Sample records for vestibular stochastic resonance

  1. Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrado, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Studies have shown that imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standard balance task of standing on a block of foam with their eyes closed. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. Amplitude of the signals varied in the range of 0-700 microamperes. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block, and inertial motion sensors were placed on the torso and head. Balance performance with stimulation was significantly greater (10%-25%) than with no stimulation. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-300 microamperes. Optimization of the amplitude of the stochastic signals for maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration space flight or in patients with balance disorders.

  2. Enhancement of Otolith Specific Ocular Responses Using Vestibular Stochastic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Matthew; De Dios, Yiri E.; Esteves, Julie; Galvan, Raquel; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Our goal is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular stochastic resonance (SR) that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and mitigate these risks. SR is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. Methods: Eye movement data were collected from 10 subjects during variable radius centrifugation (VRC). Subjects performed 11 trials of VRC that provided equivalent tilt stimuli from otolith and other graviceptor input without the normal concordant canal cues. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation, in the range of 0-1500 microamperes, was applied to the vestibular system using a constant current stimulator through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. In the VRC paradigm, subjects were accelerated to 216 deg./s. After the subjects no longer sensed rotation, the chair oscillated along a track at 0.1 Hz to provide tilt stimuli of 10 deg. Eye movements were recorded for 6 cycles while subjects fixated on a target in darkness. Ocular counter roll (OCR) movement was calculated from the eye movement data during periods of chair oscillations. Results: Preliminary analysis of the data revealed that 9 of 10 subjects showed an average increase of 28% in the magnitude of OCR responses to the equivalent tilt stimuli while experiencing vestibular SR. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-900 microamperes. Discussion: These results indicate that stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system can improve otolith specific responses. This will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR delivery systems to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration spaceflight or in people with balance disorders.

  3. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  4. Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Acock, Keena; DeDios, Yiri E.; Heap, Erin; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Recent studies have shown that applying imperceptible stochastic noise electrical stimulation to the vestibular system significantly improved balance and ocular motor responses. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10-cm-thick medium-density foam with their eyes closed. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and using inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process. Subjects were tested at seven amplitudes in the 0.01-30Hz frequency range. The root mean square of the signal increased by 30 microamperes for each +/-100 microampere increment in the current range of 0 - +/-700 microampere. Six balance parameters were calculated to characterize the performance of subjects during the baseline and the stimulus periods for all seven amplitudes. Optimal stimulus amplitude was determined as the one at which the ratio of parameters from the stimulus period to the baseline period for any amplitude range was less than that for the no stimulus condition on a minimum of four of six parameters. Results from this study showed that balance performance at the optimal stimulus amplitude showed significant improvement with the application of the vestibular SR stimulation. The amplitude of optimal stimulus for improving balance performance in normal subjects was in the range of +/-100 - +/-300 microamps.

  5. Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Method to Improve Balance Function: Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input through the proprioceptive, visual, or vestibular sensory systems has been shown to improve motor function. Specifically, studies have shown that that vestibular electrical stimulation by imperceptible stochastic noise, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10 cm thick medium density foam with their eyes closed for a total of 40 seconds. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears during the last 20 seconds of the test period. A custom built constant current stimulator with subject isolation delivered the stimulus. Stimulation signals were generated with frequencies in the bandwidth of 1-2 Hz and 0.01-30 Hz. Amplitude of the signals were varied in the range of 0- +/-700 micro amperes with the RMS of the signal increased by 30 micro amperes for each 100 micro amperes increase in the current range. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Preliminary results indicate that balance performance is improved in the range of 10-25% compared to no stimulation conditions. Subjects improved their performance consistently across the blocks of stimulation. Further the signal amplitude at which the performance was maximized was different in the two frequency ranges. Optimization of the frequency and amplitude of the signal characteristics of the stochastic noise signals on maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact in its development as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long duration space flight or for people with balance disorders.

  6. Functional stochastic resonance in human baroreflex induced by 1/f-type noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Rika; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2003-05-01

    We hypothesized that 1/f noise is more beneficial than the conventional white noise in optimizing the brain's response to a weak input signal, and showed that externally added 1/f noise outperforms white noise in sensitizing human baroreflex centers in the brain. We examined the compensatory heart rate response to weak periodic signal introduced at the venous blood pressure receptor, while adding either 1/f or white noise with the same variance to the brain stem by electrically stimulating the bilateral vestibular afferents cutaneously. This stochastic galvanic vestibular stimulation, activating the vestibulo-sympathetic pathway in the brain stem, optimized covariance between weak input signals and the heart rate responses both with 1/f and white noise. Further, the optimal noise level with 1/f noise was significantly lower than that with white noise, suggesting the functional benefit of 1/f noise for the neuronal information transfer in the brain.

  7. Stochastic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Mark D.; Stocks, Nigel G.; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

    2012-10-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction and motivation; 2. Stochastic resonance: its definitions, history and debates; 3. Stochastic quantization; 4. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: encoding; 5. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N encoding; 6. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: decoding; 7. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N decoding; 8. Optimal stochastic quantization; 9. SSR, neural coding, and performance tradeoffs; 10. Stochastic resonance in the auditory system; 11. The future of stochastic resonance and suprathreshold stochastic resonance; Appendices; References; Index.

  8. Estimation of an Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). The goal of this project was to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection.

  9. Improving Sensorimotor Function Using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transition phases. Post flight sensorimotor changes may include postural and gait instability, spatial disorientation, and visual performance decrements, all of which can degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. Crewmember safety would be improved if these detrimental effects of spaceflight could be mitigated by a sensorimotor countermeasure and even further if adaptation to baseline could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through stochastic resonance (SR). The SR phenomenon occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. Two studies have been initiated to investigate the beneficial effects and potential practical usage of SVS. In both studies, electrical vestibular stimulation is applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes using a constant current stimulator. The first study aims to determine the repeatability of the effect of vestibular stimulation on sensorimotor performance and perception in order to better understand the practical use of SVS. The beneficial effect of low levels of SVS on balance performance has been shown in the past. This research uses the same balance task repeated multiple times within a day and across days to study the repeatability of the stimulation effects. The balance test consists of 50 sec trials in which the subject stands with his or her feet together, arms crossed, and eyes closed on compliant foam. Varying levels of SVS, ranging from 0-700 micro A, are applied across different trials. The subject-specific optimal SVS level is that which results in the best balance performance as measured by inertial measurement units placed on the upper and lower torso of the subjects. Additionally, each individual’s threshold for illusory motion perception of suprasensory electrical vestibular stimulation is measured multiple times within and across days to better understand how multiple SVS test methods compare. The second study aims to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system using a perception based motion recognition task. This task measures an individual’s velocity threshold of motion recognition using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform and a 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. For this study, thresholds are determined using 150 trials in the upright, head-centered roll tilt motion direction at a 0.2 Hz frequency. We aim to demonstrate the characteristic bell shaped curve associated with stochastic resonance with each subject’s motion recognition thresholds at varying SVS levels ranging from 0 to 1500 micro A. The curve includes the individual’s baseline threshold with no SVS, optimal or minimal threshold at some mid-level of SVS, and finally degraded or increased threshold at a high SVS level. An additional aim is to formally retest each subject at his or her individual optimal SVS level on a different day than the original testing for additional validity. The overall purpose of this research is to further quantify the effects of SVS on various sensorimotor tasks and investigate the practical implications of its use in the context of human space flight so that it may be implemented in the future as a component of a comprehensive countermeasure plan for adaptation to G-transitions.

  10. Improving Sensorimotor Function and Adaptation using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, R. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during adaption to G-transitions that occur when entering and exiting microgravity. Post space flight, these sensorimotor disturbances can include postural and gait instability, visual performance changes, manual control disruptions, spatial disorientation, and motion sickness, all of which can hinder the operational capabilities of the astronauts. Crewmember safety would be significantly increased if sensorimotor changes brought on by gravitational changes could be mitigated and adaptation could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate and develop the use of electrical stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a countermeasure to augment sensorimotor function and facilitate adaptation. For this project, SVS will be applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes at imperceptible amplitude levels. We hypothesize that SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through the phenomena of stochastic resonance, which occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. In line with the theory of stochastic resonance, a specific optimal level of SVS will be found and tested for each subject [1]. Three experiments are planned to investigate the use of SVS in sensory-dependent tasks and performance. The first experiment will aim to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system through perception based motion recognition thresholds obtained using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform in the Jenks Vestibular Laboratory at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. A range of SVS amplitudes will be applied to each subject and the subjectspecific optimal SVS level will be identified as that which results in the lowest motion recognition threshold, through previously established, well developed methods [2,3,4]. The second experiment will investigate the use of optimal SVS in facilitating sensorimotor adaptation to system disturbances. Subjects will adapt to wearing minifying glasses, resulting in decreased vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) gain. The VOR gain will then be intermittently measured while the subject readapts to normal vision, with and without optimal SVS. We expect that optimal SVS will cause a steepening of the adaptation curve. The third experiment will test the use of optimal SVS in an operationally relevant aerospace task, using the tilt translation sled at NASA Johnson Space Center, a test platform capable of recreating the tilt-gain and tilt-translation illusions associated with landing of a spacecraft post-space flight. In this experiment, a perception based manual control measure will be used to compare performance with and without optimal SVS. We expect performance to improve in this task when optimal SVS is applied. The ultimate goal of this work is to systematically investigate and further understand the potential benefits of stochastic vestibular stimulation in the context of human space flight so that it may be used in the future as a component of a comprehensive countermeasure plan for adaptation to G-transitions.

  11. Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance, and the stimulation was administered from 20-400% of subjects' vestibular threshold. Optimal stimulation amplitude was determined at which the balance performance was best compared to control (no stimulation). Preliminary results show that, in general, using stimulation amplitudes at 40-60% of perceptual motion threshold significantly improved the balance performance. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with SA training to improve adaptability by increasing utilization of vestibular information and therefore will help us to optimize and personalize a SA countermeasure prescription. This combination may help to significantly reduce the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long-duration spaceflight.

  12. Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Sensorimotor Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that is wearable or portable and provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for SR training applications customized to each crewmember. Customizing stimulus intensity can maximize treatment effects. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. First we determined the percent time during stimulation periods for which perception of motion (activity above a pre-defined threshold) was reported using the joystick, and body sway (two standard deviation of the noise level in the baseline measurement) was detected by the sensors. The percentage time at each stimulation level for motion detection was normalized with respect to the largest value and a logistic regression curve fit was applied to these data. The threshold was defined at the 50% probability of motion detection. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower, and were not impacted by system noise. Further, in order to determine optimal stimulation amplitude to improve balance, two sets of experiments were carried out. In the first set of experiments, all subjects received the same level of stimuli and the intensity of optimal performance was projected back on subjects' vestibular threshold curve. In the second set of experiments, on different subjects, stimulation was administered from 20-400% of subjects' vestibular threshold obtained from joystick data. Preliminary results of our study show that, in general, using stimulation amplitudes at 40-60% of perceptual motion threshold improved balance performance significantly compared to control (no stimulation). The amplitude of vestibular stimulation that improved balance function was predominantly in the range of +/- 100 to +/- 400 micro A. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training to improve adaptability by increasing utilization of vestibular information and therefore will help us to optimize and personalize a SA countermeasure prescription. This combination will help to significantly reduce the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long-duration spaceflight.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of patients with large vestibular aqueducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Okumura; I. Honjo; H. Takahashi; A. Takagi; R. Azato

    1996-01-01

    The vestibular aqueduct (VA) and endolymphatic sac (ES) were examined by magnetic resonance imaging in eight patients (14 ears) with large VAs, and the results were compared with those obtained in five normal volunteers (10 ears). It was not possible to identify either the VA or ES in any of the control ears. However, in all the 14 ears with

  14. Stochastic Resonance: from climate to biology

    E-print Network

    Roberto Benzi

    2007-02-05

    In this paper I will review some basic aspects of the mechanism of stochastic resonance. Stochastic resonance was first introduced as a possible mechanism to explain long term climatic variation. Since then, there have been many applications of stochastic resonance in physical and biological systems. I will show that in complex system, stochastic resonance can substantially change as a function of the ``system complexity''. Also, I will briefly mention how to apply stochastic resonance for the case of Brownian motors.

  15. Stochastic resonance with matched filtering

    E-print Network

    Li-Fang Li; Jian-Yang Zhu

    2010-06-28

    Along with the development of interferometric gravitational wave detector, we enter into an epoch of gravitational wave astronomy, which will open a brand new window for astrophysics to observe our universe. Almost all of the data analysis methods in gravitational wave detection are based on matched filtering. Gravitational wave detection is a typical example of weak signal detection, and this weak signal is buried in strong instrument noise. So it seems attractable if we can take advantage of stochastic resonance. But unfortunately, almost all of the stochastic resonance theory is based on Fourier transformation and has no relation to matched filtering. In this paper we try to relate stochastic resonance to matched filtering. Our results show that stochastic resonance can indeed be combined with matched filtering for both periodic and non-periodic input signal. This encouraging result will be the first step to apply stochastic resonance to matched filtering in gravitational wave detection. In addition, based on matched filtering, we firstly proposed a novel measurement method for stochastic resonance which is valid for both periodic and non-periodic driven signal.

  16. Multifractal characterization of stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Silchenko, A; Hu, C K

    2001-04-01

    We use a multifractal formalism to study the effect of stochastic resonance in a noisy bistable system driven by various input signals. To characterize the response of a stochastic bistable system we introduce a new measure based on the calculation of a singularity spectrum for a return time sequence. We use wavelet transform modulus maxima method for the singularity spectrum computations. It is shown that the degree of multifractality defined as a width of singularity spectrum can be successfully used as a measure of complexity both in the case of periodic and aperiodic (stochastic or chaotic) input signals. We show that in the case of periodic driving force, singularity spectrum can change its structure qualitatively becoming monofractal in the regime of stochastic synchronization. This fact allows us to consider the degree of multifractality as a new measure of stochastic synchronization also. Moreover, our calculations have shown that the effect of stochastic resonance can be catched by this measure even from a very short return time sequence. We use also the proposed approach to characterize the noise-enhanced dynamics of a coupled stochastic neurons model. PMID:11308817

  17. Stochastic resonance on a circle

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, K. (School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)); Pierson, D.; Pantazelou, E.; Dames, C.; Moss, F. (Department of Physics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States))

    1994-04-04

    We describe a new realization of stochastic resonance, applicable to a broad class of systems, based on an underlying excitable dynamics with deterministic reinjection. A simple but general theory of such single-trigger'' systems is compared with analog simulations of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, as well as experimental data obtained from stimulated sensory neurons in the crayfish.

  18. Stochastic resonance in visual sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Ajanta; Sarkar, Sandip

    2015-04-01

    It is well known from psychophysical studies that stochastic resonance, in its simplest threshold paradigm, can be used as a tool to measure the detection sensitivity to fine details in noise contaminated stimuli. In the present manuscript, we report simulation studies conducted in the similar threshold paradigm of stochastic resonance. We have estimated the contrast sensitivity in detecting noisy sine-wave stimuli, with varying area and spatial frequency, as a function of noise strength. In all the cases, the measured sensitivity attained a peak at intermediate noise strength, which indicate the occurrence of stochastic resonance. The peak sensitivity exhibited a strong dependence on area and spatial frequency of the stimulus. We show that the peak contrast sensitivity varies with spatial frequency in a nonmonotonic fashion and the qualitative nature of the sensitivity variation is in good agreement with human contrast sensitivity function. We also demonstrate that the peak sensitivity first increases and then saturates with increasing area, and this result is in line with the results of psychophysical experiments. Additionally, we also show that critical area, denoting the saturation of contrast sensitivity, decreases with spatial frequency and the associated maximum contrast sensitivity varies with spatial frequency in a manner that is consistent with the results of psychophysical experiments. In all the studies, the sensitivities were elevated via a nonlinear filtering operation called stochastic resonance. Because of this nonlinear effect, it was not guaranteed that the sensitivities, estimated at each frequency, would be in agreement with the corresponding results of psychophysical experiments; on the contrary, close agreements were observed between our results and the findings of psychophysical investigations. These observations indicate the utility of stochastic resonance in human vision and suggest that this paradigm can be useful in psychophysical studies. PMID:25398687

  19. Stochastic resonance in free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Calderón, O G

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence of stochastic resonance in free-electron lasers. In order to do that, we have analyzed theoretically the dynamics of a free-electron laser oscillator. A weak modulation and a noise source have been applied to the initial energy of the electron beam. We have found stochastic resonance for different frequencies and amplitudes of the modulation. A threshold crossing mechanism leads to the stochastic resonance in this system. PMID:11304371

  20. Stochastic resonance in neuron models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longtin, André

    1993-01-01

    Periodically stimulated sensory neurons typically exhibit a kind of "statistical phase locking" to the stimulus: they tend to fire at a preferred phase of the stimulus cycle, but not at every cycle. Hence, the histogram of interspike intervals (ISIH), i.e., of times between successive firings, is multimodal for these neurons, with peaks centered at integer multiples of the driving period. A particular kind of residence time histogram for a large class of noisy bistable systems has recently been shown to exhibit the major features of the neural data. In the present paper, we show that an excitable cell model, the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations, also reproduces these features when driven by additive periodic and stochastic forces. This model exhibits its own brand of stochastic resonance as the peaks of the ISIH successively go through a maximum when the noise intensity is increased. Further, the presence of a noise-induced limit cycle introduces a third time scale in the problem. This limit cycle is found to modify qualitatively the phase-locking picture, e.g., by suppressing certain peaks in the ISIH. Finally, the role of noise and possibly of stochastic resonance (SR) in the neural encoding of sensory information is discussed.

  1. Stochastic resonance in neuron models

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, A. (Universite d'Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Periodically stimulated sensory neurons typically exhibit a kind of statistical phase locking' to the stimulus: they tend to fire at a preferred phase of the stimulus cycle, but not at every cycle. Hence, the histogram of interspike intervals (ISIH), ie., of times between successive firings, is multimodal for these neurons, with peaks centered at integer multiples of the driving period. A particular kind of residence time histogram for a large class of noisy bistable systems has recently been shown to exhibit the major features of the neural data. In the present paper, the authors show that an excitable cell model, the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations, also reproduces these features when driven by additive periodic and stochastic forces. This model exhibits its own brand of stochastic resonance as the peaks of the ISIH successively go through a maximum when the noise intensity is increased. Further, the presence of a noise-induced limit cycle introduces a third time scale in the problem. This limit cycle is found to modify qualitatively the phase-locking picture, e.g., by suppressing certain peaks in the ISIH. Finally, the role of noise and possibly of stochastic resonance (SR) in the neural encoding of sensory information is discussed. 29 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Martignoli, Stefan; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2013-01-01

    Pitch is a complex hearing phenomenon that results from elicited and self-generated cochlear vibrations. Read-off vibrational information is relayed higher up the auditory pathway, where it is then condensed into pitch sensation. How this can adequately be described in terms of physics has largely remained an open question. We have developed a peripheral hearing system (in hardware and software) that reproduces with great accuracy all salient pitch features known from biophysical and psychoacoustic experiments. At the level of the auditory nerve, the system exploits stochastic resonance to achieve this performance, which may explain the large amount of noise observed in the working auditory nerve. PMID:24045830

  3. Soft threshold stochastic resonance Priscilla E. Greenwood

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Uschi

    way over some range (e.g. Geldard, 1972). In human and animal psychophysics, the relationship between and threshold stochastic resonance have been well-studied in many physical systems such as the earth's climate

  4. Stochastic resonance with explicit internal signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian Shu; Zhu, Rui

    2001-10-01

    A new type of internal signal stochastic resonance (ISSR) is found and investigated numerically by simulating a chemical model, which is proposed to account for chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. When the system is in the dynamical region of period-1 oscillation, Gaussian white noise perturbation of the control parameter causes maxima to appear on the curve of signal-to-noise ratio versus noise intensity, showing the characteristic of stochastic resonance. The differences between this new type ISSR and the previous one studied by Hu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 807 (1993)] and Xin et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 721 (1999)] are discussed.

  5. Stochastic resonance in the Bénard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbini, Leonardo; Bordi, Isabella; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    In this paper the effect of small stochastic perturbations on a dynamical system describing the Bénard thermal convection is studied. In particular, the two-dimensional Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations governing the dynamics of three interacting Rayleigh rolls with increasing horizontal wave numbers ( i.e., three horizontal modes in the Fourier transform) are reduced to a system of gradient type. The aim is to study the transition paths between the stable steady states, when a stochastic perturbation is taken into account, and the occurrence of stochastic resonance, when the system is perturbed by white noise and the first (gravest) mode is forced by an external periodic component. Results show that i) random transitions between stable steady states representing a clockwise and a counter-clockwise circulation occur through the two saddle points associated with the second mode and not through the (unstable) conductive state nor the saddle points related to the third mode; ii) the introduction of the third mode, as well as of others of smaller spatial scales, does not affect transitions that remain confined along the trajectories linking stable convective states through the saddle points associated with the second mode; iii) the system exhibits a stochastic resonance behavior leading to large amplification of the small amplitude periodic component compared to the one leading to the classical (one-dimensional) stochastic resonance.

  6. Stochastic resonance for dispersion in oscillatory flows

    SciTech Connect

    Claes, I. (Limburgs Universitair Centrum,p B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)); Van den Broeck, C. (Department of Chemistry B-0340, San Diego, California (USA))

    1991-10-15

    We discuss the dispersion of particles suspended in time-periodic flows. It is found that this dispersion becomes maximal if the stochastic process describing the intrinsic random motion of the suspended particles is in resonance'' with the time-periodic flow. Furthermore, the dispersion coefficient is found to be proportional to the spectrum of the stochastic process, evaluated at the frequency of the flow. The dispersion is calculated for several cases of interest, including a two-layer, non-Markovian model and field flow fractionation.

  7. Stochastic resonance in an intracellular genetic perceptron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Russell; Blyuss, Oleg; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    Intracellular genetic networks are more intelligent than was first assumed due to their ability to learn. One of the manifestations of this intelligence is the ability to learn associations of two stimuli within gene-regulating circuitry: Hebbian-type learning within the cellular life. However, gene expression is an intrinsically noisy process; hence, we investigate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic noise on this kind of intracellular intelligence. We report a stochastic resonance in an intracellular associative genetic perceptron, a noise-induced phenomenon, which manifests itself in noise-induced increase of response in efficiency after the learning event under the conditions of optimal stochasticity.

  8. Stochastic resonance in an intracellular genetic perceptron.

    PubMed

    Bates, Russell; Blyuss, Oleg; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    Intracellular genetic networks are more intelligent than was first assumed due to their ability to learn. One of the manifestations of this intelligence is the ability to learn associations of two stimuli within gene-regulating circuitry: Hebbian-type learning within the cellular life. However, gene expression is an intrinsically noisy process; hence, we investigate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic noise on this kind of intracellular intelligence. We report a stochastic resonance in an intracellular associative genetic perceptron, a noise-induced phenomenon, which manifests itself in noise-induced increase of response in efficiency after the learning event under the conditions of optimal stochasticity. PMID:24730883

  9. Active and reactive power in stochastic resonance for energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Kubota, Madoka; Hikihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A power allocation to active and reactive power in stochastic resonance is discussed for energy harvesting from mechanical noise. It is confirmed that active power can be increased at stochastic resonance, in the same way of the relationship between energy and phase at an appropriate setting in resonance.

  10. Crossing resonance of stochastically interacting wave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatchenko, V. A., E-mail: vignatch@iph.krasn.ru; Polukhin, D. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    The dynamic susceptibilities (Green's functions) of the system of two interacting wave fields of different physical natures with a stochastically inhomogeneous coupling parameter between them with zero mean value have been examined. The well-known self-consistent approximation taking into account all diagrams with noncrossing correlation/interaction lines has been generalized to the case of stochastically interacting wave fields. The analysis has been performed for spin and elastic waves. The results obtained taking into account the processes of multiple scattering of waves from inhomogeneities are significantly different from those obtained for this situation earlier in the Bourret approximation [R.C. Bourret, Nuovo Cimento 26, 1 (1962)]. Instead of frequencies degeneracy removal in the wave spectrum and the splitting of resonance peaks of dynamic susceptibilities, a wide single-mode resonance peak should be observed at the crossing point of the unperturbed dispersion curves. The fine structure appears at vertices of these wide peaks in the form of a narrow resonance on the Green's-function curve of one field and a narrow antiresonance on the vertex of the Green's-function curve of the other field.

  11. Stochastic resonance in mammalian neuronal networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gluckman, B.J.; So, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and The Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and The Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Netoff, T.I. [Program in Neuroscience, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)] [Program in Neuroscience, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Spano, M.L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carterock Division, West Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States)] [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carterock Division, West Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Schiff, S.J. [The Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies and the Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)] [The Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies and the Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); [Program in Neuroscience, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    1998-09-01

    We present stochastic resonance observed in the dynamics of neuronal networks from mammalian brain. Both sinusoidal signals and random noise were superimposed into an applied electric field. As the amplitude of the noise component was increased, an optimization (increase then decrease) in the signal-to-noise ratio of the network response to the sinusoidal signal was observed. The relationship between the measures used to characterize the dynamics is discussed. Finally, a computational model of these neuronal networks that includes the neuronal interactions with the electric field is presented to illustrate the physics behind the essential features of the experiment. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Stochastic resonance in atomic optical bistability

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Amitabh; Xiao Min [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is experimentally demonstrated in an atomic optical bistable system consisting of three-level atoms in {lambda}-type configuration confined in an optical ring cavity. The optical bistable system with enhanced Kerr nonlinearity due to atomic coherence is driven by a periodic signal and a Gaussian white noise source with variable amplitude, and displays an improved output signal-to-noise ratio, a characteristic signature of SR. The measured results match qualitatively with the theoretical predictions of the generic model for the SR phenomenon.

  13. Lévy noise-induced stochastic resonance in a bistable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Juanjuan; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Huiqing; Xu, Wei; Duan, Jinqiao

    2013-05-01

    The stochastic resonance phenomenon induced by Lévy noise in a second-order and under-damped bistable system is investigated. The signal-to-noise ratio for different parameters is computed by an efficient numerical scheme. The influences of the intensity and stability index of Lévy noise, as well as the amplitude of external signal on the occurrence of stochastic resonance phenomenon are characterized. The results imply that higher signal amplitude not only enhances the output power spectrum of system but also promotes stochastic resonance, and a proper adjustment of noise intensity in a certain range enlarges the peak value of output power spectrum which is significant for stochastic resonance. Moreover, with an appropriate damping parameter, lowering the stability index leads to larger fluctuations of Lévy noise, and further weakens the occurrence of the stochastic resonance.

  14. Stochastic Resonance in a simple model of magnetic reversals

    E-print Network

    Roberto Benzi; Jean-Francois Pinton

    2011-04-22

    We discuss the effect of stochastic resonance in a simple model of magnetic reversals. The model exhibits statistically stationary solutions and bimodal distribution of the large scale magnetic field. We observe a non trivial amplification of stochastic resonance induced by turbulent fluctuations, i.e. the amplitude of the external periodic perturbation needed for stochastic resonance to occur is much smaller than the one estimated by the equilibrium probability distribution of the unperturbed system. We argue that similar amplifications can be observed in many physical systems where turbulent fluctuations are needed to maintain large scale equilibria.

  15. City traffic jam relief by stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, F.; Toledo, B. A.; Muñoz, V.; Rogan, J.; Zarama, R.; Kiwi, M.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    We simulate traffic in a city by means of the evolution of a row of interacting cars, using a cellular automaton model, in a sequence of traffic lights synchronized by a "green wave". When our initial condition is a small density jammed state, its evolution shows the expected scaling laws close to the synchronization resonance, with a uniform car density along the street. However, for an initial large density jammed state, we observe density variations along the streets, which results in the breakdown of the scaling laws. This spatial disorder corresponds to a different attractor of the system. As we include velocity perturbations in the dynamics of the cars, all these attractors converge to a statistically equivalent system for all initial jammed densities. However, this emergent state shows a stochastic resonance-like behavior in which the average traffic velocity increases with respect to that of the system without noise, for several initial jammed densities. This result may help in the understanding of dynamics of traffic jams in cities.

  16. 1/f noise in systems showing stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, L.B.; Gingl, Z. (JATE Univ., Szeged (Hungary)); Marton, Z. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary)); Kertsez, J. (Inst. for Technical Physics, Budapest (Hungary) Koeln Univ. (Germany)); Moss, F. (Univ. of St. Louis, MO (United States)); Schmera, G.; Bulsara, A. (NCCOSC-RDT E Division, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic resonator systems with input and/or output 1/f noise have been studied. Disordered magnets/dielectrics serve as examples for the case of output 1/f noise with white noise (thermal excitation) at the input of the resonators. Due to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the output noise is related to the out-of-phase component of the periodic peak of the output spectrum. Spin glasses and ferromagnets serve as interesting examples of coupled stochastic resonators. A proper coupling can lead to an extremely large signal-to-noise ratio. As a model system, a 1/f-noise-driven Schmitt trigger has been investigated experimentally to study stochastic resonance with input 1/f noise. Under proper conditions, the authors have found several new nonlinearity effects, such as peaks at even harmonics, holes at even harmonics, and 1/f noise also in the output spectrum. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Vestibular recruitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsemakhov, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibular recruitment is defined through the analysis of several references. It is concluded that vestibular recruitment is an objective phenomenon which manifests itself during the affection of the vestibular receptor and thus serves as a diagnostic tool during affection of the vestibular system.

  18. Coherent signal amplification in bistable nanomechanical oscillators by stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badzey, Robert L.; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2005-10-01

    Stochastic resonance is a counterintuitive concept: the addition of noise to a noisy system induces coherent amplification of its response. First suggested as a mechanism for the cyclic recurrence of ice ages, stochastic resonance has been seen in a wide variety of macroscopic physical systems: bistable ring lasers, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), magnetoelastic ribbons and neurophysiological systems such as the receptors in crickets and crayfish. Although fundamentally important as a mechanism of coherent signal amplification, stochastic resonance has yet to be observed in nanoscale systems. Here we report the observation of stochastic resonance in bistable nanomechanical silicon oscillators. Our nanomechanical systems consist of beams that are clamped at each end and driven into transverse oscillation with the use of a radiofrequency source. Modulation of the source induces controllable switching of the beams between two stable, distinct states. We observe that the addition of white noise causes a marked amplification of the signal strength. Stochastic resonance in nanomechanical systems could have a function in the realization of controllable high-speed nanomechanical memory cells, and paves the way for exploring macroscopic quantum coherence and tunnelling.

  19. Vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2013-07-01

    Vestibular neuritis is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo. Vestibular neuritis is ascribed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function, probably due to reactivation of herpes simplex virus in the vestibular ganglia. The diagnostic hallmarks of vestibular neuritis are spontaneous horizontal-torsional nystagmus beating away from the lesion side, abnormal head impulse test for the involved semicircular canals, ipsilesional caloric paresis, decreased responses of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials during stimulation of the affected ear, and unsteadiness with a falling tendency toward the lesion side. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Accordingly, the function of the posterior semicircular canal and saccule, which constitute the inferior vestibular labyrinth, is mostly spared in vestibular neuritis. However, because the rare subtype of inferior vestibular neuritis lacks the typical features of vestibular neuritis, it may be misdiagnosed as a central vestibular disorder. Even in the patient with the typical pattern of spontaneous nystagmus observed in vestibular neuritis, brain imaging is indicated when the patient has unprecedented headache, negative head impulse test, severe unsteadiness, or no recovery within 1 to 2 days. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea/vomiting. Vestibular rehabilitation hastens the recovery. The efficacy of topical and systemic steroids requires further validation. PMID:24057821

  20. Controlling of explicit internal signal stochastic resonance by external signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya Ping; Wang, Pin; Li, Qian Shu

    2004-09-01

    Explicit internal signal stochastic resonance (EISSR) is investigated in a model of energy transduction of molecular machinery when noise is added to the region of oscillation in the presence of external signal (ES). It is found that EISSR could be controlled, i.e., enhanced or suppressed by adjusting frequency (?e) and amplitude (A) of ES, and that there exits an optimal frequency for ES, which makes EISSR strength reach the maximum. Meanwhile, a critical amplitude (Ac) is found, which is a threshold of occurrence of EISSR. Finally, the difference and similarity between EISSR and IISSR (implicit internal signal stochastic resonance) are discussed.

  1. SELF-INDUCED STOCHASTIC RESONANCE FOR BROWNIAN RATCHETS UNDER LOAD

    E-print Network

    DeVille, Lee

    SELF-INDUCED STOCHASTIC RESONANCE FOR BROWNIAN RATCHETS UNDER LOAD R. E. LEE DEVILLE AND ERIC. These results are relevant in the context of molecular motors transporting a load, which are often modeled ratchet is that of a particle diffusing in a potential with a sequence of local minima, such that each

  2. Stimulus profile and modeling of continuous galvanic vestibular stimulation in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina; Brandt, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) have been used for galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) during functional MRI (fMRI). The perceptual effects of apparent rotation persist while the current is being applied, but there is a subjective decay over the entire stimulation period. Particularly during DC-GVS in a supine position, subjects report a strong vestibular sensation related to the onset and offset of the stimulus, and weaker effects during constant DC-GVS stimulation. In the present study, we analyzed DC-GVS fMRI data from a group of volunteers with two different statistical models. In model I, the effects of GVS were modeled as a single regressor that described the periods during which the current was switched on. In model II, an additional regressor describing the onset and offset of the stimulation was included. The activation pattern found by using model I included only a subset of the activation patterns known to respond to vestibular stimulation from previous imaging studies. Model II revealed two different activation maps: block effects similar to the results obtained in model I and additional transient GVS effects with larger activation clusters and higher t-values. This extended activation pattern resembled the results obtained during AC-GVS, including multisensory vestibular projection areas. We show that the major part of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses elicited by DC-GVS is related to the on- and offset of stimulation currents and reflects the perceptual experience just-described. In addition, the separate modeling of transient and persistent effects of DC-GVS can identify distinct cortical correlates of those effects. PMID:19645951

  3. Vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Thomsen; Bettina Berner; Mirko Tos

    2000-01-01

    A brief history of the vestibular neurectomy is given. This treatment modality was introduced in Denmark by us, using the experiences obtained by the use of translabyrinthine treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma surgery. This paper presents our experiences with this type of surgery (translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine and retrosigmoid vestibular nerve section) from 1980 to 1996, including 43 operations in 42 patients.

  4. Stochastic resonance in psychophysics and in animal behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Ward; Alexander Neiman; Frank Moss

    2002-01-01

    .  ?A recent analysis of the energy detector model in sensory psychophysics concluded that stochastic resonance does not occur\\u000a in a measure of signal detectability (d?), but can occur in a percent-correct measure of performance as an epiphenomenon of nonoptimal criterion placement [Tougaard\\u000a (2000) Biol Cybern 83: 471–480]. When generalized to signal detection in sensory systems in general, this conclusion is

  5. Stochastic resonance in feedforward acupuncture networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Men, Cong; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Yu, Hai-Tao; Chan, Wai-Lok

    2014-10-01

    Effects of noises and some other network properties on the weak signal propagation are studied systematically in feedforward acupuncture networks (FFN) based on FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model. It is found that noises with medium intensity can enhance signal propagation and this effect can be further increased by the feedforward network structure. Resonant properties in the noisy network can also be altered by several network parameters, such as heterogeneity, synapse features, and feedback connections. These results may also provide a novel potential explanation for the propagation of acupuncture signal.

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 062113 (2011) Stochastic resonance of quantum discord

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 062113 (2011) Stochastic resonance of quantum discord Chee Kong Lee,1,* Leong Chuan Kwek,1,2 and Jianshu Cao3 1 Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore the stochastic resonance of quantum discord ("discord resonance") in coupled quantum systems and make

  7. Neural mechanism for binaural pitch perception via ghost stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balenzuela, Pablo; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    We present a physiologically plausible binaural mechanism for the perception of the pitch of complex sounds via ghost stochastic resonance. In this scheme, two neurons are driven by noise and a different periodic signal each (with frequencies f1=kf0 and f2=(k+1)f0, where k >1), and their outputs (plus noise) are applied synaptically to a third neuron. Our numerical results, using the Morris-Lecar neuron model with chemical synapses explicitly considered, show that intermediate noise levels enhance the response of the third neuron at frequencies close to f0, as in the cases previously described of ghost resonance. For the case of an inharmonic combination of inputs (f1=kf0+?f and f2=(k+1)f0+?f) noise is also seen to enhance the rates of most probable spiking for the third neuron at a frequency fr=f0+[?f/(k+1/2)]. In addition, we show that similar resonances can be observed as a function of the synaptic time constant. The suggested ghost-resonance-based stochastic mechanism can thus arise either at the peripheral level or at a higher level of neural processing in the perception of pitch.

  8. Stochastic resonance in an over-damped linear oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-Feng; Tian, Yan; Ma, Hong

    2014-08-01

    For an over-damped linear system subjected to both parametric excitation of colored noise and external excitation of periodically modulated noise, and in the case that the cross-correlation intensity between noises is a time-periodic function, we study the stochastic resonance (SR) in this paper. Using the Shapiro—Loginov formula, we acquire the exact expressions of the first-order and the second-order moments. By the stochastic averaging method, we obtain the analytical expression of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Meanwhile, we discuss the evolutions of the SNR with the signal frequency, noise intensity, correlation rate of noise, time period, and modulation frequency. We find a new bona fide SR. The evolution of the SNR with the signal frequency presents periodic oscillation, which is not observed in a conventional linear system. We obtain the conventional SR of the SNR with the noise intensity and the correlation rate of noise. We also obtain the SR in a wide sense, in which the evolution of the SNR with time period modulation frequency presents periodic oscillation. We find that the time-periodic modulation of the cross-correlation intensity between noises diversifies the stochastic resonance phenomena and makes this system possess richer dynamic behaviors.

  9. Effect of Stochastic Resonance on Bone Loss in Osteopenic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Marco; Zaikin, Alexey; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the effect of noise on the remodelling process of the inner spongy part of the trabecular bone. Recently, a new noise-induced phenomenon in bone formation has been reported experimentally. We propose the first conceptual model for this finding, explained by the stochastic resonance effect, and provide a theoretical basis for the development of new countermeasures for bone degeneration in long space flights, which currently has dramatic consequences on return to standard gravity. These results may also be applicable on Earth for patients under osteopenic conditions.

  10. Attention Excludes Noise. Does It Exclude Stochastic Resonance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Kitajo, Keiichi

    2005-11-01

    The most highly confirmed models of attentional psychophysics imply that focused attention, as compared to unfocused attention, always excludes, or filters out, both external and internal noise. This filtering action of attention would appear to exclude the possibility of stochastic resonance (SR) in the detection and discrimination of attended signals. In contrast, recent experiments have definitively demonstrated the presence of SR in detection and discrimination of (presumably attended) sensory signals by humans. Here we discuss this apparent conflict between theory and experiment, propose several alternative views of attention that do allow SR, and present the results of preliminary experiments intended to test our ideas.

  11. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance in neural processing tuned by correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, Simon; Kang, Yanmei; Stocks, Nigel; Feng, Jianfeng

    2011-07-01

    Suprathreshold stochastic resonance (SSR) is examined in the context of integrate-and-fire neurons, with an emphasis on the role of correlation in the neuronal firing. We employed a model based on a network of spiking neurons which received synaptic inputs modeled by Poisson processes stimulated by a stepped input signal. The smoothed ensemble firing rate provided an output signal, and the mutual information between this signal and the input was calculated for networks with different noise levels and different numbers of neurons. It was found that an SSR effect was present in this context. We then examined a more biophysically plausible scenario where the noise was not controlled directly, but instead was tuned by the correlation between the inputs. The SSR effect remained present in this scenario with nonzero noise providing improved information transmission, and it was found that negative correlation between the inputs was optimal. Finally, an examination of SSR in the context of this model revealed its connection with more traditional stochastic resonance and showed a trade-off between supratheshold and subthreshold components. We discuss these results in the context of existing empirical evidence concerning correlations in neuronal firing.

  12. PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, J. M., E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.

  13. Pediatric Vestibular Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... developmental delays caused by vestibular disorders. Stages of development and the vestibular system The vestibular organs provide ... age six. If vestibular dysfunction occurs early in development, it slows the development of equilibrium and protective ...

  14. Vestibular Hyperacusis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... discount. Vestibular Hyperacusis Are you sensitive to certain sounds? Hyperacusis is the perception of an unusual auditory ... with fluid whose movement stimulates tiny sensory cells. Sounds are detected as energy vibrations; the human cochlea ...

  15. A neuron model of stochastic resonance using rectangular pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Zachary; Grill, Warren M

    2015-02-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is the enhanced representation of a weak input signal by the addition of an optimal level of broadband noise to a nonlinear (threshold) system. Since its discovery in the 1980s the domain of input signals shown to be applicable to SR has greatly expanded, from strictly periodic inputs to now nearly any aperiodic forcing function. The perturbations (noise) used to generate SR have also expanded, from white noise to now colored noise or vibrational forcing. This study demonstrates that a new class of perturbations can achieve SR, namely, series of stochastically generated biphasic pulse trains. Using these pulse trains as 'noise' we show that a Hodgkin Huxley model neuron exhibits SR behavior when detecting weak input signals. This result is of particular interest to neuroscience because nearly all artificial neural stimulation is implemented with square current or voltage pulses rather than broadband noise, and this new method may facilitate the translation of the performance gains achievable through SR to neural prosthetics. PMID:25186655

  16. Temperature-driven coherence resonance and stochastic resonance in a thermochemical system.

    PubMed

    Lemarchand, A; Gorecki, J; Gorecki, A; Nowakowski, B

    2014-02-01

    We perform the stochastic analysis of a thermochemical system using a master equation which describes a chemical reaction and includes discrete and continuous temperature jumps. We study the time evolution of the system selecting the temperature of the thermostat as an easily tunable control parameter. Depending on the thermostat temperature, the system can be in an excitable, oscillatory, or stationary regime. Stochastic time series for the system temperature are generated and the distributions of interspike intervals are analyzed in the three dynamical regimes separated by a homoclinic bifurcation and a Hopf bifurcation. Different constructive roles of internal fluctuations are exhibited. A noise-induced transition is observed in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation. Coherence resonance and stochastic resonance are found in the oscillatory regime. In a range of thermostat temperatures, a nontrivial behavior of the highly nonlinear system is revealed by the existence of both a minimum and a maximum in the scaled standard deviation of interspike intervals as a function of particle number. This high sensitivity to system size illustrates that controlling dynamics in nanoreactors may remain a difficult task. PMID:25353554

  17. Temperature-driven coherence resonance and stochastic resonance in a thermochemical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, A.; Gorecki, J.; Gorecki, A.; Nowakowski, B.

    2014-02-01

    We perform the stochastic analysis of a thermochemical system using a master equation which describes a chemical reaction and includes discrete and continuous temperature jumps. We study the time evolution of the system selecting the temperature of the thermostat as an easily tunable control parameter. Depending on the thermostat temperature, the system can be in an excitable, oscillatory, or stationary regime. Stochastic time series for the system temperature are generated and the distributions of interspike intervals are analyzed in the three dynamical regimes separated by a homoclinic bifurcation and a Hopf bifurcation. Different constructive roles of internal fluctuations are exhibited. A noise-induced transition is observed in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation. Coherence resonance and stochastic resonance are found in the oscillatory regime. In a range of thermostat temperatures, a nontrivial behavior of the highly nonlinear system is revealed by the existence of both a minimum and a maximum in the scaled standard deviation of interspike intervals as a function of particle number. This high sensitivity to system size illustrates that controlling dynamics in nanoreactors may remain a difficult task.

  18. Internal signal stochastic resonance induced by colored noise in an intracellular calcium oscillations model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian Shu; Wang, Pin

    2004-04-01

    An intracellular calcium oscillations model subject to external colored noise is investigated. Internal signal stochastic resonance (ISSR) can be induced and significantly influenced by colored noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exhibits two maxima with the increment of the correlation time as the noise intensity is fixed, indicating the occurrence of stochastic bi-resonance. Additionally, we find ISSR and explicit internal signal stochastic resonance (EISSR) have quite similar responses to colored noise, which implies there are some commonalities in their mechanisms.

  19. Reconstructing signals via stochastic resonance generated by photorefractive two-wave mixing bistability.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangzhan; Liu, Hongjun; Li, Xuefeng; Huang, Nan; Sun, Qibing

    2014-02-24

    Stochastic resonance is theoretically investigated in an optical bistable system, which consists of a unidirectional ring cavity and a photorefractive two-wave mixer. It is found that the output properties of stochastic resonance are mainly determined by the applied noise, the crystal length and the applied electric field. The influences of these parameters on the stochastic resonance are also numerically analyzed via cross-correlation, which offers general guidelines for the optimization of recovering noise-hidden signals. A cross-correlation gain of 4 is obtained by optimizing these parameters. This provides a general method for reconstructing signals in nonlinear communications systems. PMID:24663745

  20. Stochastic resonance for information flows on hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Ho?yst, Janusz A.; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-09-01

    A simple model of information flows represented by package delivery on networks with hierarchical structures is considered. The packages should be transferred from one network node to another and the delivery process is influenced by two types of noise. The first type of noise is related to a partially false knowledge of network topology (topological noise), i.e. membership of nodes in communities in a shipping algorithm include a number of errors corresponding to a random rewiring of a fraction of network links. The second type of noise (dynamical noise) is related to a diffusive part in packet dynamics, i.e. package paths do not follow from completely deterministic rules. In the case of a pure topological noise and in the case of combination of both types of noises, we observe a resonance-like phenomenon for communication efficiency. The system performance measured as a fraction of packages that are delivered in a certain time period or as an inverse of time of a package delivery is maximal for intermediate levels of noise. This effect resembles the phenomenon of stochastic resonance that exists in many complex systems where a noise can enhance the information transfer.

  1. On square-wave-driven stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Dongxu; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2014-11-01

    Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of implementing square-wave-driven stochastic resonance to enhance energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis was that such stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate. This definition is inadequate because of the necessity and difficulty in estimating white noise density. A bistable mechanism has been designed using an explicit analytical model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance in the paper. Experimental tests confirm that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by a random signal apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response that we now term square-wave-driven stochastic resonance. The study therefore indicates that this approach may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of random excitation.

  2. Stochastic resonance in bistable spin-crossover compounds with light-induced transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iurii; Maksymov, Artur; Dimian, Mihai

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical prediction of stochastic resonance in spin-crossover materials. The analysis of stochastic resonance phenomenon in a spin-crossover system is performed in the framework of the phenomenological kinetic model with light-induced transition described by dynamical potential in terms of the Lyapunov functions. By using numerical simulation of stochastic trajectories with white- and colored-noise action, the evaluation of stochastic resonance is carried out by signal-to-noise ratio of the system output. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio features a two-peak behavior which is related to the asymmetric shape of the dynamic potential. For the case of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, the variations of resonance condition with respect to different autocorrelation times are additionally studied.

  3. Investigations of stochastic resonance in two-terminal device with vanadium dioxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, V. Sh.; Bortnikov, S. G.; Badmaeva, I. A.

    2014-05-01

    The results of stochastic resonance investigation in a nonlinear system, consisting of a microstructure with a polycrystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) film grown on sapphire and resistor in series are reported. Nonlinearity of the system was provided due to insulator-metal phase transition in VO2. In the stochastic resonance regime at 100 Hz signal frequency, the transition coefficient of signal-to-noise ratio reached 87 in contrast to 250 for microstructures with VO2 films grown on silica in our previous investigations. The measured characteristics of microstructures with VO2 films grown on silica and sapphire substrates were found to be qualitatively similar. For both substrates, a stochastic resonance was observed at threshold switching voltage from insulating to metallic state of VO2. For sapphire substrate the output signal-to-noise ratio rose at higher signal frequencies. The stochastic resonance phenomenon in VO2 films is explained in terms of the monostable damped oscillator model.

  4. Aperiodic signals processing via parameter-tuning stochastic resonance in a photorefractive ring cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuefeng, E-mail: lixfpost@163.com [School of Science, Xi'an University of Post and Telecommunications, Xi'an, 710121 (China)] [School of Science, Xi'an University of Post and Telecommunications, Xi'an, 710121 (China); Cao, Guangzhan; Liu, Hongjun [Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710119 (China)] [Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710119 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Based on solving numerically the generalized nonlinear Langevin equation describing the nonlinear dynamics of stochastic resonance by Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, an aperiodic stochastic resonance based on an optical bistable system is numerically investigated. The numerical results show that a parameter-tuning stochastic resonance system can be realized by choosing the appropriate optical bistable parameters, which performs well in reconstructing aperiodic signals from a very high level of noise background. The influences of optical bistable parameters on the stochastic resonance effect are numerically analyzed via cross-correlation, and a maximum cross-correlation gain of 8 is obtained by optimizing optical bistable parameters. This provides a prospective method for reconstructing noise-hidden weak signals in all-optical signal processing systems.

  5. What Is Stochastic Resonance? Definitions, Misconceptions, Debates, and Its Relevance to Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. McDonnell; Derek Abbott

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic resonance is said to be observed when increases in levels of unpredictable fluctuations—e.g., random noise—cause an increase in a metric of the quality of signal transmission or detection performance, rather than a decrease. This counterintuitive effect relies on system nonlinearities and on some parameter ranges being “suboptimal”. Stochastic resonance has been observed, quantified, and described in a plethora of

  6. Vestibular Disorders Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)? Choices No Yes, with no vestibular disorder found on testing Yes, with vestibular disorder found on testing Yes, with no vestibular testing performed Leave this field blank Older ...

  7. Application of stochastic resonance in gravitational-wave interferometer

    E-print Network

    G. G. Karapetyan

    2006-01-30

    We investigate novel approach, which improves the sensitivity of gravitational wave (GW) interferometer due to stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon, performing in additional nonlinear cavity (NC). The NC is installed in the output of interferometer before photodetector, so that optical signal emerging interferometer incidents on the NC and passes through it. Under appropriate circumstances a specific transformation of noisy signal inside the NC takes place, which results in the increase of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). As a result optical noisy signal of interferometer becomes less noisy after passing through the NC. The improvement of SNR is especially effective in bistable NC for wideband (several hundreds Hz) detection, when chirp GW signal is detected. Then SNR gain reaches amount ~ 10. When detection bandwidth is narrowed, the influence of SR mechanism gradually disappears, and SNR gain tends to 1. SNR gain also tends to 1 when the NC is gradually transformed to linear cavity. Proposed enhancement of SNR due to the SR is not dependent of noise type, which is prevalent in interferometer. Particularly proposed approach is capable to increase signal-to-displacement noise ratio.

  8. COMMUNICATION: Stochastic resonance and the evolution of Daphnia foraging strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dees, Nathan D.; Bahar, Sonya; Moss, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Search strategies are currently of great interest, with reports on foraging ranging from albatrosses and spider monkeys to microzooplankton. Here, we investigate the role of noise in optimizing search strategies. We focus on the zooplankton Daphnia, which move in successive sequences consisting of a hop, a pause and a turn through an angle. Recent experiments have shown that their turning angle distributions (TADs) and underlying noise intensities are similar across species and age groups, suggesting an evolutionary origin of this internal noise. We explore this hypothesis further with a digital simulation (EVO) based solely on the three central Darwinian themes: inheritability, variability and survivability. Separate simulations utilizing stochastic resonance (SR) indicate that foraging success, and hence fitness, is maximized at an optimum TAD noise intensity, which is represented by the distribution's characteristic width, ?. In both the EVO and SR simulations, foraging success is the criterion, and the results are the predicted characteristic widths of the TADs that maximize success. Our results are twofold: (1) the evolving characteristic widths achieve stasis after many generations; (2) as a hop length parameter is changed, variations in the evolved widths generated by EVO parallel those predicted by SR. These findings provide support for the hypotheses that (1) ? is an evolved quantity and that (2) SR plays a role in evolution.

  9. Stochastic Resonance in crayfish hydrodynamic receptors stimulated with external noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, J. K.; Wilkens, L. A.; Pantazelou, E.; Moss, F.

    1993-08-01

    Stochastic Resonance (SR) is a statistical process occurring only in nonlinear dynamical systems whereby a subthreshold coherent stimulus or signal can be enhanced by noise. The signal alone is too weak to cause a state change of the system. State changes are the carriers of information through the system. In the presence of random noise, however, the system can change state, more-or-less randomly, but with some degree of coherence with the signal. A measure of this coherence at the output shows a maximum at an optimal value of the noise intensity as the signature of SR. SR is the object of recent and continued experimental and theoretical research in statistical physics. While SR has been demonstrated in a variety of physical systems, it has not yet been discovered in any naturally occurring system. This paper was stimulated by the idea that the sensory nervous system might be an appropriate setting for a search for naturally occurring SR. The detection of weak stimuli, often in the presence of noise, is, after all, the first business of the sensory system. Moreover, the system is evolved, which admits the possibility that the process of natural selection might have resulted in an optimization with respect to the (inevitable) noise. This paper describes an experiment designed to observe SR in the mechanoreceptor cells of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, shown on the left in Fig. 1, using external noise plus a weak coherent signal as the stimulus.

