 of gestation. slight to copious amounts of vaginal discharge and vaginitis were noticed in rats treated with the two largest doses of BKC. A dose-related increase in resorptions and fetal death, reduction in litter size and weight were observed in BKC-treated dams. The conceptus loss seemed to occur both before and after implantation. BKC did not cause any discernible visceral malformations, although minor sternal defects occurred in fetuses exposed to 100 and 200 mg kg-1 of the spermicide. These results suggest that single vaginal application of BKC is embryo- and fetocidal in the rat at a dose about 143 times higher than that recommended for controlling conception in women. PMID:4078221

  9. Pelvic prolapse: diagnosing and treating uterine and vaginal vault prolapse.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, R D; Cross, C A; McGuire, E J

    1998-07-01

    Uterine prolapse is often associated with a concomitant rectocele, cystocele, and/or an enterocele. Moderate degrees of prolapse are often associated with a feeling of pelvic heaviness or fullness or low back pain. The symptoms usually worsen with exertion and ease with bed rest. In severe prolapse, the cervix may descend outside the vaginal introitus, and patients may complain that a "mass" is protruding from the vagina. Bleeding from mucosal ulcerations or from the cervical os may occur due to rubbing of the prolapsed tissue against the patient's clothing. The commonly associated problems of cystoceles and rectoceles may lead the patient to complain of difficulty voiding, recurrent urinary infections, and/or "splinting" to defecate. Mild cases of uterine prolapse do not require therapy unless the patient is symptomatic; in most cases of second- or third-degree prolapse, however, patients may be quite uncomfortable and desire therapy. Nonsurgical options, such as a pessary, are usually tried first if the patient desires conservative therapy. Operative repair for uterine prolapse is usually approached vaginally if the uterus is small. An abdominal approach may be preferred if the uterus is large or if the woman has had multiple previous pelvic procedures or has extensive endometriosis or other processes that may obliterate the cul-de-sac. In either approach, the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments must be carefully ligated and tied together, and the cul-de-sac must be obliterated to reduce the risk of subsequent enterocele and to properly suspend the vaginal vault. PMID:9732100

  10. Mucoadhesive liposomes as new formulation for vaginal delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Suljakovi?, Sabina; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Kristl, Albin

    2014-05-01

    Local delivery to the affected area represents the optimal means by which advantageous pharmacological properties of curcumin may be fully exploited as currently, due to the biopharmaceutical limitations associated with this polyphenol, its full beneficial effects remain limited. Curcumin-containing liposomes coated with bioadhesive polymers of natural and synthetic origin (chitosan and Carbopol) were evaluated in vitro. For these purposes, an in vitro model of vaginal mucus was developed allowing the monitoring of curcumin permeability in the conditions mimicking vaginal environment. The model was optimized by varying the amounts of glycoproteins, as compared to the permeabilities determined through isolated bovine mucus. The strength of bioadhesion was evaluated using the isolated bovine mucosa. Both curcumin solution and non-coated curcumin liposomes served as controls. Bioadhesive polymers enabled significantly higher (p<0.05) curcumin permeability through the artificial and isolated bovine mucus compared to the controls. Polymer coating of liposomes resulted in an increase in their bioadhesiveness. Mucoadhesive liposomes can be considered as potential novel drug delivery systems intended for vaginal administration of curcumin. PMID:24534774

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of Left Pulmonary Artery-to-Pulmonary Vein Fistula and Its Successful Surgical Repair in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Kurkevych, Andrii; Bohuta, Lyubomyr; Yalynska, Tetyana; Raad, Tammo; Lewin, Mark; Yemets, Illya

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is a rare disease. To the best of our knowledge, prenatal diagnosis of a fistula between the left pulmonary artery and the left pulmonary vein has not been described in the medical literature. We report a case of the prenatal diagnosis of a left pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary vein fistula, followed by successful neonatal surgical repair. PMID:25873833

  12. Aneurismas arteriais tardios associados a fístulas arteriovenosas traumáticas Late arterial aneurysms associated with history of traumatic arteriovenous fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo C. Rocha Moreira; Marcio Miyamotto; Rossano Jarabiza; Ian Gimenez Ribeiro

    The long term presence of an arteriovenous fistula causes proximal dilatation of the artery that feeds it. In general, the dilatation does not regress and tends to progress after the arteriovenous fistula is surgically treated. The authors report on three cases in which arterial dilatation resulted in late aneurysm formation, decades after surgical treatment of arteriovenous fistulas. In all three

  13. Safety of low-dose radiocontrast for interventional AV fistula salvage in stage 4 chronic kidney disease patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kian; C Wyatt; D Schon; J Packer; J Vassalotti; R Mishler

    2006-01-01

    The Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative emphasizes increasing arteriovenous fistula prevalence, by promoting referral for fistula creation in patients with stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim is to provide an optimal access for initiation of dialysis, thus avoiding central venous catheter use. The endovascular management of nonmaturing fistulas is more complicated in these patients, where the expected benefit of

  14. The excision of uterine fibroids by vaginal myomectomy: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Davies; Roger Hart; Adam L Magos

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the excision of uterine fibroids by vaginal myomectomy.Design: Prospective study.Setting: A gynecology department of a university teaching hospital.Patient(s): Women with menorrhagia, pelvic pain, symptoms of pressure, or subfertility attributable to moderate-sized uterine fibroids who otherwise would have required abdominal or laparoscopic myomectomy.Intervention(s): Vaginal myomectomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): The feasibility of vaginal surgery,

  15. Vasculogenic female sexual dysfunction: The hemodynamic basis for vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Goldstein; C Andry; MB Siroky; RJ Krane; KM Azadzoi

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Organic female sexual dysfunction may be related in part to vasculogenic impairment of the hypogastric-vaginal\\/clitoral arterial bed. The aim was to develop an animal model of vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency. Methods: Pelvic nerve stimulated vaginal engorgement and clitoral erection were achieved in control (normal diet, n=8) and atherosclerotic (balloon injury of aorto-iliac arteries and 0.5% cholesterol

  16. Nitric oxide and HSV vaginal infection in BALB\\/c mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabián Benencia; Gisela Gamba; Hernan Cavalieri; Maria Cecilia Courreges; Ruben Benedetti; Soledad Maria Villamil; Ernesto Jorge Massouh

    2003-01-01

    Here we study the role of nitric oxide in the vaginal infection of Balb\\/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes early postinfection. iNOS was also found to be activated in cells recovered from vaginal washings of infected animals. Animals treated with aminoguanidine

  17. Clinical and Microscopic Diagnosis of Vaginal Yeast Infection: A Prospective Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Abbott

    1995-01-01

    Study objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of clinical findings and direct microscopy in the diagnosis of yeast vaginitis.Design: Prospective.Setting: Urban teaching hospital emergency department and walk-in clinic.Participants: Seventy-one consecutive nonmenstruating women with a presenting complaint of vaginal discharge, itching, or pain.Interventions: Trained emergency physicians and nurse practitioners, blinded to culture results, collected clinical information, examined vaginal secretions, and obtained yeast

  18. Vaginal Douches and Other Feminine Hygiene Products: Women's Practices and Perceptions of Product Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane M. Grimley; Lucy Annang; Herman R. Foushee; F. Carol Bruce; Juliette S. Kendrick

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Objective: Use of vaginal douche products has been linked with a variety of reproductive health problems; nonetheless, the practice\\u000a of douching persists. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the use of vaginal douches and other feminine hygiene products,\\u000a 2) ascertain how safe women think vaginal douche products are, and 3) evaluate women's readiness to stop douching. Methods:

  19. Factors affecting vaginal pH levels among female adolescents attending genitourinary medicine clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Brabin; S A Roberts; E Fairbrother; D Mandal; S P Higgins; S Chandiok; P Wood; G Barnard; H C Kitchener

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Vaginal pH is related to hormonal status, and adolescents experience disturbed hormonal patterns following menarche. We assessed hormonal factors and risk of abnormal vaginal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among adolescents attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics.Methods: In a cross sectional study adolescents within 5 years of menarche, ?17 years, or with oligo-amenorrhoea were recruited. Vaginal pH and BV were

  20. Development and evaluation of an in vitro vaginal model for assessment of drug's biopharmaceutical properties: curcumin.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Skalko-Basnet, Nataša; Basnet, Purusotam; Kristl, Albin

    2012-12-01

    Vaginal administration is a promising alternative to the per-oral route in achieving systemic or local therapeutic effects, when intestinal drug absorption is hindered by problematic biopharmaceutical drug properties. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro vaginal model and use it to characterize biopharmaceutical properties of liposomally associated curcumin destined for vaginal delivery. The in vitro permeability, metabolism, and tissue retention of high/low permeable compounds were assessed on cow vaginal mucosa and compared to the permeabilities determined through Caco-2 cells and rat jejunum in vitro. The results showed that the intestinal mucosa was superior to the vaginal one in categorizing drugs based on their permeabilities in high/low permeable classes. Passive diffusion was found to be the main mechanism of drug penetration through vaginal mucosa and it was not affected by transporter-enzyme alliance, as their expression/activity was significantly reduced compared to the intestinal tract. Curcumin permeability from the solution form was the lowest of all tested substances due to its significant tissue retention and curcumin-mucus interactions. The permeability of liposomally associated curcumin was even lower but the binding of liposomally associated curcumin to the vaginal tissue was significantly higher. The permeability and tissue retention of liposomal curcumin were vesicle size dependent. Vaginal application of liposomally associated curcumin provides relatively high levels of curcumin in vaginal tissue, with limited systemic absorption. PMID:22899381

  1. An unusual presentation of a vaginal leiomyoma in a postmenopausal hysterectomised woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumours commonly occurring in the uterine wall. They are rarely seen in the vaginal wall leading to pressure symptoms on urinary tract. Indentation of leiomyoma from anterior vaginal wall into the bladder is rare and hence we report one such case. A 55 year old Caucasian woman presented to urology clinic with recurrent Urinary tract infection and pressure symptoms. After the diagnosis of a vaginal mass, she was referred to Gynaecology clinic. During the excision of the vaginal mass its indentation into the bladder was noted. Histology report confirmed the diagnosis of benign leiomyoma. PMID:20181160

  2. Bardet-Biedl syndrome associated with vaginal atresia: a case report.

    PubMed

    U?uralp, Sema; Demircan, Mehmet; Cetin, Selma; Si?irci, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    This is a case report of Bardet-Biedl syndrome associated with vaginal atresia diagnosed in a 15-year-old girl. She had mild mental retardation; obesity; nistagmus, retinitis pigmentosa and optic atrophy in both eyes; accessory digit on the left hand; polydactyly in lower extremities; a mobile, painful, nonfixed mass of 6 cm in diameter in the pelvic region; a palpable cystic mass in front of the rectal wall; and no vaginal opening. Secondary sex characteristics were determined. The vaginal atresia was distinguished from vaginal agenesis by the presence of proximal vagina in radiological examination. PMID:14696812

  3. Alpha-fetoprotein in vaginal fluids. The early diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Tóth, P; Mészáros, C; Csáki, G

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein, one of the most characteristic proteins of pregnancy, is present in the amniotic fluid during the whole period of pregnancy. In the case of premature rupture of the membranes it is appearing in the vaginal fluid. The level of AFP was measured by the ELISA technique in the vaginal fluid of pregnant women. In 70 cases of the rupture of membranes and in 33 cases of splitting of the membranes the AFP was measurable in the vaginal fluid and it was not detectable in 31 cases of urine and in 16 cases of vaginal fluids of pregnant women without any sign of premature rupture of the membranes. PMID:1707287