  10. Labyrinthitis and Vestibular Neuritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find helpful: Balancing Act, 2nd ed., soft cover book (available through VEDA's online store ). Secondary Endolymphatic Hydrops Diagnostic Tests for Vestibular Problems Vestibular Rehabilitation: An Effective, Evidence- ...

  11. Feasibility of energy harvesting from a rotating tire based on the theory of stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zheng, R.; Nakano, K.

    2014-11-01

    Recently the use of nonlinear bi-stable micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) to achieve automobile tire vibration power generation has made some progress. However, the theory of stochastic resonance has not been successfully applied to automobile tires, which can produce a larger vibrational response than for a typical resonance while inputting a weak periodic force and noise excitation into a nonlinear bi-stable system. Hence, in this paper, in view of the principle of stochastic resonance, a new model is derived by positioning a magnetic end mass attached to a cantilever beam and another permanent magnet with the same polarity on the frame. Due to the road noise excitation along with the periodic force inputted to the mechanism, whether the phenomenon of stochastic resonance can happen will be discussed. Meanwhile, on the basis of Kramers rate and duffing equations the preliminary experimental device is also designed.

  12. Vestibular function outcomes after vestibular neurectomy in Meniere disease: Can vestibular neurectomy provide complete vestibular deafferentation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Leveque; L. Seidermann; H. Tran; T. Langagne; E. Ulmer; A. Chays

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveVestibular neurectomy is considered the reference treatment of incapacitating vertigo accompanying Meniere disease, with an efficiency rate of 85–95% in most literature reports.The aim of this study is to evaluate if vestibular neurectomy can provide a complete vestibular deafferentation by investigating complete vestibular function after surgery.

  13. The vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The end organs, central nervous system connections, and static and dynamic characteristics of the vestibular system are presented. Vestibular servation in man and vestibular side effect prevention from space missions involving artificial gravity generation are also considered. Vestibular models and design criteria for rotating space vehicles are appended.

  14. Improving Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Long Duration Space Flight by Enhancing Vestibular Information Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Kofman, I. S.; De Dios, Y. E; Galvan, R.; Goel, R.; Miller, C.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Jeevarajan, J.; Reschke, M.; Wood, S.; Bergquist, F.; Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after gravitational transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" - immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals (Vestibular Stochastic Resonance, VSR) especially when combined with balance training exercises such as sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. This countermeasure to improve detection of vestibular signals is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation). To determine efficacy of vestibular stimulation on physiological and perceptual responses during otolith-canal conflicts and dynamic perturbations we have conducted a series of studies: We have shown that imperceptible binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system across the mastoids enhances balance performance in the mediolateral (ML) plane while standing on an unstable surface. We have followed up on the previous study showing VSR stimulation improved balance performance in both ML and anteroposterior planes while stimulating in the ML axis only. We have shown the efficacy of VSR stimulations on enhancing physiological and perceptual responses of whole-body orientation during low frequency perturbations (0.1 Hz) on the ocular motor system using a variable radius centrifuge on both physiological (using eye movements) and perceptual responses (using a joystick) to track imposed oscillations. The variable radius centrifuge provides a selective tilting sensation that is detectable only by the otolith organs providing conflicting information from the canal organs of the vestibular system (intra-vestibular conflict). These results indicate that VSR can improve performance in sensory conflict scenarios like that experienced during space flight. We have showed the efficacy of VSR stimulation to improve balance and locomotor control on subjects exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking on a treadmill while viewing perceptually matched linear optic flow. We have shown the safety of short term continuous use of up to 4 hours of VSR stimulation and its efficacy in improving balance and locomotor function in Parkinson's Disease patients. This technique for improving vestibular signal detection may thus provide additional information to improve strategic abilities. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with SA training to improve adaptability by increased utilization of vestibular information and therefore serve to optimize and personalize the SA countermeasure prescription. This forms the basis of its usefulness both as a training modality and further help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight.

  15. Coherence resonance and stochastic synchronization in a nonlinear circuit near a subcritical Hopf bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Anna; Feoktistov, Alexey; Vadivasova, Tatyana; Schöll, Eckehard

    2013-10-01

    We analyze noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear dynamical systems near a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. We investigate qualitative changes of probability distributions (stochastic bifurcations), coherence resonance, and stochastic synchronization. These effects are studied in dynamical systems for which a subcritical Hopf bifurcation occurs. We perform analytical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments on an electronic circuit. For the generalized Van der Pol model we uncover the similarities between the behavior of a self-sustained oscillator characterized by a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and an excitable system. The analogy is manifested through coherence resonance and stochastic synchronization. In particular, we show both experimentally and numerically that stochastic oscillations that appear due to noise in a system with hard excitation, can be partially synchronized even outside the oscillatory regime of the deterministic system.

  16. Stochastic Resonance Modulates Neural Synchronization within and between Cortical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lawrence M.; MacLean, Shannon E.; Kirschner, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Neural synchronization is a mechanism whereby functionally specific brain regions establish transient networks for perception, cognition, and action. Direct addition of weak noise (fast random fluctuations) to various neural systems enhances synchronization through the mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR). Moreover, SR also occurs in human perception, cognition, and action. Perception, cognition, and action are closely correlated with, and may depend upon, synchronized oscillations within specialized brain networks. We tested the hypothesis that SR-mediated neural synchronization occurs within and between functionally relevant brain areas and thus could be responsible for behavioral SR. We measured the 40-Hz transient response of the human auditory cortex to brief pure tones. This response arises when the ongoing, random-phase, 40-Hz activity of a group of tuned neurons in the auditory cortex becomes synchronized in response to the onset of an above-threshold sound at its “preferred” frequency. We presented a stream of near-threshold standard sounds in various levels of added broadband noise and measured subjects' 40-Hz response to the standards in a deviant-detection paradigm using high-density EEG. We used independent component analysis and dipole fitting to locate neural sources of the 40-Hz response in bilateral auditory cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus. We found that added noise enhanced the 40-Hz response in all these areas. Moreover, added noise also increased the synchronization between these regions in alpha and gamma frequency bands both during and after the 40-Hz response. Our results demonstrate neural SR in several functionally specific brain regions, including areas not traditionally thought to contribute to the auditory 40-Hz transient response. In addition, we demonstrated SR in the synchronization between these brain regions. Thus, both intra- and inter-regional synchronization of neural activity are facilitated by the addition of moderate amounts of random noise. Because the noise levels in the brain fluctuate with arousal system activity, particularly across sleep-wake cycles, optimal neural noise levels, and thus SR, could be involved in optimizing the formation of task-relevant brain networks at several scales under normal conditions. PMID:21179552

  17. Stochastic Resonance Improves Broadband Encoding in the Cricket Cercal System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Jacob

    1996-03-01

    In any physical or biological system a certain amount of environmental noise is unavoidable, and the information therein irrelevant to the organism. Traditionally in signal analysis noise is considered detrimental to the process of signal encoding, and merely a necessary evil to be avoided. It has been observed recently, however, that in some nonlinear systems power from random input noise actually improves the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over a limited operating range, particularly near threshold. This effect is known as stochastic resonance (SR). By taking advantage of SR during the neural encoding process, a cell can optimize its information flow properties. Previous experimental work in SR has investigated only the coding of sinusoidal signals embedded in a broadband white noise background. In this work we demonstrate SR for not only the sine wave case, but also for extended bandwidth stimuli in the presence of white noise, and for cases in which the signal and white noise background frequency spectra are completely non-overlapping. We have investigated the effects of noise on information transfer in the cricket cercal system, a mechanosensory system sensitive to small near-field air particle disturbances, by presenting known wind stimuli to the cricket through audio speakers in a controlled environment along with varying levels of uncorrelated white noise background air current. Spike trains from the second layer of neuronal processing, the primary sensory interneurons, were recorded with intracellular electrodes with the signal and noise presented along the cell's preferred direction. Through the statistical techniques of Shannon's information theory we quantified the amount of information contained in the elicited spike trains about the signal in the various noise environments, as well as the SNR and other measures of the encoding process. An enhancement of output SNR was observed over the entire frequency operating range of the neurons, for almost an entire order of magnitude of near-threshold signal amplitudes. Additionally, we found that the amount of information about the signal carried, on average, by each spike was INCREASED for small signals when presented with noise - implying that added input noise can, in certain situations, actually improve the accuracy of the encoding process itself.

  18. Thermal noise induced stochastic resonance in self organizing Fe nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Satyendra Prakash; Sen, P.

    2014-12-01

    The natural world is replete with examples of multistable systems, known to respond to periodic modulations and produce a signal that exhibits resonance with noise amplitude. This is a concept not demonstrated in pure materials, which involve a measured physical property. In a thermoremanent magnetization experiment with a common magnetic material, Fe, in the nanoparticulate form, we establish how magnetization in a system of dilute spins during dissipation of stored magnetic energy breaks up into spontaneous oscillatory behavior. Starting at 175 K and aided by temperature (stochastic noise) the oscillation amplitude goes through a maximum reminiscent of stochastic resonance. Our observation of thermal noise induced coherent resonance is due to intrinsic self-organizing magnetic dynamics of the Fe nanoparticle system without applying any external periodic force. These results yield new possibilities in the design of magnetic materials and a platform to understand stochastic interference and phase synchronization in neural activity, as models for neural communication.

  19. New Characterization of Stochastic Resonance in Bistable Square Potential Well

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asish K. Dhara; S. R. Banerjee

    2001-01-01

    The features of first passage time density function is analysed theoretically in a symmetric double square well system modulated periodically with a signal of arbitrary amplitude and frequency. Resonance is demonstrated as a maximum synchronization between periodic signal and noise. Resonance is characterized as a linear relation between noise strength at resonance and frequency. This characterization is shown to hold

  20. Multifractal characterization of stochastic resonance Alexander Silchenko1,2

    E-print Network

    input signals. We show that in the case of periodic driving force, singularity spectrum can change its and a periodic signal. It was shown that tuning the noise level, an enhancement of a bistable system's response be periodic, chaotic or even stochastic. Originally, the en- hancement of a weak periodic input signal

  1. Electrical Vestibular Stimulation after Vestibular Deafferentation and in Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Swee Tin; Todd, Michael John; Lehnen, Nadine; Aw, Grace Elizabeth; Weber, Konrad Peter; Eggert, Thomas; Halmagyi, Gabor Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Vestibular reflexes, evoked by human electrical (galvanic) vestibular stimulation (EVS), are utilized to assess vestibular function and investigate its pathways. Our study aimed to investigate the electrically-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex (eVOR) output after bilateral and unilateral vestibular deafferentations to determine the characteristics for interpreting unilateral lesions such as vestibular schwannomas. Methods EVOR was recorded with dual-search coils as binocular three-dimensional eye movements evoked by bipolar 100 ms-step at EVS intensities of [0.9, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0]mA and unipolar 100 ms-step at 5 mA EVS intensity. Five bilateral vestibular deafferented (BVD), 12 unilateral vestibular deafferented (UVD), four unilateral vestibular schwannoma (UVS) patients and 17 healthy subjects were tested with bipolar EVS, and five UVDs with unipolar EVS. Results After BVD, bipolar EVS elicited no eVOR. After UVD, bipolar EVS of one functioning ear elicited bidirectional, excitatory eVOR to cathodal EVS with 9 ms latency and inhibitory eVOR to anodal EVS, opposite in direction, at half the amplitude with 12 ms latency, exhibiting an excitatory-inhibitory asymmetry. The eVOR patterns from UVS were consistent with responses from UVD confirming the vestibular loss on the lesion side. Unexpectedly, unipolar EVS of the UVD ear, instead of absent response, evoked one-third the bipolar eVOR while unipolar EVS of the functioning ear evoked half the bipolar response. Conclusions The bidirectional eVOR evoked by bipolar EVS from UVD with an excitatory-inhibitory asymmetry and the 3 ms latency difference between normal and lesion side may be useful for detecting vestibular lesions such as UVS. We suggest that current spread could account for the small eVOR to 5 mA unipolar EVS of the UVD ear. PMID:24349188

  2. Noise enhancement of information transfer in crayfish mechanoreceptors by stochastic resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Douglass; Lon Wilkens; Eleni Pantazelou; Frank Moss

    1993-01-01

    IN linear information theory, electrical engineering and neurobiology, random noise has traditionally been viewed as a detriment to information transmission. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a nonlinear, statistical dynamics whereby information flow in a multistate system is enhanced by the presence of optimized, random noise1 4. A major consequence of SR for signal reception is that it makes possible substantial improvements

  3. Investigations of stochastic resonance in two-terminal device with vanadium dioxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, V. Sh., E-mail: aliev@isp.nsc.ru; Bortnikov, S. G.; Badmaeva, I. A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 13 Lavrentyev aven., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-28

    The results of stochastic resonance investigation in a nonlinear system, consisting of a microstructure with a polycrystalline vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) film grown on sapphire and resistor in series are reported. Nonlinearity of the system was provided due to insulator-metal phase transition in VO{sub 2}. In the stochastic resonance regime at 100?Hz signal frequency, the transition coefficient of signal-to-noise ratio reached 87 in contrast to 250 for microstructures with VO{sub 2} films grown on silica in our previous investigations. The measured characteristics of microstructures with VO{sub 2} films grown on silica and sapphire substrates were found to be qualitatively similar. For both substrates, a stochastic resonance was observed at threshold switching voltage from insulating to metallic state of VO{sub 2}. For sapphire substrate the output signal-to-noise ratio rose at higher signal frequencies. The stochastic resonance phenomenon in VO{sub 2} films is explained in terms of the monostable damped oscillator model.

  4. Stochastic resonance and the benefits of noise: from ice ages to crayfish and SQUIDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Wiesenfeld; Frank Moss

    1995-01-01

    Noise in dynamical systems is usually considered a nuisance. But in certain nonlinear systems, including electronic circuits and biological sensory apparatus, the presence of noise can in fact enhance the detection of weak signals. This phenomenon, called stochastic resonance, may find useful application in physical, technological and biomedical contexts.

  5. Broadband neural encoding in the cricket cereal sensory system enhanced by stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Jacob E.; Miller, John P.

    1996-03-01

    SENSORY systems are often required to detect a small amplitude signal embedded in broadband background noise. Traditionally, ambient noise is regarded as detrimental to encoding accuracy. Recently, however, a phenomenon known as stochastic resonance has been described in which, for systems with a nonlinear threshold, increasing the input noise level can actually improve the output signal-to-noise ratio over a limited range of signal and noise strengths. Previous theoretical and experimental studies of stochastic resonance in physical1-7and biological6-10 systems have dealt exclusively with single-frequency sine stimuli embedded in a broadband noise background. In the past year it has been shown in a theoretical and modelling study that stochastic resonance can be observed with broadband signals11,12. Here we demonstrate that broadband stochastic resonance is manifest in the peripheral layers of neural processing in a simple sensory system, and that it plays a role over a wide range of biologically relevant stimulus parameters. Further, we quantify the functional significance of the phenomenon within the context of signal processing, using information theory.

  6. Medication (for Vestibular Disorders)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of vertigo and nystagmus evoked by a vestibular imbalance. These also reduce the associated motion sensitivity and ... because prolonged use may generate a chronic vestibular imbalance. Preventive medications generally do not cure the underlying ...

  7. Stochastic heating of plasma at electron cyclotron resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Antonov; V. A. Buts; O. F. Kovpik; E. A. Kornilov; O. V. Manuilenko; V. G. Svichenskii; K. N. Stepanov; Yu. A. Turkin

    1999-01-01

    It is shown theoretically and experimentally that stochastic heating of plasma electrons is highly efficient. Calculations\\u000a have shown that over the course of 100 periods of an external microwave field the kinetic energy of the particles reaches\\u000a values of around 1.0 MeV and the average energy reaches values of the order of 0.3 MeV in the field of two oppositely

  8. Coherent and stochastic contributions of compound resonances in atomic processes: electron recombination, photoionization and scattering

    E-print Network

    V. V. Flambaum; M. G. Kozlov; G. F. Gribakin

    2015-03-04

    In open-shell atoms and ions, processes such as photoionization, combination (Raman) scattering, electron scattering and recombination, are often mediated by many-electron compound resonances. We show that their interference (neglected in the independent-resonance approximation) leads to a coherent contribution, which determines the energy-averaged total cross sections of electron- and photon-induced reactions obtained using the optical theorem. On the other hand, the partial cross sections (e.g., electron recombination, or photon Raman scattering) are dominated by the stochastic contributions. Thus, the optical theorem provides a link between the stochastic and coherent contributions of the compound resonances. Similar conclusions are valid for reactions via compound states in molecules and nuclei.

  9. A digital accelerometer array utilizing suprathreshold stochastic resonance for detection of sub-Brownian noise floor accelerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Olsson, Roy H.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD project was to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing Stochastic resonance in micromechanical sensor systems as a means for increasing signal to noise for physical sensors. A careful study of this field reveals that in the case of a single sensing element, stochastic resonance offers no real advantage. We have, however, identified a system that can utilize very similar concepts to stochastic resonance in order to achieve an arrayed sensor system that could be superior to existing technologies in the field of inertial sensors, and could offer a very low power technique for achieving navigation grade inertial measurement units.

  10. Stochastic resonance on a modular neuronal network of small-world subnetworks with a subthreshold pacemaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Chen; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2011-12-01

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance on a modular neuronal network consisting of several small-world subnetworks with a subthreshold periodic pacemaker. Numerical results show that the correlation between the pacemaker frequency and the dynamical response of the network is resonantly dependent on the intensity of additive spatiotemporal noise. This effect of pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance of the system depends extensively on the local and the global network structure, such as the intra- and inter-coupling strengths, rewiring probability of individual small-world subnetwork, the number of links between different subnetworks, and the number of subnetworks. All these parameters play a key role in determining the ability of the network to enhance the noise-induced outreach of the localized subthreshold pacemaker, and only they bounded to a rather sharp interval of values warrant the emergence of the pronounced stochastic resonance phenomenon. Considering the rather important role of pacemakers in real-life, the presented results could have important implications for many biological processes that rely on an effective pacemaker for their proper functioning.

  11. Stochastic resonance in an RF SQUID with shunted ScS junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turutanov, O. G.; Golovanevskiy, V. A.; Lyakhno, V. Yu.; Shnyrkov, V. I.

    2014-02-01

    Using a point (superconductor-constriction-superconductor, ScS) contact in a single-Josephson-junction superconducting quantum interference device (RF SQUID) provides stochastic resonance conditions at any arbitrary small value of loop inductance and contact critical current, unlike SQUIDs with more traditional tunnel (superconductor-insulator-superconductor, SIS) junctions. This is due to the unusual potential energy of the ScS RF SQUID which always has a barrier between two wells, thus making the device bistable. This paper presents the results of a numerical simulation of the stochastic dynamics of the magnetic flux in an ScS RF SQUID loop affected by band-limited white Gaussian noise and low-frequency sine signals of small and moderate amplitudes. The difference in stochastic amplification of RF SQUID loops incorporating ScS and SIS junctions is discussed.

  12. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy and its application to weak signal detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy (PSRSE) method is introduced for the detection of a very weak signal in the presence of strong noise. The effect of stochastic resonance on the detection is optimized using parameters obtained in spectral entropy analysis. Upon processing employing the PSRSE method, the amplitude of the weak signal is enhanced and the noise power is reduced, so that the frequency of the signal can be estimated with greater precision through spectral analysis. While the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to that obtained using the Duffing oscillator algorithm, the computational cost reduces from O(N(2)) to O(N). The PSRSE approach is applied to the frequency measurement of a weak signal made by a vortex flow meter. The results are compared with those obtained applying the Duffing oscillator algorithm. PMID:25725879

  13. Stochastic resonance of mixed periodic signal in single-mode laser driven by colored noises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjuan Jin; Xiaoshan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is studied in a gain-noise model of a single-mode, which is driven by two coloured noises and correlated in the form of an e-exponential function. By adopting a linear approximation method, we calculate the laser intensity power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is found that the traditional SR appears with the change of intensities of the

  14. Effects of time delay and random rewiring on the stochastic resonance in excitable small-world neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Du, Jiwei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Liu, Chen

    2013-05-01

    The effects of time delay and rewiring probability on stochastic resonance and spatiotemporal order in small-world neuronal networks are studied in this paper. Numerical results show that, irrespective of the pacemaker introduced to one single neuron or all neurons of the network, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The time delay in the coupling process can either enhance or destroy stochastic resonance on small-world neuronal networks. In particular, appropriately tuned delays can induce multiple stochastic resonances, which appear intermittently at integer multiples of the oscillation period of the pacemaker. More importantly, it is found that the small-world topology can significantly affect the stochastic resonance on excitable neuronal networks. For small time delays, increasing the rewiring probability can largely enhance the efficiency of pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance. We argue that the time delay and the rewiring probability both play a key role in determining the ability of the small-world neuronal network to improve the noise-induced outreach of the localized subthreshold pacemaker.

  15. Review of book vestibular crises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    The etiology, pathogenesis, clinical practice, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with vestibular crises is discussed. Classifications for vestibular disorders are given. Information on the frequency of vestibular crises is given.

  16. Far from Equilibrium Percolation, Stochastic and Shape Resonances in the Physics of Life

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, Nicola; Ansuini, Alessio; Bianconi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Key physical concepts, relevant for the cross-fertilization between condensed matter physics and the physics of life seen as a collective phenomenon in a system out-of-equilibrium, are discussed. The onset of life can be driven by: (a) the critical fluctuations at the protonic percolation threshold in membrane transport; (b) the stochastic resonance in biological systems, a mechanism that can exploit external and self-generated noise in order to gain efficiency in signal processing; and (c) the shape resonance (or Fano resonance or Feshbach resonance) in the association and dissociation processes of bio-molecules (a quantum mechanism that could play a key role to establish a macroscopic quantum coherence in the cell). PMID:22072921

  17. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  18. Effects of spike-time-dependent plasticity on the stochastic resonance of small-world neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks is investigated when the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is adaptively adjusted by spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is shown that irrespective of the synaptic connectivity is fixed or adaptive, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The efficiency of network stochastic resonance can be largely enhanced by STDP in the coupling process. Particularly, the resonance for adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed one when the noise intensity is small or intermediate. STDP with dominant depression and small temporal window ratio is more efficient for the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of stochastic resonance can be further improved via fine-tuning of the average coupling strength of the adaptive network. Furthermore, the small-world topology can significantly affect stochastic resonance of excitable neuronal networks. It is found that there exists an optimal probability of adding links by which the noise-induced transmission of weak periodic signal peaks.

  19. Coexisting stochastic and coherence resonance in a mean-field dynamo model for Earth's magnetic field reversals

    E-print Network

    M. Fischer; F. Stefani; G. Gerbeth

    2007-09-25

    Using a spherical symmetric mean field alpha^2-dynamo model for Earth's magnetic field reversals, we show the coexistence of the noise-induced phenomena coherence resonance and stochastic resonance. Stochastic resonance has been recently invoked to explain the 100 kyr periodicity in the distribution of the residence time between reversals. The comparison of the resulting residence time distribution with the paleomagnetic one allows for some estimate of the effective diffusion time of the Earth's core which may be 100 kyr or slightly below rather than 200 kyr as it would result from the molecular resistivity.

  20. Coherence and stochastic resonance in threshold crossing detectors with delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert; Longtin, André

    2006-12-01

    We consider the dynamical behavior of threshold systems driven by external periodic and stochastic signals and internal delayed feedback. Specifically, the effect of positive delayed feedback on the sensitivity of a threshold crossing detector (TCD) to periodic forcing embedded in noise is investigated. The system has an intrinsic ability to oscillate in the presence of positive feedback. We first show conditions under which such reverberatory behavior is enhanced by noise, which is a form of coherence resonance (CR) for this system. Further, for input signals that are subthreshold in the absence of feedback, the open-loop stochastic resonance (SR) characteristic can be sharply enhanced by positive delayed feedback. This enhancement is shown to depend on the stimulus period, and is maximal when this period is matched to an integer multiple of the delay. Reverberatory oscillations, which are particularly prominent after the offset of periodic forcing, are shown to be eliminated by a summing network of such TCDs with local delayed feedback. Theoretical analysis of the crossing rate dynamics qualitatively accounts for the existence of CR and the resonant behavior of the SR effect as a function of delay and forcing frequency.

  1. Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, B.deB. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of {sup 23}Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na{sup +} distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na{sup +} ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of {sup 23}Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na{sup +} is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T{sub 2}. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo {sup 23}Na T{sub 2} values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25{mu}s, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form.

  2. Ubiquitous Crossmodal Stochastic Resonance in Humans: Auditory Noise Facilitates Tactile, Visual and Proprioceptive Sensations

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2008-01-01

    Background Stochastic resonance is a nonlinear phenomenon whereby the addition of noise can improve the detection of weak stimuli. An optimal amount of added noise results in the maximum enhancement, whereas further increases in noise intensity only degrade detection or information content. The phenomenon does not occur in linear systems, where the addition of noise to either the system or the stimulus only degrades the signal quality. Stochastic Resonance (SR) has been extensively studied in different physical systems. It has been extended to human sensory systems where it can be classified as unimodal, central, behavioral and recently crossmodal. However what has not been explored is the extension of this crossmodal SR in humans. For instance, if under the same auditory noise conditions the crossmodal SR persists among different sensory systems. Methodology/Principal Findings Using physiological and psychophysical techniques we demonstrate that the same auditory noise can enhance the sensitivity of tactile, visual and propioceptive system responses to weak signals. Specifically, we show that the effective auditory noise significantly increased tactile sensations of the finger, decreased luminance and contrast visual thresholds and significantly changed EMG recordings of the leg muscles during posture maintenance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that crossmodal SR is a ubiquitous phenomenon in humans that can be interpreted within an energy and frequency model of multisensory neurons spontaneous activity. Initially the energy and frequency content of the multisensory neurons' activity (supplied by the weak signals) is not enough to be detected but when the auditory noise enters the brain, it generates a general activation among multisensory neurons of different regions, modifying their original activity. The result is an integrated activation that promotes sensitivity transitions and the signals are then perceived. A physiologically plausible model for crossmodal stochastic resonance is presented. PMID:18682745

  3. Entropic stochastic resonance of a flexible polymer chain in a confined system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Hanshuang; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the dynamics of a flexible polymer chain in constrained dumb-bell-shape geometry subject to a periodic force and external noise along the longitudinal direction. It is found that the system exhibits a feature of entropic stochastic resonance (ESR), i.e., the temporal coherence of the polymer motion can reach a maximum level for an optimal noise intensity. We demonstrate that the occurrence of ESR is robust to the change of chain length, while the bottleneck width should be properly chosen. A gravity force in the vertical direction is not necessary for the ESR here, however, the elastic coupling between polymer beads is crucial.

  4. Conductance with stochastic resonance in Mn{sub 12} redox network without tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Yoshiaki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Segawa, Yuji; Kawai, Tomoji [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kuroda-Sowa, Takayoshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takuya, E-mail: matsumoto-t@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2014-06-09

    Artificial neuron-based information processing is one of the attractive approaches of molecular-scale electronics, which can exploit the ability of molecular system for self-assembling or self-organization. The self-organized Mn{sub 12}/DNA redox network shows nonlinear current-voltage characteristics that can be described by the Coulomb blockade network model. As a demonstration of the nonlinear network system, we have observed stochastic resonance without tuning for weak periodic input signals and thermal noise, which suggests a route to neural network composed of molecular materials.

  5. Stochastic resonance in connectivity between both auditory areas obtained by auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Nemoto, I; Kawakatsu, M; Uchikawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    We examined coherence of auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in magnetoencephalogram to an ongoing sinusoidal amplitude modulated tone presented to the subject's left ear while bursts of white noise of various intensities were presented to the right ear. The results showed a significant enhancement in the real part of coherence of ASSRs obtained from the right and left temporal regions by the presence of white noise of appropriate intensity. The observed stochastic resonance (SR) most likely occurred within the central nervous system, which is from lateral superior olive to medial geniculate body. Our finding may be quite important as mechanisms of SR in biological systems are mostly unknown. PMID:21096529

  6. Experimental investigation of colored noise in stochastic resonance of a bistable beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweten, Dennis J.; Mann, Brian P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of stochastic resonance in a bistable, composite beam excited by colored noise. Experimental results for average up-crossing period, spectral power amplification (SPA), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are compared with analytical methods for underdamped systems. These analytical methods include expressions developed from Kramers, Melnikov, and two-state theory. The effect of a modal mass on the analytical expressions is explored. Finally, an alternative approach for calculating the effect of a colored noise spectrum on the SPA and SNR of underdamped systems is proposed.

  7. Creating morphable logic gates using logical stochastic resonance in an engineered gene network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Anna; Kia, Behnam; Bulsara, Adi R.; Ditto, William

    2011-01-01

    The idea of Logical Stochastic Resonance is adapted and applied to an autoregulatory gene network in the bacteriophage ?. This biological logic gate can emulate or morph the AND and OR gates, through varying internal system parameters, in a noisy background. Such logic gates afford intriguing possibilities in the realization of engineered genetic networks, in which the function of the gate can be changed after the network has been assembled: this allows a single gene network to be used for many different applications in the emerging field of synthetic biology.

  8. Note: On-line weak signal detection via adaptive stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo, E-mail: qbhe@ustc.edu.cn; Kong, Fanrang [Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-06-15

    We design an instrument with a novel embedded adaptive stochastic resonance (SR) algorithm that consists of a SR module and a digital zero crossing detection module for on-line weak signal detection in digital signal processing applications. The two modules are responsible for noise filtering and adaptive parameter configuration, respectively. The on-line weak signal detection can be stably achieved in seconds. The prototype instrument exhibits an advance of 20 dB averaged signal-to-noise ratio and 5 times averaged adjust R-square as compared to the input noisy signal, in considering different driving frequencies and noise levels.

  9. Stochastic resonance in an underdamped fractional oscillator with signal-modulated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guitian; Tian, Yan; Luo, Maokang

    2014-05-01

    With increasingly deep studies into physics and technology, the behavior of fractional oscillators has become a focus of scientific research. In this paper, the fractional Langevin equation is derived from the generalized Langevin equation. Stochastic resonance (SR) in underdamped fractional oscillators driven by multiplicative noise and periodically modulated noise is extensively investigated. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula, the moment equation and the Laplace transformation technique, the exact expression for complex susceptibility is obtained. Numerical results indicate that the influence of fractional order of the fractional oscillator, the inherent frequency of the system and the frequency of the modulated periodic signal can induce multiresonance.

  10. Stochastic resonance in the overdamped fractional oscillator subject to multiplicative dichotomous noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gui-Tian; Luo, Ren-Ze; Luo, Mao-Kang

    2013-12-01

    With the increasingly deep studies in physics and technology, the behavior of fractional oscillators have become the focus of scientific research. In this paper, the stochastic resonance (SR) mechanism of the overdamped fractional oscillator subject to multiplicative dichotomous noise is extensively investigated. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula and the Laplace transformation technique, the exact expression for complex susceptibility is obtained. Resorting to numerical simulations, the SR phenomenon of the overdamped fractional oscillator is studied. Especially, the frequency of the external periodic force that induces multiresonance.

  11. Stochastic resonance in a fractional oscillator with random damping strength and random spring stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guitian; Tian, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly deep studies in physics and technology, the behavior of fractional oscillators has become a focus of scientific research. In this paper, the stochastic resonance (SR) mechanism of a fractional oscillator with random damping and random spring stiffness is extensively investigated. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula and the Laplace transformation technique, the exact expression for complex susceptibility is obtained. Resorting to numerical simulations, the SR phenomenon of a fractional oscillator is studied. It is found that the influence of the fractional order of a fractional oscillator induces the SR phenomenon. In particular, the influence of the friction coefficient induces multiresonance.

  12. The cavity resonator design: stochastic optimization of the transmission line method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jure?ka, Stanislav; Müllerová, Jarmila; Dado, Milan

    2012-02-01

    Stable cavity resonators provide an ideal solution for high quality applications in telecommunications, laser sources, sensors, oscillators and filters, instrumentation and other large area of applications. For the determination of the electromagnetic field (EMF) properties in a cavity resonator several numerical methods are widely used. In our approach we used the transmission line modeling method (TLM). It is a wide-band time-domain numerical method suitable for solution of the electromagnetic field in a studied region. TLM method is based on the isomorphism between the theory of passive electrical network and the wave equation describing the properties of the EMF. TLM method offers two important advantages over the time-domain techniques such as the finite-difference time domain methods. The electric and magnetic field are resolved synchronously in time and space and TLM in implicitly stable method due to the mapping to electrical circuits. The EMF in the rectangular cavity is in our approach determined by the TLM method and the frequency spectrum is computed by the Fourier transform of the time signal. The theoretical model of the cavity EMF power spectral density function contains information about the geometrical configuration of the resonator. In our work we use the genetic algorithm for the determination of optimal dimensions of the cavity resonator expected for the proposed output resonant frequency. The stochastic modification of the theoretical model parameters is controlled by the genetic operators of mutation, crossover and selection, leading to overall improvement of the theoretical model estimation during the optimization process.

  13. The cavity resonator design: stochastic optimization of the transmission line method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jure?ka, Stanislav; Müllerová, Jarmila; Dado, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Stable cavity resonators provide an ideal solution for high quality applications in telecommunications, laser sources, sensors, oscillators and filters, instrumentation and other large area of applications. For the determination of the electromagnetic field (EMF) properties in a cavity resonator several numerical methods are widely used. In our approach we used the transmission line modeling method (TLM). It is a wide-band time-domain numerical method suitable for solution of the electromagnetic field in a studied region. TLM method is based on the isomorphism between the theory of passive electrical network and the wave equation describing the properties of the EMF. TLM method offers two important advantages over the time-domain techniques such as the finite-difference time domain methods. The electric and magnetic field are resolved synchronously in time and space and TLM in implicitly stable method due to the mapping to electrical circuits. The EMF in the rectangular cavity is in our approach determined by the TLM method and the frequency spectrum is computed by the Fourier transform of the time signal. The theoretical model of the cavity EMF power spectral density function contains information about the geometrical configuration of the resonator. In our work we use the genetic algorithm for the determination of optimal dimensions of the cavity resonator expected for the proposed output resonant frequency. The stochastic modification of the theoretical model parameters is controlled by the genetic operators of mutation, crossover and selection, leading to overall improvement of the theoretical model estimation during the optimization process.

  14. Stochastic resonance in a groundwater-dependent plant ecosystem with fluctuations and time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zheng-Lin; Yang, Chun-Yan; Li, Chun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    We numerically investigate the stochastic resonance (SR) pheno menon in a groundwater-dependent plant ecosystem under the combined influence of environmental fluctuations, seasonal rainfall oscillation, and time delay. The effects of time delay and intrinsic and extrinsic fluctuations on the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the system are analyzed. The results indicate that the SNR exhibits a maximum as a function of the intensities of the intrinsic and extrinsic noises, identifying the occurrence of the SR effect. An increase of the delay time always suppresses the SR effect, while an increase of correlation strength between noises may suppress or enhance it. The SNR also shows a resonant behavior as a function of the correlation strength between noises, and it can be weakened by the time delay.

  15. Self-organization of a neural network with heterogeneous neurons enhances coherence and stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiumin; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Most network models for neural behavior assume a predefined network topology and consist of almost identical elements exhibiting little heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose a self-organized network consisting of heterogeneous neurons with different behaviors or degrees of excitability. The synaptic connections evolve according to the spike-timing dependent plasticity mechanism and finally a sparse and active-neuron-dominant structure is observed. That is, strong connections are mainly distributed to the synapses from active neurons to inactive ones. We argue that this self-emergent topology essentially reflects the competition of different neurons and encodes the heterogeneity. This structure is shown to significantly enhance the coherence resonance and stochastic resonance of the entire network, indicating its high efficiency in information processing.

  16. Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis On this page: What is ... get additional information? What is a vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma)? A vestibular schwannoma (also known as acoustic ...

  17. Entropic stochastic resonance enables trapping under periodic confinement: A Brownian-dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Nan; Ugaz, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Entropically mediated phenomena are of emerging interest as a driving force for microscale and nanoscale transport, but their underlying stochastic nature makes them challenging to rationally manipulate and control. Stochastic resonance offers an intriguing avenue to overcome these difficulties by establishing a clear connection between the system response (the output) and an externally imposed driving force (the input). Previous studies have generally adopted a signal-processing viewpoint to classify the output in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio, but this link does not convey information that is immediately useful to infer parameters relevant to transport. Here we address this issue by applying Brownian-dynamics simulations to elucidate the residence time distribution encountered by a particle as it travels through a channel incorporating periodic constrictions. A sinusoidal longitudinal driving force is applied with a superimposed continuous orthogonal component, making it possible to identify frequency and amplitude conditions where temporal coherence with the particle's motion can be achieved. This resonant state reflects a synergistic combination of geometry and driving force that can be exploited to confine species at discrete locations, offering possibilities for directed manipulation.

  18. Multiple coherence resonance induced by time-periodic coupling in stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiu; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Li

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of time-periodic coupling strength (TPCS) on the spiking coherence of Newman-Watts small-world networks of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons and investigate the relations between the coupling strength and channel noise when coherence resonance (CR) occurs. It is found that, when the amplitude of TPCS is varied, the spiking induced by channel noise can exhibit CR and coherence bi-resonance (CBR), and the CR moves to a smaller patch area (bigger channel noise) when the amplitude increases; when the frequency of TPCS is varied, the intrinsic spiking can exhibit CBR and multiple CR, and the CR always occurs when the frequency is equal to or multiple of the spiking period, manifesting as the locking between the frequencies of the intrinsic spiking and the coupling strength. These results show that TPCS can greatly enhance and optimize the intrinsic spiking coherence, and favors the spiking with bigger channel noise to exhibit CR. This implies that, compared to constant coupling strength, TPCS may play a more efficient role for improving the time precision of the information processing in stochastic neuronal networks.

  19. Do Basal Ganglia Amplify Willed Action by Stochastic Resonance? A Model

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia are usually attributed a role in facilitating willed action, which is found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease, a pathology of basal ganglia. We hypothesize that basal ganglia possess the machinery to amplify will signals, presumably weak, by stochastic resonance. Recently we proposed a computational model of Parkinsonian reaching, in which the contributions from basal ganglia aid the motor cortex in learning to reach. The model was cast in reinforcement learning framework. We now show that the above basal ganglia computational model has all the ingredients of stochastic resonance process. In the proposed computational model, we consider the problem of moving an arm from a rest position to a target position: the two positions correspond to two extrema of the value function. A single kick (a half-wave of sinusoid, of sufficiently low amplitude) given to the system in resting position, succeeds in taking the system to the target position, with high probability, only at a critical noise level. But for suboptimal noise levels, the model arm's movements resemble Parkinsonian movement symptoms like akinetic rigidity (low noise) and dyskinesias (high noise). PMID:24302984

  20. Evidence of stochastic resonance in the mating behavior of Nezara viridula (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezia, S.; Curcio, L.; Fiasconaro, A.; Pizzolato, N.; Valenti, D.; Spagnolo, B.; Lo Bue, P.; Peri, E.; Colazza, S.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the role of the noise in the mating behavior between individuals of Nezara viridula (L.), by analyzing the temporal and spectral features of the non-pulsed type female calling song emitted by single individuals.We have measured the threshold level for the signal detection, by performing experiments with the calling signal at different intensities and analyzing the insect response by directionality tests performed on a group of male individuals. By using a sub-threshold signal and an acoustic Gaussian noise source, we have investigated the insect response for different levels of noise, finding behavioral activation for suitable noise intensities. In particular, the percentage of insects which react to the sub-threshold signal, shows a non-monotonic behavior, characterized by the presence of a maximum, for increasing levels of the noise intensity. This constructive interplay between external noise and calling signal is the signature of the non-dynamical stochastic resonance phenomenon. Finally, we describe the behavioral activation statistics by a soft threshold model which shows stochastic resonance. We find that the maximum of the ensemble average of the input-output cross-correlation occurs at a value of the noise intensity very close to that for which the behavioral response has a maximum.

  1. Efficiency of the unstable resonator of a high-power laser with stochastic phase inhomogeneities in the active medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu [D.F. Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-02-28

    The specific features of operation of the unstable optical resonator of a large gas laser with an active medium containing stochastic phase inhomogeneities are considered. The output power of the laser, the Strehl number, the angular divergence and average far-field radiation intensity are studied as functions of the spatial scale and structure of random inhomogeneities of the refractive index of the active medium. Physical effects related to the deformation of the radiation pattern caused by a change in the spatial frequency of stochastic perturbations are analysed. (resonators, modes, beams)

  2. Motorist's vestibular disorientation syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Page, N G; Gresty, M A

    1985-01-01

    Six patients are described who experienced difficulty in driving a motor car. Four had illusions that the car was turning, which occurred particularly on open, featureless roads or the brows of hills and caused the driver to stop. All patients had peripheral or central neurootological abnormalities, but the only finding consistent with the directionality of the symptoms was an unpleasantly increased sense of circularvection during optokinetic stimulation in the direction of the illusion. These problems occur because of a false sense of orientation arising either from inappropriate signals from disordered vestibular canal and otolith organs or from a disordered central interpretation of vestibular information, and become manifest in the absence of adequate visual stabilisation. The other two patients with lateralised vestibular disease made inappropriate steering adjustments in the direction of the imbalance of vestibular tone. PMID:3875689

  3. Bilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Hain, Timothy C; Cherchi, Marcello; Yacovino, Dario A

    2013-07-01

    Bilateral vestibular loss is a rare cause of visual disturbance (oscillopsia) and imbalance. When severe, the most common cause is iatrogenic-gentamicin ototoxicity. Bilateral loss is easily diagnosed at the bedside with the dynamic illegible E test. If this test is omitted, it can easily be misdiagnosed as a cerebellar syndrome. Treatment is largely supportive. Care should be taken to avoid medications that suppress vestibular function, and to encourage activity. PMID:24057822

  4. Resonant excitation of the magnetosphere by stochastic and unsteady hydromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    The effect of the magnetospheric MHD cavity on the excitation of the magnetosphere by stochastic and unsteady hydromagnetic waves incident from the solar wind is investigated theoretically by using a one-dimensional nonuniform model of the medium. It is shown that most of the energy of stochastic waves is reflected from the magnetopause and that the only waves that penetrate into the magnetosphere are those with frequencies in narrow spectral ranges near the eigenfrequencies of the cavity. These waves lead to steadystate excitation of the eigenmodes of the cavity, the energy of which is determined by the spectral density of the energy flux of the incident waves at the corresponding eigenfrequencies. The energy of the eigenmodes penetrates through the opacity barrier in the vicinity of the Alfven resonance points (each corresponding to a particular mode), where the perturbation amplitude is sharply amplified, so the total energy localized close to the Alfven resonance point is much higher than the total energy of the corresponding eigenmode. In the vicinities, the perturbation energy is dissipated by the finite conductivity of the ionosphere, the dissipation power being equal to the energy flux of the incident waves that penetrates into the magnetosphere. The case of unsteady waves is analyzed by considering a wave pulse as an example. It is shown that most of the energy of the wave pulse is reflected from the magnetopause. The portion of the incident perturbation that penetrates into the magnetosphere leads to unsteady excitation of the eigenmodes of the magnetospheric cavity, which are then slowly damped because part of the energy of the cavity is emitted through the magnetopause back to the solar wind while the other part penetrates into the vicinities of the Alfven resonance points. In the vicinities, the perturbation is an Alfven wave standing between magnetically conjugate ionospheres and its energy is dissipated by the finite conductivity of the ionosphere at a rate slower than the damping rate of the eigenmodes of the cavity.

  5. Compton harmonic resonances, stochastic instabilities, quasilinear diffusion, and collisionless damping with ultra-high intensity laser waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rax, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    The dynamics of electrons in two-dimensional, linearly or circularly polarized, ultra-high intensity (above 10{sup 18}W/cm{sup 2}) laser waves, is investigated. The Compton harmonic resonances are identified as the source of various stochastic instabilities. Both Arnold diffusion and resonance overlap are considered. The quasilinear kinetic equation, describing the evolution of the electron distribution function, is derived, and the associated collisionless damping coefficient is calculated. The implications of these new processes are considered and discussed.

  6. A MultiComponent Stochastic Resonance Algorithm That Can Be Used to Detect Multiple Weak Chromatographic Peaks Simultaneously

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haishan Deng; Erxin Shang; Yuping Tang; Jin-ao Duan; Bingren Xiang; Shaofei Xie

    2010-01-01

    A new stochastic resonance algorithm based on the method of energy gain was developed by introduce an external energy field upon the chromatographic signals in order to simultaneously amplify and detect weak peaks from multi-component. The experimental weak chromatographic peaks from Para Red and Sudan I ~ IV were analyzed using the new algorithm. It was suggested that the proposed

  7. Vestibular projections in the human cortex.

    PubMed

    de Waele, C; Baudonnière, P M; Lepecq, J C; Tran Ba Huy, P; Vidal, P P

    2001-12-01

    There is considerable evidence from studies on cats and monkeys that several cortical areas such as area 2v at the tip of the intraparietal sulcus, area 3av in the sulcus centralis, the parietoinsular vestibular cortex adjacent to the posterior insula (PIVC) and area 7 in the inferior parietal lobule are involved in the processing of vestibular information. Microelectrode recordings from these areas have shown that: (1) most of these cortical neurons are connected trisynaptically to the labyrinthine endorgans and (2) they receive converging vestibular, visual and somatosensory inputs. These data suggest that a multimodal cortical system is involved in postural and gaze control. In humans, recent positron emission tomography (PET) scans and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have largely confirmed these data. However, because of the limited temporal resolution of these two methods, the minimum time of arrival of labyrinthine inputs from the vestibular hair cells to these cortical areas has not yet been determined. In this study, we used the evoked potential method to attempt to answer this question. Due to its excellent temporal resolution, this method is ideal for the investigation of the tri- or polysynaptic nature of the vestibulocortical pathways. Eleven volunteer patients, who underwent a vestibular neurectomy due to intractable Meniere's disease (MD) or acoustic neurinoma resection, were included in this experiment. Patients were anesthetized and the vestibular nerve was electrically stimulated. The evoked potentials were recorded by 30 subcutaneous active electrodes located on the scalp. The brain electrical source imaging (BESA) program (version 2.0, 1995) was used to calculate dipole sources. The latency period for the activation of five distinct cortical zones, including the prefrontal and/or the frontal lobe, the ipsilateral temporoparietal cortex, the anterior portion of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the contralateral parietal cortex, was 6 ms. The short latency period recorded for each of these areas indicates that several trisynaptic pathways, passing through the vestibular nuclei and the thalamic neurons, link the primary vestibular afferents to the cortex. We suggest that all these areas, including the prefrontal area, process egomotion information and may be involved in planning motor synergies to counteract loss of equilibrium. PMID:11810147

  8. Stochastic resonance in a tumor-immune system subject to bounded noises and time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches in cancer therapy. A mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction, subject to a periodic immunotherapy treatment (imitated by a periodic signal), correlative and bounded stochastic fluctuations and time delays, is investigated by numerical simulations for its signal power amplification (SPA). Within the tailored parameter regime, the synchronous response of tumor growth to the immunotherapy, stochastic resonance (SR), versus both the noises and delays is obtained. The details are as follows (i) the peak values of SPA versus the noise intensity (A) in the proliferation term of tumor cells decrease as the frequency of periodic signal increases, i.e. an increase of the frequency restrains the SR; (ii) an increase of the amplitude of periodic signal restrains the SR versus A, but boosts up the SR versus the noise intensity B in the immune term; (iii) there is an optimum cross-correlated degree between the two bounded noises, at which the system exhibits the strongest SR versus the delay time ??(the reaction time of tumor cell population to their surrounding environment constraints); (iv) upon increasing the delay time ??, double SR versus the delay time ?? (the time taken by both the tumor antigen identification and tumor-stimulated proliferation of effectors) emerges. These results may be helpful for an immunotherapy treatment for the sufferer.

  9. Improved Detection of Magnetic Signals by a MEMS Sensor Using Stochastic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Tapia, Jesus A.; Domínguez-Nicolás, Saúl M.; Juarez-Aguirre, Raul; Gutierrez-D, Edmundo A.; Flores, Amira; Figueras, Eduard; Manjarrez, Elias

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the behavior of the electrical output response of a magnetic field sensor based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology under different levels of controlled magnetic noise. We explored whether a particular level of magnetic noise applied on the vicinity of the MEMS sensor can improve the detection of subthreshold magnetic fields. We examined the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of such detected magnetic fields as a function of the magnetic noise intensity. The data disclosed an inverted U-like graph between the SNR and the applied magnetic noise. This finding shows that the application of an intermediate level of noise in the environment of a MEMS magnetic field sensor improves its detection capability of subthreshold signals via the stochastic resonance phenomenon. PMID:25329563

  10. Logical stochastic resonance with correlated internal and external noises in a synthetic biological logic block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Anna; Kia, Behnam; Bulsara, Adi R.; Ditto, William L.

    2011-12-01

    Following the advent of synthetic biology, several gene networks have been engineered to emulate digital devices, with the ability to program cells for different applications. In this work, we adapt the concept of logical stochastic resonance to a synthetic gene network derived from a bacteriophage ?. The intriguing results of this study show that it is possible to build a biological logic block that can emulate or switch from the AND to the OR gate functionalities through externally tuning the system parameters. Moreover, this behavior and the robustness of the logic gate are underpinned by the presence of an optimal amount of random fluctuations. We extend our earlier work in this field, by taking into account the effects of correlated external (additive) and internal (multiplicative or state-dependent) noise. Results obtained through analytical calculations as well as numerical simulations are presented.

  11. The Recovery of Weak Impulsive Signals Based on Stochastic Resonance and Moving Least Squares Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kuosheng.; Xu, Guanghua.; Liang, Lin.; Tao, Tangfei.; Gu, Fengshou.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR)-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test. PMID:25076220

  12. Stochastic resonance in a linear system with random damping parameter driven by trichotomous noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Heng; Liu, Jing

    2014-09-01

    The stochastic resonance (SR) in a second-order linear system driven by a trichotomous noise and an external periodic signal is investigated. By the use of the properties of the trichotomous noise and the Shapiro-Loginov formula, the exact expression for the output spectral amplification (SPA) of the system is obtained. The non-monotonic influence of the coefficient of the trichotomous noise on the SPA is found. It is shown that the SPA is a non-monotonic function of the amplitude, the correlation rate and the probability of the trichotomous noise. The SPA varies non-monotonically with the frequency of the driving signal, the damping coefficient and the frequency of the linear system.

  13. Clinical pathophysiology of vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REAS BÖHMER; UGO FISCH

    1995-01-01

    This study attempts to characterize the residual vestibular function remaining after incomplete supralabyrinthine vestibular neurectomy performed for disabling vertigo. Patients with bilateral vestibular neurectomy had preserved horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflexes in response to high angular accelerations with gain enhancement over time. A torsional down-beating spontaneous nystagmus and an important tilt of the subjective vertical were observed when the remaining eighth nerve

  14. Model for biological communication in a nanofabricated cell-mimic driven by stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Karig, David K [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Dar, Roy D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Cells offer natural examples of highly efficient networks of nanomachines. Accordingly, both intracellular and intercellular communication mechanisms in nature are looked to as a source of inspiration and instruction for engineered nanocommunication. Harnessing biological functionality in this manner requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology, and nanofabrication. Recent years have seen the amassing of a tremendous wealth of data from the sequencing of new organisms and from high throughput expression experiments. At the same time, a deeper fundamental understanding of individual cell function has been developed, as exemplified by the growth of fields such as noise biology, which seeks to characterize the role of noise in gene expression. The availability of well characterized biological components coupled with a deeper understanding of cell function has led to efforts to engineer both living cells and to create bio-like functionality in non-living substrates in the field of synthetic biology. Here, we present a model system that exemplifies the synergism between these realms of research. We propose a synthetic gene network for operation in a nanofabricated cell mimic array that propagates a biomolecular signal over long distances using the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. Our system consists of a bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule, a bistable genetic switch triggered by this signal, and an array of nanofabricated cell mimic wells that contain the genetic system. An optimal level of noise in the system helps to propagate a time-varying AHL signal over long distances through the array of mimics. This noise level is determined both by the system volume and by the parameters of the genetic network. Our proposed genetically driven stochastic resonance system serves as a testbed for exploring the potential harnessing of gene expression noise to aid in the transmission of a time-varying molecular signal.