  4. Octreotide for conservative management of intractable high output post operative chylous fistula: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sundararaman; Thomas, Shaji

    2015-03-01

    A case of high output post neck dissection chylous fistula is presented, which was successfully managed conservatively with octreotide; a long acting somatostatin analogue. Routine measures had failed, and secondary complications precluded thoracoscopic ligation. We discuss the spectrum of problems associated with chylous fistula and review the rationale behind the use of octreotide. PMID:25838666

  5. Primary forearm arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access — an integrated approach to improve outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Shemesh; C. Zigelman; O. Olsha; J. Alberton; J. Shapira; H. Abramowitz

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Maximizing the ratio of primary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) over bridge graft fistula (BGF) for hemodialysis access is a primary recommendation of the National Kidney Foundation published as Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (DOQI). Imaging, anesthetic and surgical techniques were taken into account to achieve this and other goals, including extensive use of forearm vessels to lower immediate and early failure

  6. Brachiobasilic Fistula as a Secondary Access Procedure: An Alternative to a Dialysis Prosthetic Graft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chieh-Hung Lee; Po-Jen Ko; Yun-Hen Liu; Hung-Chang Hsieh; Hui-Ping Liu

    Background: In order to extend the availability of each extremity as an access site for long-term dialysis, we created a brachiobasilic fistula by superficialization of the basilic vein, which had previously been arterialized. In this work, we pre- sent the preliminary results of this procedure. Methods: Patients with prior forearm arteriovenous fistula dysfunction without an ade- quate superficial vein were

  7. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish, E-mail: modim72@yahoo.co [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Bapuraj, J. Rajiv [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology (United States); Lal, Anupam [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India); Prabhakar, S. [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Khandelwal, N. [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India)

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  8. Mucormycosis associated with carotid cavernous fistula and cavernous carotid mycotic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Saff, G; Frau, M; Murtagh, F R; Silbiger, M L

    1989-10-01

    Mucormycosis has not been described previously as a cause of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula or mycotic aneurysm, certainly not coexisting in the same patient. CT and angiographic findings are presented in a patient who had a fistula, mycotic aneurysm, and associated cerebral vasculitis. PMID:2809556

  9. Management of traumatic facial nerve paralysis with carotid artery cavernous sinus fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Roland Jr; P. E. Hammerschlag; W. S. Lewis; I. Choi; A. Berenstein

    1994-01-01

    Massive skull base injuries require detailed preoperative neurological and neurovascular assessment prior to undertaking surgical repair of isolated cranial nerve deficits. We present the management of a patient with traumatic facial paralysis, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and carotid artery cavernous sinus fistula as the result of a gunshot wound to the skull base. The carotid artery cavernous sinus fistula was ultimately

  10. [Surgical treatment of fistula-in-ano--a journey between Skylla and Charybdis].

    PubMed

    Marti, Lukas; Kruse, Christina; Zadnikar, Marcel; Maurus, Christine; Kim, Chan-Hi; Herold, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    This review discusses the pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnostic work-up, and treatment options for fistula-in-ano, which is a common condition that affects ~ 20 in 100,000 per year with a predominance for young males. Fistula-in-ano normally presents as an acute anorectal abscess that subsequently becomes established as a chronic discharging fistula. The illness is characterized by chronic perianal discharge and intermittent pain. The aim of surgical treatment is permanent cure of the fistula whilst maintaining patient continence. This principle forms the basis of surgical decision-making and means that treatment options often have to be individualized for each patient. Low, simple fistulae may be treated by fistulotomy because of the low risk of incontinence. In contrast, high fistulae that contain a greater proportion of sphincter muscle demand more complex operations. Traditional reconstructive techniques (transanal advancement flap, primary sphincter reconstruction) aim to eradicate the fistula whilst leaving the sphincter muscle intact or readapted, whilst newer techniques (biosynthetic plugs) provide a scaffold to encourage normal tissue ingrowth with fistula occlusion. The newer procedures preserve the sphincter ideally. On the other hand success rates of these techniques are somewhat disappointing. PMID:23798020

  11. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cassia fistula (Leguminosae) Leaf Extract on Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejendra Bhakta; Pulok K. Mukherjee; Kakali Saha; M. Pal; B. P. Saha; Subhash C. Mandal

    2000-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. is used by the people of Tripura, India as an anti-inflammatory, but the mode of activity is unknown. In this study, Cassia fistula leaves were tested for anti-inflammatory effects, as compared with phenylbutazone, using carrageenin, histamine, and dextran induced paw edema in rats. Potent anti-inflammatory activity against all phlogistic agents was noted.

  12. Multiple coronary artery-left ventricular fistulae: haemodynamic quantification by intracoronary Doppler ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Meissner; M. Lins; G. Herrmann; R. Simon

    1997-01-01

    Multiple coronary artery-left ventricular fistulae involving all three major coronary arteries are extremely rare. Clinical findings are heterogeneous but include a history of typical or atypical angina pectoris in most cases. Coronary arteriography in a 65 year old woman who presented with chest pain at rest revealed multiple fine fistulae arising from the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right

  13. Doppler Echocardiographic Features of Coronary Artery Fistula: Report of 8 Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia M. Barbosa; Tamara Katina; Homero G. Oliveira; Fernando E. Neuenschwander; Edmundo C. Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is a rare congenital anomaly in which the involved coronary artery empties into a cardiac chamber, pulmonary artery, or other structure. Its diagnosis can be made noninvasively by finding a dilated coronary artery by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, and its drainage can be detected by color flow mapping. We describe features of coronary artery fistulas in 8 patients

  14. Postoperative recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula: an unusual complication of oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel®).