  15. Vestibular-Ocular Reflex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-30

    In this activity, learners will perform various investigations to understand the vestibular-ocular reflex and learn about the importance of visual cues in maintaining balance. During the two-part activity, learners will compare the stability of a moving image under two conditions as well as compare the effects of rotation on the sensation of spinning under varying conditions. This lesson guide includes background information, review and critical thinking questions with answers, and handouts. Educators can also use this activity to discuss how the brain functions in space and how researchers study the vestibular function in space.

  16. Preservation of auditory and vestibular function after surgical removal of bilateral vestibular schwannomas in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Brackmann, D. E.; Hitselberger, W. E.; Purdy, J.

    1995-01-01

    The outcome of acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) surgery continues to improve rapidly. Advances can be attributed to several fields, but the most important contributions have arisen from the identification of the genes responsible for the dominant inheritance of neurofibromatosis types 1 (NF1) and 2 (NF2) and the development of magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement for the early anatomic confirmation of the pathognomonic, bilateral vestibular schwannomas in NF2. These advances enable early diagnosis and treatment when the tumors are small in virtually all subjects at risk for NF2. The authors suggest that advising young NF2 patients to wait until complications develop, especially hearing loss, before diagnosing and operating for bilateral eighth nerve schwannomas may not always be in the best interest of the patient. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of preservation of both auditory and vestibular function in a patient after bilateral vestibular schwannoma excision.

  17. Vestibular nerve section.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Herbert; Jackson, Lance E

    2002-06-01

    When the vertigo of Meniere's disease becomes refractory to medical management, a variety of surgical options are available. If intratympanic gentamicin has failed or is not recommended and serviceable hearing is present, sectioning the vestibular nerve is an excellent option in terms of vertigo control, hearing preservation, and postoperative quality of life. Transection of the vestibular nerve has gone through a metamorphosis since attempted by Krause over a century ago. The microsurgical posterior fossa vestibular neurectomy has undergone an evolution, resulting in the combined RRVN. This is essentially a retrosigmoid approach with exposure of the lateral venous sinus to allow forward retraction of the sinus and better exposure. This technique has the advantages of minimization of required mastoid and suboccipital bone work, elimination of the need for cerebellar retraction, improved exposure, ability to achieve watertight dural closure to minimize incidence of CSF leakage, low incidence of postoperative headache, and low overall complication rate. If a cleavage plain cannot be readily identified, then the superior half of the eighth nerve is sectioned near the brainstem. The results are essentially the same whether the vestibular nerve is cut in the IAC or the posterior fossa. Vertigo has been completely controlled in 85% and hearing has been preserved at the preoperative level in 80% of patients. Combined RRVN is a direct and safe technique, with high success in properly selected patients. PMID:12486846

  18. Management of vestibular migraine

    PubMed Central

    Bisdorff, Alexandre R.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular migraine is considered to be the second most common cause of vertigo and the most common cause of spontaneous episodic vertigo. The duration of attacks varies from seconds to days, usually lasting minutes to hours, and they mostly occur independently of headaches. Long-lasting individual attacks are treated with generic antivertiginous and antiemetic drugs. Specific antimigraine drugs are unlikely to be very effective for rescue. The mainstay of the management of vestibular migraine is prophylactic medication. To date, there are no controlled trials available; the body of knowledge builds on case series and retrospective or observational studies. Most drugs are also used for the prevention of migraine headaches. The choice of medication should be guided by its side effect profile and the comorbidities of patients. Betablockers such as propanolol or metoprolol are preferred in patients with hypertension but in the absence of asthma. Anticonvulsants include topiramate when patients are obese, valproic acid and lamotrigine. Lamotrigine is preferred if vertigo is more frequent than headaches. Calcium antagonists include verapamil and flunarizine. If patients have anxiety, tricyclic antidepressants such as amitryptiline or nortryptiline or SSRIs and benzodiazepines such as clonazepam are recommended. Acetazolamide is effective in rare genetic disorders related to migraine-like episodic ataxia; however, its place in vestibular migraine is still to be established. Nonpharmacological measures such as diet, sleep, hygiene and avoidance of triggers are recommended as they are for migraine. Vestibular rehabilitation might be useful when there are complications such as loss of confidence in balance or visual dependence. PMID:21694818

  19. Stochastic resonance in noise-induced transitions between self-oscillations and equilibria in spin-valve nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aquino, M.; Serpico, C.; Bonin, R.; Bertotti, G.; Mayergoyz, I. D.

    2011-12-01

    The thermally induced synchronization between magnetization transitions and “weak” ac excitations is studied for spin-transfer oscillators. A theoretical approach, based on the separation of time scales, is developed to investigate this physical phenomenon. By applying the appropriate averaging technique to the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic magnetization dynamics, a stochastic differential equation for the “slow” (energy) variable is derived. This equation is used to analyze intrawell thermal transitions between magnetization equilibria and self-oscillations. It is demonstrated that the thermally induced synchronization between magnetization transitions and ac excitation can be viewed as a stochastic resonance effect. It is shown that this effect occurs in spin-transfer nano-oscillators both in the classical case of subthreshold ac excitation as well as in the suprathreshold case. The theoretical predictions are in very good agreement with simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Slonczewski dynamics.

  20. Stochastic resonance in the presence or absence of external signal in the continuous stirred tank reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhonghuai; Xin, Houwen

    1999-07-01

    A two variable model, which has been proposed to describe a first-order, exothermic, irreversible reaction A?B carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), is investigated when the control parameter is modulated by random and/or periodic forces. Within the bistable region where a limit cycle and a stable node coexist, stochastic resonance (SR) is observed when both random and periodic modulations are present. In the absence of periodic external signal noise induced coherent oscillations (NICO) appear when the control parameter is randomly modulated near the supercritical Hopf bifurcation point. In addition, the NICO-strength goes through a maximum with the increment of the noise intensity, characteristic for the occurrence of internal signal stochastic resonance (ISSR).

  1. The vestibular cortex. Its locations, functions, and disorders.

    PubMed

    Brandt, T; Dieterich, M

    1999-05-28

    Evidence is presented that the multisensory parieto-insular cortex is the human homologue of the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) in the monkey and is involved in the perception of verticality and self-motion. Acute lesions (patients with middle cerebral artery infarctions) of this area caused contraversive tilts of perceived vertical, body lateropulsion, and, rarely, rotational vertigo. Brain activation studies using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance tomography showed that PIVC was activated by caloric irrigation of the ears or by galvanic stimulation of the mastoid. This indicates that PIVC receives input from both the semicircular canals and otoliths. PIVC was also activated during small-field optokinetic stimulation, but not when the nystagmus was suppressed by fixation. Activation of vestibular cortex areas, visual motion-sensitive areas, and ocular motor areas exhibited a significant right-hemispheric dominance. The vestibular cortex intimately interacts with the visual cortex to match the two 3-D orientation maps (perception of verticality, room-tilt illusion) and mediates self-motion perception by means of a reciprocal inhibitory visual-vestibular interaction. This mechanism of an inhibitory interaction allows a shift of the dominant sensorial weight during self-motion perception from one sensory modality (visual or vestibular) to the other, depending on which mode of stimulation prevails: body acceleration (vestibular input) or constant velocity motion (visual input). PMID:10372080

  2. Is Vestibular Neuritis an Immune Related Vestibular Neuropathy Inducing Vertigo?

    PubMed Central

    Greco, A.; Macri, G. F.; Gallo, A.; Fusconi, M.; De Virgilio, A.; Pagliuca, G.; Marinelli, C.; de Vincentiis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To review the current knowledge of the aetiology of vestibular neuritis including viral infections, vascular occlusion, and immunomediated mechanisms and to discuss the pathogenesis with relevance to pharmacotherapy. Systematic Review Methodology. Relevant publications on the aetiology and treatment of vestibular neuritis from 1909 to 2013 were analysed. Results and Conclusions. Vestibular neuritis is the second most common cause of peripheral vestibular vertigo and is due to a sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function. Vestibular neuronitis is a disorder thought to represent the vestibular-nerve equivalent of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Histopathological studies of patients who died from unrelated clinical problems have demonstrated degeneration of the superior vestibular nerve. The characteristic signs and symptoms include sudden and prolonged vertigo, the absence of auditory symptoms, and the absence of other neurological symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the condition remain unknown. Proposed theories of causation include viral infections, vascular occlusion, and immunomediated mechanisms. The management of vestibular neuritis involves symptomatic treatment with antivertiginous drugs, causal treatment with corticosteroids, and physical therapy. Antiviral agents did not improve the outcomes. PMID:24741601

  3. Stochastic and equilibrium pictures of the ultracold Fano-Feshbach-resonance molecular conversion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Tomotake; Watanabe, Shinichi; Zhang, Chen; Greene, Chris H.

    2013-05-01

    The ultracold molecular conversion rate occurring in an adiabatic ramp through a Fano-Feshbach resonance is studied and compared in two statistical models. One model, the so-called stochastic phase-space sampling (SPSS) [Hodby , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.120402 94, 120402 (2005)] evaluates the overlap of two atomic distributions in phase space by sampling atomic pairs according to a phase-space criterion. The other model, the chemical equilibrium theory (ChET) [Watabe and Nikuni, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.77.013616 77, 013616 (2008)] considers atomic and molecular distributions in the limit of the chemical and thermal equilibrium. The present study applies SPSS and ChET to a prototypical system of K+K? K2 in all the symmetry combinations, namely Fermi-Fermi, Bose-Bose, and Bose-Fermi cases. To examine implications of the phase-space criterion for SPSS, the behavior of molecular conversion is analyzed using four distinct geometrical constraints. Our comparison of the results of SPSS with those of ChET shows that while they appear similar in most situations, the two models give rise to rather dissimilar behaviors when the presence of a Bose-Einstein condensate strongly affects the molecule formation.

  4. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic field caused by vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations at diverted tokamak edge

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Chang, C. S. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Joseph, I.; Moyer, R. A. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A kinetic transport simulation for the first 4 ms of the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) application has been performed for the first time in realistic diverted DIII-D tokamak geometry [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], with the self-consistent evaluation of the radial electric field and the plasma rotation. It is found that, due to the kinetic effects, the stochastic parallel thermal transport is significantly reduced when compared to the standard analytic model [A. B. Rechester and M. N. Rosenbluth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 38 (1978)] and the nonaxisymmetric perpendicular radial particle transport is significantly enhanced from the axisymmetric level. These trends agree with recent experimental result trends [T. E. Evans, R. A. Moyer, K. H. Burrell et al., Nat. Phys. 2, 419 (2006)]. It is also found, as a side product, that an artificial local reduction of the vacuum RMP fields in the vicinity of the magnetic separatrix can bring the kinetic simulation results to a more detailed agreement with experimental plasma profiles.

  5. Adaptive bistable stochastic resonance and its application in mechanical fault feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi; Tao, Yi; He, Ye; Tang, Baoping

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is an important approach to detect weak vibration signals from heavy background noise. In order to increase the calculation speed and improve the weak feature detection performance, a new bistable model has been built. With this model, an adaptive and fast SR method based on dyadic wavelet transform and least square system parameters solving is proposed in this paper. By adding the second-order differential item into the traditional bistable model, noise utilization can be increased and the quality of SR output signal can be improved. The iteration algorithm for implementing the adaptive SR is given. Compared with the traditional adaptive SR method, this algorithm does not need to set up the searching range and searching step size of the system parameters, but only requires a few iterations. The proposed method, discrete wavelet transform and the traditional adaptive SR method are applied to analyzing simulated vibration signals and extracting the fault feature of a rotor system. The contrastive results verify the superiority of the proposed method, and it can be effectively applied to weak mechanical fault feature extraction.

  6. Stochastic Resonance Activity Influences Serum Tryptophan Metabolism in Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kepplinger, Berthold; Baran, Halina; Sedlnitzky-Semler, Brenda; Badawi, Nagy-Roland; Erhart, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Background Stochastic resonance therapy (SRT) is used for rehabilitation of patients with various neuropsychiatric diseases. An alteration in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway has been identified in the central and peripheral nervous systems in patients with neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and during the aging process. This study investigated the effect of SRT as an exercise activity on serum tryptophan metabolites in healthy subjects. Methods Serum L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and anthranilic acid levels were measured one minute before SRT and at one, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after SRT. We found that SRT affected tryptophan metabolism. Serum levels of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, and kynurenic acid were significantly reduced for up to 60 minutes after SRT. Anthranilic acid levels were characterized by a moderate, non significant transient decrease for up to 15 minutes, followed by normalization at 60 minutes. Tryptophan metabolite ratios were moderately altered, suggesting activation of metabolism after SRT. Lowering of tryptophan would generally involve activation of tryptophan catabolism and neurotransmitter, protein, and bone biosynthesis. Lowering of kynurenic acid by SRT might be relevant for improving symptoms in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and depression, as well as certain pain conditions. PMID:22174588

  7. Stochastic resonance in the spinal cord and somatosensory cortex of the cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjarrez, Elias; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Perez, Hugo; Mendez, Ignacio; Hernandez-Paxtian, Zulma; Flores, Amira

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of stochastic resonance (SR) in spinal and cortical potentials elicited by periodic tactile stimuli in the anaesthetised cat. The periodic tactile stimuli were applied on the central pad of the hindpaw and the noisy tactile stimuli on the glabrous skin of the third hindpaw digit. This protocol allowed that the signal and noise were mixed not in the skin but in the somatosensory regions of the central nervous system. The results show that a particular level of tactile noise can increase the amplitude of the spinal and cortical potentials elicited by periodic tactile stimuli. The topographical distribution of evoked potentials indicates that the effects of noise were spatially restricted. All cats showed distinct SR behavior at the spinal and cortical stages of the sensory encoding. Such SR was abolished in the cortical but not in the spinal recording after the sectioning of the ascending pathways. This suggests that the spinal neurones may also contribute to the SR observed at the cortical level. The present study documents the first evidence that the SR phenomenon occurs in the spinal and cortical somatosensory system itself and not only in the peripheral sensory receptors.

  8. Vestibular function test program evaluation

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Glenn Frederic

    1990-01-01

    for the evaluation of vestibular and visual oculomotor reflexes [1]. For over eighty years vestibular function tests have been performed; however, accepted formal standards for manual and computerized clinical evaluation of vestibular dysfunction have not yet... comprehensive models for nystagmus induced by a variety of stimuli [1]. For example, the consistency and symmetry of saccade accuracy in normal subjects suggests that saccade accuracy measurements can be a sensitive clinical test of the oculomotor control...

  9. Interaction of brain areas of visual and vestibular simultaneous activity with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Della-Justina, Hellen M; Gamba, Humberto R; Lukasova, Katerina; Nucci-da-Silva, Mariana P; Winkler, Anderson M; Amaro, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Static body equilibrium is an essential requisite for human daily life. It is known that visual and vestibular systems must work together to support equilibrium. However, the relationship between these two systems is not fully understood. In this work, we present the results of a study which identify the interaction of brain areas that are involved with concurrent visual and vestibular inputs. The visual and the vestibular systems were individually and simultaneously stimulated, using flickering checkerboard (without movement stimulus) and galvanic current, during experiments of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-four right-handed and non-symptomatic subjects participated in this study. Single visual stimulation shows positive blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses (PBR) in the primary and associative visual cortices. Single vestibular stimulation shows PBR in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex, inferior parietal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and lobules V and VI of the cerebellar hemisphere. Simultaneous stimulation shows PBR in the middle and inferior frontal gyri and in the precentral gyrus. Vestibular- and somatosensory-related areas show negative BOLD responses (NBR) during simultaneous stimulation. NBR areas were also observed in the calcarine gyrus, lingual gyrus, cuneus and precuneus during simultaneous and single visual stimulations. For static visual and galvanic vestibular simultaneous stimulation, the reciprocal inhibitory visual-vestibular interaction pattern is observed in our results. The experimental results revealed interactions in frontal areas during concurrent visual-vestibular stimuli, which are affected by intermodal association areas in occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes. PMID:25300959

  10. Improving Early Adaptation Following Long Duration Spaceflight by Enhancing Vestibular Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Kofman, Igor; DeDios, Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen; Jeevarajan, Jerome; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after g-transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" -immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance (SR) to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals especially when combined with balance training exercises for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. The countermeasure to improve post-flight balance and locomotor disturbances is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The techniques for improving signal detection using SVS may thus provide additional information to improve such strategic abilities and thus help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight. We have conducted a series of studies to document the efficacy of SVS stimulation on balance/locomotion tasks on unstable surfaces and motion tracking tasks during intra-vestibular system conflicts. In an initial study, we showed that SVS improved overall balance performance while standing on an unstable surface indicating that SVS may be sufficient to provide a comprehensive countermeasure approach for improving postural stability. In a second study, we showed that SVS improved locomotor performance on a treadmill mounted on an oscillating platform indicating that SVS may also be used to maximize locomotor performance during walking in unstable environments. In a third study, SVS was evaluated during an otolith-canal conflict scenario in a variable radius centrifuge at low frequency of oscillation (0.1 Hz) on both eye movements and perceptual responses (using a joystick) to track imposed oscillations. The variable radius centrifuge provides a selective tilting sensation that is detectable only by the otolith organs providing conflicting information from the canal organs of the vestibular system (intra-vestibular conflict). Results show that SVS significantly reduced the timing difference between both the eye movement responses as well as the perceptual tracking responses with respect to the imposed tilt sensations. These results indicate that SVS can improve performance in sensory conflict scenarios like that experienced during space flight. Such a SR countermeasure will act synergistically along with the pre-and in-flight adaptability training protocols providing an integrated, multi-disciplinary countermeasure capable of fulfilling multiple requirements making it a comprehensive and cost effective countermeasure approach to enhance sensorimotor capabilities following long-duration space flight.

  11. Betahistine increases vestibular blood flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES K. DZIADZIOLA; ESA L. LAURIKAINEN; JOHN D. RACHEL; WAYNE S. QUIRK

    1999-01-01

    Betahistine is used for treatment of several vestibular disorders. Despite the accepted use of this histamine-like substance, its mechanism of action is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility that one of the activities of betahistine is increasing blood flow in the peripheral vestibular end organs. Using a novel surgical approach, we identified the

  12. Childhood Vestibular Disorders: A Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Zarin; Stakiw, Daria B.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that childhood disorders affecting the vestibular system, although rare, do exist. Describing symptoms associated with the vestibular mechanism for children may be difficult, resulting in misdiagnosing or under-diagnosing these conditions. The pathophysiology, symptoms, and management options of the more common…

  13. Vestibular pathways involved in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hitier, Martin; Besnard, Stephane; Smith, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries have emphasized the role of the vestibular system in cognitive processes such as memory, spatial navigation and bodily self-consciousness. A precise understanding of the vestibular pathways involved is essential to understand the consequences of vestibular diseases for cognition, as well as develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery. The knowledge of the “vestibular cortical projection areas”, defined as the cortical areas activated by vestibular stimulation, has dramatically increased over the last several years from both anatomical and functional points of view. Four major pathways have been hypothesized to transmit vestibular information to the vestibular cortex: (1) the vestibulo-thalamo-cortical pathway, which probably transmits spatial information about the environment via the parietal, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices to the hippocampus and is associated with spatial representation and self-versus object motion distinctions; (2) the pathway from the dorsal tegmental nucleus via the lateral mammillary nucleus, the anterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to the entorhinal cortex, which transmits information for estimations of head direction; (3) the pathway via the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, the supramammillary nucleus and the medial septum to the hippocampus, which transmits information supporting hippocampal theta rhythm and memory; and (4) a possible pathway via the cerebellum, and the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus (perhaps to the parietal cortex), which transmits information for spatial learning. Finally a new pathway is hypothesized via the basal ganglia, potentially involved in spatial learning and spatial memory. From these pathways, progressively emerges the anatomical network of vestibular cognition. PMID:25100954

  14. Remote vibrotactile noise improves light touch sensation in stroke survivors’ fingertips via stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Stroke rehabilitation does not often integrate both sensory and motor recovery. While subthreshold noise was shown to enhance sensory signal detection at the site of noise application, having a noise-generating device at the fingertip to enhance fingertip sensation and potentially enhance dexterity for stroke survivors is impractical, since the device would interfere with object manipulation. This study determined if remote application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise (away from the fingertips) improves fingertip tactile sensation with potential to enhance dexterity for stroke survivors. Methods Index finger and thumb pad sensation was measured for ten stroke survivors with fingertip sensory deficit using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and Two-Point Discrimination Tests. Sensation scores were measured with noise applied at one of three intensities (40%, 60%, 80% of the sensory threshold) to one of four locations of the paretic upper extremity (dorsal hand proximal to the index finger knuckle, dorsal hand proximal to the thumb knuckle, dorsal wrist, volar wrist) in a random order, as well as without noise at beginning (Pre) and end (Post) of the testing session. Results Vibrotactile noise of all intensities and locations instantaneously and significantly improved Monofilament scores of the index fingertip and thumb tip (p?stochastic resonance and interneuronal connections. While long-term benefits of noise in stroke patients warrants further investigation, this result demonstrates potential that a wearable device applying vibrotactile noise at the wrist could enhance sensation and grip ability without interfering with object manipulation in everyday tasks. PMID:24112371

  15. Slope-Based Stochastic Resonance: How Noise Enables Phasic Neurons to Encode Slow Signals

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Yan; Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental properties of phasic firing neurons are usually characterized in a noise-free condition. In the absence of noise, phasic neurons exhibit Class 3 excitability, which is a lack of repetitive firing to steady current injections. For time-varying inputs, phasic neurons are band-pass filters or slope detectors, because they do not respond to inputs containing exclusively low frequencies or shallow slopes. However, we show that in noisy conditions, response properties of phasic neuron models are distinctly altered. Noise enables a phasic model to encode low-frequency inputs that are outside of the response range of the associated deterministic model. Interestingly, this seemingly stochastic-resonance (SR) like effect differs significantly from the classical SR behavior of spiking systems in both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal response pattern. Instead of being most sensitive to the peak of a subthreshold signal, as is typical in a classical SR system, phasic models are most sensitive to the signal's rising and falling phases where the slopes are steep. This finding is consistent with the fact that there is not an absolute input threshold in terms of amplitude; rather, a response threshold is more properly defined as a stimulus slope/frequency. We call the encoding of low-frequency signals with noise by phasic models a slope-based SR, because noise can lower or diminish the slope threshold for ramp stimuli. We demonstrate here similar behaviors in three mechanistic models with Class 3 excitability in the presence of slow-varying noise and we suggest that the slope-based SR is a fundamental behavior associated with general phasic properties rather than with a particular biological mechanism. PMID:20585612

  16. Gain in stochastic resonance: precise numerics versus linear response theory beyond the two-mode approximation.

    PubMed

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Denk, Claus; Gómez-Ordóñez, José; Morillo, Manuel; Hänggi, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In the context of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), we study the correlation function, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ratio of output over input SNR, i.e., the gain, which is associated to the nonlinear response of a bistable system driven by time-periodic forces and white Gaussian noise. These quantifiers for SR are evaluated using the techniques of linear response theory (LRT) beyond the usually employed two-mode approximation scheme. We analytically demonstrate within such an extended LRT description that the gain can indeed not exceed unity. We implement an efficient algorithm, based on work by Greenside and Helfand (detailed in the Appendix), to integrate the driven Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. The predictions of LRT are carefully tested against the results obtained from numerical solutions of the corresponding Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. We further present an accurate procedure to evaluate the distinct contributions of the coherent and incoherent parts of the correlation function to the SNR and the gain. As a main result we show for subthreshold driving that both the correlation function and the SNR can deviate substantially from the predictions of LRT and yet the gain can be either larger or smaller than unity. In particular, we find that the gain can exceed unity in the strongly nonlinear regime which is characterized by weak noise and very slow multifrequency subthreshold input signals with a small duty cycle. This latter result is in agreement with recent analog simulation results by Gingl et al. [ICNF 2001, edited by G. Bosman (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 545-548; Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L181 (2001)]. PMID:12689134

  17. Zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Tycko, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We present the theoretical description and experimental demonstration of a zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling (ZQ-SDR) technique for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 13C-labeled molecules, including proteins, under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The ZQ-SDR technique combines zero-quantum recoupling pulse sequence blocks with randomly varying chemical shift precession periods to create randomly amplitude- and phase-modulated effective homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. To a good approximation, couplings between different 13C spin pairs become uncorrelated under ZQ-SDR, leading to spin dynamics (averaged over many repetitions of the ZQ-SDR sequence) that are fully described by an orientation-dependent N × N polarization transfer rate matrix for an N-spin system, with rates that are inversely proportional to the sixth power of internuclear distances. Suppression of polarization transfers due to non-commutivity of pairwise couplings (i.e., dipolar truncation) does not occur under ZQ-SDR, as we show both analytically and numerically. Experimental demonstrations are reported for uniformly 13C-labeled L-valine powder (at 14.1 T and 28.00 kHz MAS), uniformly 13C-labeled protein GB1 in microcrystalline form (at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS), and partially labeled 13C-labeled protein GB1 (at 14.1 T and 40.00 kHz MAS). The experimental results verify that spin dynamics under ZQ-SDR are described accurately by rate matrices and suggest the utility of ZQ-SDR in structural studies of 13C-labeled solids.

  18. Enhanced coding in a cochlear-implant model using additive noise: Aperiodic stochastic resonance with tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert P.; Roper, Peter

    2000-05-01

    Analog electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve (the nerve of hearing) by a cochlear implant is an effective method of providing functional hearing to profoundly deaf people. Recent physiological and computational experiments have shown that analog cochlear implants are unlikely to convey certain speech cues by the temporal pattern of evoked nerve discharges. However, these experiments have also shown that the optimal addition of noise to cochlear implant signals can enhance the temporal representation of speech cues [R. P. Morse and E. F. Evans, Nature Medicine 2, 928 (1996)]. We present a simple model to explain this enhancement of temporal representation. Our model derives from a rate equation for the mean threshold-crossing rate of an infinite set of parallel discriminators (level-crossing detectors); a system that well describes the time coding of information by a set of nerve fibers. Our results show that the optimal transfer of information occurs when the threshold level of each discriminator is equal to the root-mean-square noise level. The optimal transfer of information by a cochlear implant is therefore expected to occur when the internal root-mean-square noise level of each stimulated fiber is approximately equal to the nerve threshold. When interpreted within the framework of aperiodic stochastic resonance, our results indicate therefore that for an infinite array of discriminators, a tuning of the noise is still necessary for optimal performance. This is in contrast to previous results [Collins, Chow, and Imhoff, Nature 376, 236 (1995); Chialvo, Longtin, and Müller-Gerking, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1798 (1997)] on arrays of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons.

  19. Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity. PMID:24312016

  20. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moix, Jeremy M.; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-01

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  1. Forster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems: III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation

    E-print Network

    Moix, Jeremy; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-01-01

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Forster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable e...

  2. Radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Régis, Jean; Carron, Romain; Delsanti, Christine; Porcheron, Denis; Thomassin, Jean-Marc; Murracciole, Xavier; Roche, Pierre-Hugues

    2013-10-01

    This article investigates the role of radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy in the management of vestibular schwannomas (VS), reviewing the authors' own prospective cohort and the current literature. For patients with large Stage IV VS (according to the Koos classification), a combined approach with deliberate partial microsurgical removal followed by radiosurgery to the residual tumor is proposed. The authors' cohort is unique with respect to the size of the population and the length of the follow-up, and demonstrates the efficacy and safety of VS radiosurgery, with particular regard to its high rate of hearing preservation. PMID:24093570

  3. Stochastic Resonance in Finely Dispersed Magnets: Influence of a Constant Magnetic Field Applied along the Direction of Easy Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isavnin, A. G.

    2005-07-01

    The dynamic susceptibility of an uniaxial single-domain iron particle is calculated under conditions of stochastic resonance as a function of the strength of an additional constant magnetic field applied along the direction of easy magnetization. Calculations are performed for the model of discrete orientations using the governing equation for the Kramers above-the-barrier transition rates of the magnetic moment vector of the particle. It is demonstrated that the presence of this constant field that breaks the symmetry of the bistable potential results in a decrease in the magnitude of the system response to an external periodic perturbation.

  4. Disrupted functional connectivity of the default mode network due to acute vestibular deficit

    PubMed Central

    Klingner, Carsten M.; Volk, Gerd F.; Brodoehl, Stefan; Witte, Otto W.; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular neuritis is defined as a sudden unilateral partial failure of the vestibular nerve that impairs the forwarding of vestibular information from the labyrinth. The patient suffers from vertigo, horizontal nystagmus and postural instability with a tendency toward ipsilesional falls. Although vestibular neuritis is a common disease, the central mechanisms to compensate for the loss of precise vestibular information remain poorly understood. It was hypothesized that symptoms following acute vestibular neuritis originate from difficulties in the processing of diverging sensory information between the responsible brain networks. Accordingly an altered resting activity was shown in multiple brain areas of the task-positive network. Because of the known balance between the task-positive and task-negative networks (default mode network; DMN) we hypothesize that also the DMN is involved. Here, we employ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state to investigate changes in the functional connectivity between the DMN and task-positive networks, in a longitudinal design combined with measurements of caloric function. We demonstrate an initially disturbed connectedness of the DMN after vestibular neuritis. We hypothesize that the disturbed connectivity between the default mode network and particular parts of the task-positive network might be related to a sustained utilization of processing capacity by diverging sensory information. The current results provide some insights into mechanisms of central compensation following an acute vestibular deficit and the importance of the DMN in this disease. PMID:25379422

  5. Partial Recovery of Audiological, Vestibular, and Radiological Findings following Spontaneous Intralabyrinthine Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Pézier, Thomas; Hegemann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis, work-up, and treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and sudden vestibular loss vary widely between units. With the increasing access to both magnetic resonance imaging and objective vestibular testing, our understanding of the various aetiologies at hand is increasing. Despite this, the therapeutic options are limited and without a particularly strong evidence base. We present a rare, yet increasingly diagnosed, case of intralabyrinthine haemorrhage (ILH) together with radiological, audiological, and vestibular test results. Of note, this occurred spontaneously and has shown partial recovery in all the mentioned modalities. PMID:24455375

  6. Penaeus orientolis prawn freshness rapid determination method based on electronic nose and non-linear stochastic resonance technique.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Yuanyuan, Han; Yanping, Cai; Jiaojiao, Jin; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Penaeus orientolis prawn freshness rapid determination method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear data processing technique is studied. E-nose responses to prawns stored at 4°C are measured. Meanwhile, physical/chemical indexes (firmness, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), total viable count (TVC), and human sensory evaluation) are examined to provide freshness references for e-nose analysis. E-nose measurement data is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), stochastic resonance (SR), and double-layered cascaded serial stochastic resonance (DCSSR). PCA partially discriminates prawns under different storage time. SR and DCSSR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum eigen values discriminate prawns successfully. Multi-variables regressions (MVR) are conducted between physical/chemical indexes and SR/DCSSR output SNR minimal (SNR-Min) values. Results indicate that SNR-Min values present more significant linearity relation with physical/chemical indexes. Prawn freshness forecasting model is developed via Harris fitting regression on DCSSR SNR-Min values. Validating experiments demonstrate that forecasting accuracy of this model is 94.29%. PMID:25551520

  7. Vestibular reflexes of otolith origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Victor J.

    1988-01-01

    The vestibular system and its role in the maintenance of posture and in motion sickness is investigated using cats as experimental subjects. The assumption is that better understanding of the physiology of vestibular pathways is not only of intrinsic value, but will help to explain and eventually alleviate the disturbances caused by vestibular malfunction, or by exposure to an unusual environment such as space. The first project deals with the influence on the spinal cord of stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth, particularly the otoliths. A second was concerned with the properties and neural basis of the tonic neck reflex. These two projects are related, because vestibulospinal and tonic neck reflexes interact in the maintenance of normal posture. The third project began with an interest in mechanisms of motion sickness, and eventually shifted to a study of central control of respiratory muscles involved in vomiting.

  8. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (EVAS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... side. Close-up view of the inner ear comparing a normal and enlarged vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic ... Conductive hearing loss involves reduced movements of the middle ear bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) which conduct ...

  9. Neuropharmacology of Vestibular System Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Enrique; Vega, Rosario

    2010-01-01

    This work reviews the neuropharmacology of the vestibular system, with an emphasis on the mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of vestibular disorders. Otolaryngologists are confronted with a rapidly changing field in which advances in the knowledge of ionic channel function and synaptic transmission mechanisms have led to the development of new scientific models for the understanding of vestibular dysfunction and its management. In particular, there have been recent advances in our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of vestibular system function and drug mechanisms of action. In this work, drugs acting on vestibular system have been grouped into two main categories according to their primary mechanisms of action: those with effects on neurotransmitters and neuromodulator receptors and those that act on voltage-gated ion channels. Particular attention is given in this review to drugs that may provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of vestibular diseases. A critical review of the pharmacology and highlights of the major advances are discussed in each case. PMID:20808544

  10. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  11. Visual and proprioceptive interaction in patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Cutfield, Nicholas J; Scott, Gregory; Waldman, Adam D; Sharp, David J; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2014-01-01

    Following bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) patients gradually adapt to the loss of vestibular input and rely more on other sensory inputs. Here we examine changes in the way proprioceptive and visual inputs interact. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate visual responses in the context of varying levels of proprioceptive input in 12 BVL subjects and 15 normal controls. A novel metal-free vibrator was developed to allow vibrotactile neck proprioceptive input to be delivered in the MRI system. A high level (100 Hz) and low level (30 Hz) control stimulus was applied over the left splenius capitis; only the high frequency stimulus generates a significant proprioceptive stimulus. The neck stimulus was applied in combination with static and moving (optokinetic) visual stimuli, in a factorial fMRI experimental design. We found that high level neck proprioceptive input had more cortical effect on brain activity in the BVL patients. This included a reduction in visual motion responses during high levels of proprioceptive input and differential activation in the midline cerebellum. In early visual cortical areas, the effect of high proprioceptive input was present for both visual conditions but in lateral visual areas, including V5/MT, the effect was only seen in the context of visual motion stimulation. The finding of a cortical visuo-proprioceptive interaction in BVL patients is consistent with behavioural data indicating that, in BVL patients, neck afferents partly replace vestibular input during the CNS-mediated compensatory process. An fMRI cervico-visual interaction may thus substitute the known visuo-vestibular interaction reported in normal subject fMRI studies. The results provide evidence for a cortical mechanism of adaptation to vestibular failure, in the form of an enhanced proprioceptive influence on visual processing. The results may provide the basis for a cortical mechanism involved in proprioceptive substitution of vestibular function in BVL patients. PMID:25061564

  12. Visual and proprioceptive interaction in patients with bilateral vestibular loss?

    PubMed Central

    Cutfield, Nicholas J.; Scott, Gregory; Waldman, Adam D.; Sharp, David J.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.

    2014-01-01

    Following bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) patients gradually adapt to the loss of vestibular input and rely more on other sensory inputs. Here we examine changes in the way proprioceptive and visual inputs interact. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate visual responses in the context of varying levels of proprioceptive input in 12 BVL subjects and 15 normal controls. A novel metal-free vibrator was developed to allow vibrotactile neck proprioceptive input to be delivered in the MRI system. A high level (100 Hz) and low level (30 Hz) control stimulus was applied over the left splenius capitis; only the high frequency stimulus generates a significant proprioceptive stimulus. The neck stimulus was applied in combination with static and moving (optokinetic) visual stimuli, in a factorial fMRI experimental design. We found that high level neck proprioceptive input had more cortical effect on brain activity in the BVL patients. This included a reduction in visual motion responses during high levels of proprioceptive input and differential activation in the midline cerebellum. In early visual cortical areas, the effect of high proprioceptive input was present for both visual conditions but in lateral visual areas, including V5/MT, the effect was only seen in the context of visual motion stimulation. The finding of a cortical visuo-proprioceptive interaction in BVL patients is consistent with behavioural data indicating that, in BVL patients, neck afferents partly replace vestibular input during the CNS-mediated compensatory process. An fMRI cervico-visual interaction may thus substitute the known visuo-vestibular interaction reported in normal subject fMRI studies. The results provide evidence for a cortical mechanism of adaptation to vestibular failure, in the form of an enhanced proprioceptive influence on visual processing. The results may provide the basis for a cortical mechanism involved in proprioceptive substitution of vestibular function in BVL patients. PMID:25061564

  13. Aging of vestibular function evaluated using correlational vestibular autorotation test

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Li-Chun; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Guo-She

    2014-01-01

    Background Imbalance from degeneration of vestibular end organs is a common problem in the elderly. However, the decline of vestibular function with aging was revealed in few vestibular function tests such as vestibular autorotation test (VAT). In the current VAT, there are drawbacks of poor test–retest reliability, slippage of the sensor at high-speed rotations, and limited data about the effect of aging. We developed a correlational-VAT (cVAT) system that included a small, light sensor (less than 20 g) with wireless data transmission technique to evaluate the aging of vestibular function. Material and methods We enrolled 53 healthy participants aged between 25 and 75 years and divided them into five age groups. The test conditions were vertical and horizontal head autorotations of frequencies from 0 to 3 Hz with closed eyes or open eyes. The cross-correlation coefficient (CCC) between eye velocity and head velocity was obtained for the head autorotations between 1 Hz and 3 Hz. The mean of the CCCs was used to represent the vestibular function. Results Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the mean CCC for all test conditions, including horizontal or vertical autorotations with open eyes or closed eyes (P<0.05). The mean CCC with open eyes declined significantly at 55–65 years old and the mean CCC with closed eyes declined significantly at 65–75 years old. Conclusion Vestibular function evaluated using mean CCC revealed a decline with age, and the function of visual-vestibulo-ocular reflex declined 10 years earlier than the function of vestibulo-ocular reflex. PMID:25214774

  14. Eye movement studies with a vestibular prosthesis/

    E-print Network

    Saginaw, Michael A. (Michael Adlai)

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular loss, which can manifest as dizziness, imbalance, or spatial disorientation, is widespread and often caused by inner ear hair cell malfunction. To address these problems, we are developing a vestibular implant ...

  15. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-01

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters. PMID:25747062

  16. Trace determination of carbendazim and thiabendazole in drinking water by liquid chromatography and using linear modulated stochastic resonance algorithm.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haishan; Xiang, Bingren; Xie, Shaofei; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    The following paper addresses an attempt to determine the trace levels of two benzimidazole fungicides (carbendazim, CAS 10605-21-7 and thiabendazole, CAS 148-79-8) in drinking water samples using the newly proposed linear modulated stochastic resonance algorithm. In order to implement an adaptive and intelligent algorithm, a two-step optimization procedure was developed for the parameter selection to give attention to both the signal-to-noise ratio and the peak shape of output signal. How to limit the ranges of the parameters to be searched was discussed in detail. The limits of detection for carbendazim and thiabendazole were improved to 0.012 microg x L(-1) and 0.015 microg x L(-1), respectively. The successful application demonstrated the ability of the algorithm for detecting two or more weak chromatographic peaks simultaneously. PMID:18193694

  17. Minimalistic behavioral rule derived from bacterial chemotaxis in a stochastic resonance setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemoto, Shuhei; Dallalibera, Fabio; Hosoda, Koh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    Animals are able to cope with the noise, uncertainties, and complexity of the real world. Often even elementary living beings, equipped with very limited sensory organs, are able to reach regions favorable to their existence, using simple stochastic policies. In this paper we discuss a minimalistic stochastic behavioral rule, inspired from bacteria chemotaxis, which is able to increase the value of a specified evaluation function in a similar manner. In particular, we prove that, under opportune assumptions, the direction that is taken with maximum probability by an agent that follows this rule corresponds to the optimal direction. The rule does not require a specific agent dynamics, needs no memory for storing observed states, and works in generic n-dimensional spaces. It thus reveals itself interesting for the control of simple sensing robots as well.

  18. ON DEVELOPMENT OF TOTALLY IMPLANTABLE VESTIBULAR PROSTHESIS

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    ON DEVELOPMENT OF TOTALLY IMPLANTABLE VESTIBULAR PROSTHESIS Andrei M. Shkel 1 Department vestibular prosthesis. The sensing element of the prosthesis is a custom designed one-axis MEMS gyroscope of the prosthesis on a rate table indicate that the device's output matches the average firing rate of vestibular

  19. Vestibular modulation of spatial perception

    PubMed Central

    Ferrè, Elisa R.; Longo, Matthew R.; Fiori, Federico; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular inputs make a key contribution to the sense of one’s own spatial location. While the effects of vestibular stimulation on visuo-spatial processing in neurological patients have been extensively described, the normal contribution of vestibular inputs to spatial perception remains unclear. To address this issue, we used a line bisection task to investigate the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on spatial perception, and on the transition between near and far space. Brief left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS or right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS were delivered. A sham stimulation condition was also included. Participants bisected lines of different lengths at six distances from the body using a laser pointer. Consistent with previous results, our data showed an overall shift in the bisection bias from left to right as viewing distance increased. This pattern suggests leftward bias in near space, and rightward bias in far space. GVS induced strong polarity dependent effects in spatial perception, broadly consistent with those previously reported in patients: left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS induced a leftward bisection bias, while right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS reversed this effect, and produced bisection bias toward the right side of the space. Interestingly, the effects of GVS were comparable in near and far space. We speculate that vestibular-induced biases in space perception may optimize gathering of information from different parts of the environment. PMID:24133440

  20. Compensation Following Bilateral Vestibular Damage

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Yates, Bill J.

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that non-labyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10?days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained. PMID:22207864

  1. Vestibular dehiscence syndrome caused by a labyrinthine congenital cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Francesco; Pizzini, Francesca B; Mattellini, Barbara; Barbieri, Franco

    2015-02-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with conductive hearing loss and pressure- and sound-related vestibular symptoms. Computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a cholesteatoma involving the vestibular labyrinth. The patient underwent a canal-wall-up tympanoplasty, which revealed evidence of a disruption of the vestibular labyrinth and a wide dehiscence of the vestibule, which was immediately resurfaced. At the 2-month follow-up, the patient's pressure- and sound-related vestibular symptoms had disappeared. Pure-tone audiometry showed a reduction in the air-bone gap with a slight deterioration of bone conduction and an improvement in the air-conduction threshold. Fistulization of the otic capsule produces a "third window," which can lead to a dehiscence syndrome. One possible cause is a cholesteatoma of the middle ear or petrous bone. When the vestibule is invaded by a cholesteatoma, hearing is almost invariably lost, either pre- or postoperatively. However, in our case, wide opening of the vestibule resulted in hearing preservation. PMID:25651351

  2. Brainstem abnormalities and vestibular nerve enhancement in acute Neuroborreliosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Borreliosis is a widely distributed disease. Neuroborreliosis may present with unspecific symptoms and signs and often remains difficult to diagnose in patients with central nervous system symptoms, particularly if the pathognomonic erythema chronica migrans does not develop or is missed. Thus, vigilance is mandatory in cases with atypical presentation of the disease and with potentially severe consequences if not recognized early. We present a patient with neuroborreliosis demonstrating brain stem and vestibular nerve abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. Case presentation A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented with headaches, neck stiffness, weight loss, nausea, tremor, and gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2-weighted hyperintense signal alterations in the pons and in the vestibular nerves as well as bilateral post-contrast enhancement of the vestibular nerves. Serologic testing of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. Conclusion Patients infected with neuroborreliosis may present with unspecific neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive imaging tool showing signal abnormalities in the brain stem and nerve root enhancement may help in establishing the diagnosis. PMID:24359885

  3. Bilateral multicanal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo coexisting with a vestibular schwannoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Karatayli-Ozgursoy, Selmin; Stamper, Greta C; Lundy, Larry B; Zapala, David A

    2011-01-01

    We describe a rarely encountered case of coexisting bilateral multicanal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and vestibular schwannoma in a 56-year-old woman. The patient had presented with a 10-year history of dizziness and imbalance, and her vestibular findings were perplexing. We decided on a working diagnosis of BPPV and began treatment. After several months of canalith repositioning maneuvers had failed to resolve her symptoms, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed the presence of the vestibular schwannoma. This case serves as a reminder of the importance of differentiating between central and peripheral vestibular disorders, as well as central and anterior canal BPPV-induced down-beating nystagmus in order to establish the correct diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. PMID:21229492

  4. Procedures for restoring vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vertigo (bilateral vestibulopathy, kinetosis, height vertigo, vestibular disorders when diving (Tables 1 (Tab. 1) and 2 (Tab. 2)). Glucocorticoid and training therapy encourage the compensation of unilateral vestibular loss. In the case of a bilateral vestibular loss, it is important to treat the underlying disease (e.g. Cogan's disease). Although balance training does improve the patient's sense of balance, it will not restore it completely. In the case of Meniere's disease, there are a number of medications available to either treat bouts or to act as a prophylactic (e.g. dimenhydrinate or betahistine). In addition, there are non-ablative (sacculotomy) as well as ablative surgical procedures (e.g. labyrinthectomy, neurectomy of the vestibular nerve). In everyday practice, it has become common to proceed with low risk therapies initially. The physical treatment of mild postural vertigo can be carried out quickly and easily in outpatients (repositioning or liberatory maneuvers). In very rare cases it may be necessary to carry out a semicircular canal occlusion. Isolated disturbances of the otolith function or an involvement of the otolith can be found in roughly 50% of labyrinth disturbances. A specific surgical procedure to selectively block the otolith organs is currently being studied. When an external perilymph fistula involving loss of perilymph is suspected, an exploratory tympanotomy involving also the round and oval window niches must be carried out. A traumatic rupture of the round window membrane can, for example, also be caused by an implosive inner ear barotrauma during the decompression phase of diving. Dehiscence of the anterior semicircular canal, a relatively rare disorder, can be treated conservatively (avoiding stimuli which cause dizziness), by non-ablative „resurfacing" or by „plugging" the semicircular canal. A perilymph fistula can cause a Tullio-phenomenon resulting from a traumatic dislocation or hypermobility of the stapes, which can be surgically corrected. Vestibular disorders can also result from otosurgical therapy. When balance disorders persist following stapedectomy it is necessary to carry out a revision operation in order to either exclude a perilymph fistula or shorten the piston. Surgically reducing the size of open mastoid cavities (using for example porous hydroxylapatite or cartilage) can result in a reduction of vertiginous symptoms while nursing or during exposure to ambient air. Vestibular disturbances can occur both before and after vestibular nerve surgery (acoustic neuroma). Initially, good vestibular compensation can be expected after surgically removing the acoustic neuroma. An aberrant regeneration of nerve fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve has been suggested as a cause for secondary worsening. Episodes of vertigo can be caused by an irritation of the vestibular nerve (vascular loop). Neurovascular decompression is generally regarded as the best surgical therapy. In the elderly, vestibular disturbances can severely limit quality of life and are often aggravated by multiple comorbidities. Antivertiginous drugs (e.g. dimenhydrinate) in combination with movement training can significantly reduce symptoms. Administering antivertiginous drugs over varying periods of time (e.g. transdermal scopolamine application via patches) as well as kinetosis training can be used as both prophylactically and as a therapy for kinetosis. Exposure training should be used as a prophylactic for height vertigo. PMID:22073053

  5. Procedures for restoring vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vertigo (bilateral vestibulopathy, kinetosis, height vertigo, vestibular disorders when diving (Tables 1 (Tab. 1) and 2 (Tab. 2)). Glucocorticoid and training therapy encourage the compensation of unilateral vestibular loss. In the case of a bilateral vestibular loss, it is important to treat the underlying disease (e.g. Cogan's disease). Although balance training does improve the patient's sense of balance, it will not restore it completely.In the case of Meniere's disease, there are a number of medications available to either treat bouts or to act as a prophylactic (e.g. dimenhydrinate or betahistine). In addition, there are non-ablative (sacculotomy) as well as ablative surgical procedures (e.g. labyrinthectomy, neurectomy of the vestibular nerve). In everyday practice, it has become common to proceed with low risk therapies initially. The physical treatment of mild postural vertigo can be carried out quickly and easily in outpatients (repositioning or liberatory maneuvers). In very rare cases it may be necessary to carry out a semicircular canal occlusion.Isolated disturbances of the otolith function or an involvement of the otolith can be found in roughly 50% of labyrinth disturbances. A specific surgical procedure to selectively block the otolith organs is currently being studied. When an external perilymph fistula involving loss of perilymph is suspected, an exploratory tympanotomy involving also the round and oval window niches must be carried out. A traumatic rupture of the round window membrane can, for example, also be caused by an implosive inner ear barotrauma during the decompression phase of diving. Dehiscence of the anterior semicircular canal, a relatively rare disorder, can be treated conservatively (avoiding stimuli which cause dizziness), by non-ablative "resurfacing" or by "plugging" the semicircular canal. A perilymph fistula can cause a Tullio-phenomenon resulting from a traumatic dislocation or hypermobility of the stapes, which can be surgically corrected. Vestibular disorders can also result from otosurgical therapy. When balance disorders persist following stapedectomy it is necessary to carry out a revision operation in order to either exclude a perilymph fistula or shorten the piston. Surgically reducing the size of open mastoid cavities (using for example porous hydroxylapatite or cartilage) can result in a reduction of vertiginous symptoms while nursing or during exposure to ambient air. Vestibular disturbances can occur both before and after vestibular nerve surgery (acoustic neuroma). Initially, good vestibular compensation can be expected after surgically removing the acoustic neuroma. An aberrant regeneration of nerve fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve has been suggested as a cause for secondary worsening. Episodes of vertigo can be caused by an irritation of the vestibular nerve (vascular loop). Neurovascular decompression is generally regarded as the best surgical therapy. In the elderly, vestibular disturbances can severely limit quality of life and are often aggravated by multiple comorbidities. Antivertiginous drugs (e.g. dimenhydrinate) in combination with movement training can significantly reduce symptoms. Administering antivertiginous drugs over varying periods of time (e.g. transdermal scopolamine application via patches) as well as kinetosis training can be used as both prophylactically and as a therapy for kinetosis. Exposure training should be used as a prophylactic for height vertigo. PMID:22073053

  6. New concepts in molecular and energy transport within carbon nanotubes: thermopower waves and stochastically resonant ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strano, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Our laboratory has been interested in how carbon nanotubes can be utilized to illustrate new concepts in molecular and energy transfer. In the first example, we predict and demonstrate the concept of thermopower waves for energy generation [1]. Coupling an exothermic chemical reaction with a thermally conductive CNT creates a self-propagating reactive wave driven along its length. We realize such waves in MWNT and show that they produce concomitant electrical pulses of high specific power >7 kW/kg. Such waves of high power density may find uses as unique energy sources. In the second system, we fabricate and study SWNT ion channels for the first time [2] and show that the longest, highest aspect ratio, and smallest diameter synthetic nanopore examined to date, a 500 ?m SWNT, demonstrates oscillations in electro-osmotic current at specific ranges of electric field, that are the signatures of coherence resonance, yielding self-generated rhythmic and frequency locked transport. The observed oscillations in the current occur due to a coupling between stochastic pore blocking and a diffusion limitation that develops at the pore mouth during proton transport. [4pt] [1] Choi W, Hong S, Abrahamson JT, Han JH, Song C, Nair N, Baik S, Strano MS: Chemically driven carbon-nanotube-guided thermopower waves. NATURE MATERIALS, 9 (2010) 423-429.[0pt] [2] Lee, CY, Choi W, Han, JH, Strano MS: Coherence Resonance in a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Ion Channel. SCIENCE, 239

  7. Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Patrick; Yajnik, Santosh; Hartsell, William; Bovis, George; Venkatesan, Jagannath

    2009-08-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumors of the Schwann cells of the eighth (VIII) cranial nerve. Precision radiotherapy techniques used to manage these tumors include stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), which can be delivered with either a conventional or hypofractionated regimen. The radio-biologic rationale and reported clinical outcomes of patients treated with SRT are reviewed. PMID:19751870

  8. The Vestibular Implant: Quo Vadis?

    PubMed Central

    van de Berg, Raymond; Guinand, Nils; Stokroos, Robert J.; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Kingma, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the progress of the development of the vestibular implant (VI) and its feasibility short-term. Data sources: A search was performed in Pubmed, Medline, and Embase. Key words used were “vestibular prosth*” and “VI.” The only search limit was language: English or Dutch. Additional sources were medical books, conference lectures and our personal experience with per-operative vestibular stimulation in patients selected for cochlear implantation. Study selection: All studies about the VI and related topics were included and evaluated by two reviewers. No study was excluded since every study investigated different aspects of the VI. Data extraction and synthesis: Data was extracted by the first author from selected reports, supplemented by additional information, medical books conference lectures. Since each study had its own point of interest with its own outcomes, it was not possible to compare data of different studies. Conclusion: To use a basic VI in humans seems feasible in the very near future. Investigations show that electric stimulation of the canal nerves induces a nystagmus which corresponds to the plane of the canal which is innervated by the stimulated nerve branch. The brain is able to adapt to a higher baseline stimulation, while still reacting on a dynamic component. The best response will be achieved by a combination of the optimal stimulus (stimulus profile, stimulus location, precompensation), complemented by central vestibular adaptation. The degree of response will probably vary between individuals, depending on pathology and their ability to adapt. PMID:21991260

  9. DARA vestibular equipment onboard MIR.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, P; Kellig, A; Hoffmann, H U; Ruyters, G

    1998-01-01

    In space, the weightless environment provides a different stimulus to the otolith organs of the vestibular system, and the resulting signals no longer correspond with the visual and other sensory signals sent to the brain. This signal conflict causes disorientation. To study this and also to understand the vestibular adaptation to weightlessness, DARA has developed scientific equipment for vestibular and visuo-oculomotoric investigations. Especially, two video-oculography systems (monocular--VOG--and binocular--BIVOG, respectively) as well as stimuli such as an optokinetic stimulation device have successfully been employed onboard MIR in the frame of national and European missions since 1992. The monocular VOG was used by Klaus Flade during the MIR '92 mission, by Victor Polyakov during his record 15 months stay onboard MIR in 1993/94 as well as by Ulf Merbold during EUROMIR '94. The binocular version was used by Thomas Reiter and Sergej Avdeyev during the 6 months EUROMIR '95 mission. PIs of the various experiments include H. Scherer and A. Clarke (FU Berlin), M. Dieterichs and S. Krafczyk (LMU Munchen) from Germany as well as C.H. Markham and S.G. Diamond from the United States. Video-Oculography (VOG) is a technique for examining the function of the human balance system located in the inner ear (vestibular system) and the visio-oculomotor interactions of the vestibular organ. The human eye movements are measured, recorded and evaluated by state-of-the-art video techniques. The method was first conceived and designed at the Vestibular Research Laboratory of the ENT Clinic in Steglitz, FU Berlin (A. Clarke, H. Scherer). Kayser-Threde developed, manufactured and tested the facilities for space application under contract to DARA. Evaluation software was first provided by the ENT Clinic, Berlin, later by our subcontractor Sensomotoric Instruments (SMI), Teltow. Optokinetic hardware to support visuo-oculomotoric investigations, has been shipped to MIR for EUROMIR '95 and has successfully been used in conjunction with VOG by ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter. Most recently, BIVOG aboard MIR will be reused in the frame of German/Russian joint experiment sessions employing two Russian cosmonauts from August 1997 to January 1998. PMID:11541933

  10. Cell proliferation and survival in the vestibular nucleus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the adult rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiwen Zheng; Chisako Masumura; Phoebe Chung; Cynthia L. Darlington; Paul F. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the brainstem vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) has previously been reported following unilateral vestibular neurectomy in the cat. In this study, we examined the rate of cell proliferation and survival in the adult rat VNC following bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD), using injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and stereological cell counting. We measured cell proliferation at 24, 48,

  11. CGRP Expression in the Vestibular Periphery after Transient Blockage of Bilateral Vestibular Input

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirotaka Hara; Kenji Takeno; Hiroaki Shimogori; Hiroshi Yamashita

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to establish an animal model of reversible bilateral vestibular disorders that is suitable for examining the mechanisms of vestibular plasticity, and to observe the changes in the plasticity of vestibular efferent systems. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was infused continuously for 7 days into the bilateral perilymph of guinea pig cochlea. We assessed the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) for evaluating the

  12. First cross-correlation analysis of interferometric and resonant-bar gravitational-wave data for stochastic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgamy, M.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubi?ski, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McCaulley, B. J.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Miller, P.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moody, V.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nettles, D.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Paik, H.-J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Data from the LIGO Livingston interferometer and the ALLEGRO resonant-bar detector, taken during LIGO’s fourth science run, were examined for cross correlations indicative of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in the frequency range 850 950 Hz, with most of the sensitivity arising between 905 and 925 Hz. ALLEGRO was operated in three different orientations during the experiment to modulate the relative sign of gravitational-wave and environmental correlations. No statistically significant correlations were seen in any of the orientations, and the results were used to set a Bayesian 90% confidence level upper limit of ?gw(f)?1.02, which corresponds to a gravitational-wave strain at 915 Hz of 1.5×10-23Hz-1/2. In the traditional units of h1002?gw(f), this is a limit of 0.53, 2 orders of magnitude better than the previous direct limit at these frequencies. The method was also validated with successful extraction of simulated signals injected in hardware and software.

  13. An improved multiscale noise tuning of stochastic resonance for identifying multiple transient faults in rolling element bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR), a noise-assisted tool, has been proved to be very powerful in weak signal detection. The multiscale noise tuning SR (MSTSR), which breaks the restriction of the requirement of small parameters and white noise in classical SR, has been applied to identify the characteristic frequency of a bearing. However, the multiscale noise tuning (MST), which is originally based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT), limits the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of SR and the performance in identifying multiple bearing faults. In this paper, the wavelet packet transform (WPT) is developed and incorporated into the MSTSR method to overcome its shortcomings and to further enhance its capability in multiple faults detection of bearings. The WPT-based MST can achieve a finer tuning of multiscale noise and aims at detecting multiple target frequencies separately. By introducing WPT into the MST of SR, this paper proposes an improved SR method particularly suited for the identification of multiple transient faults in rolling element bearings. Simulated and practical bearing signals carrying multiple characteristic frequencies are employed to validate the performance improvement of the proposed method as compared to the original DWT-based MSTSR method. The results confirm the good capability of the proposed method in multi-fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings.

  14. Stochastic resonance of charge carrier diffusion in a nonhomogeneous medium in the presence of an harmonic external potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragie, Berhanu

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of charge carriers (electrons) hopping through a nonhomogeneous medium in semiconductor layer is investigated by changing a thermal noise of strength D and an external harmonic potential V(x). The nonhomogeneous medium exhibits denser trap distribution around the center, which biases the electrons to therein concentrate. Applying also a monostable potential at the center further enhances the accumulation of electrons. However, by applying a nonhomogeneous hot temperature in the vicinity of the potential minimum forced the electrons to diffuse away from the center and redistribute around two points. Thermally activated rate of hopping and diffusion of electrons in a nonhomogeneous medium, as a function of model parameters, is also considered in the high barrier limit. Using two states approximation, I have also studied the stochastic resonance (SR) of the electrons dynamics in the presence of a time-varying signal. I found a strong spectral amplification ? and lower temperature occurrence of its peak as compared to previous works [M. Asfaw, B. Aragie and M. Bekele, Eur. Phys. J. B 79, 371 (2011); B. Aragie, Y. B. Tateka and M. Bekele, Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 101 (2014)].

  15. Movement Symmetries and the Mammalian Vestibular System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Gin; Boyle, Richard

    2000-03-01

    Unity of movement requires vertebrates to have an ability to symmetrize along the midline. For example, human erect stance involves symmetry with respect to gravity. The mammalian vestibular system provides a mechanism for maintaining symmetries, which is also open to influence and adaptation by the rest of the organism. The vestibular system includes the inner ear endorgans and central nuclei, along with projections to oculomotor, cerebellar, thalamic, and spinal motor centers. The vestibular endorgans - the semicircular canals and the otoliths - use sensory hairs to register inertia. The vestibular endorgans are right-left symmetric and the semicircular canals form an approximately orthogonal coordinate system for angular motion. Primary afferent axons project from the endorgans to the vestibular nuclei (and a few other places). The vestibular nuclei integrate vestibular, visual, and somatosensory signals, along with a proposed copy of the voluntary motor command and signals from other central structures. The relationship between the canals and the otoliths gives rise to symmetries among neurons, in the organization among the several vestibular nuclei, and in the projections from the vestibular nuclei. These symmetries organize the space of body movements so that functional relationships are maintained in spite of the many free variables of body movement. They also provide a foundation for adaptive reinterpretation of the relationship between canal and otolith signals, for example in freefall.

  16. A vestibular phenotype for Waardenburg syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Pesznecker, S. C.; Allen, K.; Gianna, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate vestibular abnormalities in subjects with Waardenburg syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective record review. SETTING: Tertiary referral neurotology clinic. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two adult white subjects with clinical diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (10 type I and 12 type II). INTERVENTIONS: Evaluation for Waardenburg phenotype, history of vestibular and auditory symptoms, tests of vestibular and auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of phenotyping, results of vestibular and auditory symptom review (history), results of vestibular and auditory function testing. RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were women, and 5 were men. Their ages ranged from 21 to 58 years (mean, 38 years). Sixteen of the 22 subjects sought treatment for vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance. For subjects with vestibular symptoms, the results of vestibuloocular tests (calorics, vestibular autorotation, and/or pseudorandom rotation) were abnormal in 77%, and the results of vestibulospinal function tests (computerized dynamic posturography, EquiTest) were abnormal in 57%, but there were no specific patterns of abnormality. Six had objective sensorineural hearing loss. Thirteen had an elevated summating/action potential (>0.40) on electrocochleography. All subjects except those with severe hearing loss (n = 3) had normal auditory brainstem response results. CONCLUSION: Patients with Waardenburg syndrome may experience primarily vestibular symptoms without hearing loss. Electrocochleography and vestibular function tests appear to be the most sensitive measures of otologic abnormalities in such patients.

  17. Prosthetic implantation of the human vestibular system

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Justin S.; Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Nowack, Amy; Shepherd, Sarah J.; Bierer, Steven M.; Jameyson, Elyse; Kaneko, Chris R. S.; Phillips, James O.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis A functional vestibular prosthesis can be implanted in human such that electrical stimulation of each semicircular canal produces canal-specific eye movements while preserving vestibular and auditory function. Background A number of vestibular disorders could be treated with prosthetic stimulation of the vestibular end organs. We have previously demonstrated in rhesus monkeys that a vestibular neurostimulator, based on the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant, can produce canal-specific electrically evoked eye movements while preserving auditory and vestibular function. An investigational device exemption has been obtained from the FDA to study the feasibility of treating uncontrolled Ménière’s disease with the device. Methods The UW/Nucleus vestibular implant was implanted in the perilymphatic space adjacent to the three semicircular canal ampullae of a human subject with uncontrolled Ménière’s disease. Pre and postoperative vestibular and auditory function were assessed. Electrically evoked eye movements were measured at two time points postoperatively. Results Implantation of all semicircular canals was technically feasible. Horizontal canal and auditory function were largely, but not totally, lost. Electrode stimulation in two of three canals resulted in canal-appropriate eye movements. Over time, stimulation thresholds increased. Conclusions Prosthetic implantation of the semicircular canals in humans is technically feasible. Electrical stimulation resulted in canal-specific eye movements, although thresholds increased over time. Preservation of native auditory and vestibular function, previously observed in animals, was not demonstrated in a single subject with advanced Ménière’s disease. PMID:24317220

  18. Vestibular Function Research aboard Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, R. W.; Daunton, N. G.

    1978-01-01

    NASA is planning to perform a series of Vestibular Function Research (VFR) investigations on the early STS missions to investigate those neurosensory and related physiological processes believed to be associated with the space flight nausea syndrome. The first flight is scheduled for the 1981 Spacelab III Mission in which four frog specimens, mounted on a frog tilting/centrifuge device, will be subjected to periodic acceleration stimuli and periods of artificial gravity. The vestibular nerve firing responses of each frog specimen will be monitored through implanted neutral bouyancy microelectrodes and transmitted to the ground for quick analysis during the flight. The experimentation will be directed at investigating: (1) adaptation to weightlessness; (2) response to acceleration stimuli; (3) response to artificial gravity (in a weightlessness environment) and (4) readaptation to earth's gravity upon return.

  19. Dara vestibular equipment onboard MIR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hofmann; A. Kellig; H.-U. Hoffmann; G. Ruyters

    1998-01-01

    We have described the vestibular and visuo-oculomotoric equipment which has been developed under various DARA contracts since 1991, and used aboard MIR in the frame of the following missions: •• German MIR'92 mission (VOG)•• Extensions to MIR '92, e.g. the use of VOG by V. Polyakov during his record stay in space from 1993 to 1994•• EUROMIR'94 (VOG)•• EUROMIR'95 (VOG,

  20. Vestibular Neurectomy for Dizziness after Head Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Sanna; Jukka Ylikosky

    1983-01-01

    28 patients with dizziness after head trauma were treated by vestibular neurectomy. Comparisons between the results of surgery and preoperative symptoms and findings showed that the best results were achieved in patients with episodic true vertigo and profound hearing loss. Patients who suffered from constant unsteadiness and\\/or postural vertigo usually improved, if both audiological and vestibular tests had shown clear

  1. Audiological findings in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J Govaerts; J Casselman; K Daemers; G De Ceulaer; Th Somers; F. E Offeciers

    1999-01-01

    An enlarged vestibular aqueduct is a congenital disorder causing early onset and progressive hearing loss in children. This paper presents the audiological findings at first presentation and the audiological evolution in 10 consecutive cases presenting with hearing loss and showing a large vestibular aqueduct on imaging. The reported onset of the hearing loss is within the first few years of

  2. Advances in Auditory and Vestibular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Dutia, Mayank B.

    2010-01-01

    Auditory and Vestibular medicine is becoming more accepted as a specialty of its own, Medical NeurOtology. Recent advances in the field have been instrumental in the understanding of the scientific foundations, pathophysiology, clinical approach and management of patients with hearing and vestibular disorders. This paper will review these advances. PMID:20711412

  3. Vestibular-visual interactions in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.

    1977-01-01

    The following research work is reported: (1) vestibular-visual interactions; (2) flight management and crew system interactions; (3) peripheral cue utilization in simulation technology; (4) control of signs and symptoms of motion sickness; (5) auditory cue utilization in flight simulators, and (6) vestibular function: Animal experiments.

  4. Gain in stochastic resonance:?Precise numerics versus linear response theory beyond the two-mode approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Denk, Claus; Gómez-Ordóñez, José; Morillo, Manuel; Hänggi, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In the context of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), we study the correlation function, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ratio of output over input SNR, i.e., the gain, which is associated to the nonlinear response of a bistable system driven by time-periodic forces and white Gaussian noise. These quantifiers for SR are evaluated using the techniques of linear response theory (LRT) beyond the usually employed two-mode approximation scheme. We analytically demonstrate within such an extended LRT description that the gain can indeed not exceed unity. We implement an efficient algorithm, based on work by Greenside and Helfand (detailed in the Appendix), to integrate the driven Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. The predictions of LRT are carefully tested against the results obtained from numerical solutions of the corresponding Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. We further present an accurate procedure to evaluate the distinct contributions of the coherent and incoherent parts of the correlation function to the SNR and the gain. As a main result we show for subthreshold driving that both the correlation function and the SNR can deviate substantially from the predictions of LRT and yet the gain can be either larger or smaller than unity. In particular, we find that the gain can exceed unity in the strongly nonlinear regime which is characterized by weak noise and very slow multifrequency subthreshold input signals with a small duty cycle. This latter result is in agreement with recent analog simulation results by Gingl et al. [ICNF 2001, edited by G. Bosman (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 545 548; Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L181 (2001)].

  5. Frequency adaptation in controlled stochastic resonance utilizing delayed feedback method: Two-pole approximation for response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutu, Hiroki

    2011-06-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) enhanced by time-delayed feedback control is studied. The system in the absence of control is described by a Langevin equation for a bistable system, and possesses a usual SR response. The control with the feedback loop, the delay time of which equals to one-half of the period (2?/?) of the input signal, gives rise to a noise-induced oscillatory switching cycle between two states in the output time series, while its average frequency is just smaller than ? in a small noise regime. As the noise intensity D approaches an appropriate level, the noise constructively works to adapt the frequency of the switching cycle to ?, and this changes the dynamics into a state wherein the phase of the output signal is entrained to that of the input signal from its phase slipped state. The behavior is characterized by power loss of the external signal or response function. This paper deals with the response function based on a dichotomic model. A method of delay-coordinate series expansion, which reduces a non-Markovian transition probability flux to a series of memory fluxes on a discrete delay-coordinate system, is proposed. Its primitive implementation suggests that the method can be a potential tool for a systematic analysis of SR phenomenon with delayed feedback loop. We show that a D-dependent behavior of poles of a finite Laplace transform of the response function qualitatively characterizes the structure of the power loss, and we also show analytical results for the correlation function and the power spectral density.

  6. Vestibular paroxysmia in children: a treatable cause of short vertigo attacks.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, Nadine; Langhagen, Thyra; Heinen, Florian; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Vestibular paroxysmia due to neurovascular compression is a syndrome consisting of frequent short episodes of vertigo in adults that can be easily treated. Here we describe the initial presentation and follow-up of three children (one female, 12y; two males, 8y and 9y) who experienced typical, brief, vertiginous attacks several times a day. Nystagmus was observed during the episodes. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed arterial compression of the eighth cranial nerve. The attacks ceased after administration of low-dose carbamazepine (2-4mg/kg daily). Vestibular paroxysmia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with brief vertiginous episodes. PMID:25146998

  7. Vestibular tests for rehabilitation: applications and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Eric L; Sinks, Belinda C; Goebel, Joel A

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular function testing plays a critical role in understanding balance disorders. These tests augment a well-performed history and physical exam in providing quantitative information regarding vestibular reflexes, central oculomotor function and postural control strategies. Video-oculography (VOG) and caloric stimulation play a major role in evaluation of both peripheral vestibular and central oculomotor disorders. Rotational chair testing and, more recently the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test (DVAT) and Gaze Stabilization Test (GST) provide information regarding higher frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function. Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) explores the interaction of the vestibular, visual and proprioceptive systems for posture control. Finally, the cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP) test and the Dynamic Subjective Visual Vertical (DSVV) test provide information regarding saccular and utricular function, respectively. New techniques and applications continue to provide knowledge both of disease processes and potential medical, surgical and rehabilitative interventions. PMID:22027075

  8. Galvanic vestibular stimulation improves the results of vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Ferrero, Antonela; Pianetti, Guillermina; Escolá, Natalia; Arteaga, María Victoria; Frankel, Lilian

    2011-09-01

    Here, we present findings from a three-step investigation of the effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in normal subjects and in subjects undergoing vestibular rehabilitation (VR). In an initial study, we examined the body sway of 10 normal subjects after one minute of 2 mA GVS. The effect of the stimulation lasted for at least 20 minutes in all subjects and up to two hours in 70% of the subjects. We then compared a group of patients who received conventional VR (40 patients) with a group that received a combination of VR and GVS. Results suggest a significant improvement in the second group. Finally, we attempted to establish the optimal number of GVS sessions and to rule out a placebo effect. Fifteen patients received "systematic" GVS: five sessions, once a week. Five patients received "nonsystematic" galvanic stimulation in a sham protocol, which included two stimulations of the clavicle. These data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and indicated that the best results were obtained after three sessions of GVS and no placebo effect was observed. PMID:22360772

  9. Dara vestibular equipment onboard MIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Kellig, A.; Hoffmann, H.-U.; Ruyters, G.

    We have described the vestibular and visuo-oculomotoric equipment which has been developed under various DARA contracts since 1991, and used aboard MIR in the frame of the following missions: • German MIR'92 mission (VOG) • Extensions to MIR '92, e.g. the use of VOG by V. Polyakov during his record stay in space from 1993 to 1994 • EUROMIR'94 (VOG) • EUROMIR'95 (VOG, OKS and BIVOG) • Joint German /Russian experiments in 1997/98 (BIVOG) The hardware is supplemented by various stimuli and measurements. New developments for a next generation BIVOG, which may become the Space Station 3D eye tracking system, have shortly been addressed.

  10. Endolymphatic space size in patients with vestibular migraine and Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takafumi; Yoshida, Tadao; Suga, Kenji; Kato, Masahiro; Otake, Hironao; Kato, Ken; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sone, Michihiko; Sugiura, Saiko; Kuno, Kayao; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Naganawa, Shinji; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    Ménière's disease (MD) is characterized by episodic vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss and tinnitus. Vestibular migraine (VM) is a relatively new disorder that is characterized by episodic vertigo or dizziness, coexisting migraine and absence of hearing loss. It is occasionally difficult to distinguish between VM and vestibular MD with headache. Because endolymphatic hydrops (EH) is a characteristic sign of MD, we attempted to evaluate endolymphatic space size in both diseases. Endolymphatic space size in the vestibule and the cochlea was evaluated in seven patients with VM and in seven age- and sex-matched patients with vestibular MD. For visualization of the endolymphatic space, 3T magnetic resonance imaging was taken 4 h after intravenous injection of gadolinium contrast agents using three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and HYbriD of reversed image of positive endolymph signal and native image of positive perilymph signal techniques. In the vestibule of VM patients, EH was not observed, with the exception of two patients with unilateral or bilateral EH. In contrast, in the vestibule of patients with vestibular MD, all patients had significant EH, bilaterally or unilaterally. These results indicate that endolymphatic space size is significantly different between patients with VM and vestibular MD. PMID:25099513

  11. Virtual Labyrinth model of vestibular afferent excitation via implanted electrodes – Validation and application to design of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Russell; Sawyer, Stacia; Frey, Eric; Mori, Susumu; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate design of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis that can restore sensation to individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular hair cell function, we created a virtual labyrinth model. Model geometry was generated through 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of microMRI and microCT scans of normal chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) acquired with 30–48 ?m and 12 ?m voxels, respectively. Virtual electrodes were positioned based on anatomic landmarks, and the extracellular potential field during a current pulse was computed using finite element methods. Potential fields then served as inputs to stochastic, nonlinear dynamic models for each of 2415 vestibular afferent axons with spiking dynamics based on a modified Smith and Goldberg model incorporating parameters that varied with fiber location in the neuroepithelium. Action potential propagation was implemented by a well validated model of myelinated fibers. We tested the model by comparing predicted and actual 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) axes of eye rotation elicited by prosthetic stimuli. Actual responses were measured using 3D video-oculography. The model was individualized for each animal by placing virtual electrodes based on microCT localization of real electrodes. 3D eye rotation axes were predicted from the relative proportion of model axons excited within each of the three ampullary nerves. Multiple features observed empirically were observed as emergent properties of the model, including effects of active and return electrode position, stimulus amplitude and pulse waveform shape on target fiber recruitment and stimulation selectivity. The modeling procedure is partially automated and can be readily adapted to other species, including humans. PMID:21380738

  12. Firing characteristics of vestibular nuclei neurons in the alert monkey after bilateral vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Waespe; U. Schwarz; M. Wolfensberger

    1992-01-01

    After destruction of the peripheral vestibular system which is not activated by moving large-field visual stimulation, not only labyrinthine-ocular reflexes but also optokinetic-ocular responses related to the “velocity storage” mechanism are abolished. In the normal monkey optokinetic-ocular responses are reflected in sustained activity changes of central vestibular neurons within the vestibular nuclei. To account for the loss of optokinetic responses

  13. Recovery of Vestibular Ocular Reflex Function and Balance Control after a Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Allum, J. H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière’s disease. To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body’s center of mass (CoM), were used. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior–posterior) and roll (lateral) sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk/pelvis. Both patient groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable balance control is normally highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits during gait were also present and were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait than simple gait tasks. Major differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis on balance control were more severe but recovered rapidly. Deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe, but longer lasting. These results mostly paralleled recovery of deficits in VOR function. However, questions need to be raised about the effect on balance control of the two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss due to neuritis: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully consider the differences between insufficient central compensation compared to inadequate peripheral restoration of function. PMID:22623921

  14. Recovery of vestibular ocular reflex function and balance control after a unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit.

    PubMed

    Allum, J H J

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière's disease. To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body's center of mass (CoM), were used. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior-posterior) and roll (lateral) sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk/pelvis. Both patient groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable balance control is normally highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits during gait were also present and were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait than simple gait tasks. Major differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis on balance control were more severe but recovered rapidly. Deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe, but longer lasting. These results mostly paralleled recovery of deficits in VOR function. However, questions need to be raised about the effect on balance control of the two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss due to neuritis: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully consider the differences between insufficient central compensation compared to inadequate peripheral restoration of function. PMID:22623921

  15. Progress Toward Development of a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis for Treatment of Bilateral Vestibular Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    FRIDMAN, GENE Y.; DELLA SANTINA, CHARLES C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews vestibular pathology and the requirements and progress made in the design and construction of a vestibular prosthesis. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation is disabling. When vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications or other insults to the labyrinth, the resulting loss of sensory input disrupts vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body. Affected individuals suffer poor vision during head movement, postural instability, chronic disequilibrium, and cognitive distraction. Although most individuals with residual sensation compensate for their loss over time, others fail to do so and have no adequate treatment options. A vestibular prosthesis analogous to cochlear implants but designed to modulate vestibular nerve activity during head movement should improve quality of life for these chronically dizzy individuals. We describe the impact of bilateral loss of vestibular sensation, animal studies supporting feasibility of prosthetic vestibular stimulation, the current status of multichannel vestibular sensory replacement prosthesis development, and challenges to successfully realizing this approach in clinical practice. In bilaterally vestibular-deficient rodents and rhesus monkeys, the Johns Hopkins multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) partially restores the three-dimensional (3D) VOR for head rotations about any axis. Attempts at prosthetic vestibular stimulation of humans have not yet included the 3D eye movement assays necessary to accurately evaluate VOR alignment, but these initial forays have revealed responses that are otherwise comparable to observations in animals. Current efforts now focus on refining electrode design and surgical technique to enhance stimulus selectivity and preserve cochlear function, optimizing stimulus protocols to improve dynamic range and reduce excitation–inhibition asymmetry, and adapting laboratory MVP prototypes into devices appropriate for use in clinical trials. PMID:23044664

  16. Progress toward development of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis for treatment of bilateral vestibular deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Gene Y; Della Santina, Charles C

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews vestibular pathology and the requirements and progress made in the design and construction of a vestibular prosthesis. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation is disabling. When vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications or other insults to the labyrinth, the resulting loss of sensory input disrupts vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body. Affected individuals suffer poor vision during head movement, postural instability, chronic disequilibrium, and cognitive distraction. Although most individuals with residual sensation compensate for their loss over time, others fail to do so and have no adequate treatment options. A vestibular prosthesis analogous to cochlear implants but designed to modulate vestibular nerve activity during head movement should improve quality of life for these chronically dizzy individuals. We describe the impact of bilateral loss of vestibular sensation, animal studies supporting feasibility of prosthetic vestibular stimulation, the current status of multichannel vestibular sensory replacement prosthesis development, and challenges to successfully realizing this approach in clinical practice. In bilaterally vestibular-deficient rodents and rhesus monkeys, the Johns Hopkins multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) partially restores the three-dimensional (3D) VOR for head rotations about any axis. Attempts at prosthetic vestibular stimulation of humans have not yet included the 3D eye movement assays necessary to accurately evaluate VOR alignment, but these initial forays have revealed responses that are otherwise comparable to observations in animals. Current efforts now focus on refining electrode design and surgical technique to enhance stimulus selectivity and preserve cochlear function, optimizing stimulus protocols to improve dynamic range and reduce excitation-inhibition asymmetry, and adapting laboratory MVP prototypes into devices appropriate for use in clinical trials. PMID:23044664

  17. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  18. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  19. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  20. Abstract. With galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), electrical current is delivered transcutaneously to the

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    Abstract. With galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), electrical current is delivered, including the vestibular system. With galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), electrical current is delivered. 84, 475±480 (2001) Enhancing human balance control with galvanic vestibular stimulation Anthony P

  1. The Anatomical and Physiological Framework for Vestibular Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Highstein, Stephen M.; Holstein, Gay R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the structure function of the vestibular system and its pathology with respect to requirements for the design and construction of a functional vestibular prosthesis. The ultimate goal of a vestibular prosthesis is to restore balance and equilibrium through direct activation of vestibular nerve fibers. An overview of the peripheral and central vestibular systems that highlights their most important functional aspects re: the design of a prosthesis is provided. Namely, the peripheral labyrinth faithfully transduces head motion and gravity in both the time and frequency domains. These signals are described in hopes that they may be prosthetically replicated. The peripheral and central connections of the vestibular nerve are also discussed in detail, as are the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem that receive VIIIth nerve innervation. Lastly, the functional effector pathways of the vestibular system, including the vestibulo-ocular, vestibulo-spinal, vestibulo-colic, vestibulo-autonomic, and vestibular efferent innervation of the labyrinth are reviewed. PMID:23044714

  2. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... These organs are the cochlea, which detects sound waves and turns them into nerve signals, and the vestibular labyrinth, which detects movement and gravity. These organs, together with the nerves that send ...

  3. [Vestibular schwannoma: a case report of misdiagnosis].

    PubMed

    You, Huizeng; Li, Xiaoying; Wang, Wuqing

    2014-11-01

    Vestibular schwannoma is a rare tumor, which is easily misdiagnosed. The authors presented a case of vestibular schwannoma in a 36-year-old woman. The clinical manifestations were recurrent vertigo, hearing loss of the left ear, and tinnitus. The pure tone audiometry threshold of the left ear was 45dBHL with air conduction, and 33 dBHL with bone conduction. A CT scan of the temporal bone region didn't show any abnormal finding. A MRI scan of the head showed nodule abnormal signal in the internal of left vestibular and the narrow of perilymphaticum gap in T2W1 + T2Flair. The initial diagnosis was Meniere's disease. And the post-operation pathologic diagnosis was vestibular schwannoma. PMID:25752127

  4. Basic Concepts in Understanding Recovery of Function in Vestibular Reflex Networks during Vestibular Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Peusner, Kenna D.; Shao, Mei; Reddaway, Rebecca; Hirsch, June C.

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output connections of the recorded neurons is essential to link the responses to animal behavior. We further propose that the cellular mechanisms underlying vestibular compensation can be sorted out by characterizing the synaptic responses and time course for change in morphologically defined subsets of vestibular reflex projection neurons. Accordingly, this review focuses on the perspective gained by performing electrophysiological and immunolabeling studies on a specific subset of morphologically defined, glutamatergic vestibular reflex projection neurons, the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus. Reference is made to pertinent findings from other studies on vestibular nuclei neurons, but no comprehensive review of the literature is intended since broad reviews already exist. From recording excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in principal cells, we find that the rebalancing of excitatory synaptic drive bilaterally is essential for vestibular compensation to proceed. This work is important for it defines for the first time the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the changing synaptic inputs and the time course for changes in a morphologically defined subset of vestibular reflex projection neurons during early stages of vestibular compensation. PMID:22363316

  5. Vestibular and Saccadic Abnormalities in Gaucher's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke; Halmagyi, G Michael; Todd, Michael J; Aw, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease characterized by abnormal deposition of glucocerebroside due to the enzyme glucocerebrosidase deficiency, resulting in multi-organ pathology. GD type III has a progressive neurological involvement. We studied the vestibular and saccadic abnormalities in GD type III to determine if these parameters may be useful for assessing neurological involvement. We evaluated the vestibular and saccadic responses of two siblings with genetically identified GD type III on enzyme replacement therapy. Vestibular functions were assessed with the head impulse test (HIT), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Saccadic functions were investigated with volitional horizontal and vertical saccades to ±20°. Three-dimensional head and eye movements were recorded with dual-search coils and VEMP with surface electrodes. HIT showed impaired individual semicircular canal function with halved angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains and absent horizontal refixation saccade. Ocular and cervical VEMPs to air-conducted clicks were absent in the older sibling, and only cervical VEMP was present in the younger sibling indicating otolithic dysfunction. EVS showed prolonged onset latency and attenuated tonic and phasic responses suggesting impaired neural conduction and vestibular function. Horizontal saccadic velocity was miniscule (<30°/s) and multiple back-to-back saccades with saccade-vergence interaction were utilized to minimize eye position error in the older sibling. Vertical saccades were slightly abnormal, but vergence and smooth pursuit were normal in both siblings. Our findings suggest that GD affected the vestibular nuclei in addition to the paramedian pontine reticular formation. These vestibular and saccadic abnormalities may be useful biomarkers to monitor neurological deterioration. PMID:24142279

  6. Outcome analysis of individualized vestibular rehabilitation protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Angel, C. R.; Pesznecker, S. C.; Gianna, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of vestibular rehabilitation protocols in subjects with peripheral vestibular disorders compared with normal and abnormal control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study using repeated measure, matched control design. Subjects were solicited consecutively according to these criteria: vestibular disorder subjects who had abnormal results of computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) sensory organization tests (SOTs) 5 and 6 and underwent rehabilitation; vestibular disorder subjects who had abnormal results of SOTs 5 and 6 and did not undergo rehabilitation; and normal subjects (normal SOTs). SETTING: Tertiary neurotology clinic. SUBJECTS: Men and women over age 18 with chronic vestibular disorders and chief complaints of unsteadiness, imbalance, and/or motion intolerance, and normal subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Pre- and post-rehabilitation assessment included CDP, vestibular disability, and activities of daily living questionnaires. Individualized rehabilitation plans were designed and implemented to address the subject's specific complaints and functional deficits. Supervised sessions were held at weekly intervals, and self-administered programs were devised for daily home use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CDP composite and SOT scores, number of falls on CDP, and self-assessment questionnaire results. RESULTS: Subjects who underwent rehabilitation (Group A) showed statistically significant improvements in SOTs, overall composite score, and reduction in falls compared with abnormal (Group B) control groups. Group A's performances after rehabilitation were not significantly different from those of normal subjects (Group C) in SOTs 3 through 6, and close to normal on SOTs 1 and 2. Subjects in Group A also reported statistically significant symptomatic improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome measures of vestibular protocol physical therapy confirmed objective and subjective improvement in subjects with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders. These findings support results reported by other investigators.

  7. Vestibular development in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2014-04-01

    The young of marsupials and monotremes are all born in an immature state, followed by prolonged nurturing by maternal lactation in either a pouch or nest. Nevertheless, the level of locomotor ability required for newborn marsupials and monotremes to reach the safety of the pouch or nest varies considerably: some are transferred to the pouch or nest in an egg (monotremes); others are transferred passively by gravity (e.g. dasyurid marsupials); some have only a horizontal wriggle to make (e.g. peramelid and didelphid marsupials); and others must climb vertically for a long distance to reach the maternal pouch (e.g. diprotodontid marsupials). In the present study, archived sections of the inner ear and hindbrain held in the Bolk, Hill and Hubrecht collections at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, were used to test the relationship between structural maturity of the vestibular apparatus and the locomotor challenges that face the young of these different mammalian groups. A system for staging different levels of structural maturity of the vestibular apparatus was applied to the embryos, pouch young and hatchlings, and correlated with somatic size as indicated by greatest body length. Dasyurids are born at the most immature state, with the vestibular apparatus at little more than the otocyst stage. Peramelids are born with the vestibular apparatus at a more mature state (fully developed semicircular ducts and a ductus reuniens forming between the cochlear duct and saccule, but no semicircular canals). Diprotodontids and monotremes are born with the vestibular apparatus at the most mature state for the non-eutherians (semicircular canals formed, maculae present, but vestibular nuclei in the brainstem not yet differentiated). Monotremes and marsupials reach the later stages of vestibular apparatus development at mean body lengths that lie within the range of those found for laboratory rodents (mouse and rat) reaching the same vestibular stage. PMID:24298911

  8. Vestibular-visual interactions in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.

    1977-01-01

    All 139 research papers published under this ten-year program are listed. Experimental work was carried out at the Ames Research Center involving man's sensitivity to rotational acceleration, and psychophysical functioning of the semicircular canals; vestibular-visual interactions and effects of other sensory systems were studied in flight simulator environments. Experiments also dealt with the neurophysiological vestibular functions of animals, and flight management investigations of man-vehicle interactions.

  9. Vestibular function assessment using the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Michael C.; Whitney, Susan L.; Roberts, Dale; Redfern, Mark S.; Musolino, Mark C.; Roche, Jennica L.; Steed, Daniel P.; Corbin, Bree; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Marchetti, Greg F.; Beaumont, Jennifer; Carey, John P.; Shepard, Neil P.; Jacobson, Gary P.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Furman, Gabriel; Slotkin, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Development of an easy to administer, low-cost test of vestibular function. Methods: Members of the NIH Toolbox Sensory Domain Vestibular, Vision, and Motor subdomain teams collaborated to identify 2 tests: 1) Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA), and 2) the Balance Accelerometry Measure (BAM). Extensive work was completed to identify and develop appropriate software and hardware. More than 300 subjects between the ages of 3 and 85 years, with and without vestibular dysfunction, were recruited and tested. Currently accepted gold standard measures of static visual acuity, vestibular function, dynamic visual acuity, and balance were performed to determine validity. Repeat testing was performed to examine reliability. Results: The DVA and BAM tests are affordable and appropriate for use for individuals 3 through 85 years of age. The DVA had fair to good reliability (0.41–0.94) and sensitivity and specificity (50%–73%), depending on age and optotype chosen. The BAM test was moderately correlated with center of pressure (r = 0.42–0.48) and dynamic posturography (r = ?0.48), depending on age and test condition. Both tests differentiated those with and without vestibular impairment and the young from the old. Each test was reliable. Conclusion: The newly created DVA test provides a valid measure of visual acuity with the head still and moving quickly. The novel BAM is a valid measure of balance. Both tests are sensitive to age-related changes and are able to screen for impairment of the vestibular system. PMID:23479540

  10. Vestibular ontogeny: Measuring the influence of the dynamic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Timothy A.; Devries, Sherri M.; Dubois, Linda M.; Nelson, Rick C.

    1993-01-01

    In comparison to other special senses, we are only meagerly informed about the development of vestibular function and the mechanisms that may operate to control or influence the course of vestibular ontogeny. Perhaps one contributing factor to this disparity is the difficulty of evaluating vestibular sense organs directly and noninvasively. The present report describes a recently developed direct noninvasive vestibular function test that can be used to address many basic questions about the developing vestibular system. More particularly, the test can be used to examine the effects of the dynamic environment (e.g. gravitational field and vibration) on vestibular ontogeny.

  11. Neuronal activity in the vestibular nuclei of the alert monkey during vestibular and optokinetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Waespe; V. Henn

    1977-01-01

    Recordings from neurons of the vestibular nuclei were performed in alert monkeys. Type I and type II units were identified by rotating the monkey about a vertical axis. All neurons responded also when only the visual surround was rotated around the stationary monkey. The combination of visual and vestibular stimulation points towards non-algebraic summation characteristics for the two inputs, with

  12. Pharmacotherapy of vestibular disorders and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Kremmyda, Olympia; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are with a life-time prevalence of ~30% among the most common symptoms and are often associated with nystagmus or other oculomotor disorders. The prerequisite for a successful treatment is a precise diagnosis of the underlying disorder. In this overview, the current pharmacological treatment options for peripheral and central vestibular, cerebellar, and oculomotor disorders including nystagmus are described. There are basically seven groups of drugs that can be used (the "7 As"): antiemetics; anti-inflammatory, anti-Menière's, and antimigraine medications; antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and aminopyridines. In acute vestibular neuritis, recovery of the peripheral vestibular function can be improved by treatment with oral corticosteroids. In Menière's disease, a long-term high-dose treatment with betahistine-dihydrochloride (at least 48 mg three times daily) had a significant effect on the frequency of the attacks; the underlying mode of action is evidently an increase in inner-ear blood flow. The use of aminopyridines is a well-established therapeutic principle in the treatment of downbeat and upbeat nystagmus as well as episodic ataxia type 2 and cerebellar gait disorders. As was shown in animal experiments, these potassium channel blockers increase the activity and excitability and normalize irregular firing of cerebellar Purkinje cells. They evidently augment the inhibitory influence of these cells on vestibular and deep cerebellar nuclei. A few studies showed that baclofen improves periodic alternating nystagmus; gabapentin and memantine improve pendular and infantile nystagmus. However, many other eye-movement disorders such as ocular flutter, opsoclonus, central positioning, and see-saw nystagmus are still difficult to treat. Although substantial progress has been made, further state-of-the-art trials must still be performed on many vestibular and oculomotor disorders, namely Menière's disease, vestibular paroxysmia, vestibular migraine, and many forms of central eye-movement disorders. PMID:24057832

  13. Orbital Spaceflight During Pregnancy Shapes Function of Mammalian Vestibular System

    E-print Network

    that prenatal spaceflight exposure shapes vestibular-mediated behavior and central morphology. Postflight testing revealed (a) delayed onset of body righting responses, (b) cardiac deceleration (bradycardia shape prenatal organization and function within the mammalian vestibular system. Keywords microgravity

  14. VOLUME 78, NUMBER 6 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 10 FEBRUARY 1997 Visual Perception of Stochastic Resonance

    E-print Network

    Bahar, Sonya

    - ripheral nervous systems of crayfish [11], crickets [12], rats [13], and humans [14,15] including possible medical applications [14,16], and within membranes [17] by the process of stochastic resonance (SR) [18 potentials were made and analyzed by computer for the signal-to- noise ratio [11,14­16], Shannon information

  15. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and some of our findings from their application. For example, our research has demonstrated that maculas of adult mammals retain the property of synaptic plasticity. Ribbon synapses increase numerically and undergo changes in type and distribution (p<0.0001) in type II hair cells after exposure to microgravity for as few as nine days. The finding of macular synaptic plasticity is pertinent to the clinic, and may help explain some. balance disorders in humans. The software used in our investigations will be demonstrated for those interested in applying it in their own research.

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of the vestibular nerve in Ménière's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Kitamura; Chiori Kaminaga; Takashi Ishida; Herbert Silverstein

    1997-01-01

    Numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve in Ménière's disease was performed. Vestibular nerve specimens were obtained from three patients with classical clinical findings of Ménière's disease during retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy. For each patient, an ultrathin section, including an entire cross-section of the nerve specimen, was examined. Fiber counts of nerve specimens with definite pathologic findings were compared with caloric testing

  17. CAN GALVANIC VESTIBULAR STIMULATION REDUCE SIMULATOR ADAPTATION SYNDROME?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Reed-Jones; James G. Reed-Jones; Lana M. Trick; Lori A. Vallis

    Summary: Electrical stimulation of the vestibular sensory system during virtual environment simulations has been proposed as a method to reduce the incidence of simulator adaptation syndrome (SAS). However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. It is especially important to provide vestibular stimulation in driving simulators because an absence of vestibular cues may alter driver behaviour and reduce

  18. Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

  19. Visual Dependency and Dizziness after Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Sian; Cutfield, Nicholas J.; Kaski, Diego; Palla, Antonella; Seemungal, Barry M.; Golding, John F.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.

    2014-01-01

    Symptomatic recovery after acute vestibular neuritis (VN) is variable, with around 50% of patients reporting long term vestibular symptoms; hence, it is essential to identify factors related to poor clinical outcome. Here we investigated whether excessive reliance on visual input for spatial orientation (visual dependence) was associated with long term vestibular symptoms following acute VN. Twenty-eight patients with VN and 25 normal control subjects were included. Patients were enrolled at least 6 months after acute illness. Recovery status was not a criterion for study entry, allowing recruitment of patients with a full range of persistent symptoms. We measured visual dependence with a laptop-based Rod-and-Disk Test and severity of symptoms with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). The third of patients showing the worst clinical outcomes (mean DHI score 36–80) had significantly greater visual dependence than normal subjects (6.35° error vs. 3.39° respectively, p?=?0.03). Asymptomatic patients and those with minor residual symptoms did not differ from controls. Visual dependence was associated with high levels of persistent vestibular symptoms after acute VN. Over-reliance on visual information for spatial orientation is one characteristic of poorly recovered vestibular neuritis patients. The finding may be clinically useful given that visual dependence may be modified through rehabilitation desensitization techniques. PMID:25233234

  20. Longitudinal performance of an implantable vestibular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christopher; Ling, Leo; Oxford, Trey; Nowack, Amy; Nie, Kaibao; Rubinstein, Jay T; Phillips, James O

    2015-04-01

    Loss of vestibular function may be treatable with an implantable vestibular prosthesis that stimulates semicircular canal afferents with biphasic pulse trains. Several studies have demonstrated short-term activation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) with electrical stimulation. Fewer long-term studies have been restricted to small numbers of animals and stimulation designed to produce adaptive changes in the electrically elicited response. This study is the first large consecutive series of implanted rhesus macaque to be studied longitudinally using brief stimuli designed to limit adaptive changes in response, so that the efficacy of electrical activation can be studied over time, across surgeries, canals and animals. The implantation of a vestibular prosthesis in animals with intact vestibular end organs produces variable responses to electrical stimulation across canals and animals, which change in threshold for electrical activation of eye movements and in elicited slow phase velocities over time. These thresholds are consistently lower, and the slow phase velocities higher, than those obtained in human subjects. The changes do not appear to be correlated with changes in electrode impedance. The variability in response suggests that empirically derived transfer functions may be required to optimize the response of individual canals to a vestibular prosthesis, and that this function may need to be remapped over time. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25245586

  1. Complications of Microsurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Zv??ina, Eduard; Balogová, Zuzana; Sk?ivan, Ji?í; Kraus, Josef; Syka, Josef; Chovanec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to analyze complications of vestibular schwannoma (VS) microsurgery. Material and Methods. A retrospective study was performed in 333 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma indicated for surgical treatment between January 1997 and December 2012. Postoperative complications were assessed immediately after VS surgery as well as during outpatient followup. Results. In all 333 patients microsurgical vestibular schwannoma (Koos grade 1: 12, grade 2: 34, grade 3: 62, and grade 4: 225) removal was performed. The main neurological complication was facial nerve dysfunction. The intermediate and poor function (HB III–VI) was observed in 124 cases (45%) immediately after surgery and in 104 cases (33%) on the last followup. We encountered disordered vestibular compensation in 13%, permanent trigeminal nerve dysfunction in 1%, and transient lower cranial nerves (IX–XI) deficit in 6%. Nonneurological complications included CSF leakage in 63% (lateral/medial variant: 99/1%), headache in 9%, and intracerebral hemorrhage in 5%. We did not encounter any case of meningitis. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that despite the benefits of advanced high-tech equipment, refined microsurgical instruments, and highly developed neuroimaging technologies, there are still various and significant complications associated with vestibular schwannomas microsurgery. PMID:24987677

  2. Preservation of tap vestibular evoked myogenic potentials despite resection of the inferior vestibular nerve.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2004-01-01

    Sound and skull-tap induced vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were studied in a 43-year-old man following inferior vestibular neurectomy. Surgery was performed because of a small acoustic neuroma. Postoperative caloric testing suggested sparing of superior vestibular nerve function on the operated side. In response to sound stimulation there were no VEMP on the operated side, irrespective of whether sounds were presented by air- or bone-conduction. This suggests sound-induced VEMP to be critically dependent on inferior vestibular nerve function and this is in agreement with present knowledge. However, VEMP were obtained in response to forehead skull taps, i.e. positive-negative VEMP not only on the healthy side but also on the operated side. This suggests remnant vestibular function on the operated side of importance for forehead skull tap VEMP, because with complete unilateral vestibular loss there are no (positive-negative) VEMP on the lesioned side. Thus, forehead skull-tap VEMP depend, at least partly, on the superior vestibular nerve function. PMID:15328448

  3. Neural Correlates of Sensory Substitution in Vestibular Pathways Following Complete Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory substitution is the term typically used in reference to sensory prosthetic devices designed to replace input from one defective modality with input from another modality. Such devices allow an alternative encoding of sensory information that is no longer directly provided by the defective modality in a purposeful and goal-directed manner. The behavioral recovery that follows complete vestibular loss is impressive and has long been thought to take advantage of a natural form of sensory substitution in which head motion information is no longer provided by vestibular inputs, but instead by extra-vestibular inputs such as proprioceptive and motor efference copy signals. Here we examined the neuronal correlates of this behavioral recovery after complete vestibular loss in alert behaving monkeys (Macaca mulata). We show for the first time that extra-vestibular inputs substitute for the vestibular inputs to stabilize gaze at the level of single neurons in the VOR premotor circuitry. The summed weighting of neck proprioceptive and efference copy information was sufficient to explain simultaneously observed behavioral improvements in gaze stability. Furthermore, by altering correspondence between intended and actual head movement we revealed a four-fold increase in the weight of neck motor efference copy signals consistent with the enhanced behavioral recovery observed when head movements are voluntary versus unexpected. Thus, taken together our results provide direct evidence that the substitution by extra-vestibular inputs in vestibular pathways provides a neural correlate for the improvements in gaze stability that are observed following the total loss of vestibular inputs. PMID:23077054

  4. Prophylactic valacyclovir in a patient with recurrent vestibular disturbances secondary to vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Amber, Kyle T; Castaño, Johnathan E; Angeli, Simon I

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with herpes labialis and previously diagnosed with vestibular neuritis experienced recurrences of vertigo and disequilibrium. Initially preceded by oral herpes outbreaks or upper respiratory infections, these recurrences became spontaneous and more frequent. Vestibular function demonstrated a 25% decrease in energy function in the right and the patient had left beating nystagmus on positional maneuver. Her reoccurrences of vestibular disturbances were followed up. Concurrently, she was prescribed daily valacyclovir (500 mg, 1 per day) given for the prevention of herpes labialis outbreaks by her primary care physician. Recurrences of disequilibrium stopped completely as well as oral herpes outbreaks. PMID:22154065

  5. Perceptual and oculomotor effects of neck muscle vibration in vestibular neuritis. Ipsilateral somatosensory substitution of vestibular function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Strupp; Victor Arbusow; Marianne Dieterich; Wolfram Sautier; Thomas Brandt

    1998-01-01

    Summary Afferent cervical somatosensory input may substitute for absent vestibular information as part of central vestibular compensation after unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit. In order to determine the particular contribution of neck muscle spindles to the perception of body orientation and to the oculomotor system, we measured (i) the subjective visual straight ahead (SVA) by psychophysical tests and (ii) the changes

  6. VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMA (ACOUSTIC NEUROMA) MIMICKING TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Maurício A.; Selaimen, Caio M. P.; Chaves, Karen D.; Bisi, Melissa C.; Grossi, Márcio L.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 6 to 16% of patients with trigeminal neuralgia symptoms present intracranial tumors, the most common being the vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). Some symptoms reported by patients include hearing loss, tinnitus, headaches, vertigo and trigeminal disturbances. An increased muscle response in the surrounding head and neck musculature may also be observed, which mimics signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. In these cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a useful tool in tumor diagnosis. The differential diagnosis between myofascial and neuralgic pain is important, as both may present similar characteristics, while being of different origin, and demanding special treatment approaches. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship among trigeminal neuralgia symptoms, intracranial tumors and temporomandibular dysfunction by presenting a clinical case. PMID:19089251

  7. Current Treatment of Vestibular, Ocular Motor Disorders and Nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints with a lifetime prevalence of about 30%. The various forms of vestibular disorders can be treated with pharmacological therapy, physical therapy, psychotherapeutic measures or, rarely, surgery. In this review, the current pharmacological treatment options for peripheral and central vestibular, cerebellar and ocular motor disorders will be described. They are as follows for peripheral vestibular disorders. In vestibular neuritis recovery of the peripheral vestibular function can be improved by treatment with oral corticosteroids. In Menière's disease a recent study showed long-term high-dose treatment with betahistine has a significant effect on the frequency of the attacks. The use of aminopyridines introduced a new therapeutic principle in the treatment of downbeat and upbeat nystagmus and episodic ataxia type 2 (EA 2). These potassium channel blockers presumably increase the activity and excitability of cerebellar Purkinje cells, thereby augmenting the inhibitory influence of these cells on vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. A few studies showed that baclofen improves periodic alternating nystagmus, and gabapentin and memantine, pendular nystagmus. However, many other eye movement disorders such as ocular flutter opsoclonus, central positioning, or see-saw nystagmus are still difficult to treat. Although progress has been made in the treatment of vestibular neuritis, downbeat and upbeat nystagmus, as well as EA 2, state-of-the-art trials must still be performed on many vestibular and ocular motor disorders, namely Menière's disease, bilateral vestibular failure, vestibular paroxysmia, vestibular migraine, and many forms of central eye movement disorders. PMID:21179531

  8. Resonance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Resonance, is the sixth chapter in the Volume II textbook. Topics covered in this chapter include: electric pendulum, simple parallel resonance, simple series resonance, resonance in series-parallel circuits, and Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  9. Interactions between Stress and Vestibular Compensation – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saman, Yougan; Bamiou, D. E.; Gleeson, Michael; Dutia, Mayank B.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of stress and anxiety often accompany vestibular dysfunction, while conversely complaints of dizziness and loss of balance are common in patients with panic and other anxiety disorders. The interactions between stress and vestibular function have been investigated both in animal models and in clinical studies. Evidence from animal studies indicates that vestibular symptoms are effective in activating the stress axis, and that the acute stress response is important in promoting compensatory synaptic and neuronal plasticity in the vestibular system and cerebellum. The role of stress in human vestibular disorders is complex, and definitive evidence is lacking. This article reviews the evidence from animal and clinical studies with a focus on the effects of stress on the central vestibular pathways and their role in the pathogenesis and management of human vestibular disorders. PMID:22866048

  10. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

  11. Physiological principles of vestibular function on earth and in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular function have important implications for our ability to understand, predict, and modify balance processes during and after spaceflight. The microgravity environment of space provides many unique opportunities for studying the effects of changes in gravitoinertial force on structure and function of the vestibular system. Investigations of basic vestibular physiology and of changes in reflexes occurring as a consequence of exposure to microgravity have important implications for diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders in human beings. This report reviews physiological principles underlying control of vestibular processes on earth and in space. Information is presented from a functional perspective with emphasis on signals arising from labyrinthine receptors. Changes induced by microgravity in linear acceleration detected by the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Alterations of the functional requirements for postural control in space are described. Areas of direct correlation between studies of vestibular reflexes in microgravity and vestibular disorders in human beings are discussed.