    PubMed

    Dokumcu, Zafer; Polatdemir, Kamer; Ozcan, Coskun; Erdener, Ata

    2014-04-01

    Oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel(®)) is a commonly used material in Pediatric Surgery. We present a case of recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (RTEF) repaired by Surgicel(®). In this case, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) recurred due to migration of Surgicel into the tracheal and esophageal lumen. PMID:24576454

  15. Management of acquired bronchobiliary fistula: A systematic literature review of 68 cases published in 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guan-Qun; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Guang-Yong; Zhu, Kai-Bin; Lv, Fu-Xin; Tai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To outline the appropriate diagnostic methods and therapeutic options for acquired bronchobiliary fistula (BBF). METHODS: Literature searches were performed in Medline, EMBASE, PHMC and LWW (January 1980-August 2010) using the following keywords: biliobronchial fistula, bronchobiliary fistula, broncho-biliary fistula, biliary-bronchial fistula, tracheobiliary fistula, hepatobronchial fistula, bronchopleural fistula, and biliptysis. Further articles were identified through cross-referencing. RESULTS: Sixty-eight cases were collected and reviewed. BBF secondary to tumors (32.3%, 22/68), including primary tumors (19.1%, 13/68) and hepatic metastases (13.2%, 9/68), shared the largest proportion of all cases. Biliptysis was found in all patients, and other symptoms were respiratory symptoms, such as irritating cough, fever (36/68) and jaundice (20/68). Half of the patients were treated by less-invasive methods such as endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage. Invasive approaches like surgery were used less frequently (41.7%, 28/67). The outcome was good at the end of the follow-up period in 28 cases (range, 2 wk to 72 mo), and the recovery rate was 87.7% (57/65). CONCLUSION: The clinical diagnosis of BBF can be established by sputum analysis. Careful assessment of this condition is needed before therapeutic procedure. Invasive approaches should be considered only when non-invasive methods failed. PMID:21987628

  16. Mechanical Thrombectomy of Occluded Hemodialysis Native Fistulas and Grafts Using a Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Vikram, E-mail: vassahni@hotmail.com; Kaniyur, Sunil; Malhotra, Anmol [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Fan, Stanley [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Blakeney, Charles; Fotheringham, Tim [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Sobeh, Mohammed [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Matson, Matthew [Barts and London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hydrodynamic percutaneous thrombectomy catheter in the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Twenty-two patients (median age: 47 years; range: 31-79 years) underwent mechanical thrombectomy for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. In all cases, an Oasis hydrodynamic catheter was used. Five patients had native fistulas and 17 had PTFE grafts. Six patients required repeat procedures. All patients with native fistulas and 15 of the 17 with PTFE grafts also underwent angioplasty of the venous limb following the thrombectomy. Major outcome measures included technical success, clinical success, primary and secondary patency, and complication rates. Twenty-eight procedures were performed in total. The technical success rate was 100% and 90% and clinical success was 86% and 76% for native fistulas and grafts, respectively. The primary patency at 6 months was 50% and 59% for fistulas and grafts, respectively, and the secondary patency at 6 months was 75% and 70% for fistulas and grafts, respectively. Two patients died of unrelated causes during the follow-up period. The Oasis catheter is an effective mechanical device for the percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis access. Our initial success rate showed that the technique is safe in the treatment of both native fistulas and grafts.

  17. Rare case of coronary to pulmonary vein fistula with coronary steal phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Barsoum, Emad A; Saiful, Faisal B; Asti, Deepak; Morcus, Rewais; Khoueiry, Georges; Lafferty, James; McCord, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery fistulas are abnormal connections between coronary artery territories and cardiac chambers or major vessels, most of them are congenital. Patients with coronary artery fistula can be asymptomatic or present with different symptoms like angina. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is one of the best modalities for diagnosis. We present an elderly patient that presented with angina symptoms, non invasive stress test was positive for ischemic heart disease, coronary angiogram could not reveal any obstructive lesions, but an abnormal branch of the left descending coronary artery (LAD), cardiac CT showed fistula that connect left anterior descending coronary artery to left superior pulmonary vein. Our case is extremely rare as most of the reported cases were fistulas between LAD and pulmonary artery, but in our case the fistula between LAD and left superior pulmonary vein. In addition, our patients’ symptoms resolved with anti-ischemic medical treatment without any surgical intervention. PMID:25068029

  18. Hybrid management of a spontaneous ilio-iliac arteriovenous fistula: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous iliac arteriovenous fistulae are a rare clinical entity. Such localized fistulation is usually a result of penetrating traumatic or iatrogenic injury. Clinical presentation can vary greatly but commonly includes back pain, high-output congestive cardiac failure and the presence of an abdominal bruit. Diagnosis, therefore, is often incidental or delayed. Case presentation We report a case of a spontaneous ilio-iliac arteriovenous fistula in a 68-year-old Caucasian man detected following presentation with unilateral claudication and congestive cardiac failure. Following computed tomography evaluation, the fistula was successfully treated with a combined endovascular (aorto-uni-iliac device) and open (femoro-femoral crossover) approach. Conclusion Endovascular surgery has revolutionized the management of such fistulae and we report an interesting case of a high-output iliac arteriovenous fistulae successfully treated with a hybrid vascular approach. PMID:21859469

  19. [Esophageal-pulmonary fistula in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Leguen, Y; Stern, J B; Sauvanet, A; Mal, F; Reffas, T; Fournier, M; Mal, H

    2000-11-01

    Acquired eso-respiratory fistulae are usually consecutive to an eso-tracheal or an eso-bronchial fistula. Esophago-pulmonary fistulae have been rarely described. We report a case of esophago-pulmonary fistula in a patient with esophageal carcinoma. Our patient presented progressive necrotizing pneumonia. CT scan of the thorax demonstrated necrosis of the esophagal wall and communication between the esophagus and the lung parenchyma. Furthermore, the biochemical analysis of the lung abcess fluid revealed a high level of amylase. Outcome was poor despite drainage of the lung abcess and insertion of an esophageal stent. Based on this case, we reviewed the cases of esophago-pulmonary fistulae described in the literature. PMID:11131875