  12. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate both vertical canals and otolith organs. However, the recorded responses could not be predicted from a linear combination of EVA rotational and translational responses. In contrast, one-third of the neurons responded similarly during EVA and EHA rotations, although a significant response modulation was present during translation. Thus this subpopulation of otolith + canal cells, which included neurons with either high- or low-pass dynamics to translation, appear to selectively ignore the component of otolith-selective activation that is due to changes in the orientation of the head relative to gravity. Thus contrary to primary otolith afferents and otolith-only central neurons that respond equivalently to tilts relative to gravity and translational movements, approximately one-third of the otolith + canal cells seem to encode a true estimate of the translational component of the imposed passive head and body movement.

  13. Responses of primary vestibular neurons to galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in the anaesthetised guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Curthoys, Ian S

    2004-09-30

    Previous studies in humans and animals which have shown that DC galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) induces horizontal and torsional eye movements have been interpreted as being due to a preferential activation of primary vestibular afferents innervating the horizontal semicircular canals and otoliths by GVS. The present study sought to determine in guinea pigs whether GVS does indeed selectively activate primary horizontal canal and otolith afferents. Constant-current GVS was passed between electrodes implanted in the tensor-tympani muscle of each middle ear or between electrodes on the skin over the mastoid. During this stimulation, responses from single primary vestibular neurons were recorded extracellularly by glass microelectrodes in Scarpa's ganglion. Afferents from all vestibular sensory regions were activated by both surface and tensor-tympani galvanic stimulation. Tensor tympani GVS was approximately 10 times more effective than surface GVS. At larger current intensities irregularly discharging afferents showed an asymmetrical response: cathodal stimulation resulted in a larger change in firing (increase) than anodal stimulation (decrease), whereas regularly discharging afferents responded symmetrically to the two polarities of GVS. Across all afferents tuned for different types of natural vestibular stimulation, neuronal sensitivity for GVS was found to increase with discharge variability (as indexed by CV*). Anterior canal afferents showed a slightly higher sensitivity than afferents from other vestibular sensory regions. Hence, the present study concluded that GVS activates primary vestibular afferents innervating all sensory regions in a uniform fashion. Therefore, the specific pattern of GVS-induced eye movements reported in previous studies are not due to differential sensitivity between different vestibular sensory regions, but are likely to reflect an involvement of central processing. PMID:15464864

  14. TEMPORAL INTEGRATION OF AUDITORY AND VESTIBULAR STIMULI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Nai-Yuan N.; Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Integration of balance-related cues from the vestibular and other sensory systems requires that they be perceived simultaneously despite arriving asynchronously at the central nervous system. Failure to perform temporal integration of multiple sensory signals represents a novel mechanism to explain symptoms in patients with imbalance. This study tested the ability of normal observers to compensate for sensory asynchronies between vestibular and auditory inputs. Study Design Double-blinded experimental design. Methods We performed whole-body rotations about the earth-vertical axis following a raised-cosine trajectory at 0.5 and 1.0 Hz to several peak velocities up to a maximum of 180 deg/sec in five normal subjects. Headphones were used to present a diotic auditory stimulus at various times relative to the onset of the rotation. Subjects were required to indicate which cue occurred first. Results The vestibular stimulus needed to be presented 61 ms before the auditory stimulus (at a stimulus frequency of 0.5 Hz) and 19 ms (at 1.0 Hz). Stimuli presented within a window of 300 ms (at 0.5 Hz) and 200 ms (at 1.0 Hz) were judged to be simultaneous. Conclusion The central nervous system must accommodate for delays in perception of vestibular and other sensory cues. Inaccurate temporal integration of these inputs represents a novel explanation for symptoms of imbalance. Level of Evidence 4 PMID:22473616

  15. Widespread vestibular activation of the rodent cortex.

    PubMed

    Rancz, Ede A; Moya, Javier; Drawitsch, Florian; Brichta, Alan M; Canals, Santiago; Margrie, Troy W

    2015-04-15

    Much of our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms of spatial navigation is derived from chronic recordings in rodents in which head-direction, place, and grid cells have all been described. However, despite the proposed importance of self-reference information to these internal representations of space, their congruence with vestibular signaling remains unclear. Here we have undertaken brain-wide functional mapping using both fMRI and electrophysiological methods to directly determine the spatial extent, strength, and time course of vestibular signaling across the rat forebrain. We find distributed activity throughout thalamic, limbic, and particularly primary sensory cortical areas in addition to known head-direction pathways. We also observe activation of frontal regions, including infralimbic and cingulate cortices, indicating integration of vestibular information throughout functionally diverse cortical regions. These whole-brain activity maps therefore suggest a widespread contribution of vestibular signaling to a self-centered framework for multimodal sensorimotor integration in support of movement planning, execution, spatial navigation, and autonomic responses to gravito-inertial changes. PMID:25878265

  16. Perspectives in vestibular diagnostics and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Arneborg

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular diagnostics and therapy ist the mirror of technological, scientific and socio-economics trends as are other fields of clinical medicine. These trends have led to a substantial diversification of the field of neurotology. The improvements in diagnostics have been characterized by the introduction of new receptor testing tools (e.g., VEMPs), progress in imaging (e.g., the endolymphatic hydrops) and in the description of central-vestibular neuroplasticity. The etiopathology of vestibular disorders has been updated by geneticists (e.g., the description of the COCH gene mutations), the detection of structural abnormalities (e.g., dehiscence syndromes) and related disorders (e.g. migraine-associated vertigo). The therapeutic options were extended by re-evaluation of techniques known a long time ago (e.g., saccus exposure), the development of new approaches (e.g., dehiscence repair) and the introduction of new drug therapy concepts (e.g., local drug delivery). Implantable, neuroprosthetic solutions have not yet reached experimental safety and validity and are still far away. However, externally worn neuroprosthetic solution were introduced in the rehab of vestibular disorders (e.g., VertiGuard system). These and related trends point into a medical future which is characterized by presbyvertigo as classical sign of the demographic changes ahead, by shortage of financial resources and a medico-legally over-regulated, even hostile environment for physicians in clinical medicine. PMID:22558055

  17. Morphological and neurochemical correlates of vestibular compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R Gacek; Umang Khetarpal; Joanne Schoonmaker

    1998-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of the cat’s superior vestibulo-ocular neurons (SVON) 8 weeks, and 1 and 2 years following vestibular neurectomy or labyrinthectomy revealed similar changes which indicate that an excitatory mode of input to the denervated SVON is responsible for the behavioral recovery. These changes include an increased proportion of strong asymmetric synapses, somal spines surrounding the SP, increased size of

  18. Hearing results after posterior fossa vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SETH I. ROSENBERG; HERBERT SILVERSTEIN; MICHAEL E. HOFFER; ERICA THALER

    1996-01-01

    The effect of posterior fossa vestibular neurectomy on postoperative hearing levels of 172 patients was studied at 1 week, 1 month, 1 year, and 18 to 24 months. According to the 1985 American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery guidelines for reporting treatment outcome, 66% of patients had improved or unchanged hearing at 18 to 24 months. One-week

  19. Vestibular neurectomy with simultaneous endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nebil Göksu; Yildirim A. Bayazit; Abdullah Abdulhalik; Yusuf K. Kemalo?lu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages of combined vestibular neurectomy (VN) and endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt (ELSS) surgeries in classic Menière's disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of the results of 116 patients with classic Menière's disease who were operated on via a posterior fossa approach. All patients underwent selective VN. In 86 of the patients, ELSS

  20. Vestibular stimulation leads to distinct hemodynamic patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; Emanuel, B. A.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that responses of a particular sympathetic nerve to vestibular stimulation depend on the type of tissue the nerve innervates as well as its anatomic location. In the present study, we sought to determine whether such precise patterning of vestibulosympathetic reflexes could lead to specific hemodynamic alterations in response to vestibular afferent activation. We simultaneously measured changes in systemic blood pressure and blood flow (with the use of Doppler flowmetry) to the hindlimb (femoral artery), forelimb (brachial artery), and kidney (renal artery) in chloralose-urethane-anesthetized, baroreceptor-denervated cats. Electrical vestibular stimulation led to depressor responses, 8 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- SE) in magnitude, that were accompanied by decreases in femoral vasoconstriction (23 +/- 4% decrease in vascular resistance or 36 +/- 7% increase in vascular conductance) and increases in brachial vascular tone (resistance increase of 10 +/- 6% and conductance decrease of 11 +/- 4%). Relatively small changes (<5%) in renal vascular tone were observed. In contrast, electrical stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents produced pressor responses (20 +/- 6 mmHg) that were accompanied by vasoconstriction in all three beds. These data suggest that vestibular inputs lead to a complex pattern of cardiovascular changes that is distinct from that which occurs in response to activation of other types of somatic afferents.

  1. The Vestibular System Michael E. Goldberg

    E-print Network

    Harris, Laurence R.

    acceleration of the head through an ensemble of five sensory organs in the inner ear (the membranous labyrinth. A. Location of vestibular and cochlear divisions of the inner ear with respect to the head. B. The inner ear is divided into bony and membranous labyrinths. The bony labyrinth is bounded by the petrous

  2. Vesibulotoxicity and Management of Vestibular Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of certain aminoglycoside antibiotics for vestibular hair cells has been used to special advantage in the treatment of Meniere's disease. Intratympanic (middle ear) injections of these drugs are being increasingly used to control vertigo in this disorder when it has not responded to medical therapy. The mechanisms by which these drugs…

  3. Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome: A Genetic Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ric Harnsberger; Richard T. Dahlen; John C. Carey; Kenneth Ward

    OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to determine the familial incidence of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) detected by CT and MR imaging and to propose the genetic inheritance of LVAS. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively reviewed cases of LVAS revealed by temporal-bone CT and MR imaging at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center. We interviewed 25 patients with LVAS regarding

  4. Immunological Influences on the Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warchol, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the influence of immune signaling molecules on the survival and replacement of sensory hair cells in the vestibular organs. We have made considerable progress toward that goal, particularly in the characterization of mechanisms that underlie hair cell death.

  5. Interaural difference values of vestibular evoked myogenic.

    PubMed

    Moallemi, Marziyeh; Hajiabolhassan, Fahimeh; Fatahi, Jamileh; Abolfazli, Roya; Jalaei, Shohre; Khamseh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a neurologic disease, which often is associated with a unilateral headache. Vestibular abnormalities are common in migraine. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) assess otolith function in particular functional integrity of the saccule and the inferior vestibular nerve. We used VEMP to evaluate if the migraine headache can affect VEMP asymmetry parameters. A total of 25 patients with migraine (22 females and 3 males) who were diagnosed according to the criteria of IHS-1988 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 26 healthy participants (18 female and 8 male), without neurotological symptoms and history of migraine. The short tone burst (95 dB nHL, 500 Hz) was presented to ears. VEMP was recorded with surface electromyography over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Although current results showed that the amplitude ratio is greater in migraine patients than normal group, there was no statistical difference between two groups in mean asymmetry parameters of VEMP. Asymmetry measurements in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials probably are not indicators of unilateral deficient in saccular pathways of migraine patients. PMID:25597603

  6. Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

  7. Electrical vestibular stimuli to enhance vestibulo-motor output and improve subject comfort.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Geers, Anoek M; Vlaar, Martijn P; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vestibular stimulation is often used to assess vestibulo-motor and postural responses in both clinical and research settings. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is a recently established technique with many advantages over its square-wave counterpart; however, the evoked muscle responses remain relatively small. Although the vestibular-evoked responses can be enhanced by increasing the stimulus amplitude, subjects often perceive these higher intensity electrical stimuli as noxious or painful. Here, we developed multisine vestibular stimulation (MVS) signals that include precise frequency contributions to increase signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of stimulus-evoked muscle and motor responses. Subjects were exposed to three different MVS stimuli to establish that: 1) MVS signals evoke equivalent vestibulo-motor responses compared to SVS while improving subject comfort and reducing experimentation time, 2) stimulus-evoked vestibulo-motor responses are reliably estimated as a linear system and 3) specific components of the cumulant density time domain vestibulo-motor responses can be targeted by controlling the frequency content of the input stimulus. Our results revealed that in comparison to SVS, MVS signals increased the SNR 3-6 times, reduced the minimum experimentation time by 85% and improved subjective measures of comfort by 20-80%. Vestibulo-motor responses measured using both EMG and force were not substantially affected by nonlinear distortions. In addition, by limiting the contribution of high frequencies within the MVS input stimulus, the magnitude of the medium latency time domain motor output response was increased by 58%. These results demonstrate that MVS stimuli can be designed to target and enhance vestibulo-motor output responses while simultaneously improving subject comfort, which should prove beneficial for both research and clinical applications. PMID:24392130

  8. New Insights into Pathophysiology of Vestibular Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M.; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM) is a common disorder in which genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors probably contribute to its development. The pathophysiology of VM is unknown; nevertheless in the last few years, several studies are contributing to understand the neurophysiological pathways involved in VM. The current hypotheses are mostly based on the knowledge of migraine itself. The evidence of trigeminal innervation of the labyrinth vessels and the localization of vasoactive neuropeptides in the perivascular afferent terminals of these trigeminal fibers support the involvement of the trigemino-vascular system. The neurogenic inflammation triggered by activation of the trigeminal-vestibulocochlear reflex, with the subsequent inner ear plasma protein extravasation and the release of inflammatory mediators, can contribute to a sustained activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons explaining VM symptoms. The reciprocal connections between brainstem vestibular nuclei and the structures that modulate trigeminal nociceptive inputs (rostral ventromedial medulla, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, and nucleus raphe magnus) are critical to understand the pathophysiology of VM. Although cortical spreading depression can affect cortical areas involved in processing vestibular information, functional neuroimaging techniques suggest a dysmodulation in the multimodal sensory integration and processing of vestibular and nociceptive information, resulting from a vestibulo-thalamo-cortical dysfunction, as the pathogenic mechanism underlying VM. The elevated prevalence of VM suggests that multiple functional variants may confer a genetic susceptibility leading to a dysregulation of excitatory–inhibitory balance in brain structures involved in the processing of sensory information, vestibular inputs, and pain. The interactions among several functional and structural neural networks could explain the pathogenic mechanisms of VM. PMID:25705201

  9. Postural Compensation for Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Robert J.; Statler, Kennyn D.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects’ functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial–lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject’s sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

  10. Postural compensation for unilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Peterka, Robert J; Statler, Kennyn D; Wrisley, Diane M; Horak, Fay B

    2011-01-01

    Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects' functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial-lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject's sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

  11. New insights into pathophysiology of vestibular migraine.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM) is a common disorder in which genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors probably contribute to its development. The pathophysiology of VM is unknown; nevertheless in the last few years, several studies are contributing to understand the neurophysiological pathways involved in VM. The current hypotheses are mostly based on the knowledge of migraine itself. The evidence of trigeminal innervation of the labyrinth vessels and the localization of vasoactive neuropeptides in the perivascular afferent terminals of these trigeminal fibers support the involvement of the trigemino-vascular system. The neurogenic inflammation triggered by activation of the trigeminal-vestibulocochlear reflex, with the subsequent inner ear plasma protein extravasation and the release of inflammatory mediators, can contribute to a sustained activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons explaining VM symptoms. The reciprocal connections between brainstem vestibular nuclei and the structures that modulate trigeminal nociceptive inputs (rostral ventromedial medulla, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, and nucleus raphe magnus) are critical to understand the pathophysiology of VM. Although cortical spreading depression can affect cortical areas involved in processing vestibular information, functional neuroimaging techniques suggest a dysmodulation in the multimodal sensory integration and processing of vestibular and nociceptive information, resulting from a vestibulo-thalamo-cortical dysfunction, as the pathogenic mechanism underlying VM. The elevated prevalence of VM suggests that multiple functional variants may confer a genetic susceptibility leading to a dysregulation of excitatory-inhibitory balance in brain structures involved in the processing of sensory information, vestibular inputs, and pain. The interactions among several functional and structural neural networks could explain the pathogenic mechanisms of VM. PMID:25705201

  12. Expression of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Efferent Vestibular System and Vestibular Nucleus in Rats with Motion Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Xiaocheng, Wang; Zhaohui, Shi; Junhui, Xue; Lei, Zhang; Lining, Feng; Zuoming, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness presents a challenge due to its high incidence and unknown pathogenesis although it is a known fact that a functioning vestibular system is essential for the perception of motion sickness. Recent studies show that the efferent vestibular neurons contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). It is a possibility that the CGRP immunoreactivity (CGRPi) fibers of the efferent vestibular system modulate primary afferent input into the central nervous system; thus, making it likely that CGRP plays a key role in motion sickness. To elucidate the relationship between motion sickness and CGRP, the effects of CGRP on the vestibular efferent nucleus and the vestibular nucleus were investigated in rats with motion sickness. Methods An animal model of motion sickness was created by subjecting rats to rotary stimulation for 30 minutes via a trapezoidal stimulation pattern. The number of CGRPi neurons in the vestibular efferent nucleus at the level of the facial nerve genu and the expression level of CGRPi in the vestibular nucleus of rats were measured. Using the ABC method of immunohistochemistry technique, measurements were taken before and after rotary stimulation. The effects of anisodamine on the expression of CGRP in the vestibular efferent nucleus and the vestibular nucleus of rats with motion sickness were also investigated. Results and Discussion Both the number of CGRPi neurons in the vestibular efferent nucleus and expression level in the vestibular nucleus increased significantly in rats with motion sickness compared to that of controls. The increase of CGRP expression in rats subjected to rotary stimulation 3 times was greater than those having only one-time stimulation. Administration of anisodamine decreased the expression of CGRP within the vestibular efferent nucleus and the vestibular nucleus in rats subjected to rotary stimulation. In conclusion, CGRP possibly plays a role in motion sickness and its mechanism merits further investigation. PMID:23056625

  13. Neurogenic Potential of the Vestibular Nuclei and Behavioural Recovery Time Course in the Adult Cat Are Governed by the Nature of the Vestibular Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Dutheil; Michel Lacour; Brahim Tighilet

    2011-01-01

    Functional and reactive neurogenesis and astrogenesis are observed in deafferented vestibular nuclei after unilateral vestibular nerve section in adult cats. The newborn cells survive up to one month and contribute actively to the successful recovery of posturo-locomotor functions. This study investigates whether the nature of vestibular deafferentation has an incidence on the neurogenic potential of the vestibular nuclei, and on

  14. Anxiety Changes Depersonalization and Derealization Symptoms in Vestibular Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kolev, Ognyan I.; Georgieva-Zhostova, Spaska O.; Berthoz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Background. Depersonalization and derealization are common symptoms reported in the general population. Objective. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between anxiety and depersonalization and derealization symptoms in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. Methods. Twenty-four vestibular patients with anxiety and 18 vestibular patients without anxiety were examined for depersonalization and derealization symptoms. They were also compared to healthy controls. Results. The results revealed that anxiety consistently changes depersonalization and derealization symptoms in vestibular patients. They are more frequent, more severe, and qualitatively different in vestibular patients with anxiety than in those without anxiety. Conclusion. Anxiety has an effect on depersonalization and derealization symptoms in vestibular patients. The various hypotheses about the underlying mechanism of this effect were discussed. PMID:24803735

  15. The vestibular contribution to the head direction signal and navigation

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Ryan M.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial learning and navigation depend on neural representations of location and direction within the environment. These representations, encoded by place cells and head direction (HD) cells, respectively, are dominantly controlled by visual cues, but require input from the vestibular system. Vestibular signals play an important role in forming spatial representations in both visual and non-visual environments, but the details of this vestibular contribution are not fully understood. Here, we review the role of the vestibular system in generating various spatial signals in rodents, focusing primarily on HD cells. We also examine the vestibular system’s role in navigation and the possible pathways by which vestibular information is conveyed to higher navigation centers. PMID:24795578

  16. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  17. Ernst Mach on the vestibular organ 100 years ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henn, V.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The paper reviews the contributions of Ernst Mach to vestibular research. His experiments, mainly psychophysical in nature, included measurements of threshold and investigation of the vestibular-visual interaction. Among his conclusions are that the adequate stimulus for the semicircular canals must be pressure, and that the sustained endolymph flow theory of Breuer (1874) and Crum Brown (1874) is erroneous. Excerpts are given of Mach's publications on vestibular functions.-

  18. Detachment stabilization with n/m=1/1 resonant magnetic perturbation field applied to the stochastic magnetic boundary of the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Yamada, I.; Tamura, N.; Sato, K.; Goto, M.; Narushima, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Shoji, M.; Morita, S.; Peterson, B. J.; Funaba, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Narihara, K.; Morisaki, T.; Yamada, H.; Komori, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki city, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Reiter, D. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich Gmbh, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    It is found that the remnant island structure created by n/m=1/1 resonant magnetic perturbation field in the stochastic magnetic boundary of the Large Helical Device (LHD) [A. Komori et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104015 (2009)] has a stabilizing effect on formation of radiating plasma, realizing stably sustained divertor detachment operation with the core plasma being unaffected. The data from the several diagnostics, (profiles of electron temperature and density, radiation and temporal evolution of divertor particle flux) indicate selective cooling around X-point of the island and thus peaked radiation there, which is stabilized outside of the last closed flux surface throughout the detachment phase. The vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy measurements of high Z impurity (iron) emission shows significant decrease during the detachment, indicating core plasma decontamination. The results from the three-dimensional (3D) edge transport code, edge Monte Carlo 3D (EMC3) [Y. Feng et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 44, 57 (2004)]-EIRENE [D. Reiter et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 172 (2005)] show similar tendency in the radiation pattern. The island size and its radial location are varied to investigate the magnetic topology effects on the detachment control. The divertor particle flux and neutral pressure exhibit intermittent oscillation as well as modification of recycling pattern during the detachment, which are found to reflect the island structure.

  19. What is the minimal vestibular function required for compensation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Wade, S. W.; Nashner, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Living with an uncompensated, abnormal vestibular system requires oppressive modification of life style and often prevents return to work and activities of daily living. Patients with vestibular abnormalities were studied to determine the minimal residual vestibular function required to achieve compensation. Three groups of patients with (a) complete unilateral loss of vestibular function with normal horizontal canal-vestibulo-ocular (HCVOR) function in the opposite ear, (b) complete unilateral loss with abnormal HCVOR function in the opposite ear, and (c) bilateral reduction of vestibular function from aminoglycoside toxicity underwent vestibuloocular (VOR), optokinetic (OKN), visual-VOR (VVOR), and computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) tests before and after therapeutic procedures. Results suggest that a minimal VOR response amplitude must be present for compensation of VVOR function to occur. The roles of VOR and OKN phase shifts in vestibular compensation are more complicated and require further study. Compensation of vestibulospinal function does not necessarily accompany VOR or VVOR compensation. Ascending and descending vestibular compensatory mechanisms may involve different spatial sensory inputs. Results of these studies have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with vestibular disorders, including selection and monitoring of patients for therapeutic regimens such as vestibular nerve section and streptomycin therapy.

  20. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3). This result challenges the notion that vestibular reflexes only contribute to postural control across the behavioral and physiological frequency range of the vestibular organ (i.e., 0–20 Hz). In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system’s contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls. PMID:25620919

  1. Direction Specific Biases in Human Visual and Vestibular Heading Perception

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.

    2012-01-01

    Heading direction is determined from visual and vestibular cues. Both sensory modalities have been shown to have better direction discrimination for headings near straight ahead. Previous studies of visual heading estimation have not used the full range of stimuli, and vestibular heading estimation has not previously been reported. The current experiments measure human heading estimation in the horizontal plane to vestibular, visual, and spoken stimuli. The vestibular and visual tasks involved 16 cm of platform or visual motion. The spoken stimulus was a voice command speaking a heading angle. All conditions demonstrated direction dependent biases in perceived headings such that biases increased with headings further from the fore-aft axis. The bias was larger with the visual stimulus when compared with the vestibular stimulus in all 10 subjects. For the visual and vestibular tasks precision was best for headings near fore-aft. The spoken headings had the least bias, and the variation in precision was less dependent on direction. In a separate experiment when headings were limited to ±45°, the biases were much less, demonstrating the range of headings influences perception. There was a strong and highly significant correlation between the bias curves for visual and spoken stimuli in every subject. The correlation between visual-vestibular and vestibular-spoken biases were weaker but remained significant. The observed biases in both visual and vestibular heading perception qualitatively resembled predictions of a recent population vector decoder model (Gu et al., 2010) based on the known distribution of neuronal sensitivities. PMID:23236490

  2. Multisensory Interactions between Vestibular, Visual and Somatosensory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Walther, Leif Erik; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular inputs are constantly processed and integrated with signals from other sensory modalities, such as vision and touch. The multiply-connected nature of vestibular cortical anatomy led us to investigate whether vestibular signals could participate in a multi-way interaction with visual and somatosensory perception. We used signal detection methods to identify whether vestibular stimulation might interact with both visual and somatosensory events in a detection task. Participants were instructed to detect near-threshold somatosensory stimuli that were delivered to the left index finger in one half of experimental trials. A visual signal occurred close to the finger in half of the trials, independent of somatosensory stimuli. A novel Near infrared caloric vestibular stimulus (NirCVS) was used to artificially activate the vestibular organs. Sham stimulations were used to control for non-specific effects of NirCVS. We found that both visual and vestibular events increased somatosensory sensitivity. Critically, we found no evidence for supra-additive multisensory enhancement when both visual and vestibular signals were administered together: in fact, we found a trend towards sub-additive interaction. The results are compatible with a vestibular role in somatosensory gain regulation. PMID:25875819

  3. Assessment techniques for vestibular evaluation in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Valente, L Maureen

    2011-04-01

    In this article the author describes in detail the adaptation of adult vestibular testing techniques to the pediatric population. Assessment tools discussed include video-oculography (VOG), computerized rotary chair (CRC), computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). As with hearing impairment, the earlier a vestibular disorder is identified, the earlier remediation strategies may begin. Among the most crucial aspects of vestibular testing in pediatric patients are obtaining of pediatric normative data and adapting adult techniques so that younger children may be evaluated. PMID:21474004

  4. Hemorrhage into cystic vestibular schwannoma following stereotactic radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ganslandt, O; Fahrig, A; Strauss, C

    2008-11-01

    The occurrence of a hemorrhage into a vestibular schwannoma is a rare phenomenon. Several reports, however, indicate a risk profile for a subgroup of patients with vestibular schwannoma which show hypervascularity in the histopathological examination. Cystic formation, large size, mixed Antoni type and anticoagulation therapy seem to enhance the risk of tumor hemorrhage. We report on a patient with a large cystic vestibular schwannoma who died from fatal bleeding into the tumor 15 months following stereotactic radiation therapy. Since hemorrhage seems to be a relevant risk in large cystic vestibular schwannomas, a surgical treatment should be preferred whenever possible. PMID:18666062

  5. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  6. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  7. The vestibular system of the owl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.; Correia, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Five owls were given vestibular examinations, and two of them were sacrificed to provide serial histological sections of the temporal bones. The owls exhibited a curious variability in the postrotatory head nystagmus following abrupt deceleration; sometimes a brisk nystagnus with direction opposite to that appropriate to the stimulus would occur promptly after deceleration. It was found also that owls can exhibit a remarkable head stability during angular movement of the body about any axis passing through the skull. The vestibular apparatus in the owl is larger than in man, and a prominent crista neglecta is present. The tectorial membrane, the cupula, and the otolithic membranes of the utricle, saccule, and lagena are all attached to surfaces in addition to the surfaces hearing hair cells. These attachments are very substantial in the utricular otolithic membrane and in the cupula.

  8. Vestibular efferent neurons project to the flocculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinder, M. E.; Purcell, I. M.; Kaufman, G. D.; Perachio, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    A bilateral projection from the vestibular efferent neurons, located dorsal to the genu of the facial nerve, to the cerebellar flocculus and ventral paraflocculus was demonstrated. Efferent neurons were double-labeled by the unilateral injections of separate retrograde tracers into the labyrinth and into the floccular and ventral parafloccular lobules. Efferent neurons were found with double retrograde tracer labeling both ipsilateral and contralateral to the sites of injection. No double labeling was found when using a fluorescent tracer with non-fluorescent tracers such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), but large percentages of efferent neurons were found to be double labeled when using two fluorescent substances including: fluorogold, microruby dextran amine, or rhodamine labeled latex beads. These data suggest a potential role for vestibular efferent neurons in modulating the dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during normal and adaptive conditions.

  9. Experiment M131. Human vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Miller, E. F., II; Homick, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The lower susceptibility to vestibular stimulation aloft, compared with that on ground under experimental conditions, is attributed to a precondition, namely, either there is no need to adapt, or, as exemplified by the Skylab 3 pilot, adaptation to weightlessness is achieved. Findings in some of the astronauts emphasize the distinction between two categories of vestibular side effects: immediate reflex phenomena (illusions, sensations of turning, etc.), and delayed epiphenomena that include the constellation of symptoms and syndromes comprising motion sickness. The drug combinations 1-scopolamine and d-amphetamine and promethazine hydrochloride and ephedrine sulfate are effective in prevention and treatment of motion sickness. It is concluded that prevention of motion sickness in any stressful motion environment involves selection, adaptation, and the use of drugs.

  10. Visualizing How the Vestibular System Works

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marlene Y. MacLeish

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (page 59 of the PDF), learners spin and observe false eyelashes in jars of water (prepared at least 1 day ahead of time) to investigate the effects of different types of motion on the hairs suspended in fluid in the inner ear. The model also demonstrates how the vestibular system maintains or restores equilibrium despite movement. The lesson guide, part of NASA's "The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience," includes background information, evaluation strategies and handouts.

  11. Vestibular function in severe bilateral vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, G; Demer, J; Tian, J; Crane, B; Baloh, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess residual vestibular function in patients with severe bilateral vestibulopathy comparing low frequency sinusoidal rotation with the novel technique of random, high acceleration rotation of the whole body.?METHODS—Eye movements were recorded by electro-oculography in darkness during passive, whole body sinusoidal yaw rotations at frequencies between 0.05 and 1.6 Hz in four patients who had absent caloric vestibular responses. These were compared with recordings using magnetic search coils during the first 100 ms after onset of whole body yaw rotation at peak accelerations of 2800°/s2. Off centre rotations added novel information about otolithic function.?RESULTS—Sinusoidal yaw rotations at 0.05 Hz, peak veocity 240°/s yielded minimal responses, with gain (eye velocity/head velocity)<0.02, but gain increased and phase decreased at frequencies between 0.2 and 1.6 Hz in a manner resembling the vestibulo-ocular reflex. By contrast, the patients had profoundly attenuated responses to both centred and eccentric high acceleration transients, representing virtually absent responses to this powerful vestibular stimulus.?CONCLUSION—The analysis of the early ocular response to random, high acceleration rotation of the whole body disclosed a profound deficit of semicircular canal and otolith function in patients for whom higher frequency sinusoidal testing was only modestly abnormal. This suggests that the high frequency responses during sinusoidal rotation were of extravestibular origin. Contributions from the somatosensory or central predictor mechanisms, might account for the generation of these responses. Random, transient rotation is better suited than steady state rotation for quantifying vestibular function in vestibulopathic patients.?? PMID:11413262

  12. Galvanic vestibular stimulation: a novel modulatory countermeasure for vestibular-associated movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Gonzalez-Castaño, Alexander; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2014-01-01

    Motion sickness or kinetosis is the result of the abnormal neural output originated by visual, proprioceptive and vestibular mismatch, which reverses once the dysfunctional sensory information becomes coherent. The space adaptation syndrome or space sickness relates to motion sickness; it is considered to be due to yaw, pith, and roll coordinates mismatch. Several behavioural and pharmacological measures have been proposed to control these vestibular-associated movement disorders with no success. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has the potential of up-regulating disturbed sensory-motor mismatch originated by kinetosis and space sickness by modulating the GABA-related ion channels neural transmission in the inner ear. It improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the afferent proprioceptive volleys, which would ultimately modulate the motor output restoring the disordered gait, balance and human locomotion due to kinetosis, as well as the spatial disorientation generated by gravity transition. PMID:24637984

  13. Cognitive Requirements for Vestibular and Ocular Motor Processing in Healthy Adults and Patients with Unilateral Vestibular Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Talkowski; Mark S. Redfern; J. R. Jennings; Joseph M. Furman

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of cognition in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and ocular pursuit using a dual-task paradigm in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss and healthy adults. We hypothesized that cognitive resources are involved in successful processing and integration of vestibular and ocular motor sensory information, and this requirement would be greater in patients with vestibular dys-function. Sixteen

  14. Cochlear obliteration after translabyrinthine vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Beutner, Caroline; Mathys, Christian; Turowski, Bernd; Schipper, Jörg; Klenzner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the temporal occurrence of cochlear obliteration following translabyrinthine vestibular schwannoma resection. A retrospective chart review, cross-sectional study, and sequential analysis of the time series were performed. The retrospective study included patients undergoing translabyrinthine resection for stage T1-T2 vestibular schwannoma from 2007 to 2010 without prior therapy and postoperative follow-up including MRI of the brain and the cerebellopontine angle. Already 3 months after surgery a radiographic labyrinthine change was observed in 66.7 %, a partial obstruction in 50 %, and an obstruction limited to the saccule in 16.7 %. Only 33.3 % of the patients showed an unchanged inner ear. In consideration of early cochlear obstruction after translabyrinthine vestibular schwannoma resection, temporary follow-up is necessary. Since the indications for cochlear implantation (CI) have been extended, especially concerning patients with single-side deafness, a simultaneous or early second-stage CI after tumour removal should be discussed. PMID:24414527

  15. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Erin S., E-mail: murphye3@ccf.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  16. Vestibular regeneration – experimental models and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Silviu; Muresanu, Dafin F

    2012-01-01

    Therapies aimed at the protection and/or regeneration of inner ear hair cells are of great interest, given the significant monetary and quality of life impact of balance disorders. Different viral vectors have been shown to transfect various cell types in the inner ear. The past decade has provided tremendous advances in the use of adenoviral vectors to achieve targeted treatment delivery. Several routes of delivery have been identified to introduce vectors into the inner ear while minimizing injury to surrounding structures. Recently, the transcription factor Atoh1 was determined to play a critical role in hair cell differentiation. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of Atoh1 in culture and in vivo has demonstrated the ability to regenerate vestibular hair cells by causing transdifferentiation of neighbouring epithelial-supporting cells. Functional recovery of the vestibular system has also been documented following adenoviral-induced Atoh1 overexpression. Experiments demonstrating gene transfer in human vestibular epithelial cells reveal that the human inner ear is a suitable target for gene therapy. PMID:22303988

  17. Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar afferents projected throughout the cochlear nuclei, to the dorsolateral regions of the cerebellar nuclei, and to lateral regions of the superior, lateral, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei.

  18. Otolith-Canal Convergence in Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David

    1996-01-01

    During manned spaceflight, acute vestibular disturbances often occur, leading to physical duress and a loss of performance. Vestibular adaptation to the weightless environment follows within two to three days yet the mechanisms responsible for the disturbance and subsequent adaptation are still unknown In order to understand vestibular system function in space and normal earth conditions the basic physiological mechanisms of vestibular information co coding must be determined. Information processing regarding head movement and head position with respect to gravity takes place in the vestibular nuclei neurons that receive signals From the semicircular canals and otolith organs in the vestibular labyrinth. These neurons must synthesize the information into a coded output signal that provides for the head and eye movement reflexes as well as the conscious perception of the body in three-dimensional space The current investigation will for the first time. determine how the vestibular nuclei neurons quantitatively synthesize afferent information from the different linear and angular acceleration receptors in the vestibular labyrinths into an integrated output signal. During the second year of funding, progress on the current project has been focused on the anatomical orientation of semicircular canals and the spatial orientation of the innervating afferent responses. This information is necessary in order to understand how vestibular nuclei neurons process the incoming afferent spatial signals particularly with the convergent otolith afferent signals that are also spatially distributed Since information from the vestibular nuclei is presented to different brain regions associated with differing reflexive and sensory functions it is important to understand the computational mechanisms used by vestibular neurons to produce the appropriate output signal.

  19. Vestibular Dreams: The Effect of Rocking on Dream Mentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Leslie; Robert Ogilvie

    1996-01-01

    The study investigates the proposed link between vestibular activation and dream lucidity. In the experiment, subjects spent two consecutive nights sleeping in a hammock in the sleep lab. For each night, during the second, third, and fourth REM sleep periods, the hammock was either stationary (control condition), or rocked at a constant frequency (experimental condition) stimulating the subject’s vestibular system.

  20. Sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei during active head movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdowski, G. T.; Boyle, R.; McCrea, R. A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Many secondary vestibular neurons are sensitive to head on trunk rotation during reflex-induced and voluntary head movements. During passive whole body rotation the interaction of head on trunk signals related to the vestibulo-collic reflex with vestibular signals increases the rotational gain of many secondary vestibular neurons, including many that project to the spinal cord. In some units, the sensitivity to head on trunk and vestibular input is matched and the resulting interaction produces an output that is related to the trunk velocity in space. In other units the head on trunk inputs are stronger and the resulting interaction produces an output that is larger during the reflex. During voluntary head movements, inputs related to head on trunk movement combine destructively with vestibular signals, and often cancel the sensory reafferent consequences of self-generated movements. Cancellation of sensory vestibular signals was observed in all of the antidromically identified secondary vestibulospinal units, even though many of these units were not significantly affected by reflexive head on trunk movements. The results imply that the inputs to vestibular neurons related to head on trunk rotation during reflexive and voluntary movements arise from different sources. We suggest that the relative strength of reflexive head on trunk input to different vestibular neurons might reflect the different functional roles they have in controlling the posture of the neck and body.

  1. Fos expression in the cat brainstem after unilateral vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Gustave Dit Duflo; Christian Gestreau; Brahim Tighilet; Michel Lacour

    1999-01-01

    Immediate early genes are generally expressed in response to sensory stimulation or deprivation and can be used for mapping brain functional activity and studying the molecular events underlying CNS plasticity. We immunohistochemically investigated Fos protein induction in the cat brainstem after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN), with special reference to the vestibular nuclei (VN) and related structures. Fos-like immunoreactivity was analyzed

  2. Human ocular torsional position before and after unilateral vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Curthoys; M. J. Dai; G. M. Halmagyi

    1991-01-01

    The static ocular torsional position of both eyes of 23 patients was measured by means of fundus photographs one day before and one week after unilateral vestibular neurectomy for the treatment of acoustic neuroma, Ménière's disease or paroxysmal vertigo. The results showed that in all patients the vestibular neurectomy caused both eyes to tort (i.e. to roll around the visual

  3. Retrosigmoid approach for vestibular neurectomy in Meniere’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Perez; A. Ducati; D. Garbossa; F. Benech; M. M. Fontanella; A. Canale; R. Albera

    2005-01-01

    Summary Background. Vestibular nerve section is considered to be the most effective surgical procedure to control intractable symptoms secondary to Menière’s disease (MD). This study was developed to analyze the adequacy of retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy in terms of vertigo control, hearing preservation and clinical complications of this procedure.

  4. Effect of meprobamate on the vestibulosensory and vestibular somatic reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of meprobamate on the vestibular illusion of counter-rotation, movement coordination and vertical writing was investigated by a double blind trial method and placebo. The results confirm the possibility of the meprobamate application for prophylaxis and correction of vestibular disturbances.

  5. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  6. Dysconnectivity Within the Default Mode in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Stochastic Dynamic Causal Modeling Study With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bastos-Leite, António J.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Silveira, Celeste; Norton, Andreia; Reis, Salomé; Friston, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) study of effective connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in schizophrenia. Thirty-three patients (9 women, mean age = 25.0 years, SD = 5) with a first episode of psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia—according to the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, revised criteria—were studied. Fifteen healthy control subjects (4 women, mean age = 24.6 years, SD = 4) were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) interspersed with 2 periods of continuous picture viewing. The anterior frontal (AF), posterior cingulate (PC), and the left and right parietal nodes of the DMN were localized in an unbiased fashion using data from 16 independent healthy volunteers (using an identical fMRI protocol). We used sDCM to estimate directed connections between and within nodes of the DMN, which were subsequently compared with t tests at the between subject level. The excitatory effect of the PC node on the AF node and the inhibitory self-connection of the AF node were significantly weaker in patients (mean values = 0.013 and ?0.048 Hz, SD = 0.09 and 0.05, respectively) relative to healthy subjects (mean values = 0.084 and ?0.088 Hz, SD = 0.15 and 0.77, respectively; P < .05). In summary, sDCM revealed reduced effective connectivity to the AF node of the DMN—reflecting a reduced postsynaptic efficacy of prefrontal afferents—in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:24939881

  7. Cell proliferation and survival in the vestibular nucleus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiwen; Masumura, Chisako; Chung, Phoebe; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the brainstem vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) has previously been reported following unilateral vestibular neurectomy in the cat. In this study, we examined the rate of cell proliferation and survival in the adult rat VNC following bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD), using injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and stereological cell counting. We measured cell proliferation at 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week following BVD and found that it was significantly greater than in sham controls (P=0.002) and that it varied significantly over time (P=0.01), peaking at 48 h in the BVD group. Of note was that sham surgery was also associated with an increase in cell proliferation, which changed over time. When we compared the survival of new cells at 1 month after BrdU injection, there was no significant difference in survival between the sham and BVD groups. These results raise questions about the potential functional significance of cell proliferation in the VNC following vestibular lesions. PMID:19878706

  8. Spatial memory deficits in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular failure.

    PubMed

    Schautzer, Franz; Hamilton, Derek; Kalla, Roger; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    The role of the vestibular system for navigation and spatial memory has been demonstrated in animals but not in humans. Vestibular signals are necessary for location-specific "place cell" activity in the hippocampus which provides a putative neural substrate for the spatial representation involved in navigation. To investigate the spatial memory in patients with bilateral vestibular failure due to NF2 with bilateral neurectomy, a virtual variant (on a PC) of the Morris water task adapted to humans was used. Significant spatial learning and memory deficits were shown in 12 patients as compared to 10 healthy controls. These data suggest that functional hippocampal deficits manifest due to a chronic lack of vestibular input in these patients. These deficits can even be demonstrated with the subjects stationary, i.e., without any actual vestibular or somatosensory stimulation. PMID:14662471

  9. The role of the vestibular system in manual target localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Susan R.; Mueller, S. Alyssa

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts experience perceptual and sensory-motor disturbances during spaceflight and immediately after return to the 1-g environment of Earth. During spaceflight, sensory information from the eyes, limbs and vestibular organs is reinterpreted by the central nervous system so that astronauts can produce appropriate body movements in microgravity. Alterations in sensory-motor function may affect eye-head-hand coordination and, thus, the crewmember's ability to manually locate objects in extrapersonal space. Previous reports have demonstrated that crewmembers have difficulty in estimating joint and limb position and in pointing to memorized target positions on orbit and immediately postflight. One set of internal cues that may assist in the manual localization of objects is information from the vestibular system. This system contributes to our sense of the body's position in space by providing information on head position and movement and the orientation of the body with respect to gravity. Research on the vestibular system has concentrated on its role in oculo-motor control. Little is known about the role that vestibular information plays in manual motor control, such as reaching and pointing movements. Since central interpretation of vestibular information is altered in microgravity, it is important to determine its role in this process. This summer, we determined the importance of vestibular information in a subject's ability to point accurately toward a target in extrapersonal space. Subjects were passively rotated across the earth-vertical axis and then asked to point back to a previously-seen target. In the first paradigm, the subjects used both visual and vestibular cues for the pointing response, while, in the second paradigm, subjects used only vestibular information. Subjects were able to point with 85 percent accuracy to a target using vestibular information alone. We infer from this result that vestibular input plays a role in the spatial programming of manual responses.

  10. Efficacy of electrotactile vestibular substitution in patients with peripheral and central vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Y P; Tyler, M E; Skinner, K L; Hogle, R A; Bach-y-Rita, P

    2007-01-01

    Vestibular dysfunction of either central or peripheral origin can significantly affect balance, posture, and gait. We conducted a pilot study to test the effectiveness of training with the BrainPort balance device in subjects with a balance dysfunction due to peripheral or central vestibular loss. The BrainPort balance device transmits information about the patient's head position via electrotactile stimulation of the tongue. Head position data is sensed by an accelerometer and displayed on the tongue as a pattern of stimulation. This pattern of stimulation moves forward, backward, and laterally on the tongue in direct response to head movements. Users of the device were trained to use this stimulation to adjust their position in order to maintain their balance. Twenty-eight subjects with peripheral or central vestibular loss were trained with the BrainPort balance device and tested using the following standardized quantitative measurements of the treatment effects: Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). All subjects had chronic balance problems and all but one had previously participated in vestibular rehabilitation therapy. The scores on the clinical tests upon entry into the study were compared to their scores following training with the BrainPort balance device. Our results exhibit consistent positive and statistically significant improvements in balance, posture and gait. These results exceed what could normally be achieved in three to five days of traditional balance training alone. Since this was not a controlled study, we are unable to distinguish the degree to which these improvements are attributable to training with the BrainPort balance device versus the balance exercises performed by all subjects as a part of the BrainPort training sessions. Nonetheless, after training with the BrainPort balance device, all subjects demonstrated significant improvements in performance beyond what might be expected from conventional vestibular rehabilitation therapy. PMID:18413905

  11. Efficacy of electrotactile vestibular substitution in patients with peripheral and central vestibular loss

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Y.P.; Tyler, M.E.; Skinner, K.L.; Hogle, R.A.; Bach-y-Rita, P.

    2008-01-01

    Vestibular dysfunction of either central or peripheral origin can significantly affect balance, posture, and gait. We conducted a pilot study to test the effectiveness of training with the BrainPort® balance device in subjects with a balance dysfunction due to peripheral or central vestibular loss. The BrainPort® balance device transmits information about the patient’s head position via electrotactile stimulation of the tongue. Head position data is sensed by an accelerometer and displayed on the tongue as a pattern of stimulation. This pattern of stimulation moves forward, backward, and laterally on the tongue in direct response to head movements. Users of the device were trained to use this stimulation to adjust their position in order to maintain their balance. Twenty-eight subjects with peripheral or central vestibular loss were trained with the BrainPort balance device and tested using the following standardized quantitative measurements of the treatment effects: Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). All subjects had chronic balance problems and all but one had previously participated in vestibular rehabilitation therapy. The scores on the clinical tests upon entry into the study were compared to their scores following training with the BrainPort balance device. Our results exhibit consistent positive and statistically significant improvements in balance, posture and gait. These results exceed what could normally be achieved in three to five days of traditional balance training alone. Since this was not a controlled study, we are unable to distinguish the degree to which these improvements are attributable to training with the BrainPort balance device versus the balance exercises performed by all subjects as a part of the BrainPort training sessions. Nonetheless, after training with the BrainPort balance device, all subjects demonstrated significant improvements in performance beyond what might be expected from conventional vestibular rehabilitation therapy. PMID:18413905

  12. GABAergic systems in the vestibular nucleus and their contribution to vestibular compensation.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, Catherine M; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    GABA and the GABAA and GABAB receptors play a pivotal role in the coordination of the central vestibular pathways. The commissural inhibition, which exists between the two vestibular nucleus complexes (VNCs) and which is responsible for enhancing the dynamic sensitivity of VNC neurons to head acceleration, is known to be substantially mediated by GABA acting on GABAA and GABAB receptors. After unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD), the large asymmetry in spontaneous resting activity between the two VNCs is reinforced and exacerbated by the GABAergic interaction between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. Although it has been suggested that reduced GABAergic inhibition of the ipsilateral VNC may be partially responsible for the recovery of resting activity that underlies vestibular compensation of the static symptoms of UVD, at present there are few data available to test this hypothesis systematically. There is some evidence that GABA concentrations change in the ipsilateral VNC during the development of compensation; however, it is unclear whether these changes relate to GABA release or to metabolic pools of GABA. Most biochemical studies of GABA receptors have been conducted at the gene expression level. Therefore, it is unclear whether changes in the receptor protein also occur, although the most recent data suggest that changes in GABAA and GABAB receptor density in the VNC are unlikely. The few radioligand binding data relate to GABAA receptors with benzodiazepine binding sites only. A decrease in the sensitivity of ipsilateral VNC neurons from compensated animals to GABA receptor agonists has been reported; however, these studies have employed brainstem slices and therefore the functional identity of the neurons involved has been unclear. Although it seems likely that some changes in central GABAergic systems accompany the recovery of resting activity in the ipsilateral VNC during the development of vestibular compensation, at the present stage there is no compelling evidence that these changes have a causal role in the compensation process. PMID:15713530

  13. Vestibular prosthesis tested in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Richard F.; Haburcakova, Csilla; Gong, Wangsong; Lee, Daniel; Wall, Conrad; Thompson, Lara; Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    We are studying the effectiveness of a semicircular canal prosthesis to improve postural control, perception of spatial orientation, and the VOR in rhesus monkeys with bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Balance is examined by measuring spontaneous sway of the body during quiet stance and postural responses evoked by head turns and rotation of the support surface; perception is measured with a task derived from the subjective visual vertical (SVV) test during static and dynamic rotation in the roll plane; and the angular VOR is measured during rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes. After the normal responses are characterized, bilateral vestibular loss is induced with intratympanic gentamicin, and then multisite stimulating electrodes are chronically implanted into the ampullae of all three canals in one ear. The postural, perceptual, and VOR responses are then characterized in the ablated state, and then bilateral, chronic electrical stimulation is applied to the ampullary nerves using a prosthesis that senses angular head velocity in three-dimensions and uses this information to modulate the rate of current pulses provided by the implanted electrodes. We are currently characterizing two normal monkeys with these paradigms, and vestibular ablation and electrode implantation are planned for the near future. In one prior rhesus monkey tested with this approach, we found that a one-dimensional (posterior canal) prosthesis improved balance during head turns, perceived head orientation during roll tilts, and the VOR in the plane of the instrumented canal. We therefore predict that the more complete information provided by a three-dimensional prosthesis that modulates activity in bilaterally-paired canals will exceed the benefits provided by the one-dimensional, unilateral approach used in our preliminary studies. PMID:22254795

  14. Human Vestibular Function - Skylab Experiment M131

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This set of photographs details Skylab's Human Vestibular Function experiment (M131). This experiment was a set of medical studies designed to determine the effect of long-duration space missions on astronauts' coordination abilities. This experiment tested the astronauts susceptibility to motion sickness in the Skylab environment, acquired data fundamental to an understanding of the functions of human gravity reception under prolonged absence of gravity, and tested for changes in the sensitivity of the semicircular canals. Data from this experiment was collected before, during, and after flight. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  15. Current and Future Management of Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Sensation – An update on the Johns Hopkins Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis Project

    PubMed Central

    Della Santina, Charles C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Hayden, Russell; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan S.; Dai, Chenkai; Carey, John P.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Anderson, Iee-Ching; Park, HongJu; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Tang, Shan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation can disable individuals whose vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications, infection, Ménière’s disease or other insults to the labyrinth including surgical trauma during cochlear implantation. Without input to vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body, affected patients suffer blurred vision during head movement, postural instability, and chronic disequilibrium. While individuals with some residual sensation often compensate for their loss through rehabilitation exercises, those who fail to do so are left with no adequate treatment options. An implantable neuroelectronic vestibular prosthesis that emulates the normal labyrinth by sensing head movement and modulating activity on appropriate branches of the vestibular nerve could significantly improve quality of life for these otherwise chronically dizzy patients. This brief review describes the impact and current management of bilateral loss of vestibular sensation, animal studies supporting the feasibility of prosthetic vestibular stimulation, and a vestibular prosthesis designed to restore sensation of head rotation in all directions. Similar to a cochlear implant in concept and size, the Johns Hopkins Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis (MVP) includes miniature gyroscopes to sense head rotation, a microcontroller to process inputs and control stimulus timing, and current sources switched between pairs of electrodes implanted within the vestibular labyrinth. In rodents and rhesus monkeys rendered bilaterally vestibular-deficient via treatment with gentamicin and/or plugging of semicircular canals, the MVP partially restores the vestibulo-ocular reflex for head rotations about any axis of rotation in 3-dimensional space. Our efforts now focus on addressing issues prerequisite to human implantation, including refinement of electrode designs and surgical technique to enhance stimulus selectivity and preserve cochlear function, optimization of stimulus protocols, and reduction of device size and power consumption. PMID:21756683

  16. Selective Processing of Vestibular Reafference during Self-Generated Head Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jefferson E. Roy; Kathleen E. Cullen

    2001-01-01

    The vestibular sensory apparatus and associated vestibular nuclei are generally thought to encode head-in-space motion. Angular head-in-space velocity is detected by vestibular hair cells that are located within the semicircular canals of the inner ear. In turn, the afferent fibers of the vestibular nerve project to neurons in the vestibular nuclei, which, in head-restrained an- imals, similarly encode head-in-space velocity

  17. Visual–vestibular interaction during goal directed locomotion: effects of aging and blurring vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandini Deshpande; Aftab E. Patla

    2007-01-01

    Normal vision overrides perturbed vestibular information for the optimization of performance during goal directed locomotion, suggesting down-regulation of vestibular gain. However, it is not known if the responses to vestibular perturbation are accentuated when vision is impaired. Furthermore, both visual and vestibular systems deteriorate with age. It is not clear, however, how age-related decline in these sensory systems influences visual–vestibular

  18. Altered vestibular function in fetal and newborn rats gestated in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers evaluated vestibular development and function in rat pups flown during gestation on the NASA-NIH R1 and R2 missions. Fetal and postnatal vestibular function were examined. Altered vestibular-mediated responses in the experimental fetal pups are attributed to either direct effect of gravity on the vestibular system or indirect effects of microgravity transduced through the mother. The postnatal tests confirmed the hypothesis that the vestibular system continually adapts and responds to tonic stimulation.

  19. Neurogenic potential of the vestibular nuclei and behavioural recovery time course in the adult cat are governed by the nature of the vestibular damage.

    PubMed

    Dutheil, Sophie; Lacour, Michel; Tighilet, Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Functional and reactive neurogenesis and astrogenesis are observed in deafferented vestibular nuclei after unilateral vestibular nerve section in adult cats. The newborn cells survive up to one month and contribute actively to the successful recovery of posturo-locomotor functions. This study investigates whether the nature of vestibular deafferentation has an incidence on the neurogenic potential of the vestibular nuclei, and on the time course of behavioural recovery. Three animal models that mimic different vestibular pathologies were used: unilateral and permanent suppression of vestibular input by unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN), or by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL, the mechanical destruction of peripheral vestibular receptors), or unilateral and reversible blockade of vestibular nerve input using tetrodotoxin (TTX). Neurogenesis and astrogenesis were revealed in the vestibular nuclei using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a newborn cell marker, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) were used to identify astrocytes and GABAergic neurons, respectively. Spontaneous nystagmus and posturo-locomotor tests (static and dynamic balance performance) were carried out to quantify the behavioural recovery process. Results showed that the nature of vestibular loss determined the cellular plastic events occurring in the vestibular nuclei and affected the time course of behavioural recovery. Interestingly, the deafferented vestibular nuclei express neurogenic potential after acute and total vestibular loss only (UVN), while non-structural plastic processes are involved when the vestibular deafferentation is less drastic (UL, TTX). This is the first experimental evidence that the vestibular complex in the brainstem can become neurogenic under specific injury. These new data are of interest for understanding the factors favouring the expression of functional neurogenesis in adult mammals in a brain repair perspective, and are of clinical relevance in vestibular pathology. PMID:21853029

  20. Neurogenic Potential of the Vestibular Nuclei and Behavioural Recovery Time Course in the Adult Cat Are Governed by the Nature of the Vestibular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dutheil, Sophie; Lacour, Michel; Tighilet, Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Functional and reactive neurogenesis and astrogenesis are observed in deafferented vestibular nuclei after unilateral vestibular nerve section in adult cats. The newborn cells survive up to one month and contribute actively to the successful recovery of posturo-locomotor functions. This study investigates whether the nature of vestibular deafferentation has an incidence on the neurogenic potential of the vestibular nuclei, and on the time course of behavioural recovery. Three animal models that mimic different vestibular pathologies were used: unilateral and permanent suppression of vestibular input by unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN), or by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL, the mechanical destruction of peripheral vestibular receptors), or unilateral and reversible blockade of vestibular nerve input using tetrodotoxin (TTX). Neurogenesis and astrogenesis were revealed in the vestibular nuclei using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a newborn cell marker, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) were used to identify astrocytes and GABAergic neurons, respectively. Spontaneous nystagmus and posturo-locomotor tests (static and dynamic balance performance) were carried out to quantify the behavioural recovery process. Results showed that the nature of vestibular loss determined the cellular plastic events occurring in the vestibular nuclei and affected the time course of behavioural recovery. Interestingly, the deafferented vestibular nuclei express neurogenic potential after acute and total vestibular loss only (UVN), while non-structural plastic processes are involved when the vestibular deafferentation is less drastic (UL, TTX). This is the first experimental evidence that the vestibular complex in the brainstem can become neurogenic under specific injury. These new data are of interest for understanding the factors favouring the expression of functional neurogenesis in adult mammals in a brain repair perspective, and are of clinical relevance in vestibular pathology. PMID:21853029

  1. Adaptive plasticity in vestibular influences on cardiovascular control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, B. J.; Holmes, M. J.; Jian, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected in both human subjects and animal models indicate that the vestibular system influences the control of blood pressure. In animals, peripheral vestibular lesions diminish the capacity to rapidly and accurately make cardiovascular adjustments to changes in posture. Thus, one role of vestibulo-cardiovascular influences is to elicit changes in blood distribution in the body so that stable blood pressure is maintained during movement. However, deficits in correcting blood pressure following vestibular lesions diminish over time, and are less severe when non-labyrinthine sensory cues regarding body position in space are provided. These observations show that pathways that mediate vestibulo-sympathetic reflexes can be subject to plastic changes. This review considers the adaptive plasticity in cardiovascular responses elicited by the central vestibular system. Recent data indicate that the posterior cerebellar vermis may play an important role in adaptation of these responses, such that ablation of the posterior vermis impairs recovery of orthostatic tolerance following subsequent vestibular lesions. Furthermore, recent experiments suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs to the central vestibular system may be important in controlling blood pressure during movement, particularly following vestibular dysfunction. A number of sensory inputs appear to be integrated to produce cardiovascular adjustments during changes in posture. Although loss of any one of these inputs does not induce lability in blood pressure, it is likely that maximal blood pressure stability is achieved by the integration of a variety of sensory cues signaling body position in space.

  2. Diversity of vestibular nuclei neurons targeted by cerebellar nodulus inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hui; Blázquez, Pablo M; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2014-01-01

    Abstract?A functional role of the cerebellar nodulus and ventral uvula (lobules X and IXc,d of the vermis) for vestibular processing has been strongly suggested by direct reciprocal connections with the vestibular nuclei, as well as direct vestibular afferent inputs as mossy fibres. Here we have explored the types of neurons in the macaque vestibular nuclei targeted by nodulus/ventral uvula inhibition using orthodromic identification from the caudal vermis. We found that all nodulus-target neurons are tuned to vestibular stimuli, and most are insensitive to eye movements. Such non-eye-movement neurons are thought to project to vestibulo-spinal and/or thalamo-cortical pathways. Less than 20% of nodulus-target neurons were sensitive to eye movements, suggesting that the caudal vermis can also directly influence vestibulo-ocular pathways. In general, response properties of nodulus-target neurons were diverse, spanning the whole continuum previously described in the vestibular nuclei. Most nodulus-target cells responded to both rotation and translation stimuli and only a few were selectively tuned to translation motion only. Other neurons were sensitive to net linear acceleration, similar to otolith afferents. These results demonstrate that, unlike the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus which target a particular cell group, nodulus/ventral uvula inhibition targets a large diversity of cell types in the vestibular nuclei, consistent with a broad functional significance contributing to vestibulo-ocular, vestibulo-thalamic and vestibulo-spinal pathways. PMID:24127616

  3. Betahistine treatment in managing vertigo and improving vestibular compensation: clarification.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Betahistine dihydrochloride (betahistine) is currently used in the management of vertigo and vestibular pathologies with different aetiologies. The main goal of this review is to clarify the mechanisms of action of this drug, responsible for the symptomatic relief of vertigo and the improvement of vestibular compensation. The review starts with a brief summary recalling the role of histamine as a neuromodulator/neurotransmitter in the control of the vestibular functions, and the role of the histaminergic system in vestibular compensation. Then are presented data recorded in animal models demonstrating that betahistine efficacy can be explained by mechanisms targeting the histamine receptors (HRs) at three different levels: the vascular tree, with an increase of cochlear and vestibular blood flow involving the H1R; the central nervous system, with an increase of histamine turnover implicating the H3R, and the peripheral labyrinth, with a decrease of vestibular input implying the H3R/H4R. Clinical data from vestibular loss patients show the impact of betahistine treatment for the long-term control of vertigo, improvement of balance and quality of life that can be explained by these mechanisms of action. However, two conditions, at least, are required for reaching the betahistine therapeutic effect: the dose and the duration of treatment. Experimental and clinical data supporting these requirements are exposed in the last part of this review. PMID:24177346

  4. Pharmacotherapy of vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Thurtell, Matthew J; Shaikh, Aasef G; Brandt, Thomas; Zee, David S; Leigh, R John

    2011-07-01

    We review current pharmacological treatments for peripheral and central vestibular disorders, and ocular motor disorders that impair vision, especially pathological nystagmus. The prerequisites for successful pharmacotherapy of vertigo, dizziness, and abnormal eye movements are the "4 D's": correct diagnosis, correct drug, appropriate dosage, and sufficient duration. There are seven groups of drugs (the "7 A's") that can be used: antiemetics; anti-inflammatory, anti-Ménière's, and anti-migrainous medications; anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and aminopyridines. A recovery from acute vestibular neuritis can be promoted by treatment with oral corticosteroids. Betahistine may reduce the frequency of attacks of Ménière's disease. The aminopyridines constitute a novel treatment approach for downbeat and upbeat nystagmus, as well as episodic ataxia type 2 (EA 2); these drugs may restore normal "pacemaker" activity to the Purkinje cells that govern vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. A limited number of trials indicate that baclofen improves periodic alternating nystagmus, and that gabapentin and memantine improve acquired pendular and infantile (congenital) nystagmus. Preliminary reports suggest suppression of square-wave saccadic intrusions by memantine, and ocular flutter by beta-blockers. Thus, although progress has been made in the treatment of vestibular neuritis, some forms of pathological nystagmus, and EA 2, controlled, masked trials are still needed to evaluate treatments for many vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including betahistine for Ménière's disease, oxcarbazepine for vestibular paroxysmia, or metoprolol for vestibular migraine. PMID:21461686

  5. Vestibular effects of lidocaine intratympanic injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Kim, M J; Jo, Y K; Kim, J Y; Han, G C

    2014-11-01

    When lidocaine is locally delivered into the inner ear, it rapidly paralyzes the peripheral vestibular afferent neurons and induces unilateral vestibular loss. The goals of this study were to explore the possibility of developing intratympanic injection (IT) of lidocaine as a modality for treating acute vertigo. To evaluate the minimum concentration required, latent time, action duration, and possibility of lidocaine IT readministration to the vestibular system, we compared the development of horizontal nystagmus after IT of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% lidocaine solutions in rats. To identify the induction of vestibular compensation, c-Fos-like protein expression was observed in the vestibular nucleus. Results of our investigation showed that lidocaine IT concentrations greater than 4% induced vestibular hyporeflexia in the injected ear. In order to induce hyporeflexia 4 and 6% lidocaine solutions could also be repeatedly injected. Regardless of concentration, effects of the lidocaine IT dissipated gradually over time. Our findings could be used to develop novel methods for symptom control in vestibular disorder patients. PMID:24505049

  6. Biomimetic smart sensors for autonomous robotic behavior II: vestibular processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuwan; Deligeorges, Socrates; Soloway, Aaron; Lichtenstein, Lee; Gore, Tyler; Hubbard, Allyn

    2009-05-01

    Limited autonomous behaviors are fast becoming a critical capability in the field of robotics as robotic applications are used in more complicated and interactive environments. As additional sensory capabilities are added to robotic platforms, sensor fusion to enhance and facilitate autonomous behavior becomes increasingly important. Using biology as a model, the equivalent of a vestibular system needs to be created in order to orient the system within its environment and allow multi-modal sensor fusion. In mammals, the vestibular system plays a central role in physiological homeostasis and sensory information integration (Fuller et al, Neuroscience 129 (2004) 461-471). At the level of the Superior Colliculus in the brain, there is multimodal sensory integration across visual, auditory, somatosensory, and vestibular inputs (Wallace et al, J Neurophysiol 80 (1998) 1006-1010), with the vestibular component contributing a strong reference frame gating input. Using a simple model for the deep layers of the Superior Colliculus, an off-the-shelf 3-axis solid state gyroscope and accelerometer was used as the equivalent representation of the vestibular system. The acceleration and rotational measurements are used to determine the relationship between a local reference frame of a robotic platform (an iRobot Packbot®) and the inertial reference frame (the outside world), with the simulated vestibular input tightly coupled with the acoustic and optical inputs. Field testing of the robotic platform using acoustics to cue optical sensors coupled through a biomimetic vestibular model for "slew to cue" gunfire detection have shown great promise.

  7. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct in pediatric SNHL

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Karuna; Wippold, Franz J.; Lieu, Judith E C

    2010-01-01

    Objective Comparison of the Cincinnati criteria (midpoint >0.9 mm or operculum >1.9 mm) to the Valvassori criterion (midpoint ? 1.5 mm) for enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) in pediatric cochlear implant patients. Study Design Cohort study Subjects 130 Pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Methods We reviewed temporal bone CT scans to measure the vestibular aqueduct midpoint and opercular width. Results The Cincinnati criteria identified 44% of patients with EVA versus 16% with the Valvassori criterion (P<0.01). Of those with EVA, 45% were unilateral and 55% were bilateral using Cincinnati criteria; 64% were unilateral and 36% bilateral using Valvassori criterion (P<0.01). The Cincinnati criteria diagnosed 70 ears with EVA classified as normal using the Valvassori criterion (P<0.01);59 lacked another medical explanation for their hearing loss. Conclusion The Cincinnati criteria identified a large percentage of pediatric cochlear implant patients with EVA who might otherwise have no known etiology for their deafness. PMID:19328346

  8. Primary culture of human vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Schularick, Nathan M; Clark, J Jason; Hansen, Marlan R

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) represent Schwann cell (SC) tumors of the vestibular nerve, compromising 10% of all intracranial neoplasms. VSs occur in either sporadic or familial (neurofibromatosis type 2, NF2) forms, both associated with inactivating defects in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. Treatment for VSs is generally surgical resection or radiosurgery, however the morbidity of such procedures has driven investigations into less invasive treatments. Historically, lack of access to fresh tissue specimens and the fact that schwannoma cells are not immortalized have significantly hampered the use of primary cultures for investigation of schwannoma tumorigenesis. To overcome the limited supply of primary cultures, the immortalized HEI193 VS cell line was generated by transduction with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes. This oncogenic transduction introduced significant molecular and phenotypic alterations to the cells, which limit their use as a model for human schwannoma tumors. We therefore illustrate a simplified, reproducible protocol for culture of primary human VS cells. This easily mastered technique allows for molecular and cellular investigations that more accurately recapitulate the complexity of VS disease. PMID:25079666

  9. Optimal Stochastic Enhancement of Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kamal P.; Rost, Jan M. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-04-20

    The effect of noise on the nonlinear photoionization of an atom due to a femtosecond pulse is investigated in the framework of the stochastic Schroedinger equation. A modest amount of white noise results in an enhancement of the net ionization yield by several orders of magnitude, giving rise to a form of quantum stochastic resonance. We demonstrate that this effect is preserved if the white noise is replaced by broadband chaotic light.

  10. The Development of the Vestibular Apparatus Under Conditions of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinnikov, Y. A.; Gazenko, O. G.; Lychakov, D. V.; Palmbakh, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on the effect of space flight conditions on morphogenesis and the structure of the vestibular apparatus in amphibian and fish larvae. Larval development proceeded in weightlessness without serious morphological defects. The vestibular apparatus developed; its organization in the experimental animals did not differ qualitatively from that in the controls. The specific external stimulus (gravitation) appears not to be a necessary condition for the development of a gravitation receptor in ontogenesis although the appearance of the vestibular apparatus in phylogenesis was apparently related to this stimulus.

  11. Surgical approach to the superior vestibular nerve in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hildesheimer, M; Muchnik, C; Rubinstein, M

    1987-12-01

    The superior vestibular nerve carries homo- and contra-lateral efferent fibers to the cochlea. The subarcuate fossa, a tube-like structure in the temporal bone of the guinea pig, can be used to reach the superior vestibular nerve at the level of the internal acoustic meatus. Normally, this structure accommodates the dorsal and ventral floccular extension of the cerebellum. This technique has several advantages. Firstly, a reduced cranial opening is necessary; secondly, less cerebellar tissue is sacrificed. Then there is the relative insulation of the operative field, and finally, it presents a straight guide to the internal auditory meatus and vestibular nerve. PMID:3446675

  12. Optokinetic and Vestibular Responsiveness in the Macaque Rostral Vestibular and Fastigial Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Ayanna S.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2009-01-01

    We recorded from rostral vestibular (VN) and rostral fastigial nuclei (FN) neurons that did not respond to eye movements during three-dimensional (3D) vestibular and optokinetic stimulation (OKS). The majority of neurons in both areas (76 and 69% in VN and FN, respectively) responded during both rotational and translational motion. Preferred directions scattered throughout 3D space for translation but showed some preference for pitch/roll over yaw for rotation. VN/FN neurons were also tested during OKS while monkeys suppressed their optokinetic nystagmus by fixating a head-fixed target. Only a handful of cells (VN: 17%, FN: 6%) modulated during 0.5-Hz OKS suppression, but the number of responsive cells increased (VN: 40%, FN: 48%) during 0.02-Hz OKS. Preferred directions for rotation and OKS were not matched on individual neurons, and OKS gains were smaller than the respective gains during rotation. These results were generally similar for VN and FN neurons. We conclude that optokinetic-vestibular convergence might not be as prevalent as earlier studies have suggested. PMID:19073813

  13. Weightlessness and the ontogeny of vestibular function - Evidence for persistent vestibular threshold shifts in chicks incubated in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Timothy A.; Vellinger, John; Hester, Patricia Y.; Fermin, Cesar

    1991-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on the embryonic development of the vestibular function was investigated by comparing the vestibular function parameters measured in 21-old chicks incubated as embryos aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery with those of age-matched synchronous controls incubated on earth. Measurements of the electrophysiological responses in both groups of chicks indicated that the exposure of embryos to weightlessness resulted in altered sensitivity of embryonic vestibular sensors. Moreover, the effect of space flight was persistent: it was still present one month after the spacecraft landed on earth.

  14. An Electronic Prosthesis Mimicking the Dynamic Vestibular Function

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    a prosthesis that matches the signal recorded from the vestibular nerve in squirrel monkey experiments reported function. If the natural tac- tile sensitivity and balance control cannot be improved using non

  15. An Electronic Prosthesis Mimicking the Dynamic Vestibular Andrei M. Shkela

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    the corresponding vestibular nerve branch. Our preliminary experimental evaluations of the prosthesis on a rate function. If the natural tactile sensitivity and balance control cannot be improved using non

  16. A vestibular prosthesis with highly-isolated parallel multichannel stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dai; Cirmirakis, Dominik; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an implantable vestibular stimulation system capable of providing high flexibility independent parallel stimulation to the semicircular canals in the inner ear for restoring three-dimensional sensation of head movements. To minimize channel interaction during parallel stimulation, the system is implemented with a power isolation method for crosstalk reduction. Experimental results demonstrate that, with this method, electrodes for different stimulation channels located in close proximity ( mm) can deliver current pulses simultaneously with minimum inter-channel crosstalk. The design features a memory-based scheme that manages stimulation to the three canals in parallel. A vestibular evoked potential (VEP) recording unit is included for closed-loop adaptive stimulation control. The main components of the prototype vestibular prosthesis are three ASICs, all implemented in a 0.6- ?m high-voltage CMOS technology. The measured performance was verified using vestibular electrodes in vitro. PMID:25073175

  17. Modeling the electrical stimulation of peripheral vestibular nerves

    E-print Network

    Parikh, Ketul M

    2006-01-01

    The research conducted for this thesis investigated the theoretical placement of electrodes for a proposed implantable vestibular prosthesis to aid patients suffering from balance related disorders. The most likely sites ...

  18. Surgical access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radkevich, L. A.; Ayzikov, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A posteroventral approach for access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve is presented which permits simultaneous surgical access to the ampullary and otolithic nerves. Surgical procedures are discussed.

  19. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials : physiology, variability, and statistical characteristics

    E-print Network

    Prakash, Srinivasamurthy Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs) are electrical signals recorded from the skin overlying skeletal muscles of the head and neck in response to high-intensity acoustic stimuli. VEMPs have been observed in stimulus ...

  20. Certain aspects of the vestibular problem in space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Vestibulovegetative disorders on manned space flights are discussed. A study relating to the vestibular stimuli in respiration, diaphoresis cardiac rhythm and a broad complex of hemodynamic indices was conducted. Certain tests for astronaut candidates are discussed.

  1. Effect of gravity on vestibular neural development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Tomko, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    The timing, molecular basis, and morphophysiological and behavioral consequences of the interaction between external environment and the internal genetic pool that shapes the nervous system over a lifetime remain important questions in basic neuroscientific research. Space station offers the opportunity to study this interaction over several life cycles in a variety of organisms. This short review considers past work in altered gravity, particularly on the vestibular system, as the basis for proposing future research on space station, and discusses the equipment necessary to achieve goals. It is stressed that, in keeping with the international investment being made in this research endeavor, both the questions asked and the technologies to be developed should be bold. Advantage must be taken of this unique research environment to expand the frontiers of neuroscience. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, David; Morris, Rachael; Milberg, William; Sakel, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) is commonly used to diagnose brainstem disorder but its therapeutic application is much less established. Based on the finding that CVS increases blood flow to brain structures associated with language and communication, we assessed whether the procedure has potential to relieve symptoms of post-stroke aphasia. Three participants, each presenting with chronic, unilateral lesions to the left hemisphere, were administered daily CVS for four consecutive weeks. Relative to their pre-treatment baseline scores, two of the three participants showed significant improvement on both picture and responsive naming at immediate and 1-week follow-up. One of these participants also showed improved sentence repetition, and another showed improved auditory word discrimination. No adverse reactions were reported. These data provide the first, albeit tentative, evidence that CVS may relieve expressive and receptive symptoms of aphasia. A larger, sham-controlled study is now needed to further assess efficacy. PMID:24391559

  3. Astronaut Newman participates in Visual-Vestibular Integration DSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, participates in a Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) titled Visual-Vestibular Integration as a Function of Adaptation. Out of the frame is a series of equally spaced dots aligned both vertically and horizontally. The objective of this DSO is to investigate visual-vestibular and perceptual adaptive responses as a function of mission duration. Newman is wearing the DSO goggles.

  4. Intraoperative Monitoring and Facial Nerve Outcomes after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon Isaacson; Paul R. Kileny; Hussam El-Kashlan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the predictive value of proximal fa- cial nerve electrical threshold and proximal-to-distal facial muscle compound action potential amplitude ratio on facial nerve outcomes after resection of vestibular schwannomas. Study Design: Retrospective case review. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Patients: Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing resec- tion of vestibular schwannomas with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring at a single institution.

  5. Does betahistine treatment have additional benefits to vestibular rehabilitation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hale Karapolat; Nese Celebisoy; Yesim Kirazli; Cem Bilgen; Sibel Eyigor; Sercan Gode; Aycan Akyuz; Tayfun Kirazli

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-dose betahistine treatment added to vestibular rehabilitation\\u000a (VR) on the disability, balance and postural stability in patients with unilateral vestibular disorder. The VR group (group\\u000a 1, n = 24) and the VR + betahistine group (group 2, n = 23) were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated before and after an 8-week customized VR in

  6. Timing of neuron development in the rodent vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The timing of cell generation (onset and duration) in the developing rat vestibular and proprioceptive systems is investigated. The results clearly indicate a defined time-span for generation of all neurons in the central nervous system nuclei studied. This cytogenetic period in both vestibular and proprioceptive sensory nuclei is determined to occur during and immediately after placentation, a potentially critical period for spaceflight exposure due to alterations in maternal physiology.

  7. A review of treatment modalities for vestibular schwannoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J. Arthurs; Robert K. Fairbanks; John J. Demakas; Wayne T. Lamoreaux; Neil A. Giddings; Alexander R. Mackay; Barton S. Cooke; Ameer L. Elaimy; Christopher M. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are benign intracranial tumors arising from the vestibular nerve. Treatment options include observation,\\u000a stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated radiotherapy, and microsurgery. We review the evidence describing efficacy and side-effect\\u000a profiles of each of these modalities. This was accomplished by outlining the results of published meta-analyses and performing\\u000a a systematic search of the literature for individual studies published between 2004 and

  8. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  9. Stochastic Modeling of Laminar-Turbulent Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Choudhari, Meelan

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic versions of stability equations are developed in order to develop integrated models of transition and turbulence and to understand the effects of uncertain initial conditions on disturbance growth. Stochastic forms of the resonant triad equations, a high Reynolds number asymptotic theory, and the parabolized stability equations are developed.

  10. Restoration of 3D Vestibular Sensation in Rhesus Monkeys Using a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Davidovics, Natan; Chiang, Bryce; Ahn, Joong Ho; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    Profound bilateral loss of vestibular hair cell function can cause chronically disabling loss of balance and inability to maintain stable vision during head and body movements. We have previously shown that chinchillas rendered bilaterally vestibular-deficient via intratympanic administration of the ototoxic antibiotic gentamicin regain a more nearly normal 3-dimensional vestibulo-ocular reflex (3D VOR) when head motion information sensed by a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) is encoded via rate-modulated pulsatile stimulation of vestibular nerve branches. Despite significant improvement versus the unaided condition, animals still exhibited some 3D VOR misalignment (i.e., the 3D axis of eye movement responses did not precisely align with the axis of head rotation), presumably due to current spread between a given ampullary nerve’s stimulating electrode(s) and afferent fibers in nontargeted branches of the vestibular nerve. Assuming that effects of current spread depend on relative orientation and separation between nerve branches, anatomic differences between chinchilla and human labyrinths may limit the extent to which results in chinchillas accurately predict MVP performance in humans. In this report, we describe the MVP-evoked 3D VOR measured in alert rhesus monkeys, which have labyrinths that are larger than chinchillas and temporal bone anatomy more similar to humans. Electrodes were implanted in five monkeys treated with intratympanic gentamicin to bilaterally ablate vestibular hair cell mechanosensitivity. Eye movements mediated by the 3D VOR were recorded during passive sinusoidal (0.2–5 Hz, peak 50°/s) and acceleration-step (1000°/s2 to 150°/s) whole-body rotations in darkness about each semicircular canal axis. During constant 100 pulse/s stimulation (i.e., MVP powered ON but set to stimulate each ampullary nerve at a constant mean baseline rate not modulated by head motion), 3D VOR responses to head rotation exhibited profoundly low gain [(mean eye velocity amplitude)/(mean head velocity amplitude) < 0.1] and large misalignment between ideal and actual eye movements. In contrast, motion-modulated sinusoidal MVP stimuli elicited a 3D VOR with gain 0.4–0.7 and axis misalignment of 21–38°, and responses to high-acceleration transient head rotations exhibited gain and asymmetry closer to those of unilaterally gentamicin-treated animals (i.e., with one intact labyrinth) than to bilaterally gentamicin-treated animals without MVP stimulation. In comparison to responses observed under similar conditions in chinchillas, acute responses to MVP stimulation in rhesus macaque monkeys were slightly better aligned to the desired rotation axis. Responses during combined rotation and prosthetic stimulation were greater than when either stimulus was presented alone, suggesting that the central nervous system uses MVP input in the context of multisensory integration. Considering the similarity in temporal bone anatomy and VOR performance between rhesus monkeys and humans, these observations suggest that an MVP will likely restore a useful level of vestibular sensation and gaze stabilization in humans. PMID:21888961

  11. Vestibular activity and cognitive development in children: perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette R.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Wiener, Sidney I.

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular signals play an essential role in oculomotor and static and dynamic posturomotor functions. Increasing attention is now focusing on their impact on spatial and non-spatial cognitive functions. Movements of the head in space evoke vestibular signals that make important contributions during the development of brain representations of body parts relative to one another as well as representations of body orientation and position within the environment. A central nervous system pathway relays signals from the vestibular nuclei to the hippocampal system where this input is indispensable for neuronal responses selective for the position and orientation of the head in space. One aspect of the hippocampal systems’ processing to create episodic and contextual memories is its role in spatial orientation and navigation behaviors that require processing of relations between background cues. These are also impaired in adult patients with vestibular deficits. However little is known about the impact of vestibular loss on cognitive development in children. This is investigated here with a particular emphasis upon the hypothetical mechanisms and potential impact of vestibular loss at critical ages on the development of respective spatial and non-spatial cognitive processes and their brain substrates. PMID:24376403

  12. Patterning of sympathetic nerve activity in response to vestibular stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; McAllen, R. M.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for the vestibular system in regulation of autonomic outflow during postural adjustments. In the present paper we review evidence for the patterning of sympathetic nerve activity elicited by vestibular stimulation. In response to electrical activation of vestibular afferents, firing of sympathetic nerves located throughout the body is altered. However, activity of the renal nerve is most sensitive to vestibular inputs. In contrast, high-intensity simultaneous activation of cutaneous and muscle inputs elicits equivalent changes in firing of the renal, superior mesenteric and lumbar colonic nerves. Responses of muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) efferents to vestibular stimulation are either inhibitory (Type I) or are comprised of a combination of excitation and inhibition (Type II). Interestingly, single MVC units located in the hindlimb exhibited predominantly Type I responses while those located in the forelimb and face exhibited Type II responses. Furthermore, brachial and femoral arterial blood flows were dissociated in response to vestibular stimulation, such that brachial vascular resistance increased while femoral resistance decreased. These studies demonstrate that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned according to both the anatomical location and innervation target of a particular sympathetic nerve, and can lead to distinct changes in local blood flow.

  13. Immunohistochemical profile of cytokines and growth factors expressed in vestibular schwannoma and in normal vestibular nerve tissue.

    PubMed

    Taurone, Samanta; Bianchi, Enrica; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Gioia, Cira Di; Ierinó, Rocco; Carubbi, Cecilia; Galli, Daniela; Pastore, Francesco Saverio; Giangaspero, Felice; Filipo, Roberto; Zanza, Christian; Artico, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas, also known as acoustic neuromas, are benign tumors, which originate from myelin?forming Schwann cells. They develop in the vestibular branch of the eighth cranial nerve in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. The clinical progression of the condition involves slow and progressive growth, eventually resulting in brainstem compression. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression level and the localization of the pro?inflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor??1 (TGF??1) interleukin (IL)?1?, IL?6 and tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??), as well as the adhesion molecules, intracellular adhesion molecule?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in order to determine whether these factors are involved in the transformation and development of human vestibular schwannoma. The present study investigated whether changes in inflammation are involved in tumor growth and if so, the mechanisms underlying this process. The results of the current study demonstrated that pro?inflammatory cytokines, including TGF??1, IL?1? and IL?6 exhibited increased expression in human vestibular schwannoma tissue compared with normal vestibular nerve samples. TNF?? was weakly expressed in Schwann cells, confirming that a lower level of this cytokine is involved in the proliferation of Schwann cells. Neoplastic Schwann cells produce pro?inflammatory cytokines that may act in an autocrine manner, stimulating cellular proliferation. In addition, the increased expression of VEGF in vestibular schwannoma compared with that in normal vestibular nerve tissue, suggests that this factor may induce neoplastic growth via the promotion of angiogenesis. The present findings suggest that inflammation may promote angiogenesis and consequently contribute to tumor progression. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that VEGF and pro?inflammatory cytokines may be potential therapeutic targets in vestibular schwannoma. Further studies are necessary to confirm the involvement of these factors in the growth of neoplasms and to develop inhibitors of pro?inflammatory cytokines as a potential treatment option in the future. PMID:25738867

  14. Current treatment of nasal vestibular stenosis with CO2-laser surgery: prolonged vestibular stenting versus intraoperative mitomycin application. A case series of 3 patients.

    PubMed

    van Schijndel, Olaf; van Heerbeek, Niels; Ingels, Koen J A O

    2014-12-01

    These case studies describe three cases of unilateral nasal vestibular stenoses caused by chemical cauterization. Each case was treated with CO2-laser surgery together with intraoperative topic application of mitomycin or prolonged vestibular stenting for prevention of restenosis. Two patients received intraoperative mitomycin application and one patient received prolonged vestibular stenting. Results were documented using high-resolution photographs. The follow up period ranged from 1 year and 3 months to 4 years and 9 months. All patients improved after CO2-laser surgery. No complications were reported. We consider CO2-laser surgery for relief of nasal vestibular stenosis as a feasible surgical technique for relieve of nasal vestibular stenosis. Prolonged vestibular stenting seems to be an important factor for the prevention of restenosis in which the value of intraoperative mitomycin application without prolonged vestibular stenting remains uncertain. PMID:25282303

  15. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have difficulty maintaining balance without stepping when standing in tandem, on compliant surfaces, across narrow beams, or on one foot, especially with eyes closed. Normal individuals (with no sensory impairment) maintain balance in these tasks by employing quick, active hip rotation (a "hip strategy"). The absence of a hip strategy in vestibular patients responding to translations of a short support surface has previously been taken as evidence that the use of hip strategy requires an intact vestibular system. However, many tasks requiring hip strategy alter one or a combination of important system characteristics, such as initial state of the body (tandem stance), dynamics (compliant surfaces), or biomechanical limits of stability (narrow beams). Therefore, the balance deficit in these tasks may result from a failure to account for these support surface alterations when planning and executing sensorimotor responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular information is critical to trigger a hip strategy even on an unaltered support surface, which imposes no changes on the system characteristics. We recorded the postural responses of vestibular patients and control subjects with eyes closed to rearward support surface translations of varying velocity, in erect stance on a firm, flat surface. Subjects were instructed to maintain balance without stepping, if possible. Faster translation velocities (25 cm/s or more) produced a consistent pattern of early hip torque (first 400 ms) in control subjects (i.e., a hip strategy). Most of the patients with bilateral vestibular loss responded to the same translation velocities with similar torques. Contrary to our hypothesis, we conclude that vestibular function is not necessary to trigger a hip strategy. We postulate, therefore, that the balance deficit previously observed in vestibular patients during postural tasks that elicit a hip strategy may have been due to the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  16. Genetics of Peripheral Vestibular Dysfunction: Lessons from Mutant Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sherri M.; Jones, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research has been published about genetic hearing impairment. Fifty to sixty percent of hearing loss is thought to have a genetic cause. Genes may also play a significant role in acquired hearing loss due to aging, noise exposure, or ototoxic medications. Between 1995 and 2012, over 100 causative genes have been identified for syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of hereditary hearing loss (see Hereditary Hearing Loss Homepage http://hereditaryhearingloss.org). Mouse models have been extremely valuable in facilitating the discovery of hearing loss genes, and in understanding inner ear pathology due to genetic mutations or elucidating fundamental mechanisms of inner ear development. Purpose Whereas much is being learned about hereditary hearing loss and the genetics of cochlear disorders, relatively little is known about the role genes may play in peripheral vestibular impairment. Here we review the literature with regard to genetics of vestibular dysfunction and discuss what we have learned from studies using mutant mouse models and direct measures of peripheral vestibular neural function. Results Several genes are considered that when mutated lead to varying degrees of inner ear vestibular dysfunction due to deficits in otoconia, stereocilia, hair cells, or neurons. Behavior often does not reveal the inner ear deficit. Many of the examples presented are also known to cause human disorders. Conclusions Knowledge regarding the roles of particular genes in the operation of the vestibular sensory apparatus is growing and it is clear that gene products co-expressed in the cochlea and vestibule may play different roles in the respective end organs. The discovery of new genes mediating critical inner ear vestibular function carries the promise of new strategies in diagnosing, treating and managing patients as well as predicting the course and level of morbidity in human vestibular disease. PMID:25032973

  17. Vestibular rehabilitation ameliorates chronic dizziness through the SIRT1 axis

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chung-Lan; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Dizziness is a common clinical symptom frequently referred to general neurologists and practitioners. Exercise intervention, in the form of vestibular rehabilitation, is known as an effective clinical management for dizziness. This intervention is reported to have a functional role in correcting dizziness, improving gaze stability, retraining balance and gait, and enhancing physical fitness. Dizziness is known to be highly related to inflammation and oxidative stress. SIRT1 is a major molecule for the regulation of inflammation and mitigation of oxidative stress in chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the bio-molecular roles of SIRT1 involved in the pathogenesis of dizziness are still largely unclear. In this study, a total of 30 subjects were recruited (15 patients with chronic dizziness, and 15 age/gender matched non-dizzy control subjects). The dizzy subjects group received 18 sessions of 30-min vestibular training. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of SIRT1 in the blood samples of chronic dizzy patients were repressed compared with those of healthy controls. After vestibular training, the dizzy patients had significant symptomatic improvements. The SIRT1 expression and its downstream genes (PPAR-? and PGC-1?) were upregulated after vestibular exercises in dizzy subjects. Notably, the catalytic activity of SIRT1, NADPH and antioxidant enzyme activities were also activated in dizzy patients after vestibular training. Furthermore, vestibular exercise training reduced oxidative events and p53 expression in patients with dizziness. This study demonstrated that vestibular exercise training improved dizziness symptoms, and mechanisms for alleviation of chronic dizziness may partly involve the activation of the SIRT1 axis and the repression of redox status. PMID:24624081

  18. From bench to bedside : elucidating vestibular schwannoma pathobiology to devise effective pharmacotherapies

    E-print Network

    Dilwali, Sonam

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs), the most common tumors of the cerebellopontine angle, arise from Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. VSs can lead to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), disequilibrium, facial nerve paralysis, ...

  19. Fifth Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Vestibular problems of manned space flight are investigated for weightlessness and reduced gravity conditions with emphasis on space station development. Intensive morphological studies on the vestibular system and its central nervous system connections are included.

  20. 1 Introduction Research has shown that the visual and vestibular systems play particularly important

    E-print Network

    Allison, Robert

    to henceforth as `visual ^ vestibular conflict' theory (eg Zacharias and Young 1981).(1) According.1068/p3468 (1) This visual ^ vestibular conflict theory is not accepted by all researchers. For example

  1. Stochastic model of the residual acceleration environment in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinals, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    We describe a theoretical investigation of the effects that stochastic residual accelerations (g-jitter) onboard spacecraft can have on experiments conducted in a microgravity environment. We first introduce a stochastic model of the residual acceleration field, and develop a numerical algorithm to solve the equations governing fluid flow that allow for a stochastic body force. We next summarize our studies of two generic situations: stochastic parametric resonance and the onset of convective flow induced by a fluctuating acceleration field.

  2. Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) - a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Figura, Monika; Gawe?, Ma?gorzata; Kolasa, Anna; Janik, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    CANVAS (cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome) is a rare neurological syndrome of unknown etiology. The main clinical features include bilateral vestibulopathy, cerebellar ataxia and sensory neuropathy. An abnormal visually enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex is the hallmark of the disease. We present a case of 58-year-old male patient who has demonstrated gait disturbance, imbalance and paresthesia of feet for 2 years. On examination ataxia of gait, diminished knee and ankle reflexes, absence of plantar reflexes, fasciculations of thigh muscles, gaze-evoked downbeat nystagmus and abnormal visually enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex were found. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebellar atrophy. Vestibular function testing showed severely reduced horizontal nystagmus in response to bithermal caloric stimulation. Nerve conduction study revealed loss of upper and lower limb sensory nerve action potentials. The course of illness was progressive with ataxic gait and unsteadiness as the most disabling symptoms. We report 4-year follow-up of the patient since the beginning of the disease. PMID:25440017

  3. Paradoxical vestibular disease with trigeminal nerve-sheath tumor in a dog.

    PubMed

    Cizinauskas, S; Lang, J; Maier, R; Fatzer, R; Jaggy, A

    2001-08-01

    A thirteen-year old spayed female poodle was referred because of atrophy of temporal and masseter muscles on the left and head tilt and episodical circling to the right side. Additionally, decreased facial sensation, absent menace reaction, palpebral and corneal reflexes on the left side, as well as ipsilateral hemiparesis and tongue palsy were noticed. Generalised vestibular ataxia and hypermetria in the front limbs were present. Based on the clinical signs, the presumptive anatomical localization of the lesion was the cerebellopontine angle including parts of the caudal brainstem with involvement of the trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal nerves. Involvement of either flocculonodular lobe or the caudal cerebellar peduncle on the left side causing paradoxical vestibular disease was suspected. On magnetic resonance imaging a large enhancing lesion in the area of the left cerebellopontine angle involving the trigeminal nerve and compressing cerebellum and brainstem was seen. Because of the poor prognosis the dog was euthanized on the owner's request. This space occupying lesion could be identified as a trigeminal neurofibrosarcoma/schwannoma on post mortem histopathological examination. PMID:11525099

  4. Sensitivity of human visual and vestibular cortical regions to egomotion-compatible visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Velia; Smith, Andrew T

    2010-08-01

    The analysis and representation of visual cues to self-motion (egomotion) is primarily associated with cortical areas MST, VIP, and (recently) cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv). Various other areas, including visual areas V6 and V6A, and vestibular areas parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), putative area 2v (p2v), and 3aNv, are also potentially suited to processing egomotion (in some cases based on multisensory cues), but it is not known whether they are in fact involved in this process. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we presented human participants with 2 types of random dot kinematograms. Both contained coherent motion but one simulated egomotion while the other did not. An area in the parieto-occipital sulcus that may correspond to V6, PIVC, and p2v were all differentially responsive to egomotion-compatible visual stimuli, suggesting that they may be involved in encoding egomotion. More generally, we show that the use of such stimuli provides a simple and reliable fMRI localizer for human PIVC and p2v, which hitherto required galvanic or caloric stimulation to be identified. PMID:20034998

  5. Effects of microgravity on vestibular ontogeny: direct physiological and anatomical measurements following space flight (STS-29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Fermin, C.; Hester, P. Y.; Vellinger, J.

    1993-01-01

    Does space flight change gravity receptor development? The present study measured vestibular form and function in birds flown as embryos for 5 days in earth orbit (STS-29). No major changes in vestibular gross morphology were found. Vestibular response mean amplitudes and latencies were unaffected by space flight. However, the results of measuring vestibular thresholds were mixed and abnormal responses in 3 of the 8 flight animals raise important questions.

  6. Evaluation of the chemical model of vestibular lesions induced by arsanilate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaux, G. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France) [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Chabbert, C.; Gaboyard-Niay, S.; Travo, C. [INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier, Montpellier, F-34090,France (France)] [INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier, Montpellier, F-34090,France (France); Machado, M.L. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France) [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Denise, P. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France) [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Comoz, F. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d'anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France)] [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d'anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Hitier, M. [CHRU Caen, Service d'Otorhinolaryngologie, Caen, F-14000,France (France)] [CHRU Caen, Service d'Otorhinolaryngologie, Caen, F-14000,France (France); Landemore, G. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d'anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France)] [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d'anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Philoxène, B. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France) [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Besnard, S., E-mail: besnard-s@phycog.org [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France)

    2012-01-01

    Several animal models of vestibular deficits that mimic the human pathology phenotype have previously been developed to correlate the degree of vestibular injury to cognate vestibular deficits in a time-dependent manner. Sodium arsanilate is one of the most commonly used substances for chemical vestibular lesioning, but it is not well described in the literature. In the present study, we used histological and functional approaches to conduct a detailed exploration of the model of vestibular lesions induced by transtympanic injection of sodium arsanilate in rats. The arsanilate-induced damage was restricted to the vestibular sensory organs without affecting the external ear, the oropharynx, or Scarpa's ganglion. This finding strongly supports the absence of diffusion of arsanilate into the external ear or Eustachian tubes, or through the eighth cranial nerve sheath leading to the brainstem. One of the striking observations of the present study is the complete restructuring of the sensory epithelia into a non sensory epithelial monolayer observed at 3 months after arsanilate application. This atrophy resembles the monolayer epithelia observed postmortem in the vestibular epithelia of patients with a history of lesioned vestibular deficits such as labyrinthectomy, antibiotic treatment, vestibular neuritis, or Ménière's disease. In cases of Ménière's disease, aminoglycosides, and platinum-based chemotherapy, vestibular hair cells are destroyed, regardless of the physiopathological process, as reproduced with the arsanilate model of vestibular lesion. These observations, together with those presented in this study of arsanilate vestibular toxicity, suggest that this atrophy process relies on a common mechanism of degeneration of the sensory epithelia.

  7. Tell me your vestibular deficit, and i'll tell you how you'll compensate.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Michel; Dutheil, Sophie; Tighilet, Brahim; Lopez, Christophe; Borel, Liliane

    2009-05-01

    Most patients with unilateral vestibular loss exhibit a similar static and dynamic vestibular syndrome consisting of vestibulo-ocular, posturolocomotor, and perceptive deficits. This vestibular syndrome recovers more or less completely and more or less rapidly over time. One open question is whether recovery mechanisms differ according to vestibular pathology and/or patients. It is reported here (1) data from three different cat models of unilateral vestibular loss reproducing vestibular pathology with sudden (unilateral vestibular neurectomy [UVN] model), gradual (unilateral labyrinthectomy [UL] model), or reversible (tetrodotoxine [TTX]) model) loss of vestibular function, and (2) clinical observations in a population of unilateral vestibular loss patients suffering the same pathology (Menière's disease). Animal models show that time courses and mechanisms of recovery depend on the type of vestibular deafferentation, and clinical findings show that Menière's patients compensate their postural and perceptive deficits using different vicarious processes. Taken together, results point to a more complex picture of compensation after unilateral vestibular loss, which cannot be reduced either to a common recovery mechanism or to a single process identical for all individuals. These findings should guide physiotherapists in treatment and rehabilitation for vestibular deficits. PMID:19645911

  8. What Peripheral Vestibular Manipulations Reveal about the Function and Plasticity in the Primate Oculomotor System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn D. Newlands; Dora E. Angelaki

    2006-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the vestibular system are results from experiments where distinct manipulations of the peripheral vestibular apparatus have been used to characterize deficits and recovery of neural and reflexive responses. Using the primate oculomotor system as a focus, we summarize here recent advances where peripheral vestibular manipulations have revealed important properties of

  9. Convergence of sensory inputs upon projection neurons of somatosensory cortex: Vestibular, neck, head, and forelimb inputs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Zarzecki; P. S. Blum; D. A. Bakker; D. Herman

    1983-01-01

    Cortico-cortical neurons and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons of the cat cerebral cortex were tested for convergent inputs from electrically stimulated vestibular, neck, head and forelimb nerves. Neurons were recorded within forelimb and vestibular projection regions of cortical area 3a. Consideration was given to both suprathreshold and subthreshold inputs. Neither vestibular, neck nor head inputs were detected in the forelimb region

  10. Vestibular nuclei activity during optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN) in the alert monkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Waespe; V. Henn

    1977-01-01

    Neurons which receive an input from the horizontal semicircular canals were recorded from the vestibular nuclei in chronically prepared monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN). In complete darkness the vestibular neurons showed activity changes which closely paralleled the strength of nystagmus. The activity of vestibular units returned to baseline levels of spontaneous discharge only when all after-nystagmus had ceased,

  11. Otolith-Canal Convergence In Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Si, Xiao-Hong

    2002-01-01

    The current final report covers the period from June 1, 1999 to May 31, 2002. The primary objective of the investigation was to determine how information regarding head movements and head position relative to gravity is received and processed by central vestibular nuclei neurons in the brainstem. Specialized receptors in the vestibular labyrinths of the inner ear function to detect angular and linear accelerations of the head, with receptors located in the semicircular canals transducing rotational head movements and receptors located in the otolith organs transducing changes in head position relative to gravity or linear accelerations of the head. The information from these different receptors is then transmitted to central vestibular nuclei neurons which process the input signals, then project the appropriate output information to the eye, head, and body musculature motor neurons to control compensatory reflexes. Although a number of studies have reported on the responsiveness of vestibular nuclei neurons, it has not yet been possible to determine precisely how these cells combine the information from the different angular and linear acceleration receptors into a correct neural output signal. In the present project, rotational and linear motion stimuli were separately delivered while recording responses from vestibular nuclei neurons that were characterized according to direct input from the labyrinth and eye movement sensitivity. Responses from neurons receiving convergent input from the semicircular canals and otolith organs were quantified and compared to non-convergent neurons.

  12. Subjective postural vertical in peripheral and central vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, A R; Anastasopoulos, D; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1995-01-01

    The perception of subjective postural vertical was assessed in normals and patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders and spasmodic torticollis. The subjects were seated in a motorized gimbal with the head and torso restrained and their eyes closed. The gimbal executed 7-10 cycles of tilt around the vertical at 1.5 degrees/s in either pitch or roll. Subjects indicated when they began to feel upright and again when they began to feel tilted by an analogous 3-position joystick. Normal subjects felt upright within a sector of 5-6 degrees around vertical in pitch and roll. Five patients with absent vestibular function, 25 torticollis patients and 3 patients with acute unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions showed a significant increase of the sector in pitch and roll, but only the latter had a mild directional bias. Two patients with long standing complete unilateral vestibular deficit and 8 patients with up or downbeat nystagmus in the vicinity of upright had abnormally large sectors within which they felt to be upright. The results suggest that vestibular function is important for the accurate perception of the postural vertical and that a directional asymmetry in vestibulo-ocular function or a head tilt does not necessarily correlate with a directional bias of subjective verticality. PMID:8749084

  13. The bilateral central vestibular system: its pathways, functions, and disorders.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The bilateral anatomical organization of the vestibular system provides three functional advantages: optimal differentiation of head motion and orientation, sensory substitution of a unilateral peripheral failure, and central compensation of a peripheral or central vestibular tone imbalance. The structure is based on bilaterally ascending and descending pathways and at least four crossings: three in the brain stem and one in the cortex. The resulting sensorimotor functions can be subdivided into three major groups: (1) reflexive control of gaze, head, and body in three spatial planes (yaw, pitch, roll) at the brain stem/cerebellar level; (2) perception of self-motion and control of voluntary movement and balance at the cortical/subcortical level; and (3) higher vestibular cognitive functions (e.g., spatial memory and navigation). The bilateral representation of the vestibular system in multiple multisensory cortical areas and the vestibular dominance of the nondominant hemisphere raise the question of how one global percept of motion and orientation in space is formed. PMID:25581203

  14. Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation during human walking.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, R C; Wardman, D L; Taylor, J L

    1999-06-15

    1. To identify vestibular influences on human walking, galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied to normal adult subjects as they walked to a previously seen target. A transmastoidal step stimulus commenced as subjects started walking. With the eyes shut, the galvanic stimulus caused large turns towards the side with the anodal current. 2. Ability to perceive the trajectory of gait without visual cues was measured by guiding blindfolded subjects from one arbitrary point to another, either walking or seated in a wheelchair. On reaching a destination position and removing the blindfold, subjects pointed to indicate the starting position. Subjects made considerable errors in estimating the trajectory, but were equally accurate whether in the wheelchair or walking. 3. To determine the effects of vestibular stimulation on the perception of trajectory, the galvanic stimulus was applied to blindfolded subjects as they were guided from one point to another in the wheelchair. The vestibular stimulus produced an illusory shift in the trajectory travelled. This shift was towards the side with the cathode, i.e. in the opposite direction to the turn produced by the stimulus during walking. 4. We conclude that galvanic vestibular stimulation during walking causes subjects to turn from their planned trajectory. In part, this altered course may compensate for an altered perception of trajectory produced by the stimulus. However, altered perception of the vertical or the base of support, or direct vestibulo-fugal influences on the leg muscles could contribute to the changes in gait. PMID:10358131

  15. Microgravity vestibular investigations (10-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1992-01-01

    Our perception of how we are oriented in space is dependent on the interaction of virtually every sensory system. For example, to move about in our environment we integrate inputs in our brain from visual, haptic (kinesthetic, proprioceptive, and cutaneous), auditory systems, and labyrinths. In addition to this multimodal system for orientation, our expectations about the direction and speed of our chosen movement are also important. Changes in our environment and the way we interact with the new stimuli will result in a different interpretation by the nervous system of the incoming sensory information. We will adapt to the change in appropriate ways. Because our orientation system is adaptable and complex, it is often difficult to trace a response or change in behavior to any one source of information in this synergistic orientation system. However, with a carefully designed investigation, it is possible to measure signals at the appropriate level of response (both electrophysiological and perceptual) and determine the effect that stimulus rearrangement has on our sense of orientation. The environment of orbital flight represents the stimulus arrangement that is our immediate concern. The Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI) represent a group of experiments designed to investigate the effects of orbital flight and a return to Earth on our orientation system.