  20. Uretero-Uterine Fistula: Delayed Presentation After Ureteral Reimplantation for Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    PubMed

    Richter, Lee A; Coviello, Elizabeth; Loftus, Kelly; Gutman, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Primary cyclic hematuria occurring with the onset of menstruation can be a presenting symptom of a fistula between the Mullerian structures (uterus/cervix/upper vagina) and the urinary tract. When occurring, these fistulas are most often vesicovaginal connections caused by congenital Mullerian anomalies. We present a case of a fistula occurring between a bicornuate uterus and the ureteral stump that had been ligated at the time of ureteral reimplantation during childhood. The presenting symptom was cyclic hematuria beginning at the age of 14 years with the onset of menarche. Cystoscopy and retrograde pyelogram showed a fistula connecting the ureteral stump (which had been ligated at the time of ureteral reimplantation) to the small horn of the bicornuate uterus. Computed tomographic scan showed bilateral single orthotopic kidneys and collecting systems. The patient underwent successful transvaginal and transvesical surgical repair of the fistula, with complete resolution of her cyclic hematuria. We review genitourinary embryology in discussion of this unusual case. PMID:25730434

  1. Pure pancreaticocutaneous fistula shunted into the urinary bladder. Lesson learned by an incomplete, original attempt.

    PubMed

    Violi, Vincenzo; Salvemini, Carlo; Darecchio, Antonio; Detullio, Paolo; Costi, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Because pancreaticocystostomy is a method of exocrine secretion management in pancreas transplantation, a legitimate question is whether a pure pancreatic fistula could be shunted into the bladder. After duodenopancreatectomy for cancer, a pancreaticojejunostomy leakage was treated by pancreas-saving anastomosis disconnection. The resulting pure pancreaticocutaneous fistula was later diverted into the bladder using a Denver valved-pump device. Technical problems necessitated redoing the shunt using a modified technique and device. Although the system did work, catheter displacement outside the bladder finally caused device takedown and external fistula restoration. Our attempt did not succeed mostly because of our inexperience in dealing with an altogether novel issue without appropriate technology. Supposing its feasibility, a pancreatic-bladder shunt might have a role in treating pure pancreatic fistulas or creating an external fistula whenever the pancreatic remnant is unreliable for an anastomosis, or when a leaked anastomosis' disconnection is preferable to completion pancreatectomy. PMID:24833149

  2. Cervical length versus vaginal PH in the second trimester as preterm birth predictor

    PubMed Central

    Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Tabasi, Zohreh; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrdad, Mahdian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate diagnostic value of vaginal pH and cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy as a preterm labor (PTL) predictor. Methods: During a prospective cohort study 438 uncomplicated singleton pregnant women between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation were assessed regarding vaginal PH and cervical length. Vaginal pH was measured using Ph-indicator strips and cervical length was determined using transvaginal ultrasound. The cut-off values for vaginal PH and cervical length were defined as 5 and <30 mm respectively. Results: Vaginal pH of 5 and above was found in 162/438 women (37%) while cervical length <30mm was found in 38/438 (8.7%). The incidence of PTL < 37 weeks was 87/438 (19.9%) while the incidence of early (PTL <34 weeks) was 51/438 (11.6%). Predictive value of higher vaginal PH was significantly more (31%) than vaginal PH<5 (13%) in predicting PTL. As a result, alkaline vaginal PH significantly increases the odds of preterm labor (OR=3.06). Shortened cervical length is better predictor of PTL than higher vaginal PH with positive predictive value of 71% and negative predictive value of 85%. Cervical length less than 30 mm nearly 14-fold increases odds of preterm birth (OR=13.9). Conclusion: Compared to alkaline vaginal PH, shortened cervical length has better value to predict PTL overall. However, regarding early or late PTL, vaginal PH is more accurate to predict late PTL, while cervical length measurement is more appropriate to predict early PTL (<34 weeks).

  3. Pharmacokinetic and Safety Analyses of Tenofovir and Tenofovir-Emtricitabine Vaginal Tablets in Pigtailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lara E.; Friend, David R.; Garber, David A.; McNicholl, Janet M.; Hendry, R. Michael; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) containing tenofovir (TFV) or TFV and emtricitabine (FTC) were evaluated for safety and pharmacokinetics in pigtailed macaques. Two separate animal groups (n = 4) received TFV (10 mg) or TFV-FTC (10 mg each) RDTs, administered near the cervix. A third group (n = 4) received 1 ml TFV gel. Blood plasma, vaginal tissue biopsy specimens, and vaginal fluids were collected before and after product application at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h. A disintegration time of <30 min following vaginal application of the RDTs was noted, with negligible effects on local inflammatory cytokines, vaginal pH, and microflora. TFV pharmacokinetics were generally similar for both RDTs and gel, with peak median concentrations in vaginal tissues and vaginal secretions being on the order of 104 to 105 ng/g (147 to 571 ?M) and 106 ng/g (12 to 34 mM), respectively, at 1 to 4 h postdose. At 24 h, however, TFV vaginal tissue levels were more sustained after RDT dosing, with median TFV concentrations being approximately 1 log higher than those with gel dosing. FTC pharmacokinetics after combination RDT dosing were similar to those of TFV, with peak median vaginal tissue and fluid levels being on the order of 104 ng/g (374 ?M) and 106 ng/g (32 mM), respectively, at 1 h postdose with levels in fluid remaining high at 24 h. RDTs are a promising alternative vaginal dosage form, delivering TFV and/or FTC at levels that would be considered inhibitory to simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the macaque vaginal microenvironment over a 24-h period. PMID:24566178