  16. Vestibular neurectomy with simultaneous endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt.

    PubMed

    Göksu, Nebil; Bayazit, Yildirim A; Abdulhalik, Abdullah; Kemalo?lu, Yusuf K

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages of combined vestibular neurectomy (VN) and endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt (ELSS) surgeries in classic Menière's disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of the results of 116 patients with classic Menière's disease who were operated on via a posterior fossa approach. All patients underwent selective VN. In 86 of the patients, ELSS surgery was performed in conjunction with VN via the posterior fossa, which is called two-in-one surgery. Among the 86 patients who underwent two-in-one surgery, hearing preservation was achieved in 71 (82.5%), and the vertigo control rate was 96.5%. In patients who underwent VN without ELSS, hearing stabilization was achieved in 24 (80%), and the vertigo control rate was 96.7%. The hearing results and vertigo control rates were similar in the groups. Aural fullness subsided in 62 (72.1%) of the patients who underwent VN plus ELSS and in 14 (46.7%) who underwent VN alone. The recovery of fullness was significantly better with the combined VN and ELSS procedure ( P<0.05). In conclusion, although the two-in-one operation is a new procedure, its results for vertigo control and hearing stabilization are not different from that of VN alone. The only significant advantage of this technique was the achievement of a substantial improvement in the reduction of aural fullness. PMID:12107526

  17. Vestibular afferent responses to microrotational stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1991-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode recording/labeling techniques were used to investigate vestibular afferent responses in the bullfrog, to very small amplitude (less than 5 deg p-p) sinusoidal rotations in the vertical plane over the frequency range of 0.063-4 Hz. Robust responses to peak accelerations as low as 0.031 deg/sec per sec were obtained from units subsequently traced to either the central portion of the anterior canal crista or the striolar region of the utricle. All of these microrotationally sensitive afferent neurons had irregular resting discharge rates, and the majority had transfer ratios (relative to rotational velocity) of 1-40 spikes/sec per deg/sec. Individual utricular afferent velocity transfer ratios were nearly constant over the frequency range of 0.125-4 Hz. Canal units displayed decreasing response transfer ratios as stimulus frequencies increased. These findings indicate that, although utricular striolar and central crista afferent velocity transfer ratios to microrotations were very similar, utricular striolar afferent neurons were more faithful sensors of very small amplitude rotational velocity in the vertical plane.

  18. Efficacy of electrotactile vestibular substitution in patients with bilateral vestibular and central balance loss.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Y P; Tyler, M E; Skinner, K L; Bach-y-Rita, P

    2006-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) of both central and peripheral origin experience multiple problems with balance and posture control, movement, and abnormal gait.Wicab, Inc. has developed the BrainPort balance device to transmit head position/orientation information normally provided by the vestibular system to the brain through a substitute sensory channel: electrotactile stimulation of the tongue. Head-orientation data (artificially sensed) serves as the input signal for the BrainPort balance device to control the movement of a small pattern of stimulation on the tongue that relates to head position in real-time. With training, the brain learns to appropriately interpret the information from the device and utilize it to function as it would with data from a normal-functioning natural sense. Ina total of 40 subjects trained with the BrainPort, 18 have been tested using standardized quantitative measurements of the treatment effects. A specialized set of exercises, testing, and training procedures has been developed that may serve as the course of intensive physical therapy with the BrainPort balance device. Our results demonstrate consistent positive and statistically significant balance rehabilitation effects independent of aging and etiology of balance deficit. PMID:17959464

  19. A real-time research platform to study vestibular implants with gyroscopic inputs in vestibular deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T A Khoa; Ranieri, Maurizio; DiGiovanna, Jack; Peter, Otto; Genovese, Vincenzo; Perez Fornos, Angelica; Micera, Silvestro

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have succeeded in partly restoring damaged vestibular functionality in several animal models. Recently, acute interventions have also been demonstrated in human patients. Our previous work on a vestibular implant for humans used predefined stimulation patterns; here we present a research tool that facilitates motion-modulated stimulation. This requires a system that can process gyroscope measurements and send stimulation parameters to a hybrid vestibular-cochlear implant in real-time. To match natural vestibular latencies, the time from sensor input to stimulation output should not exceed 6.5 ms. We describe a system based on National Instrument's CompactRIO platform that can meet this requirement and also offers floating point precision for advanced transfer functions. It is designed for acute clinical interventions, and is sufficiently powerful and flexible to serve as a development platform for evaluating prosthetic control strategies. Amplitude and pulse frequency modulation to predetermined functions or sensor inputs have been validated. The system has been connected to human patients, who each have received a modified MED-EL cochlear implant for vestibular stimulation, and patient tests are ongoing. PMID:25073124

  20. Vestibular Labyrinth Contributions to Human Whole-Body Motion Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Valko, Yulia; Lewis, Richard F.; Priesol, Adrian J.; Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the contributions of the vestibular system to whole-body motion discrimination in the dark, we measured direction-recognition thresholds as a function of frequency for yaw rotation, superior-inferior translation (“z-translation”), inter-aural translation (“y-translation”), and roll-tilt for 14 normal subjects and for three patients following total bilateral vestibular ablation. The patients had significantly higher average threshold measurements than normal (p<0.01) for yaw-rotation (depending upon frequency, 5.4× to 15.7× greater), z-translation (8.3× to 56.8× greater), y-translation (1.7× to 4.5× greater), and roll tilt (1.3× to 3.0× greater) – establishing the predominant contributions of the vestibular system for these motions in the dark. PMID:23015443

  1. Visual gravitational motion and the vestibular system in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The visual system is poorly sensitive to arbitrary accelerations, but accurately detects the effects of gravity on a target motion. Here we review behavioral and neuroimaging data about the neural mechanisms for dealing with object motion and egomotion under gravity. The results from several experiments show that the visual estimates of a target motion under gravity depend on the combination of a prior of gravity effects with on-line visual signals on target position and velocity. These estimates are affected by vestibular inputs, and are encoded in a visual-vestibular network whose core regions lie within or around the Sylvian fissure, and are represented by the posterior insula/retroinsula/temporo-parietal junction. This network responds both to target motions coherent with gravity and to vestibular caloric stimulation in human fMRI studies. Transient inactivation of the temporo-parietal junction selectively disrupts the interception of targets accelerated by gravity. PMID:24421761

  2. [The present status of vestibular testing (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minnigerode, B

    1977-02-01

    Proceeding from the standard aims of every vestibular test, modern fine-quantitative investigatory methods with or without electronystagmographic recording in opposition to the systematic search for spontaneous and provoked nystagmus are presented with a view to their value for medical practice. Examination of spontaneous nystagmus and provoked nystagmus including the fistula symptom and coarse-quantitative excitability tests still represents the most important and most profitable part of the vestibular investigation. For modern research methods standardization of nomenclature and restriction of their plurality are as necessary as a method, which takes in not only single parameters but the whole data contents of vestibular reactions. The practicability of the method is documented by the author's own research work in this field. PMID:320167

  3. Microendoscopy of the internal auditory canal in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Tatagiba, M; Matthies, C; Samii, M

    1996-04-01

    Intraoperative microendoscopy was performed for eight patients to access the fundus of the internal auditory canal after retrosigmoid transmeatal surgery of vestibular schwannomas. The transmeatal procedure is usually limited laterally by the labyrinth block. The restricted opening of the internal auditory canal bears a potential risk of incomplete tumor resection. For eight patients with vestibular schwannomas, intraoperative microendoscopy was performed after tumor resection to expose the "blind" area of the internal auditory canal fundus. An excellent view of the fundus contents was obtained, including Cranial Nerves VII and VIII and the crista transversa. Tumor remnants were not observed in this series. Microendoscopy was shown to be an ideal adjunct to hearing-preserving transmeatal surgery of vestibular schwannomas, enabling the removal of intracanalicular tumors with direct control of the lateral intracanalicular nerve portions. PMID:8692393

  4. Neural basis for eye velocity generation in the vestibular nuclei of alert monkeys during off-vertical axis rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey Reisine; Theodore Raphan

    1992-01-01

    Activity of “vestibular only” (VO) and “vestibular plus saccade” (VPS) units was recorded in the rostral part of the medial vestibular nucleus and caudal part of the superior vestibular nucleus of alert rhesus monkeys. By estimating the “null axes” of recorded units (n = 79), the optimal plane of activation was approximately the mean plane of reciprocal semicircular canals, i.e.,

  5. Plasticity during Vestibular Compensation: The Role of Saccades

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Hamish Gavin; Curthoys, Ian S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on one major aspect of compensation: the recent measures of saccadic responses to high acceleration head turns during human vestibular compensation and their possible implications for recovery after unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). New measurement techniques have provided additional insights into how patients recover after UVL and have given clues for vestibular rehabilitation. Prior to this it has not been possible to quantify the level of function of all the peripheral vestibular sense organs. Now it is. By using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to measure utricular and saccular function and by new video head impulse testing to measure semicircular canal function to natural values of head accelerations. With these new video procedures it is now possible to measure both slow phase eye velocity and also saccades during head movements with natural values of angular acceleration. The present evidence is that after UVL there is little or no restoration/compensation of slow phase eye velocity responses to natural head accelerations. It is doubtful as to whether the modest changes in slow phase eye velocity to small angular accelerations are functionally effective during compensation. On the other hand it is now clear that saccades can play a very important role in helping patients compensate and return to a normal lifestyle. Preliminary evidence suggests that different patterns of saccadic response may predict how well patients recover. Furthermore it may be possible to train patients to produce more effective saccadic patterns in the first days after their unilateral loss and possibly improve their compensation process. Some patients do learn new strategies, new behaviors, to conceal their inadequate vestibulo-ocular response but when those strategies are prevented from operating by using passive, unpredictable, high acceleration natural head movements, as in the head impulse test, the vestibular loss can be demonstrated. It is those very strategies which the tests exclude, which may be the cause of their successful compensation. PMID:22403569

  6. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the chicken embryo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were recorded in chicken embryos incubated for 19 or 20 days (E19/E20). Responses occurred within the first 16 ms following the stimulus onset. The evoked potentials disappeared following bilateral labyrinthectomy, but persisted following cochlear destruction alone, thus demonstrating that the responses were vestibular. Approximately 8 to 10 response peaks could be identified. The first 4 positive and corresponding negative components (early peaks with latencies < 6.0 ms) were scored and latencies and amplitudes quantified. Vestibular response latencies were significantly longer (P < 0.01) and amplitudes significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than those observed in 2-week-old birds. Mean response threshold for anesthetized embryos was -15.9dBre 1.0 g/ms, which was significantly higher (P < 0.03) than those observed in 2-week-old birds (-23.0dBre 1.0 g/ms). Latency/intensity functions (that is, slopes) were not significantly different between embryos and 2-week-old animals, but amplitude/intensity functions for embryos were significantly shallower than those for 2-week-old birds (P < 0.001). We presume that these differences reflect the refinement of sensory function that occurs following 19 to 20 days of incubation. The recording of vestibular evoked potentials provides an objective, direct and noninvasive measure of peripheral vestibular function in the embryo and, as such, the method shows promise as an investigative tool. The results of the present study form the definitive basis for using vestibular evoked potentials in the detailed study of avian vestibular ontogeny and factors that may influence it.

  7. Interrelated striated elements in vestibular hair cells of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Bourne, C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of interrelated striated organelles in types I and II vestibular hair cells of the rat which appear to be less developed in cochlear hair cells have been revealed by unusual fixation procedures, suggesting that contractile elements may play a role in sensory transduction in the inner ear, especially in the vestibular system. Included in the series of interrelated striated elements are the cuticular plate and its basal attachments to the hair cell margins, the connections of the strut array of the kinociliary basal body to the cuticular plate, and striated organelles associated with the plasma membrane and extending below the apical junctional complexes.

  8. Ernst Mach on the vestibular organ 100 years ago.

    PubMed

    Henn, V; Young, L R

    1975-01-01

    Ernst Mach (1838-1916) performed pioneering research on vestibular function 100 years ago. His experiments were mainly psychophysical and included measurements of threshold and study of the vestibular-visual interaction. Contrary to general belief, he concluded that the adequate stimulus for the semicircular canals must be pressure. He presented evidence specifically against the sustained endolymph flow theory of Breuer (1874) and Crum Brown (1874), with which he is frequently associated. Excerpts from his publications are given and their relevance to current research is discussed. PMID:1093083

  9. Repeated treatment of vestibular schwannomas after gamma knife radiosurgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Liscak; Vilibald Vladyka; Dusan Urgosik; Gabriela Simonova; Josef Vymazal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  When gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) does not achieve control of the growth of a tumour, the need to repeat treatment is considered.\\u000a The results and risks of repeat treatment of patients with a vestibular schwannoma were reviewed to assess its efficacy and\\u000a safety.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 1992 and 2001, we treated 351 patients with a vestibular schwannoma by GKS, control of the

  10. The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Iwasaki; Y. Chihara; Y. E. Smulders; A. M. Burgess; G. M. Halmagyi; I. S. Curthoys; T. Murofushi

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveThe n10 component (n10) of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) to brief bone conducted vibration (BCV) of the forehead at Fz is probably caused by the vibration selectively activating vestibular otolithic receptors. If the n10 is due primarily to utricular activation then diseases which affect only the superior division of the vestibular nerve (SVN) should reduce or eliminate

  11. Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: fj.lagerwaard@vumc.nl; Meijer, Otto W.M.; Hoorn, Elles A.P. van der; Verbakel, Wilko; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (RapidArc [RA]), a novel approach allowing for rapid treatment delivery, for the treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: The RA plans were generated for a small (0.5 cm{sup 3}), intermediate (2.8 cm{sup 3}), and large (14.8 cm{sup 3}) VS. The prescription dose was 12.5 Gy to the encompassing 80% isodose. The RA plans were compared with conventional radiosurgery plans using both a single dynamic conformal arc (1DCA) and five noncoplanar dynamic conformal arcs (5DCA). Conformity indices (CI) and dose-volume histograms of critical organs were compared. The RA plan for the medium-sized VS was measured in a phantom using Gafchromic EBT films and compared with calculated dose distributions. Results: The RA planning was completed within 30 min in all cases, and calculated treatment delivery time (after patient setup) was 5 min vs. 20 min for 5DCA. A superior CI was achieved with RA, with a substantial decrease in low-dose irradiation of the normal brain achieved relative to 5DCA plans. Maximum doses to critical organs were similar for RA and 5DCA but were higher for 1DCA. Film measurements showed the differences between calculated and measured doses to be smaller than 1.5% in the high-dose area and smaller than 3% in the low-dose area. Conclusion: The RA plans consistently achieved a higher CI and decrease in areas of low-dose irradiation. This, together with shorter treatment delivery times, has led to RA replacing our conventional five-arc radiosurgery technique for VS.

  12. Multisession stereotactic radiosurgery for large vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Casentini, Leopoldo; Fornezza, Umberto; Perini, Zeno; Perissinotto, Egle; Colombo, Federico

    2015-04-01

    OBJECT Microsurgery is not the only option for larger vestibular schwannomas (VSs); recent reviews have confirmed the feasibility and efficacy of radiosurgery for larger VSs. This study illustrates the outcomes of a series of large VSs after multisession stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). METHODS A series of 33 VSs larger than 8 cm(3) (range 8-24 cm(3), mean 11 cm(3), median 9.4 cm(3)) were treated using the CyberKnife from 2003 to 2011 with the multisession SRS technique in 2-5 fractions (14-19.5 Gy). Five patients had undergone surgical removal and 5 had ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Nine patients were eligible for but refused surgery. Twelve patients were older than 70 years and 5 were younger than 40 years. Two female patients had neurofibromatosis. RESULTS The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 111 months (median 48 months); radiological growth control was achieved in 94% of cases: 19 tumors (58%) displayed no size variation or reduction in tumor diameter; 12 (36%), after a transient enlargement, presented with arrested growth or shrinkage. Seven patients had a volume reduction of more than 50%. Two patients (6%) needed debulking and 2 were treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Actuarial progressionfree survival rates at 1 year and 5 years were 97% and 83%, respectively. Hearing was retained in 7 of the 8 patients with serviceable baseline hearing. Adverse events were limited to 1 case each of vertigo, tongue paresthesia, and trigeminal neuralgia. CONCLUSIONS The good control rate obtained with multisession SRS deepens the controversy of the radiobiology of VSs and may extend the indication of radiation therapy (fractionated or SRS) for large VSs to include patients without symptoms of mass effect. The limited number of cases and short follow-up period do not provide sufficient support for widespread application of multisession SRS in young patients. Further studies with multisession SRS are warranted. PMID:25594321

  13. [Vestibular migraine: diagnostic criteria. Consensus document of the Bárány Society and the International headache society].

    PubMed

    Lempert, T; Olesen, J; Furman, J; Waterston, J; Seemungal, B; Carey, J; Bisdorff, A; Versino, M; Evers, S; Newman-Toker, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine, jointly formulated by the Committee for Classification of Vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society and the Migraine Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The classification includes vestibular migraine and probable vestibular migraine. Vestibular migraine will appear in an appendix of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) as a first step for new entities, in accordance with the usual IHS procedures. Probable vestibular migraine may be included in a later version of the ICHD, when further evidence has been accumulated. The diagnosis of vestibular migraine is based on recurrent vestibular symptoms, a history of migraine, a temporal association between vestibular symptoms and migraine symptoms and exclusion of other causes of vestibular symptoms. Symptoms that qualify for a diagnosis of vestibular migraine include various types of vertigo as well as head motion-induced dizziness with nausea. Symptoms must be of moderate or severe intensity. Duration of acute episodes is limited to a window of between 5minutes and 72hours. PMID:24856283

  14. Anterograde tracing of projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus to the vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, A L; Balaban, C D

    2006-12-01

    This study used the anterograde transport of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to identify the course and terminal distribution of projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to the vestibular nuclei in rats. After iontophoretic injection of BDA into the medial and lateral regions of DRN, anterogradely labeled fibers descend within the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the ventricular fiber plexus to terminate within two discrete regions of the vestibular nuclear complex. One terminal field was located primarily ipsilateral to the injection site and involved rostrodorsal aspects of the vestibular nuclei, including superior vestibular nucleus and rostral portions of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). The other terminal field involved caudoventral aspects of both ipsilateral and contralateral MVN and LVN and was less heavily innervated. These findings confirm that the vestibular nuclei are targeted by a regionally-selective projection from the DRN. The segregation of DRN terminals into anatomically distinct fields indicates that the DRN-vestibular nucleus projections are organized to selectively modulate processing within specific functional domains of the vestibular nuclear complex. In particular, these terminal fields may be organized to modulate vestibular regions involved in eye movement-related velocity storage, coordination of vestibular and affective responses, and the bilateral coordination of horizontal eye movement reflexes. PMID:16989955

  15. Plasticity of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in morphologically defined vestibular nuclei neurons during early vestibular compensation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Mei; Hirsch, June C.

    2012-01-01

    After unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions, the brain plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus offer a subset of morphologically defined vestibular nuclei neurons to study functional changes after vestibular lesions. Chickens show posture and balance deficits immediately after unilateral vestibular ganglionectomy (UVG), but by 3 days most subjects begin to recover, although some remain uncompensated. With the use of whole cell voltage-clamp, spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) and miniature excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs) were recorded from principal cells in brain slices 1 and 3 days after UVG. One day after UVG, sEPSC frequency increased on the lesion side and remained elevated at 3 days in uncompensated chickens only. Also by 3 days, sIPSC frequency increased on the lesion side in all operated chickens due to major increases in GABAergic events. Significant change also occurred in decay time of the events. To determine whether fluctuations in frequency and kinetics influenced overall excitatory or inhibitory synaptic drive, synaptic charge transfer was calculated. Principal cells showed significant increase in excitatory synaptic charge transfer only on the lesion side of uncompensated chickens. Thus compensation continues when synaptic charge transfer is in balance bilaterally. Furthermore, excessive excitatory drive in principal cells on the lesion side may prevent vestibular compensation. Altogether, this work is important for it defines the time course and excitatory and inhibitory nature of changing spontaneous synaptic inputs to a morphologically defined subset of vestibular nuclei neurons during critical early stages of recovery after UVG. PMID:21957228

  16. The Role of Cervical and Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in the Assessment of Patients with Vestibular Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Darlington, Cynthia; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Lamas, Georges; de Waele, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical utility of VEMPs in patients suffering from unilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS) and to determine the optimal stimulation parameter (air conducted sound, bone conducted vibration) for evaluating the function of the vestibular nerve. Methods Data were obtained in 63 patients with non-operated VS, and 20 patients operated on VS. Vestibular function was assessed by caloric, cervical and ocular VEMP testing. 37/63 patients with conclusive ACS ocular VEMPs responses were studied separately. Results In the 63 non-operated VS patients, cVEMPs were abnormal in 65.1% of patients in response to AC STB and in 49.2% of patients to AC clicks. In the 37/63 patients with positive responses from the unaffected side, oVEMPs were abnormal in 75.7% of patients with ACS, in 67.6% with AFz and in 56.8% with mastoid BCV stimulation. In 16% of the patients, VEMPs were the only abnormal test (normal caloric and normal hearing). Among the 26 patients who did not show oVEMP responses on either side with ACS, oVEMPs responses could be obtained with AFz (50%) and with mastoid stimulation (89%). Conclusions The VEMP test demonstrated significant clinical value as it yielded the only abnormal test results in some patients suffering from a unilateral vestibular schwannoma. For oVEMPs, we suggest that ACS stimulation should be the initial test. In patients who responded to ACS and who had normal responses, BCV was not required. In patients with abnormal responses on the affected side using ACS, BCV at AFz should be used to confirm abnormal function of the superior vestibular nerve. In patients who exhibited no responses on either side to ACS, BCV was the only approach allowing assessment of the function of the superior vestibular nerve. We favor using AFz stimulation first because it is easier to perform in clinical practice than mastoid stimulation. PMID:25137289

  17. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  18. Stochastic hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Fourth IAHR International Symposium on Stochastic Hydraulics, cosponsored by AGU and the American Society of Civil Engineers, will be held July 31-August 2, 1984, at Urbana, 111. About 40 papers selected from submitted abstracts will be presented in the symposium.Topics covered will include (but not be limited to) the following areas: risk and reliability analysis; safety of dams and other hydraulic structures; stochastic models; and stochastic processes of hydraulic and hydrologic phenomena such as turbulence, sediment transport, dispersion and diffusion, and random waves.The proceedings of the Second International Conference, held in Urbana, Illinois, in June 1981, are available from Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo., under the title, “Urban Stormwater Hydraulics and Hydrology” and “Urban Stormwater Quality, Management, and Planning.”

  19. Organization of projections from the raphe nuclei to the vestibular nuclei in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberstadt, A. L.; Balaban, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous anatomic and electrophysiological evidence suggests that serotonin modulates processing in the vestibular nuclei. This study examined the organization of projections from serotonergic raphe nuclei to the vestibular nuclei in rats. The distribution of serotonergic axons in the vestibular nuclei was visualized immunohistochemically in rat brain slices using antisera directed against the serotonin transporter. The density of serotonin transporter-immunopositive fibers is greatest in the superior vestibular nucleus and the medial vestibular nucleus, especially along the border of the fourth ventricle; it declines in more lateral and caudal regions of the vestibular nuclear complex. After unilateral iontophoretic injections of Fluoro-Gold into the vestibular nuclei, retrogradely labeled neurons were found in the dorsal raphe nucleus (including the dorsomedial, ventromedial and lateral subdivisions) and nucleus raphe obscurus, and to a minor extent in nucleus raphe pallidus and nucleus raphe magnus. The combination of retrograde tracing with serotonin immunohistofluorescence in additional experiments revealed that the vestibular nuclei receive both serotonergic and non-serotonergic projections from raphe nuclei. Tracer injections in densely innervated regions (especially the medial and superior vestibular nuclei) were associated with the largest numbers of Fluoro-Gold-labeled cells. Differences were observed in the termination patterns of projections from the individual raphe nuclei. Thus, the dorsal raphe nucleus sends projections that terminate predominantly in the rostral and medial aspects of the vestibular nuclear complex, while nucleus raphe obscurus projects relatively uniformly throughout the vestibular nuclei. Based on the topographical organization of raphe input to the vestibular nuclei, it appears that dense projections from raphe nuclei are colocalized with terminal fields of flocculo-nodular lobe and uvula Purkinje cells. It is hypothesized that raphe-vestibular connections are organized to selectively modulate processing in regions of the vestibular nuclear complex that receive input from specific cerebellar zones. This represents a potential mechanism whereby motor activity and behavioral arousal could influence the activity of cerebellovestibular circuits.

  20. Can Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials Help Differentiate Ménière Disease from Vestibular Migraine?

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, M. Geraldine; Janky, Kristen L.; Schubert, Michael C.; Carey, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize both cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP, oVEMP) responses to air-conducted sound (ACS) and midline taps in Ménière disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and controls, as well as to determine if cVEMP or oVEMP responses can differentiate MD from VM. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Unilateral definite MD patients (n = 20), VM patients (n = 21) by modified Neuhauser criteria, and age-matched controls (n = 28). cVEMP testing used ACS (clicks), and oVEMP testing used ACS (clicks and 500-Hz tone bursts) and midline tap stimuli (reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker). Outcome parameters were cVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes and oVEMP n10 amplitudes. Results Relative to controls, MD and VM groups both showed reduced click-evoked cVEMP (P < .001) and oVEMP (P < .001) amplitudes. Only the MD group showed reduction in tone-evoked amplitudes for oVEMP. Tone-evoked oVEMPs differentiated MD from controls (P = .001) and from VM (P = .007). The oVEMPs in response to the reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker midline taps showed no differences between groups (P > .210). Conclusions Using these techniques, VM and MD behaved similarly on most of the VEMP test battery. A link in their pathophysiology may be responsible for these responses. The data suggest a difference in 500-Hz tone burst–evoked oVEMP responses between MD and MV as a group. However, no VEMP test that was investigated segregated individuals with MD from those with VM. PMID:22267492

  1. New neurons in the vestibular nuclei complex after unilateral vestibular neurectomy in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, Brahim; Brezun, Jean Michel; Sylvie, Gustave Dit Duflo; Gaubert, Céline; Lacour, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Recent findings revealed a reactive neurogenesis after lesions and in several models of disease. After unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN), we previously reported gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons are upregulated in the vestibular nuclei (VN) in the adult cat. Here, we ask whether this upregulation of GABAergic neurons resulted from a reactive neurogenesis. To determine the time course of cell proliferation in response to UVN, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 3 h, 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after UVN. We investigated the survival and differentiation in UVN cats injected with BrdU at 3 days and perfused 30 days after UVN. Results show a high number of BrdU-immunoreactive nuclei in the deafferented VN with a peak at 3 days after UVN and a decrease at 30 days. Most of the newly generated cells survived up to 1 month after UVN and gave rise to a variety of cell types. Confocal analysis revealed three cell lineages: microglial cells (OX 42/BrdU-immunoreactive cells); astrocytes [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/BrdU-immunoreactive cells]; and neurons (NeuN/BrdU-immunoreactive cells). That UVN induced new neurons was confirmed by an additional marker (nestin) expressed by neural precursor cells. We show that most of the newly generated neurons have a GABAergic phenotype [glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-67/BrdU-immunoreactive cells]. Morphological analysis showed two subtypes of GABAergic neurons: medium and small (30 vs. 10 microm, respectively). This is the first report of reactive neurogenesis in the deafferented VN in the adult mammalian CNS. PMID:17241266

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE An Observed Relationship Between Vestibular Function and

    E-print Network

    Boggess, May M.

    an association exists between vestibular function and hearing thresholds in a group of military aircraft-maintenance in Aircraft-Maintenance Workers Maya Guest, BMedSci (Hon), May Boggess, PhD, Catherine D'Este, PhD, John Attia is published on behalf of the Study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel study team

  3. Vestibular Stimulation and Development of the Small Premature Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary V.

    This study was designed to explore the effects of vestibular stimulation on the developmental behavior, respiratory functioning, weight and length gains, and morbidity and mortality rates of premature infants. A total of 20 infants participated in this study in 4 groups of 5 infants each. Group A infants were placed in a motorized hammock within…

  4. Auditory perception in vestibular neurectomy subjectsC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan-Gang Zeng; Kristina M. Martino; Fred H. Linthicum; Sigfrid D. Soli

    2000-01-01

    The auditory efferent nerve is a feedback pathway that originates in the brainstem and projects to the inner ear. Although the anatomy and physiology of efferents have been rather thoroughly described, their functional roles in auditory perception are still not clear. Here, we report data in six human subjects who had undergone vestibular neurectomy, during which their efferent nerves were

  5. Stress axis plasticity during vestibular compensation in the adult cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Tighilet; C. Manrique; M. Lacour

    2009-01-01

    The postural, ocular motor, perceptive and neurovegetative syndromes resulting from unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) symptoms could generate a stress and thereby activate the hypothalamo-pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. This study was aimed at determining whether UVN causes changes in the activity of the HPA axis, and if so, evaluating the time course of changes associated with UVN syndrome. At the cellular level,

  6. [Surgical treatment of vestibular vertigo: methods and indications].

    PubMed

    Westhofen, M

    2008-10-01

    After the failure of medical treatment of dizziness or vertigo, surgical treatment is chosen according to functional diagnosis and duration and severity of symptoms. Surgery is contraindicated in patients with incomplete vestibular compensation, central nervous disorders and bilateral vestibular deficits. Surgery is obligatory in cases of sudden loss of labyrinthine function with traumatic perilymph fistula, middle ear and temporal bone processes. Endolymphatic hydrops and pathological endolymph pressure of other etiology as impaired middle ear ventilation, EVAS or superior semicircular canal dehiscence can be treated surgically. Resurfacing of dehiscence with glas ceramic implants is presented. Occlusion of the posterior semicircular canal is restricted to extremely rare conditions with non-responders to repositioning maneuvers. Ablative procedures, such as cochleosacculotomy and vestibular neurectomy are rarely indicated. More than 85% of non-responders to conservative treatment procedures in vestibular dysfunction can be improved by means of surgical procedures. Otologists have access to procedures for differentiation, indications and therapy via the network of general practitioners and hospital physicians. PMID:18810372

  7. Recovery Mechanism of Postural Disturbance after Vestibular Neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Suzuki; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Shigeru Yoshida; Kazuyuki Kawaguchi; Yasuo Harada

    1991-01-01

    Sectioning of the unilateral vestibular nerve of the bull frog resulted in tilting of the head and the body. The angle of head tilt was periodically measured. The angle returned to 0° in an average of 7.3 weeks. A morphological study demonstrated normal structure of the sensory epithelia and a well-regenerated nerve bundle. Also, discrete action potentials could be recorded

  8. Unilateral vestibular failure suppresses cortical visual motion processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Deutschlander; K. Hufner; Roger Kalla; Thomas Stephan; Thomas Dera; Stefan Glasauer; Martin Wiesmann; Michael Strupp; Thomas Brandt

    2008-01-01

    Patients with unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) experience oscillopsia (apparent motion of the visual scene) during rapid head movements due to increased retinal slip caused by vestibulo-ocular reflex impairment. Oscillopsia is always smaller than the net retinal slip and decreases over time in patients with acquired vestibu- lar loss; this correlates with increased thresholds for visual motion detection and increased tolerance

  9. Linear Path Integration Deficits in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular Afference

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Joeanna C.; Kortte, Kathleen B.; Shelhamer, Mark; Schubert, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Effective navigation requires the ability to keep track of one’s location and maintain orientation during linear and angular displacements. Path integration is the process of updating the representation of body position by integrating internally-generated self-motion signals over time (e.g., walking in the dark). One major source of input to path integration is vestibular afference. We tested patients with reduced vestibular function (unilateral vestibular hypofunction, UVH), patients with aberrant vestibular function (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, BPPV), and healthy participants (controls) on two linear path integration tasks: experimenter-guided walking and target-directed walking. The experimenter-guided walking task revealed a systematic underestimation of self-motion signals in UVH patients compared to the other groups. However, we did not find any difference in the distance walked between the UVH group and the control group for the target-directed walking task. Results from neuropsychological testing and clinical balance measures suggest that the errors in experimenter-guided walking were not attributable to cognitive and/or balance impairments. We conclude that impairment in linear path integration in UVH patients stem from deficits in self-motion perception. Importantly, our results also suggest that patients with a UVH deficit do not lose their ability to walk accurately without vision to a memorized target location. PMID:22726251

  10. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  11. Mechanisms for vestibular disorders in space flight. Facts and hypotheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsnev, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the vestibular disorders associated with space flight. It is found there is still no complete understanding of the changes occurring in the sensory systems of the body during weightlessness. Results of studies are presented, including results of a ground model.

  12. Effects of betahistine on the vestibular receptors: binding sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hortencia Chávez; Rosario Vega; Paolo Valli; Eugenio Mira; Claudio Benvenuti; S. Guth; Enrique Soto

    2000-01-01

    Betahistine has been used to treat several vestibular disorders of both central and peripheral origin. The objective of this work has been to study the betahistine action mechanism at the peripheral level. Experiments were carried out in wild larval axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinum). Multiunit extracellular recordings were obtained from the semicircular canal nerve using a suction electrode. Betahistine (10 µM to

  13. Visual-Vestibular Sensor Integration Follows a Max-Rule

    E-print Network

    or in RANDOM ORIENTATION. Which information / modality is memorized? Is active learning important? How is opticVisual-Vestibular Sensor Integration Follows a Max-Rule: Results from Psychophysical Experiments: The textured ground plane (grass) provides optic flow information only (ACTIVE, PASSIVE, ZERO). The town scene

  14. The Development of Vestibular Connections in Rat Embryos in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Laura L.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    Existing experimental embryological data suggests that the vestibular system initially develops in a very rigid and genetically controlled manner. Nevertheless, gravity appears to be a critical factor in the normal development of the vestibular system that monitors position with respect to gravity (saccule and utricle). In fact several studies have shown that prenatal exposure to microgravity causes temporary deficits in gravity-dependent righting behaviors, and prolonged exposure to hypergravity from conception to weaning causes permanent deficits in gravity-dependent righting behaviors. Data on hypergravity and microgravity exposure suggest some changes in the otolith formation during development, in particular the size although these changes may actually vary with the species involved. In adults exposed to microgravity there is a change in the synaptic density in the otic sensory epithelia suggesting that some adaptation may occur there. However, effects have also been reported in the brainstem. Several studies have shown synaptic changes in the lateral vestibular nucleus and in the nodulus of the cerebellum after neonatal exposure to hypergravity. We report here that synaptogenesis in the medial vestibular nucleus is retarded in developing rat embryos that were exposed to microgravity from gestation days 9 to 19.

  15. Tests of walking balance for screening vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Few reliable tests are available for screening people rapidly for vestibular disorders although such tests would be useful for a variety of testing situations. Balance testing is widely performed but of unknown value for screening. The goal of this study was to determine the value of tests of walking balance for screening people with vestibular impairments. We tested three groups of patients with known vestibular impairments: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, unilateral vestibular weakness, and post-acoustic neuroma resection. We compared them to normal subjects. All subjects were independently ambulatory without gait aids. Subjects were tested on tandem walking (TW) with eyes open and eyes closed for 10 steps, walking with no additional head motions and with augmented head rotations in yaw for 7 m (WwHT), and an obstacle avoidance task, the Functional Mobility Test (FMT). Subjects wore a 3-D motion sensor centered at mid-torso to capture kinematic measures. Patients and normals differed significantly on some behavioral measures, such as the number of steps to perform TW, and on some but not all kinematic measures. ROC analyses, however, were at best only moderate, and failed to find strong differences and cut-points that would differentiate the groups. These findings suggest that although patients and normals differ in performance of these tests in some interesting ways the groups are not sufficiently different on these tests for easy use as screening tests to differentiate the populations. PMID:23000609

  16. Physiological responses of frog vestibular fibers to horizontal angular rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Precht; R. Llinás; M. Clarke

    1971-01-01

    1.Single neuronal discharges in frog's vestibular nerve were recorded in unanesthetized preparations with glass microelectrodes. The nerve fibers supplying the horizontal semicircular canal are divided into two types according to the characteristics of their frequency responses to natural stimulation of the horizontal canal. The afferent fibers increase their firing rate only on ipsilateral rotation and cease to fire on contralateral

  17. Potential solutions to several vestibular challenges facing clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Merfeld, Daniel M.; Priesol, Adrian; Lee, Daniel; Lewis, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Among other problems, patients with vestibular problems suffer imbalance, spatial disorientation, and blurred vision. These problems lead to varying degrees of disability and can be debilitating. Unfortunately, a large number of patients with vestibular complaints cannot be diagnosed with the clinical tests available today. Nor do we have treatments for all patients that we can diagnose. These clinical problems provide challenges to and opportunities for the field of vestibular research. In this paper, we discuss some new diagnostic and treatment options that could become available for tomorrow’s patients. As a new diagnostic, we have begun measuring patient’s perceptual direction-detection thresholds. Preliminary results appear encouraging; patients diagnosed with bilateral loss have yaw rotation thresholds almost ten times greater than normals, while patients diagnosed with migraine associated vertigo have roll tilt thresholds well below normal at 0.1 Hz. As a new treatment, we have performed animal studies looking at responses evoked by electrical stimulation provided by a vestibular prosthesis. Results measuring the VOR demonstrate promise and preliminary studies of balance and perception are also encouraging. While electrical stimulation is a standard means of stimulation, optical stimulation is also being investigated as a way to improve prosthetic stimulation specificity. PMID:20555169

  18. Stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them many leading experts in the field. During the program, the most recent developments, open quest

  19. Vestibular disorders in elderly patients: characteristics, causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele; Ariba, Adekunle Joseph; Otulana, Taibat Olusola; Osalusi, Bamidele Sanya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study assessed vestibular disorders in elderly patients, describing the causes, clinical characteristics, therapies and treatment outcomes. Methods Five-year hospital-based prospective study, conducted at the ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Subjects were consecutive elderly patients with dizziness, treated and followed-up for a minimum of six months. Data was generated using structured questionnaire and case record files. Analyzed results were presented in simple descriptive forms as graphs and tables. Results Among the elderly patients, prevalence of vestibular disorders was 18.6%, 49.1% were retired, 71.9% were married, M:F was 1:1.1. Mean age ±SD were 69.4±1.1 and 69.0±0.8 years for males and females respectively. 56.9% of the patients presented early on experiencing the vestibular symptoms. The symptoms were associated with nausea or vomiting in 26.3%, with an aura in 12.3%. While 50.9% of the patients experienced intermittent symptoms, laterality of the symptoms was not clear in 45.6%. Positional vertigo was diagnosed in 33.3% while in 17.5%, the symptoms could be attributable to previous trauma or assaults. 31.6% of the elderly were referred to ENT surgeons by other specialties, 45.6% were managed with multidisciplinary approach, while 82.5% had the vestibular symptoms initially controlled with labyrinthine sedatives. At follow-up, 43.9% had intermittent periods of recurrence of symptoms. Conclusion Prevalence of vestibular disorders in elderly patients is high, most patients present early with intermittent, relatively innocuous symptoms which may be difficult to lateralize. Positional vertigo was the most common cause, it is frequently relieved with labyrinthine sedatives but tends to recur intermittently.

  20. Vestibular control of entorhinal cortex activity in spatial navigation

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Pierre-Yves; Poucet, Bruno; Liberge, Martine; Save, Etienne; Sargolini, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Navigation in rodents depends on both self-motion (idiothetic) and external (allothetic) information. Idiothetic information has a predominant role when allothetic information is absent or irrelevant. The vestibular system is a major source of idiothetic information in mammals. By integrating the signals generated by angular and linear accelerations during exploration, a rat is able to generate and update a vector pointing to its starting place and to perform accurate return. This navigation strategy, called path integration, has been shown to involve a network of brain structures. Among these structures, the entorhinal cortex (EC) may play a pivotal role as suggested by lesion and electrophysiological data. In particular, it has been recently discovered that some neurons in the medial EC display multiple firing fields producing a regular grid-like pattern across the environment. Such regular activity may arise from the integration of idiothetic information. This hypothesis would be strongly strengthened if it was shown that manipulation of vestibular information interferes with grid cell activity. In the present paper we review neuroanatomical and functional evidence indicating that the vestibular system influences the activity of the brain network involved in spatial navigation. We also provide new data on the effects of reversible inactivation of the peripheral vestibular system on the EC theta rhythm. The main result is that tetrodotoxin (TTX) administration abolishes velocity-controlled theta oscillations in the EC, indicating that vestibular information is necessary for EC activity. Since recent data demonstrate that disruption of theta rhythm in the medial EC induces a disorganization of grid cell firing, our findings indicate that the integration of idiothetic information in the EC is essential to form a spatial representation of the environment. PMID:24926239

  1. Mechanism of Dynamic Visual Acuity Recovery With Vestibular Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Michael C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Allak, Amir; Carey, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine why dynamic visual acuity (DVA) improves after vestibular rehabilitation in people with vestibular hypofunction. Design Combined descriptive and intervention study. Setting Outpatient department in an academic medical institution. Participants Five patients (age, 42–66y) and 4 age-matched controls (age, 39–67y) were studied. Patients had vestibular hypofunction (mean duration, 177 ± 188d) identified by clinical (positive head thrust test, abnormal DVA), physiologic (reduced angular vestibulo-ocular reflex [aVOR] gain during passive head thrust testing), and imaging examinations (absence of tumor in the internal auditory canals or cerebellopontine angle). Intervention Vestibular rehabilitation focused on gaze and gait stabilization (mean, 5.0 ± 1.4 visits; mean, 66 ± 24d). The control group did not receive any intervention. Main Outcome Measures aVOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) during DVA testing (active head rotation) and horizontal head thrust testing (passive head rotation) to control for spontaneous recovery. Results For all patients, DVA improved (mean, 51% ± 25%; range, 21%–81%). aVOR gain during the active DVA test increased in each of the patients (mean range, 0.7 ± 0.2 to 0.9 ± 0.2 [35%]). aVOR gain during passive head thrust did not improve in 3 patients and improved only partially in the other 2. For control subjects, aVOR gain during DVA was near 1. Conclusions Our data suggest that vestibular rehabilitation increases aVOR gain during active head rotation independent of peripheral aVOR gain recovery. PMID:18295629

  2. Signal detection theory and vestibular thresholds: I. Basic theory and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Merfeld, Daniel M

    2011-05-01

    Detection theory has been applied to the measurement of vestibular thresholds and vestibular sensory integration. Yet, a formal detection theory analysis of vestibular responses has not been published. Such a de novo analysis seems warranted because the vestibular system has characteristics that differ from other sensory systems, which impacts the application of detection theory. For example, the physical stimuli evoking vestibular responses are typically bidirectional (e.g., leftward/rightward); this bidirectional nature of vestibular responses leads to another characteristic-what is sometimes called vestibular bias-that must also be considered, since it can impact threshold measurements, including thresholds found using staircase procedures. This paper develops a basic model of vestibular noise and then analyzes this model for four standard paradigms-one-interval recognition, one-interval detection, two-interval detection, and two-interval recognition. While any of these paradigms might be justified for a specific application, it is concluded that one-interval recognition paradigms have advantages over other paradigms for many vestibular applications. One-interval recognition is favored over one-interval detection because it lends itself to a fixed detection boundary, is more efficient, and is less impacted by device vibration. One-interval recognition is generally favored over two-interval recognition because it assesses vestibular bias and can require substantially less time than two-interval tasks. PMID:21359662

  3. Does area MT carry vestibular signals related to self-motion?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Syed A.; Takahashi, Katsumasa; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have described vestibular responses in the dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd), a region of extrastriate visual cortex thought to be involved in self-motion perception. The pathways by which vestibular signals are conveyed to area MSTd are currently unclear, and one possibility is that vestibular signals are already present in areas that are known to provide visual inputs to MSTd. Thus, we examined whether selective vestibular responses are exhibited by single neurons in the middle temporal area (MT), a visual motion-sensitive region that projects heavily to area MSTd. We compared responses in MT and MSTd to 3D rotational and translational stimuli that were either presented using a motion platform (vestibular condition) or simulated using optic flow (visual condition). When monkeys fixated a visual target generated by a projector, half of MT cells (and most MSTd neurons) showed significant tuning during the vestibular rotation condition. However, when the fixation target was generated by a laser in a dark room, most MT neurons lost their vestibular tuning whereas most MSTd neurons retained their selectivity. Similar results were obtained for free viewing in darkness. Our findings indicate that MT neurons do not show genuine vestibular responses to self-motion; rather, their tuning in the vestibular rotation condition can be explained by retinal slip due to a residual vestibulo-ocular reflex. Thus, the robust vestibular signals observed in area MSTd do not arise through inputs from area MT. PMID:19776288

  4. Artificial Balance: Restoration of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in Humans with a Prototype Vestibular Neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Perez Fornos, Angelica; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; Stokroos, Robert; Micera, Silvestro; Kingma, Herman; Pelizzone, Marco; Guyot, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24808890

  5. Artificial balance: restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans with a prototype vestibular neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Perez Fornos, Angelica; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; Stokroos, Robert; Micera, Silvestro; Kingma, Herman; Pelizzone, Marco; Guyot, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24808890

  6. Neurogenesis and astrogenesis contribution to recovery of vestibular functions in the adult cat following unilateral vestibular neurectomy: cellular and behavioral evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dutheil; J. M. Brezun; J. Leonard; M. Lacour; B. Tighilet

    2009-01-01

    In physiological conditions, neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, giving rise to integrated neurons into functional networks. In pathological or postlesional conditions neurogenesis and astrogenesis can also occur, as demonstrated in the deafferented vestibular nuclei after immediate unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the adult cat. To determine whether the reactive cell proliferation and beyond neurogenesis and

  7. Visual and vestibular contributions to pitch sway stabilization in the ankle muscles of normals and patients with bilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. J. Allure; C. R. Pfaltz

    1985-01-01

    Vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive influences on muscle activity correcting for backwards body tilt were investigated in normals and patients with bilateral peripheral vestibular deficits. Body tilt was induced by a dorsi-flexion rotation of the feet about the ankle joints while the subject stood on a force measuring platform. Ankle muscle activity and torque were monitored as upright stance was reestablished,

  8. Visual-vestibular integration motion perception reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Reschke, Millard R.; Parker, Donald E.

    1999-01-01

    Self-orientation and self/surround-motion perception derive from a multimodal sensory process that integrates information from the eyes, vestibular apparatus, proprioceptive and somatosensory receptors. Results from short and long duration spaceflight investigations indicate that: (1) perceptual and sensorimotor function was disrupted during the initial exposure to microgravity and gradually improved over hours to days (individuals adapt), (2) the presence and/or absence of information from different sensory modalities differentially affected the perception of orientation, self-motion and surround-motion, (3) perceptual and sensorimotor function was initially disrupted upon return to Earth-normal gravity and gradually recovered to preflight levels (individuals readapt), and (4) the longer the exposure to microgravity, the more complete the adaptation, the more profound the postflight disturbances, and the longer the recovery period to preflight levels. While much has been learned about perceptual and sensorimotor reactions and adaptation to microgravity, there is much remaining to be learned about the mechanisms underlying the adaptive changes, and about how intersensory interactions affect perceptual and sensorimotor function during voluntary movements. During space flight, SMS and perceptual disturbances have led to reductions in performance efficiency and sense of well-being. During entry and immediately after landing, such disturbances could have a serious impact on the ability of the commander to land the Orbiter and on the ability of all crew members to egress from the Orbiter, particularly in a non-nominal condition or following extended stays in microgravity. An understanding of spatial orientation and motion perception is essential for developing countermeasures for Space Motion Sickness (SMS) and perceptual disturbances during spaceflight and upon return to Earth. Countermeasures for optimal performance in flight and a successful return to Earth require the development of preflight and in-flight training to help astronauts acquire and maintain a dual adaptive state. Despite the considerable experience with, and use of, an extensive set of countermeasures in the Russian space program, SMS and perceptual disturbances remain an unresolved problem on long-term flights. Reliable, valid perceptual reports are required to develop and refine stimulus rearrangements presented in the PAT devices currently being developed as countermeasures for the prevention of motion sickness and perceptual disturbances during spaceflight, and to ensure a less hazardous return to Earth. Prior to STS-8, crew member descriptions of their perceptual experiences were, at best, anecdotal. Crew members were not schooled in the physiology or psychology of sensory perception, nor were they exposed to the appropriate professional vocabulary. However, beginning with the STS-8 Shuttle flight, a serious effort was initiated to teach astronauts a systematic method to classify and quantify their perceptual responses in space, during entry, and after flight. Understanding, categorizing, and characterizing perceptual responses to spaceflight has been greatly enhanced by implementation of that training system.

  9. To develop behavioral tests of vestibular functioning in the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two tests of vestibular functioning in the rat were developed. The first test was the water maze. In the water maze the rat does not have the normal proprioceptive feedback from its limbs to help it maintain its orientation, and must rely primarily on the sensory input from its visual and vestibular systems. By altering lighting conditions and visual cues the vestibular functioning without visual cues was assessed. Whether there was visual compensation for some vestibular dysfunction was determined. The second test measured vestibular functioning of the rat's behavior on a parallel swing. In this test the rat's postural adjustments while swinging on the swing with the otoliths being stimulated were assessed. Less success was achieved in developing the parallel swing as a test of vestibular functioning than with the water maze. The major problem was incorrect initial assumptions of what the rat's probable behavior on the parallel swing would be.

  10. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Vardy, Alistair N; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-10-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain between-muscle differences. Two hypotheses were evaluated: 1) that muscle-specific motor-unit properties influence the bandwidth of vestibular reflexes; and 2) that frequency responses of vestibular reflexes differ between neck, back, and lower limb muscles because of neural filtering. Subjects were exposed to electrical vestibular stimuli over bandwidths of 0-25 and 0-75 Hz while recording activity in sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, erector spinae, soleus, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Coherence between stimulus and muscle activity revealed markedly larger vestibular reflex bandwidths in neck muscles (0-70 Hz) than back (0-15 Hz) or lower limb muscles (0-20 Hz). In addition, vestibular reflexes in back and lower limb muscles undergo low-pass filtering compared with neck-muscle responses, which span a broader dynamic range. These results suggest that the wider bandwidth of head-neck biomechanics requires a vestibular influence on neck-muscle activation across a larger dynamic range than lower limb muscles. A computational model of vestibular afferents and a motoneuron pool indicates that motor-unit properties are not primary contributors to the bandwidth filtering of vestibular reflexes in different muscles. Instead, our experimental findings suggest that pathway-dependent neural filtering, not captured in our model, contributes to these muscle-specific responses. Furthermore, gain-phase discontinuities in the neck-muscle vestibular reflexes provide evidence of destructive interaction between different reflex components, likely via indirect vestibular-motor pathways. PMID:23904494

  11. Histamine immunoreactivity changes in vestibular-lesioned and histaminergic-treated cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Tighilet; Michel Lacour

    1997-01-01

    Histamine is likely involved in vestibular function recovery since histaminergic medications are effective in vestibular-related syndromes. We investigated the histamine immunoreactivity changes after unilateral vestibular neurectomy and the effects of betahistine (a partial histamine H1 receptor agonist and an histamine H3 receptor antagonist) and thioperamide (a pure histamine H3 receptor antagonist) treatment in cats. Histamine staining was analyzed in the

  12. Betahistine Treatment Improves the Recovery of Static Symptoms in Patients With Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Redon; Christophe Lopez; Laurence Bernard-Demanze; Michel Dumitrescu; Jacques Magnan; Michel Lacour; Liliane Borel

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular loss induces a combination of postural, oculomotor, and perceptive symptoms that are compensated over time. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of betahistine dihydrochloride on vestibular compensation. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in Menière’s disease patients who underwent a curative unilateral vestibular neurotomy (UVN). The effects of betahistine treatment were investigated on a

  13. Effects of vestibular stimulation on spontaneous use of verbal language in developmentally delayed children.

    PubMed

    Magrun, W M; Ottenbacher, K; McCue, S; Keefe, R

    1981-02-01

    The relationship between vestibular stimulation and language development in a group of five primary trainable mentally deficient and five developmentally retarded preschoolers was studied. Subjects received vestibular stimulation prior to a free play situation and were monitored for spontaneous recognizable language use. Results indicated an increase in spontaneous verbal language use for both groups immediately after the stimulation periods, and suggest vestibular stimulation as an effective nonverbal intervention method for the facilitation of spontaneous language. PMID:6971574

  14. Convergence of limb, visceral, and vertical semicircular canal or otolith inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jian, B. J.; Shintani, T.; Emanuel, B. A.; Yates, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to determine the patterns of convergence of non-labyrinthine inputs from the limbs and viscera onto vestibular nucleus neurons receiving signals from vertical semicircular canals or otolith organs. A secondary aim was to ascertain whether the effects of non-labyrinthine inputs on the activity of vestibular nucleus neurons is affected by bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions. The majority (72%) of vestibular nucleus neurons in labyrinth-intact animals whose firing was modulated by vertical rotations responded to electrical stimulation of limb and/or visceral nerves. The activity of even more vestibular nucleus neurons (93%) was affected by limb or visceral nerve stimulation in chronically labyrinthectomized preparations. Some neurons received non-labyrinthine inputs from a variety of peripheral sources, including antagonist muscles acting at the same joint, whereas others received inputs from more limited sources. There was no apparent relationship between the spatial and dynamic properties of a neuron's responses to tilts in vertical planes and the non-labyrinthine inputs that it received. These data suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs elicited during movement will modulate the processing of information by the central vestibular system, and may contribute to the recovery of spontaneous activity of vestibular nucleus neurons following peripheral vestibular lesions. Furthermore, some vestibular nucleus neurons with non-labyrinthine inputs may be activated only during particular behaviors that elicit a specific combination of limb and visceral inputs.