  4. Factors associated with postpartum hemorrhage severity 1 Postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony after vaginal delivery:1

    E-print Network

    to uterine atony after vaginal delivery:1 Factors associated with severity2 3 Marine Driessen MD MPH1 , Marie with PPH due to uterine atony after36 vaginal delivery in 106 French hospitals between November 2004

  5. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for the Treatment of the Open Abdomen and Incidence of Enteral Fistulas: A Retrospective Bicentre Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dold, Stefan; Doberauer, Johannes P.; Mai, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The open abdomen (OA) is often associated with complications. It has been hypothesized that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the treatment of OA may provoke enteral fistulas. Therefore, we analyzed patients with OA and NPWT with special regard to the occurrence of intestinal fistulas. Methods. The present study included all consecutive patients with OA treated with NWPT from April 2010 to August 2011 in two hospitals. Patients' demographics, indications for OA, risk factors, complications, outcome and incidence of fistulas before, during and after NPWT were recorded. Results. Of 81 patients with OA, 26 had pre-existing fistulas and 55 were free from a fistula at the beginning of NPWT. Nine of the 55 patients developed fistulas during (n = 5) or after NPWT (n = 4). Seventy-five patients received ABThera therapy, 6 patients other temporary abdominal closure devices. Only diverticulitis seemed to be a significant predisposing factor for fistulas. Mortality was slightly lower for patients without fistulas. Conclusion. The present study revealed no correlation between occurrence of fistulas before, during, and after NWPT, with diverticulitis being the only risk factor. Fistula formation during NPWT was comparable to reports from literature. Prospective studies are mandatory to clarify the impact of NPWT on fistula formation. PMID:24285953

  6. [Nasofrontal fistula and epidermoid cyst: a case study].

    PubMed

    Harzallah, L; Boughamoura, L; Ghorbel, M; Amara, H; Yacoub, M; Khochtali, H; Essoussi, A S; Bakir, D; Kraiem, C

    2008-04-01

    Nasofrontal fistulas, also called nasofrontal dermal sinuses, are very rare and found for the most part in children. This congenital malformation may be revealed by local infection or neuromeningitis, making this a serious disorder. We report one case of nasofrontal dermal sinus diagnosed in an 11-month-old girl, which was complicated by left fronto-orbital infection. Through this case, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid). PMID:18563033

  7. Management of a rare gastrobronchial fistula following recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad Asghar; Dickson, Euan; Colquhoun, Ian W

    2014-10-01

    A 41-year-old male smoker presented with choking and coughing up food associated with repeated vomiting. Four years previously, following recurrent episodes of pancreatitis, he required percutaneous necrosectomy. He subsequently had a cholecystectomy and mesh repair of the abdominal wall, and later developed multiple problems including a gastrobronchial fistula. Computed tomography revealed a fistulous connection for which he had a combined procedure. Through a thoracolaparotomy approach, the left lower lobe and fistulous connection were removed along with the surrounding diaphragm and the associated fundus of the stomach. The diaphragm defect was repaired without mesh. PMID:24887878

  8. Renoduodenal fistula after transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Rahul A; Feldman, Adam S; Walker, T Gregory

    2015-02-01

    Transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipomas is a routinely performed, nephron-sparing procedure with a favorable safety profile. Complications from this procedure are typically minor in severity, with postembolization syndrome the most common minor complication. Abscess formation is a recognized but uncommon major complication of this procedure and is presumably due to superinfection of the infarcted tissue after arterial embolization. In this case report, we describe the formation of a renoduodenal fistula after embolization of an angiomyolipoma, complicated by intracranial abscess formation and requiring multiple percutaneous drainage procedures and eventual partial nephrectomy. PMID:24722895

  9. Teaching neuroimages: carotid-cavernous fistula caused by fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Zheng, Hongbo; Zhou, Muke; He, Li

    2014-04-15

    A 26-year-old woman developed headache, diplopia, and pulsatile tinnitus in 10 days. Neurologic examination revealed limitation of left eye movement, left dilated pupil with optic disc swelling and mild decreased vision, and a bruit over the left superior orbit. Her family history, laboratory data, and cerebral MRI showed normal findings. Cerebral CT angiography suggested left carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). Follow-up angiography confirmed left CCF (figure 1). Nevertheless, multiple stenoses interspersed with aneurysmal dilation segments of carotid, vertebral, and renal arteries were found (figure 2). A diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was finally made. FMD is a rare cause of CCF.(1,2.) PMID:24733864

  10. Multiple vascular and enteric fistulas into an anal pouch

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael; Roos, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of an 87-year-old female who presented 3 months following an emergency Hartmann's procedure for perforated diverticulum with per rectum bleed. She was found to have a false aneurysm in the iliac artery communicating with her rectal stump. This was treated successfully with intravascular coiling; however, she re-presented 2 years later complaining of passing stool per rectum and decreased colostomy output. She was found to have communication between two enterorectal fistulae with the distal segment of the remaining bowel. PMID:25656168

  11. A complex fistula caused by an eroding pelvic mesh sling.

    PubMed

    Ihedioha, Ugo; Leung, E; Chung, L; Burgess, G; Hendry, D; O'dwyer, P J

    2007-02-01

    Pelvic mesh slings are increasingly used to create abdomino-pelvic partitions. This procedure is usually safe and carries low morbidity and mortality rates. However, we report a case of a 60-year-old male with a history of an abdomino-perineal resection for a low rectal carcinoma followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, who presented with an entero-vesicle-cutaneous fistula as a result of the polypropylene mesh eroding into his small bowel. He had to have a total cystectomy, small bowel resection and mesh removal in order to alleviate his symptoms. PMID:17024307

  12. Four new compounds from the seeds of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Ping-Hung; Wein, Yung-Shun

    2002-08-01

    Four new compounds, 5-(2-hydroxyphenoxymethyl)furfural (1), (2'S)-7-hydroxy-5- hydroxymethyl-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl)chromone (2), benzyl 2-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxybenzoate (3), and benzyl 2beta-O-D-glucopyranosyl-3,6-dimethoxybenzoate (4), together with four known compounds, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, (2'S)-7-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl)-5-methylchromone, and two oxyanthraquinones, chrysophanol and chrysophanein, were isolated and identified from the seeds of Cassia fistula. The structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectral data explanation, and the synthesis of compound 1 was carried out. PMID:12193023

  13. Traumatic perilymphatic fistula with pneumolabyrinth: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Prisman, Eitan; Ramsden, James D; Blaser, Susan; Papsin, Blake

    2011-04-01

    A perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is an abnormal communication between the inner and middle ear resulting in vestibular or cochlear symptoms. We review three pediatric traumatic temporal bone fractures with pneumolabyrinth, confirmed radiologically by the presence of air within the cochlea (pneumocochlea) or vestibule (pneumovestibule). Patients were treated conservatively with complete resolution of vestibulopathy. Hearing outcome was variable and worse in two patients with pneumocochlea. A pneumolabyrinth on radiologic imaging confirms a PLF and obviates the need for exploration to reach a diagnosis. We suggest exploration be reserved for patients with persisting cerebrospinal fluid leakage, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, or vestibular symptomatology. PMID:21305555

  14. Venous ulcer: late complication of a traumatic arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Young, Calvin J; Dardik, Alan; Sumpio, Bauer; Indes, Jeff; Muhs, Bart; Ochoa Chaar, Cassius I

    2015-05-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) formation after penetrating trauma is a well-described phenomenon. However, diagnosis of traumatic AVF is frequently delayed as patients often do not have hard signs of vascular injury at the initial presentation. Late complications of traumatic AVF include arterial and venous dilatation, distal ischemia, venous congestion, and congestive heart failure. This case report describes a traumatic femoral AVF causing distal venous ulceration 3 years after the injury. The AVF was treated with open repair. In the operating room, the Nicoladoni-Branham sign was elicited. The ulcer healed at 1 month and has not recurred at 1-year follow-up. PMID:25725283

  15. SHIV162P3 Infection of Rhesus Macaques Given Maraviroc Gel Vaginally Does Not Involve Resistant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athe M. N. Tsibris; Urboshi Pal; Allison L. Schure; Ronald S. Veazey; Kevin J. Kunstman; Timothy J. Henrich; P. J. Klasse; Steven M. Wolinsky; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; John P. Moore

    2011-01-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0) but became infected after high-dose SHIV-162P3 vaginal challenge. Two

  16. GM-144, a novel lipophilic vaginal contraceptive gel-microemulsion.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, O J; Yiv, S H; Uckun, F M

    2001-01-01

    In a systematic effort to develop a dual-function intravaginal spermicide as well as a drug delivery vehicle against sexually transmitted pathogens, a submicron particle size (30-80 nm), lipophilic and spermicidal gel-microemulsion (viz GM-144) containing the pharmaceutical excipients propylene glycol, Captex 300, Cremophor EL, Phospholipon 90G, Rhodigel, Pluronic F-68, and sodium benzoate was formulated. GM-144 completely immobilized sperm in human or rabbit semen in less than 30 seconds. Therefore, the in vivo contraceptive potency of intravaginally applied GM-144 was compared in the standard rabbit model to those of the detergent spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9)-containing formulation. Eighty-four ovulated New Zealand White rabbits in subgroups of 28 were artificially inseminated with and without intravaginal administration of GM-144 or 2% N-9 (Gynol II) formulation and allowed to complete term pregnancy. GM-144 showed remarkable contraceptive activity in the rigorous rabbit model. When compared with control, intravaginal administration of GM-144 and Gynol II resulted in 75% and 70.8% inhibition of fertility (P <.0001 versus control, Fisher's exact test), respectively. Thus, GM-144 as a vaginal contraceptive was as effective as the commercially available N-9 gel. In the rabbit vaginal irritation test, none of the 6 rabbits given daily intravaginal application of spermicidal GM-144 for 10 days developed epithelial ulceration, edema, leukocyte influx, or vascular congestion characteristic of inflammation (total score = 5). Therefore, GM-144 has the potential to become a clinically useful safe vaginal contraceptive and a vehicle for formulating lipophilic drugs used in reducing the risk of heterosexual transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:14727880

  17. Estradiol-progesterone interaction during the preparation of vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Saleh I; Khidr, Sayed H; Ahmed, Sayed M; Jackanicz, Theodore M; Nash, Harold A

    2003-02-01

    An unexpected enhanced release, in vitro, of estradiol (E2) was observed on the preparation of vaginal rings containing E2 and progesterone (P) in a silicone elastomer. The present work deals with exploring the reason(s) behind this enhanced E2 release. The effect of the ring design (i.e., putting P and E2 in the same compartment or in adjacent or separate compartments) was studied. The effects of the curing temperature as well as the curing time were also investigated. The possible interaction(s) between P and E2 on simple heating of their mixtures was investigated using infrared (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Also, the dissolution behavior of P, E2, and their mixture before and after heating was studied. The ring design, with respect to the position of the steroid layer(s), affected the release of P and E2 from the vaginal rings. Curing the rings at higher temperatures (>/=140 degrees C) for >/=30 min resulted in an enhanced release of the steroids, especially E2. The IR, DSC, phase diagram, and NMR results indicate that an interaction between P and E2, leading to the formation of a molecular complex, took place. It was concluded that putting P and E2 in the same compartment and curing by heating at a high temperature and for an extended time promoted this kind of interaction. The greater hydrophobicity of the interaction product, relative to that of E2, was considered the main reason behind the enhanced in vitro release of E2 from the vaginal rings. PMID:12532375

  18. Multicompartmental Pharmacokinetic Model of Tenofovir Delivery by a Vaginal Gel

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yajing; Katz, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trials of a vaginal Tenofovir gel for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV have given conflicting results. Knowledge of concentrations of Tenofovir and its active form Tenofovir diphosphate, at putative sites of anti-HIV functioning, is central to understanding trial outcomes and design of products and dosage regimens. Topical Tenofovir delivery to the vaginal environment is complex, multivariate and non-linear; determinants relate to drug, vehicle, dosage regimen, and environment. Experimental PK methods cannot yield mechanistic understanding of this process, and have uncontrolled variability in drug sampling. Mechanistic modeling of the process could help delineate its determinants, and be a tool in design and interpretation of products and trials. Methods and Findings We created a four-compartment mass transport model for Tenofovir delivery by a gel: gel, epithelium, stroma, blood. Transport was diffusion-driven in vaginal compartments; blood concentration was time-varying but homogeneous. Parameters for the model derived from in vitro and in vivo PK data, to which model predictions gave good agreement. Steep concentration gradients occurred in stroma ?8 hours after gel release. Increasing epithelial thickness delayed initial TFV delivery to stroma and its decline: tmax increased but AUC at 24 hours was not significantly altered. At 24 and 48 hours, stromal concentrations were 6.3% and 0.2% of Cmax. Concentrations in simulated biopsies overestimated stromal concentrations, as much as ?5X, depending upon time of sampling, biopsy thickness and epithelial thickness. Conclusions There was reasonably good agreement of model predictions with clinical PK data. Conversion of TFV to TFV-DP was not included, but PK data suggest a linear relationship between them. Thus contrasts predicted by this model can inform design of gels and dosage regimens in clinical trials, and interpretation of PK data. This mass transport based approach can be extended to TFV conversion to TFV-DP, and to other drugs and dosage forms. PMID:24040241

  19. VAGINAL DEGENERATION FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION OF SYNTHETIC MESH WITH INCREASED STIFFNESS

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rui; Abramowitch, Steven; Knight, Katrina; Palcsey, Stacy; Nolfi, Alexis; Feola, Andrew; Stein, Susan; Moalli, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of the prototype prolapse mesh Gynemesh PS to that of two new generation lower stiffness meshes, UltraPro and SmartMesh, on vaginal morphology and structural composition. Design A mechanistic study employing a non-human primate (NHP) model. Setting Magee-Womens Research Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. Population Parous rhesus macaques, with similar age, weight, parity and POP-Q scores. Methods Following IACUC approval, 50 rhesus macaques were implanted with Gynemesh PS (n=12), UltraPro with its blue line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=10), UltraPro with its blue line parallel to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=8) and SmartMesh (n=8) via sacrocolpopexy following hysterectomy. Sham operated animals (n=12) served as controls. Main Outcome Measures The mesh-vagina complex (MVC) was removed after 12 weeks and analyzed for histomorphology, in situ cell apoptosis, total collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycan content and total collagenase activity. Appropriate statistics and correlation analyses were performed accordingly. Results Relative to sham and the two lower stiffness meshes, Gynemesh PS had the greatest negative impact on vaginal histomorphology and composition. Compared to sham, implantation with Gynemesh PS caused substantial thinning of the smooth muscle layer (1557 ± 499?m vs 866 ± 210 ?m, P=0.02), increased apoptosis particularly in the area of the mesh fibers (P=0.01), decreased collagen and elastin content (20% (P=0.03) and 43% (P=0.02), respectively) and increased total collagenase activity (135% (P=0.01)). GAG (glycosaminoglycan), a marker of tissue injury, was the highest with Gynemesh PS compared to sham and other meshes (P=0.01). Conclusion Mesh implantation with the stiffer mesh Gynemesh PS induced a maladaptive remodeling response consistent with vaginal degeneration. PMID:23240802

  20. Characterisation of protein stability in rod-insert vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Pattani, Aditya; Lowry, Deborah; Curran, Rhonda M; McGrath, Stephanie; Kett, Vicky L; Andrews, Gavin P; Malcolm, R Karl

    2012-07-01

    A major goal in vaccine development is elimination of the 'cold chain', the transport and storage system for maintenance and distribution of the vaccine product. This is particularly pertinent to liquid formulation of vaccines. We have previously described the rod-insert vaginal ring (RiR) device, comprising an elastomeric body into which are inserted lyophilised, rod-shaped, solid drug dosage forms, and having potential for sustained mucosal delivery of biomacromolecules, such as HIV envelope protein-based vaccine candidates. Given the solid, lyophilised nature of these insert dosage forms, we hypothesised that antigen stability may be significantly increased compared with more conventional solubilised vaginal gel format. In this study, we prepared and tested vaginal ring devices fitted with lyophilised rod inserts containing the model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both the RiRs and the gels that were freeze-dried to prepare the inserts were evaluated for BSA stability using PAGE, turbidimetry, microbial load, MALDI-TOF and qualitative precipitate solubility measurements. When stored at 4 °C, but not when stored at 40 °C/75% RH, the RiR formulation offered protection against structural and conformational changes to BSA. The insert also retained matrix integrity and release characteristics. The results demonstrate that lypophilised gels can provide relative protection against degradation at lower temperatures compared to semi-solid gels. The major mechanism of degradation at 40 °C/75% RH was shown to be protein aggregation. Finally, in a preliminary study, we found that addition of trehalose to the formulation significantly reduces the rate of BSA degradation compared to the original formulation when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. Establishing the mechanism of degradation, and finding that degradation is decelerated in the presence of trehalose, will help inform further development of RiRs specifically and polymer based freeze-dried systems in general. PMID:22486955