  15. Vestibular function in the temporal and parietal cortex: distinct velocity and inertial processing pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    A number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies have reported converging data in favor of a cortical network for vestibular function, distributed between the temporo-parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the primate. In this review, we focus on the role of the cerebral cortex in visuo-vestibular integration including the motion sensitive temporo-occipital areas i.e., the middle superior temporal area (MST) and the parietal cortex. Indeed, these two neighboring cortical regions, though they both receive combined vestibular and visual information, have distinct implications in vestibular function. In sum, this review of the literature leads to the idea of two separate cortical vestibular sub-systems forming (1) a velocity pathway including MST and direct descending pathways on vestibular nuclei. As it receives well-defined visual and vestibular velocity signals, this pathway is likely involved in heading perception and rapid top-down regulation of eye/head coordination and (2) an inertial processing pathway involving the parietal cortex in connection with the subcortical vestibular nuclei complex responsible for velocity storage integration. This vestibular cortical pathway would be implicated in high-order multimodal integration and cognitive functions, including world space and self-referential processing. PMID:25071481

  16. The vestibular system: a spatial reference for bodily self-consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Self-consciousness is the remarkable human experience of being a subject: the “I”. Self-consciousness is typically bound to a body, and particularly to the spatial dimensions of the body, as well as to its location and displacement in the gravitational field. Because the vestibular system encodes head position and movement in three-dimensional space, vestibular cortical processing likely contributes to spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness. We review here recent data showing vestibular effects on first-person perspective (the feeling from where “I” experience the world) and self-location (the feeling where “I” am located in space). We compare these findings to data showing vestibular effects on mental spatial transformation, self-motion perception, and body representation showing vestibular contributions to various spatial representations of the body with respect to the external world. Finally, we discuss the role for four posterior brain regions that process vestibular and other multisensory signals to encode spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness: temporoparietal junction, parietoinsular vestibular cortex, ventral intraparietal region, and medial superior temporal region. We propose that vestibular processing in these cortical regions is critical in linking multisensory signals from the body (personal and peripersonal space) with external (extrapersonal) space. Therefore, the vestibular system plays a critical role for neural representations of spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness. PMID:24860446

  17. The vestibular system: a spatial reference for bodily self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Self-consciousness is the remarkable human experience of being a subject: the "I". Self-consciousness is typically bound to a body, and particularly to the spatial dimensions of the body, as well as to its location and displacement in the gravitational field. Because the vestibular system encodes head position and movement in three-dimensional space, vestibular cortical processing likely contributes to spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness. We review here recent data showing vestibular effects on first-person perspective (the feeling from where "I" experience the world) and self-location (the feeling where "I" am located in space). We compare these findings to data showing vestibular effects on mental spatial transformation, self-motion perception, and body representation showing vestibular contributions to various spatial representations of the body with respect to the external world. Finally, we discuss the role for four posterior brain regions that process vestibular and other multisensory signals to encode spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness: temporoparietal junction, parietoinsular vestibular cortex, ventral intraparietal region, and medial superior temporal region. We propose that vestibular processing in these cortical regions is critical in linking multisensory signals from the body (personal and peripersonal space) with external (extrapersonal) space. Therefore, the vestibular system plays a critical role for neural representations of spatial aspects of bodily self-consciousness. PMID:24860446

  18. Experimental and clinical study of EHF treatment of vascular-vestibular dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Mal`tsev, A.E.; Abakarov, A.T.; Istomin, V.S. [and others

    1994-07-01

    The authors present the results of a study of the effectiveness of EHF radiation on the cerebral hemodynamics, bioelectrical activity of the cerebral cortex, and functional state of the vestibular analyzer in chronic studies of cats using a model of vascular-vestibular dysfunction. The clinical part of the work reflects the results of studies of the functional state of cerebral blood circulation and the vestibular analyzer during the EHF treatment of angiovertebrogenic vestibular dysfunction in a background of initial manifestations of cerebral blood supply deficiency (angiodistonic variant).

  19. Research on biophysical evaluation of the human vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    The human vestibular function was studied by the combined approach of advanced measurement and mathematical modelling. Fundamental measurements of some physical properties of endolymph and perilymph, combined with nystagmus measurements and fluid mechanical analysis of semicircular canal function furthered the theory of canal mechanical response to angular acceleration, caloric stimulation and relating linear acceleration. The effects of adaptation seen at low frequency angular stimulation were studied and modelled to remove some shortcomings of the torsion pendulum models. Otolith function was also studied experimentally and analytically, leading to a new set of models for subjective orientation. Applications to special problems of space, including the case of rotating spacecraft were investigated and the interaction of visual and vestibular cues and their relation to proprioceptive information was explored relative to postural control.

  20. Inertial vestibular coding of motion: concepts and evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Central processing of inertial sensory information about head attitude and motion in space is crucial for motor control. Vestibular signals are coded relative to a non-inertial system, the head, that is virtually continuously in motion. Evidence for transformation of vestibular signals from head-fixed sensory coordinates to gravity-centered coordinates have been provided by studies of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The underlying central processing depends on otolith afferent information that needs to be resolved in terms of head translation related inertial forces and head attitude dependent pull of gravity. Theoretical solutions have been suggested, but experimental evidence is still scarce. It appears, along these lines, that gaze control systems are intimately linked to motor control of head attitude and posture.

  1. Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; Bush, G.; Ehsanian, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a review of work in three species, squirrel monkey, cat, and rat studying the inputs and outputs from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Different electrophysiological shock paradigms were used to determine the synaptic inputs derived from thick to thin diameter vestibular nerve afferents. Angular and linear mechanical stimulations were used to activate and study the combined and individual contribution of inner ear organs and neck afferents. The spatio-temporal properties of LVN neurons in the decerebrated rat were studied in response to dynamic acceleration inputs using sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied.

  2. Effects of Weightlessness on Vestibular Development of Quail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Bruce, Laura L.

    1997-01-01

    The lack of gravity is known to alter vestibular responses in developing and adult vertebrates. One cause of these altered responses may be changes in the connections between the vestibular receptor and the brain. Therefore we propose to investigate the effects of gravity on the formations of connections between the gravity receptors of the ear and the brain in developing quail incubated in space beginning at an age before these connections are established (incubation day three) until near the time of hatching, when they are to some extent functional. This investigation will make use of a novel technique, the diffusion of a lipophilic dye, DiI, in fixed tissue. This technique can thus be used to analyze the connections in specimens fixed in orbit, thus eliminating changes due to the earth's gravity. The evaluation of the data will enable us to detect gross deviations from normal patterns as well as detailed quantitative deviations.

  3. Metachronous schwannoma in the colon with vestibular schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Han, Hye Seung; Koh, Young-Cho; Cho, Joon; Ryu, Chun-Geun; Paik, Jin Hee

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a case of vestibular schwannoma and metachronous schwannoma in the colon. A 59-year-old female presented with a 1-month history of hematochezia. She had undergone suboccipital craniectomy resulting in radical subtotal resection, followed by gamma knife radiosurgery for a large left vestibular schwannoma 4 years prior to admission. On preoperative colonoscopy, a huge mass through which the colonoscope could not be passed was detected. CT scans showed colo-colonic intussusception with a 4.8-cm-sized mass in the descending colon. PET/CT revealed hypermetabolism of the descending colon tumor and pericolic lymph nodes. We performed left hemicolectomy under the preoperative impression of colon cancer with intussusception. A pathological diagnosis of benign schwannoma of the colon was made in this patient. PMID:25247171

  4. Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

  5. Space motion sickness and vestibular adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Theories of space motion sickness are discussed together with near future vestibular experiments for three Spacelab missions. The sensory conflict theory is covered, as well as theories involving unequal otolith masses, semicircular canals, cardiovascular adaptation and fluid shift toward the head, and extra-labyrinthine effects. Experiments will test the hypothesis that the sensitivity of the otolith organ response is shifted during weightlessness and that this shift carries over to the post-flight experience. Visual-vestibular-tactile interaction, vestibulo-ocular reflexes, ocular counterrolling, awareness of body position, otolith-spinal reflexes, and motion sickness susceptibility are among the parameters to be studied. Preflight and postflight tests will emphasize evaluation of any residual effects of the seven day weightless exposure on vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular pathways.

  6. Student learns about the vestibular system in a microgravity demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gary Coulter, a special assistant to NASA's life sciences researchers, explains the workings of the irner ear to a Virginia student. The chair rotates to disorient the vestibular system in a simulation of research on how astronauts adapt to space and readapt to Earth. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  7. Sleep deprivation effects on the vestibular habituation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Dowd

    1974-01-01

    Studied the effects of sleep deprivation on habituation of the vestibular system in a stressful situation. 143 experienced pilots were exposed to 2 tests of Coriolis acceleration after periods of sleep deprivation (24-30 hrs) or rest (6 hrs). Nystagmus responses to Coriolis stimulation were recorded after 4 right-to-left tilts. Sleep deprivation resulted in (a) increased sensitivity to Coriolis stimulation, (b)

  8. Modeling locomotor dysfunction following spaceflight with Galvanic vestibular stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven T. Moore; Hamish G. MacDougall; Brian T. Peters; Jacob J. Bloomberg; Ian S. Curthoys; Helen S. Cohen

    2006-01-01

    In this study locomotor and gaze dysfunction commonly observed in astronauts following spaceflight were modeled using two Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) paradigms: (1) pseudorandom, and (2) head-coupled (proportional to the summed vertical linear acceleration and yaw angular velocity obtained from a head-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit). Locomotor and gaze function during GVS were assessed by tests previously used to evaluate post-flight

  9. Investigation of otolith responses using ground based vestibular research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correia, Manning J.; TABARACCI

    1989-01-01

    The general goal was to examine tilt sensitivity of horizontal semicircular canal afferents. Computer programs were tested which controlled the short axis centrifuge at the Vestibular Research Facility, acquired action potentials and produced data reduction analyses including histograms and gain and phase calculations. A pre-amplifier was also developed for the acquisition of action potentials. The data were gathered that can be used to contribute toward the understanding of the tilt sensitivity of semicircular canal afferents in the unanesthetized gerbil preparation.

  10. The effects of cochlear implantation on vestibular function

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Thuy-Anh N.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Migliaccio, Americo A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Determine the risk posed by cochlear implantation (CI) to the labyrinth. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Academic tertiary referral center. Patients Thirty-six ears belonging to 35 adult CI candidates (mean: 46, range: 23–69 years old). Intervention Cochlear implantation. Main Outcome Measures Vestibular function was assessed using the quantitative 3D head impulse test (qHIT), clinical head impulse test (cHIT), post-headshake nystagmus (HSN), caloric electronystagmography (ENG), vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), dynamic visual acuity (DVA), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Results All 36 ears were tested using qHIT before CI, and 28 ears were tested 4–8 weeks after CI. Quantitative HIT showed 1/28 of ears suffered reduced function. Clinical HIT was 44% sensitive and 94% specific for identification of severe-to-profound vestibular hypofunction confirmed by qHIT. HSN was unchanged in 11/11 subjects. New hyporeflexia was found in 1/16 of ENG-tested ears. VEMP showed either a disappearance of response or an increase in threshold by >10dB in 5/16 ears. Passive DVA showed no change in 16/16 ears. DHI scores worsened in 3/28 and improved in 4/28 subjects. Conclusions Although small, the observed rate of labyrinthine injury was comparable to that for other risks of CI. Thus, it is important to educate CI candidates about possible risk to balance function, particularly when CI of an “only balancing ear” is contemplated. Clinical HIT is useful for detecting severe high-frequency vestibular hypofunction and should be part of the pre-CI physical examination. PMID:19108038

  11. Magnetic Vestibular Stimulation in Subjects with Unilateral Labyrinthine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We recently discovered that static magnetic fields from high-strength MRI machines induce nystagmus in all normal humans, and that a magneto-hydrodynamic Lorentz force, derived from ionic currents in the endolymph and pushing on the cupula, best explains this effect. Individuals with no labyrinthine function have no nystagmus. The influence of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) in individuals with unilateral deficits in labyrinthine function is unknown and may provide insight into the mechanism of MVS. These individuals should experience MVS, but with a different pattern of nystagmus consistent with their unilateral deficit in labyrinthine function. We recorded eye movements in the static magnetic field of a 7 T MRI machine in nine individuals with unilateral labyrinthine hypofunction, as determined by head impulse testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). Eye movements were recorded using infrared video-oculography. Static head positions were varied in pitch with the body supine, and slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) was assessed. All subjects exhibited predominantly horizontal nystagmus after entering the magnet head-first, lying supine. The SPV direction reversed when entering feet-first. Pitching chin-to-chest caused subjects to reach a null point for horizontal SPV. Right unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) subjects developed slow-phase-up nystagmus and left UVH subjects, slow-phase-down nystagmus. Vertical and torsional components were consistent with superior semicircular canal excitation or inhibition, respectively, of the intact ear. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MVS is a result of a Lorentz force and suggest that the function of individual structures within the labyrinth can be assessed with MVS. As a novel method of comfortable and sustained labyrinthine stimulation, MVS can provide new insights into vestibular physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24659983

  12. Magnetic vestibular stimulation in subjects with unilateral labyrinthine disorders.

    PubMed

    Ward, Bryan K; Roberts, Dale C; Della Santina, Charles C; Carey, John P; Zee, David S

    2014-01-01

    We recently discovered that static magnetic fields from high-strength MRI machines induce nystagmus in all normal humans, and that a magneto-hydrodynamic Lorentz force, derived from ionic currents in the endolymph and pushing on the cupula, best explains this effect. Individuals with no labyrinthine function have no nystagmus. The influence of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) in individuals with unilateral deficits in labyrinthine function is unknown and may provide insight into the mechanism of MVS. These individuals should experience MVS, but with a different pattern of nystagmus consistent with their unilateral deficit in labyrinthine function. We recorded eye movements in the static magnetic field of a 7 T MRI machine in nine individuals with unilateral labyrinthine hypofunction, as determined by head impulse testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). Eye movements were recorded using infrared video-oculography. Static head positions were varied in pitch with the body supine, and slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) was assessed. All subjects exhibited predominantly horizontal nystagmus after entering the magnet head-first, lying supine. The SPV direction reversed when entering feet-first. Pitching chin-to-chest caused subjects to reach a null point for horizontal SPV. Right unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) subjects developed slow-phase-up nystagmus and left UVH subjects, slow-phase-down nystagmus. Vertical and torsional components were consistent with superior semicircular canal excitation or inhibition, respectively, of the intact ear. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MVS is a result of a Lorentz force and suggest that the function of individual structures within the labyrinth can be assessed with MVS. As a novel method of comfortable and sustained labyrinthine stimulation, MVS can provide new insights into vestibular physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24659983

  13. Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was robust to misalignment, required little data, and minimal processing. PMID:22329908

  14. Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Nora; Mast, Fred W.; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Purchases are driven by consumers’ product preferences and price considerations. Using caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS), we investigated the role of vestibular-affective circuits in purchase decision-making. CVS is an effective noninvasive brain stimulation method, which activates vestibular and overlapping emotional circuits (e.g., the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Subjects were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation while they performed two purchase decision-making tasks. In Experiment 1 subjects had to decide whether to purchase or not. CVS significantly reduced probability of buying a product. In Experiment 2 subjects had to rate desirability of the products and willingness to pay (WTP) while they were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation. CVS modulated desirability of the products but not WTP. The results suggest that CVS interfered with emotional circuits and thus attenuated the pleasant and rewarding effect of acquisition, which in turn reduced purchase probability. The present findings contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the neural basis of purchase decision-making. PMID:24600365

  15. Counteracting Muscle Atrophy using Galvanic Stimulation of the Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Polyakov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    The unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles during space flight produces significant muscle atrophy and is one of the most serious health problems facing the space program. Various exercise regimens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with pharmacological techniques to ameliorate this atrophy, but no effective countermeasure exists for this problem. The research in this project was conducted to evaluate the potential use of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) to prevent muscle atrophy resulting from unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles. This approach was developed based on two concepts related to the process of maintaining the status of the anti-gravity neuromuscular system. These two premises are: (1) The "tone," or bias on spinal motorneurons is affected by vestibular projections that contribute importantly to maintaining muscle health and status. (2) VGS can be used to modify the excitability, or 'tone' of motorneuron of antigravity muscles. Thus, the strategy is to use VGS to modify the gain of vestibular projections to antigravity muscles and thereby change the general status of these muscles.

  16. Unilateral vestibular failure suppresses cortical visual motion processing.

    PubMed

    Deutschländer, Angela; Hüfner, Katharina; Kalla, Roger; Stephan, Thomas; Dera, Thomas; Glasauer, Stefan; Wiesmann, Martin; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Patients with unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) experience oscillopsia (apparent motion of the visual scene) during rapid head movements due to increased retinal slip caused by vestibulo-ocular reflex impairment. Oscillopsia is always smaller than the net retinal slip and decreases over time in patients with acquired vestibular loss; this correlates with increased thresholds for visual motion detection and increased tolerance to retinal slip. We investigated the underlying cortical adaptive processes using visual motion stimulation during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Optokinetic nystagmus was elicited in seven patients with right-sided and seven patients with left-sided unilateral vestibular neurectomy and in seven age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients showed diminished activation of bilateral visual cortex areas (including the motion-sensitive area MT/V5, cuneus, middle occipital, fusiform and lingual areas) and ocular motor regions compared to their controls during visual motion stimulation. Concurrent BOLD signal decreases of temporo-parietal and insular multisensory cortical areas occurred in controls and patients. The diminished activation of visual motion processing areas plausibly reflects an adaptive mechanism that suppresses distressing oscillopsia in patients with UVF and thereby stabilizes the perceived visual surroundings. This study provides for the first time neuroimaging evidence of suppressed cortical visual motion processing in patients with vestibulopathy. PMID:18321924

  17. Demyelination of vestibular nerve axons in unilateral Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert F; Sismanis, Aristides; Kilpatrick, Jefferson K; Shaia, Wayne T

    2002-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine whether vestibular nerves in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease whose symptoms are refractory to medical management exhibit neuropathologic changes. We also endeavored to determine whether retrocochlear abnormalities are primary or secondary factors in the disease process. To these ends, we obtained vestibular nerve segments from five patients during retrosigmoid (posterior fossa) neurectomy, immediately fixed them, and processed them for light and electron microscopy. We found that all five segments exhibited moderate to severe demyelination with axonal sparing. Moreover, we noted that reactive astrocytes produced an extensive proliferation of fibrous processes and that the microglia assumed a phagocytic role. We conclude that the possible etiologies of demyelination include viral and/or immune-mediated factors similar to those seen in other demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Our findings suggest that some forms of Ménière's disease that are refractory to traditional medical management might be the result of retrocochlear pathology that affects the neuroglial portion of the vestibular nerve. PMID:12472033

  18. Posterior insular cortex – a site of vestibular–somatosensory interaction?

    PubMed Central

    Baier, Bernhard; zu Eulenburg, Peter; Best, Christoph; Geber, Christian; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Birklein, Frank; Dieterich, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous imaging studies the insular cortex (IC) has been identified as an essential part of the processing of a wide spectrum of perception and sensorimotor integration. Yet, there are no systematic lesion studies in a sufficient number of patients examining whether processing of vestibular and the interaction of somatosensory and vestibular signals take place in the IC. Methods We investigated acute stroke patients with lesions affecting the IC in order to fill this gap. In detail, we explored signs of a vestibular tone imbalance such as the deviation of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). We applied voxel-lesion behaviour mapping analysis in 27 patients with acute unilateral stroke. Results Our data demonstrate that patients with lesions of the posterior IC have an abnormal tilt of SVV. Furthermore, re-analysing data of 20 patients from a previous study, we found a positive correlation between thermal perception contralateral to the stroke and the severity of the SVV tilt. Conclusions We conclude that the IC is a sensory brain region where different modalities might interact. PMID:24392273

  19. Does betahistine treatment have additional benefits to vestibular rehabilitation?

    PubMed

    Karapolat, Hale; Celebisoy, Nese; Kirazli, Yesim; Bilgen, Cem; Eyigor, Sibel; Gode, Sercan; Akyuz, Aycan; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-dose betahistine treatment added to vestibular rehabilitation (VR) on the disability, balance and postural stability in patients with unilateral vestibular disorder. The VR group (group 1, n = 24) and the VR + betahistine group (group 2, n = 23) were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated before and after an 8-week customized VR in terms of disability (Dizziness Handicap Inventory, DHI), dynamic balance [Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)] and postural stability (static posturography). In group 1 and group 2, differences between DHI, DGI and falling index score on static posturography before and after the exercise program were significant (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant difference was detected only in group 2 in the variables evaluated in static posturography-Fourier 4 analysis (p < 0.05). Both VR and betahistine + VR have a positive effect on disability and balance in patients with unilateral vestibular disorder. Betahistine treatment added to VR was effective in increasing postural stability. PMID:20567979

  20. Sleep and vestibular adaptation: implications for function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobson, J. A.; Stickgold, R.; Pace-Schott, E. F.; Leslie, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    Optimal human performance depends upon integrated sensorimotor and cognitive functions, both of which are known to be exquisitely sensitive to loss of sleep. Under the microgravity conditions of space flight, adaptation of both sensorimotor (especially vestibular) and cognitive functions (especially orientation) must occur quickly--and be maintained--despite any concurrent disruptions of sleep that may be caused by microgravity itself, or by the uncomfortable sleeping conditions of the spacecraft. It is the three-way interaction between sleep quality, general work efficiency, and sensorimotor integration that is the subject of this paper and the focus of new work in our laboratory. To record sleep under field conditions including microgravity, we utilize a novel system called the Nightcap that we have developed and extensively tested on normal and sleep-disordered subjects. To perturb the vestibular system in ground-based studies, we utilize a variety of experimental conditions including optokinetic stimulation and both minifying and reversing goggle paradigms that have been extensively studied in relation to plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Using these techniques we will test the hypothesis that vestibular adaptation both provokes and is enhanced by REM sleep under both ground-based and space conditions. In this paper we describe preliminary results of some of our studies.

  1. Vestibular schwannoma or tanycytic ependymoma: Immunohistologic staining reveals

    PubMed Central

    Divito, Anthony; Keller, Jeffrey T.; Hagen, Matthew; Zuccarello, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a common location for primary tumors, most often vestibular schwannomas, and also meningiomas, dermoids, and a host of other neoplasms. Our case report illustrates how radiologic and histopathologic presentations of an unusual variant of ependymal neoplasm can be diagnostically challenging and how accurate diagnosis can affect treatment protocols. Case History: Our patient had a CPA mass that was a variant of ependymoma known as tanycytic ependymoma that mimicked vestibular schwannoma radiologically and during intraoperative pathologic examination. Diagnosis as a World Health Organization (WHO) grade II tanycytic ependymoma was supported by its appearance on evaluation of the permanent sections, its diffuse immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the perinuclear dot-and-ring-like staining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Conclusions: Our patient's CPA mass initially believed to be a vestibular schwannoma on preoperative evaluation, surgical appearance, and intraoperative pathologic consultation was then correctly diagnosed as a WHO grade II tanycytic ependymoma on permanent histologic sections with the assistance of immunohistochemical stains, including EMA. After this definitive diagnosis, our patient's adjuvant treatment was adjusted. Earlier diagnosis could have provided guidance for goals of resection and prompt initiation of adjuvant treatment. PMID:25506503

  2. Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

    1993-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylglucosamine (WGA), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not strain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type I hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type II hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

  3. Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

    1994-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not stain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type 1 hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type 2 hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

  4. Bilateral Vestibular Deficiency: Quality of Life and Economic Implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daniel Q; Ward, Bryan K; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C

    2014-04-24

    IMPORTANCE Bilateral vestibular deficiency (BVD) causes chronic imbalance and unsteady vision and greatly increases the risk of falls; however, its effects on quality of life and economic impact are not well defined. OBJECTIVE To quantify disease-specific and health-related quality of life, health care utilization, and economic impact on individuals with BVD in comparison with those with unilateral vestibular deficiency (UVD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional survey study of patients with BVD or UVD and healthy controls at an academic medical center. Vestibular dysfunction was diagnosed by means of caloric nystagmography. INTERVENTIONS Survey questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Health status was measured using the Dizziness Handicap Index (DHI) and Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3). Economic burden was estimated using participant responses to questions on disease-specific health care utilization and lost productivity. RESULTS Fifteen patients with BVD, 22 with UVD, and 23 healthy controls participated. In comparison with patients with UVD and controls, patients with BVD had significantly worse DHI (P?vestibular deficiency significantly decreases quality of life and imposes substantial economic burdens on individuals and society. These results underscore the limits of adaptation and compensation in BVD. Furthermore, they quantify the potential benefits of prosthetic restoration of vestibular function both to these individuals and to society. PMID:24763518

  5. Vestibular information is necessary for maintaining metric properties of representational space: evidence from mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Péruch, Patrick; Lopez, Christophe; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Escoffier, Guy; Zeitoun, Alain; Sanjuan, Mélanie; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane

    2011-09-01

    The vestibular system contributes to a wide range of functions, from postural and oculomotor reflexes to spatial representation and cognition. Vestibular signals are important to maintain an internal, updated representation of the body position and movement in space. However, it is not clear to what extent they are also necessary to mentally simulate movement in situations that do not involve displacements of the body, as in mental imagery. The present study assessed how vestibular loss can affect object-based mental transformations (OMTs), i.e., imagined rotations or translations of objects relative to the environment. Participants performed one task of mental rotation of 3D-objects and two mental scanning tasks dealing with the ability to build and manipulate mental images that have metric properties. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (1 week and 1 month). They were compared to healthy participants tested at similar time intervals and to bilateral vestibular-defective patients tested after the recovery period. Vestibular loss impaired all mental imagery tasks. Performance varied according to the extent of vestibular loss (bilateral patients were frequently the most impaired) and according to the time elapsed after unilateral vestibular neurotomy (deficits were stronger at the early stage after neurotomy and then gradually compensated). These findings indicate that vestibular signals are necessary to perform OMTs and provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in processing metric properties of mental representations. They suggest that vestibular loss disorganizes brain structures commonly involved in mental imagery, and more generally in mental representation. PMID:21820000

  6. Convergence of vestibular and visual self-motion signals in an area of the posterior sylvian fissure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aihua; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2011-01-01

    Convergence of visual motion information (optic flow) and vestibular signals is important for self-motion perception, and such convergence has been observed in the dorsal medial superior temporal (MSTd) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) areas. In contrast, the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), a cortical vestibular area in the sylvian fissure, is not responsive to optic flow. Here we explore optic flow and vestibular convergence in the visual posterior sylvian area (VPS) of macaque monkeys. This area is located at the posterior end of the sylvian fissure, is strongly interconnected with PIVC, and receives projections from MSTd. We found robust optic flow and vestibular tuning in more than one-third of VPS cells, with all motion directions being represented uniformly. However, visual and vestibular direction preferences for translation were mostly opposite, unlike in area MSTd where roughly equal proportions of neurons have visual/vestibular heading preferences that are congruent or opposite. Overall, optic flow responses in VPS were weaker than those in MSTd, whereas vestibular responses were stronger in VPS than in MSTd. When visual and vestibular stimuli were presented together, VPS responses were dominated by vestibular signals, in contrast to MSTd, where optic flow tuning typically dominates. These findings suggest that VPS is proximal to MSTd in terms of vestibular processing, but distal to MSTd in terms of optic flow processing. Given the preponderance of neurons with opposite visual/vestibular heading preferences in VPS, this area may not play a major role in multisensory heading perception. PMID:21832191

  7. Cervicogenic Dizziness: A Case Report Illustrating Orthopaedic Manual and Vestibular Physical Therapy Comanagement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Schenk PT; Laura B; DPT Coons; Susan E. Bennett; Peter A. Huijbregts

    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with dizziness of a cervical origin may pose a challenge for orthopaedic and vestibular physical therapy specialists. A thorough exami- nation, which consists of a screening examination to rule out pathologies not amenable to sole physical therapy management and, if indicated, a physical therapy differential diagnostic process incorporating both cervical spine and vestibular tests

  8. Bilateral representation of the horizontal semicircular canals in the inferior vestibular nucleus of cats

    E-print Network

    La Croix, John Thomas

    1965-01-01

    similar distribution. He reported that the major route of communication of the vestibular nuclei with other centers iS via the reticular formation. (I I) Gray, in an anatomic study, reported that the vestibular nerve has a small crossed root that passes...

  9. Locomotion in adult cats with early vestibular deprivation: Visual cue substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Marchand; B. Amblard

    1984-01-01

    Summary  Four cats labyrinthectomized shortly after birth (DELAB) exhibited the classical vestibular syndrome and recovery, while their motor development was otherwise unimpaired. As adults, they were tested for visual vestibular substitution in a locomotor task with either orientation requirements (tilted platforms) or balance requirements (narrow platforms). Visual motion cues or static visual cues were controlled using normal or stroboscopic lighting, or

  10. [Diseases of the peripheral vestibular system: contribution of ENT medical diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Pabst, F; Machetanz, J; Gerk, U; Simonis, G; Schellong, S

    2015-01-01

    The most common types of vertigo caused by diseases of the peripheral vestibular system are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease and vestibular neuritis. A thorough examination of the medical history and clinical examination are usually sufficient for the differential diagnostics. Treatment includes differentiated repositioning maneuvers, medicinal treatment and physiotherapy. PMID:25502656

  11. Gentamicin Treatment in Peripheral Vestibular Disorders Other Than Ménière’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krister Brantberg; Johan Bergenius; Arne Tribukait

    1996-01-01

    Intratympanic instillation of gentamicin may not exclusively be a treatment for Ménière’s disease. We present case reports of successful vertigo control in peripheral vestibular disorders other than Ménière’s disease. Cases 1 and 2 illustrate treatment of vertigo attacks caused by vestibular dysfunction in deaf ears. Case 3 illustrates treatment of brief sensations of linear acceleration in a patient who had

  12. The physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of vertigo in peripheral vestibular lesions.

    PubMed

    Megighian, D

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of vertigo in the pathology of vestibular peripheral lesions are differentiated and described. Symptomatological and clinical aspects are also discussed in the light of the physiopathological mechanisms of vestibular compensation. The therapeutic problem of vertigo is treated on the basis of experimental research on the inhibitory effect of some drugs on the vestibulo-ocular reflex. PMID:6335026

  13. Effects of weightlessness on the development of the vestibular apparatus and ocular nystagmus in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The chronic 2g centrifuge was constructed for testing weightlessness effects on development of vestibular apparatus and ocular nystagmus in the rat. Both the stationary and rotating rail tests were performed. A physiological review is presented on vestibular apparatus, along with a system analysis. Time constants and input threshold level of the system are also considered.

  14. EMG responses in the soleus muscles evoked by unipolar galvanic vestibular stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. D Watson; J. G Colebatch

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the effects of transmastoid galvanic stimulation with unilateral galvanic stimulation of vestibular afferents. We recorded the effects on soleus EMG occurring at short (SL) and medium (ML) latency, both in normal subjects and in patients with previous unilateral vestibular neurectomy. Unipolar cathodal and anodal stimulation on the same side produced opposite effects for both SL and ML

  15. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic after-responses after bilateral vestibular neurectomy in the monkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Waespe; M. Wolfensberger

    1985-01-01

    Summary  The superior branch of the vestibular nerve containing peripheral axons of primary afférents originating in the lateral and anterior semicircular canals was cut bilaterally in three monkeys (vestibular neurectomy). Vertical and horizontal components of eye position were monitored by electro-oculography (EOG) during different stimulus and behavioral paradigms. Postoperatively, monkeys were unable to hold their eyes in eccentric lateral positions in

  16. Effects of Vestibular Stimulation on Motor Development and Stereotyped Behavior of Developmentally Delayed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, William E., Jr.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1982-01-01

    Four developmentally delayed babies were given semicircular canal stimulation in an effort to facilitate their motor and reflex development. All of the children showed motor and/or reflex changes that were attributable to the vestibular stimulation. In addition, some evidence was obtained linking changes in stereotypic responding to the vestibular…

  17. Responses to a Virtual Reality Grocery Store in Persons with and without Vestibular Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Whitney; Patrick J. Sparto; Larry F. Hodges; Sabarish V. Babu; Joseph M. Furman; Mark S. Redfern

    2006-01-01

    People with vestibular dysfunction often complain of having difficulty walking in visually complex environments. Virtual reality may serve as a useful therapeutic tool for providing physical therapy to these people. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore the ability of people with and without vestibular dysfunction to use and tolerate virtual environments that can be used in physical

  18. Impaired mental rotation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and acute vestibular neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Candidi, Matteo; Micarelli, Alessandro; Viziano, Andrea; Aglioti, Salvatore M.; Minio-Paluello, Ilaria; Alessandrini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular processing is fundamental to our sense of orientation in space which is a core aspect of the representation of the self. Vestibular information is processed in a large subcortical–cortical neural network. Tasks requiring mental rotations of human bodies in space are known to activate neural regions within this network suggesting that vestibular processing is involved in the control of mental rotation. We studied whether mental rotation is impaired in patients suffering from two different forms of unilateral vestibular disorders (vestibular neuritis – VN – and Benign Paroxysmal positional Vertigo – BPPV) with respect to healthy matched controls (C). We used two mental rotation tasks in which participants were required to: (i) mentally rotate their own body in space (egocentric rotation) thus using vestibular processing to a large extent and (ii) mentally rotate human figures (allocentric rotation) thus using own body representations to a smaller degree. Reaction times and accuracy of responses showed that VN and BPPV patients were impaired in both tasks with respect to C. Significantly, the pattern of results was similar in the three groups suggesting that patients were actually performing the mental rotation without using a different strategy from the control individuals. These results show that dysfunctional vestibular inflow impairs mental rotation of both own body and human figures suggesting that unilateral acute disorders of the peripheral vestibular input massively affect the cerebral processes underlying mental rotations. PMID:24324422

  19. Multisensory Origin of the Subjective First-Person Perspective: Visual, Tactile, and Vestibular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Lopez, Christophe; Schmutz, Valentin; Duenas, Julio Angel; Martuzzi, Roberto; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    In three experiments we investigated the effects of visuo-tactile and visuo-vestibular conflict about the direction of gravity on three aspects of bodily self-consciousness: self-identification, self-location, and the experienced direction of the first-person perspective. Robotic visuo-tactile stimulation was administered to 78 participants in three experiments. Additionally, we presented participants with a virtual body as seen from an elevated and downward-directed perspective while they were lying supine and were therefore receiving vestibular and postural cues about an upward-directed perspective. Under these conditions, we studied the effects of different degrees of visuo-vestibular conflict, repeated measurements during illusion induction, and the relationship to a classical measure of visuo-vestibular integration. Extending earlier findings on experimentally induced changes in bodily self-consciousness, we show that self-identification does not depend on the experienced direction of the first-person perspective, whereas self-location does. Changes in bodily self-consciousness depend on visual gravitational signals. Individual differences in the experienced direction of first-person perspective correlated with individual differences in visuo-vestibular integration. Our data reveal important contributions of visuo-vestibular gravitational cues to bodily self-consciousness. In particular we show that the experienced direction of the first-person perspective depends on the integration of visual, vestibular, and tactile signals, as well as on individual differences in idiosyncratic visuo-vestibular strategies. PMID:23630611

  20. Vestibular autonomic regulation (including motion sickness and the mechanism of vomiting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Autonomic manifestations of vestibular dysfunction and motion sickness are well established in the clinical literature. Recent studies of 'vestibular autonomic regulation' have focused predominantly on autonomic responses to stimulation of the vestibular sense organs in the inner ear. These studies have shown that autonomic responses to vestibular stimulation are regionally selective and have defined a 'vestibulosympathetic reflex' in animal experiments. Outside the realm of experimental preparations, however, the importance of vestibular inputs in autonomic regulation is unclear because controls for secondary factors, such as affective/emotional responses and cardiovascular responses elicited by muscle contraction and regional blood pooling, have been inadequate. Anatomic and physiologic evidence of an extensive convergence of vestibular and autonomic information in the brainstem suggests though that there may be an integrated representation of gravitoinertial acceleration from vestibular, somatic, and visceral receptors for somatic and visceral motor control. In the case of vestibular dysfunction or motion sickness, the unpleasant visceral manifestations (e.g. epigastric discomfort, nausea or vomiting) may contribute to conditioned situational avoidance and the development of agoraphobia.

  1. Postural responses to vibration of neck muscles in patients with uni- and bilateral vestibular loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Lekhel; Konstantin Popov; Adolfo Bronstein; Michael Gresty

    1998-01-01

    Postural responses to vibration applied unilaterally to the dorsal neck muscles were recorded with a sway platform in 11 patients with bilateral vestibular loss (BLD), 13 patients with unilateral vestibular lesions (ULD) and 19 normal subjects. In the normals, the vibration induced a forward postural deviation. Vibration failed to induce postural sway in the BLD patients but induced a backwards

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of the NF2 gene in young patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Mohyuddin; W J Neary; A Wallace; C L Wu; S Purcell; H Reid; R T Ramsden; A Read; G Black; D G R Evans

    2002-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) must be suspected in patients presenting with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma at a young age who are therefore at theoretical risk of developing bilateral disease. We identified 45 patients aged 30 years or less at the onset of symptoms of a unilateral vestibular schwannoma. Molecular genetic analysis of the NF2 gene was completed on peripheral blood

  3. Differential diagnosis of type 2 neurofibromatosis: molecular discrimination of NF2 and sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C L Wu; N Thakker; W Neary; G Black; R Lye; R T Ramsden; A P Read; D G Evans

    1998-01-01

    Patients who present with unilateral vestibular schwannomas either at a young age or with additional features of type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) are at risk of developing bilateral disease and transmitting a risk of neurogenic tumours to their offspring. We have identified 15 patients from a series of 537 with unilateral vestibular schwannomas who also had one or more of the

  4. The Effect of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation on Postural Response of Down Syndrome Individuals on the Seesaw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, R. L.; Almeida, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of the vestibular system in postural adjustments on unstable surfaces, we analyzed the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the pattern of muscle activity and joint displacements (ankle knee and hip) of eight intellectually normal participants (control group--CG) and eight control group…

  5. Sympathetic Arousal to a Vestibular Stressor in High and Low Hostile Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Joseph E.; Holland, Alissa K.; Stratton, Harrison J.; Harrison, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to extend the literature on hostility and a cerebral systems based model of sympathetic arousal to a vestibular-based stress. Several authors have concluded that autonomic stress reactivity in high hostile individuals must be interpersonally based, whereas healthy vestibular system functioning does not depend…

  6. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the vestibular nuclei of normal and unilateral vestibular neurectomized cats.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, B; Lacour, M

    2001-06-01

    Recent neurochemical investigations of the central vestibular pathways have demonstrated that several neurotransmitters are involved in various operations required for stabilizing posture and gaze. Neurons of the vestibular nuclei (VN) receive GABAergic inhibitory afferents, and GABAergic neurons distributed throughout the vestibular complex are implicated in inhibitory vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal pathways. The aim of this study was to analyse the modifications of GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-ir) in the cat VN after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN). Indeed, compensation of vestibular deficits is a good model for studying adult central nervous system (CNS) plasticity and the GABAergic system is involved in CNS plasticity. We studied GABA-ir by using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against GABA. Light microscopic preparations of thin (20 microm) sections of cat VN were used to quantify GABA-ir by an image analysing system measuring GABA-positive punctate structures and the number of GABA-positive neurons. Both the lesioned and intact sides were analysed in three populations of UVN cats killed at different times after injury (1 week, 3 weeks and 1 year). These data were compared to those collected in normal unlesioned and sham-operated cats. Results showed a spatial distribution of GABA-ir in the control cats that confirmed previous studies. GABA-ir neurons, fibres and nerve terminals were scattered in all parts of the VN. A higher concentration of GABA-positive neurons (small cells) was detected in the medial and inferior VN (MVN and IVN) and in the dorsal part of the lateral VN (LVNd). A higher level of GABA-positive punctate structures was observed in the MVN and in the prepositus hypoglossi (PH) nucleus. Lesion-induced changes were found at each survival time. One week after injury the number of GABA-positive neurons was significantly increased in the MVN, the IVN and the dorsal part of the LVN on the lesioned side and in the ventral part of the LVN on the intact side. One year later a bilateral increase in GABA-positive neurons was detected in the MVN whilst a bilateral decrease was observed in both the SVN and the ventral part of the LVN. Changes in the GABA-staining varicosities did not strictly coincide with the distribution of GABA-ir cells, suggesting that GABA-ir fibres and nerve terminals were also modified. One week and later after injury, higher GABA-staining varicosities were seen unilaterally in the ipsilateral MVN. In contrast, bilateral increases (in PH) and bilateral decreases (in SVN and the ventral part of the LVN) were recorded in the nearly (3 weeks) or fully (1 year) compensated cats. At this stage GABA-staining varicosities were significantly increased in the lesioned side of the MVN. These findings demonstrate the reorganization of the GABAergic system in the VN and its possible role in recovery process after UVN in the cat. The changes seen during the acute stage could be causally related to the VN neuron deafferentation, contributing to the static vestibular deficits. Those found in the compensated cats would be more functionally implicated in the dynamic aspects of vestibular compensation. PMID:11454029

  7. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  8. Role of somatosensory and vestibular cues in attenuating visually induced human postural sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Benolken, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory cues to the maintenance of stance in humans. Postural sway was induced by full-field, sinusoidal visual surround rotations about an axis at the level of the ankle joints. The influences of vestibular and somatosensory cues were characterized by comparing postural sway in normal and bilateral vestibular absent subjects in conditions that provided either accurate or inaccurate somatosensory orientation information. In normal subjects, the amplitude of visually induced sway reached a saturation level as stimulus amplitude increased. The saturation amplitude decreased with increasing stimulus frequency. No saturation phenomena were observed in subjects with vestibular loss, implying that vestibular cues were responsible for the saturation phenomenon. For visually induced sways below the saturation level, the stimulus-response curves for both normal subjects and subjects experiencing vestibular loss were nearly identical, implying (1) that normal subjects were not using vestibular information to attenuate their visually induced sway, possibly because sway was below a vestibular-related threshold level, and (2) that subjects with vestibular loss did not utilize visual cues to a greater extent than normal subjects; that is, a fundamental change in visual system "gain" was not used to compensate for a vestibular deficit. An unexpected finding was that the amplitude of body sway induced by visual surround motion could be almost 3 times greater than the amplitude of the visual stimulus in normal subjects and subjects with vestibular loss. This occurred in conditions where somatosensory cues were inaccurate and at low stimulus amplitudes. A control system model of visually induced postural sway was developed to explain this finding. For both subject groups, the amplitude of visually induced sway was smaller by a factor of about 4 in tests where somatosensory cues provided accurate versus inaccurate orientation information. This implied (1) that the subjects experiencing vestibular loss did not utilize somatosensory cues to a greater extent than normal subjects; that is, changes in somatosensory system "gain" were not used to compensate for a vestibular deficit, and (2) that the threshold for the use of vestibular cues in normal subjects was apparently lower in test conditions where somatosensory cues were providing accurate orientation information.

  9. Vestibular dark cells contain the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE-1 in the basolateral membrane.

    PubMed

    Wangemann, P; Liu, J; Shiga, N

    1996-05-01

    Vestibular dark cells and strial marginal cells transport K+ by similar mechanisms. We have shown that K+ transport in vestibular dark cells is sensitive to the cytosolic pH (pHi) (Wangemann et al. (1995a): J. Membrane Biol. 147: 255-262). The present study addresses pharmacologically the questions whether vestibular dark cells and strial marginal cells from the gerbil contain a Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) and in which membrane, apical or basolateral, NHE is located. Further, the study addresses the question which NHE subtype is present in vestibular dark cells. pHi was measured micro-fluorometrically with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bicarboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), cell volume which is a measure of the net balance between ion influx and efflux was monitored as cell height (CH) and the equivalent short circuit current (Isc) which is a measure of transepithelial K+ secretion was calculated from measurements of the transepithelial voltage (Vt) and the transepithelial resistance (Rt). Changes in pHi were induced by 20 or 40 mM propionate. In the presence of propionate a transient acidification of pHi was observed in vestibular dark cells as well as a subsequent alkalinization to pHi values exceeding those under control conditions. The alkalinization of pHi in the presence of propionate was inhibited by the NHE blockers amiloride and EIPA. Propionate-induced swelling of vestibular dark cells was inhibited by amiloride. The NHE blocker amiloride caused in vestibular dark cells an acidification of pHi and a decrease in CH. Amiloride caused in both vestibular dark cells and strial marginal cells a transient stimulation of Isc when added to the basolateral side but not added to the apical side. Similar effects and pHi were observed in vestibular dark cells with the amiloride analog ethyl-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA) and similar effects on Isc were observed with EIPA and the NHE blocker HOE694 when applied to the basolateral side of vestibular dark cell epithelium. The IC50 for these basolateral effects of EIPA, HOE694 and amiloride on Isc in vestibular dark cells were 2 x 10(-7) M, 8 x 10(-7) M and 4 x 10(-5) M. These observation suggest that vestibular dark cells and strial marginal cells contain NHE in their basolateral membrane, that K+ transport in strial marginal cells in pHi sensitive similar to K+ transport in vestibular dark cells and that NHE in vestibular dark cells consists of the subtype NHE-1. PMID:8789815

  10. Role of somatosensory and vestibular cues in attenuating visually induced human postural sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Benolken, Martha S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the contribution of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory cues to the maintenance of stance in humans. Postural sway was induced by full field, sinusoidal visual surround rotations about an axis at the level of the ankle joints. The influences of vestibular and somatosensory cues were characterized by comparing postural sway in normal and bilateral vestibular absent subjects in conditions that provided either accurate or inaccurate somatosensory orientation information. In normal subjects, the amplitude of visually induced sway reached a saturation level as stimulus amplitude increased. The saturation amplitude decreased with increasing stimulus frequency. No saturation phenomena was observed in subjects with vestibular loss, implying that vestibular cues were responsible for the saturation phenomenon. For visually induced sways below the saturation level, the stimulus-response curves for both normal and vestibular loss subjects were nearly identical implying that (1) normal subjects were not using vestibular information to attenuate their visually induced sway, possibly because sway was below a vestibular-related threshold level, and (2) vestibular loss subjects did not utilize visual cues to a greater extent than normal subjects; that is, a fundamental change in visual system 'gain' was not used to compensate for a vestibular deficit. An unexpected finding was that the amplitude of body sway induced by visual surround motion could be almost three times greater than the amplitude of the visual stimulus in normals and vestibular loss subjects. This occurred in conditions where somatosensory cues were inaccurate and at low stimulus amplitudes. A control system model of visually induced postural sway was developed to explain this finding. For both subject groups, the amplitude of visually induced sway was smaller by a factor of about four in tests where somatosensory cues provided accurate versus inaccurate orientation information. This implied that (1) the vestibular loss subjects did not utilize somatosensory cues to a greater extent than normal subjects; that is, changes in somatosensory system 'gain' were not used to compensate for a vestibular deficit, and (2) the threshold for the use of vestibular cues in normals was apparently lower in test conditions where somatosensory cues were providing accurate orientation information.

  11. Quantum electrodynamic equations for magnetic resonance- and optical spectroscopic transitions

    E-print Network

    D. Yearchuck; Y. Yerchak; A. Alexandrov

    2009-03-02

    Quantum electrodynamic equations for magnetic resonance- and optical spectroscopic transitions have been for the first time obtained. New phenomena - stochastic electrical and magnetic spin wave resonances are predicted to be the effects of EM-field quantization.

  12. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID AND MASTICATORY MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH VESTIBULAR LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Barozzi, Stefania; Marin, Federico; Cesarani, Antonio; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the electromyographic characteristics of masticatory and neck muscles in subjects with vestibular lesions. Surface electromyography of the masseter, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles was performed in 19 patients with Ménière's disease, 12 patients with an acute peripheral vestibular lesion, and 19 control subjects matched for sex and age. During maximum voluntary clenching, patients with peripheral vestibular lesions had the highest co-contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (analysis of covariance, p=0.02), the control subjects had the smallest values, and the patients with Ménière's disease had intermediate values. The control subjects had larger standardized muscle activities than the other patient groups (p=0.001). In conclusion, during maximum voluntary tooth clenching, patients with vestibular alterations have both more active neck muscles, and less active masticatory muscles than normal controls. Results underline the importance of a more inclusive craniocervical assessment of patients with vestibular lesions. PMID:19082397

  13. An experimental vestibular neural prosthesis: design and preliminary results with rhesus monkeys stimulated with modulated pulses.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kaibao; Ling, Leo; Bierer, Steven M; Kaneko, Chris R S; Fuchs, Albert F; Oxford, Trey; Rubinstein, Jay T; Phillips, James O

    2013-06-01

    A vestibular neural prosthesis was designed on the basis of a cochlear implant for treatment of Meniere's disease and other vestibular disorders. Computer control software was developed to generate patterned pulse stimuli for exploring optimal parameters to activate the vestibular nerve. Two rhesus monkeys were implanted with the prototype vestibular prosthesis and they were behaviorally evaluated post implantation surgery. Horizontal and vertical eye movement responses to patterned electrical pulse stimulations were collected on both monkeys. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) and pulse rate modulated (PRM) trains were applied to the lateral canal of each implanted animal. Robust slow-phase nystagmus responses following the PAM or PRM modulation pattern were observed in both implanted monkeys in the direction consistent with the activation of the implanted canal. Both PAM and PRM pulse trains can elicit a significant amount of in-phase modulated eye velocity changes and they could potentially be used for efficiently coding head rotational signals in future vestibular neural prostheses. PMID:23358943

  14. Symptomatic treatment of vestibular deficits: therapeutic potential of histamine H4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wersinger, Eric; Gaboyard-Niay, Sophie; Travo, Cécile; Soto, Enrique; Baez, Adriana; Vega, Rosario; Brugeaud, Aurore; Chabbert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular disorders display high prevalence and can severely impact the daily life. However, pharmacological options that would efficiently relieve the vertigo symptoms without side effects are still lacking. In the present review we briefly review the common history of histamine receptor modulation and the pharmacological therapy of vestibular disorders. We also discuss the recent demonstration of Histamine H4 Receptor mRNAs expression in Scarpa's ganglion of mammal and the potential use of specific H4R antagonists as vestibulomodulators. Additional original data confirm the expression of H4R proteins in the rat vestibular primary neurons, the neuromodulatory properties of specific H4R antagonists in vitro (inhibition of vestibular neuron excitability) as well as their efficacy to decrease vestibular deficits induced in different in animal models. PMID:24177347

  15. Responses of caudal vestibular nucleus neurons of conscious cats to rotations in vertical planes, before and after a bilateral vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Miller; L. A. Cotter; N. J. Gandhi; R. H. Schor; S. P. Cass; N. O. Huff; S. G. Raj; J. A. Shulman; B. J. Yates

    2008-01-01

    Although many previous experiments have considered the responses of vestibular nucleus neurons to rotations and translations\\u000a of the head, little data are available regarding cells in the caudalmost portions of the vestibular nuclei (CVN), which mediate\\u000a vestibulo-autonomic responses among other functions. This study examined the responses of CVN neurons of conscious cats to\\u000a rotations in vertical planes, both before and

  16. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere's disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  17. Central and peripheral components of short latency vestibular responses in the chicken

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazareth, A. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1998-01-01

    Far-field recordings of short latency vestibular responses to pulsed cranial translation are composed of a series of positive and negative peaks occurring within 10 ms following stimulus onset. In the bird, these vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) can be recorded noninvasively and have been shown in the chicken and quail to depend strictly upon the activation of the vestibular component of the eighth nerve. The utility of the VsEP in the study of vestibular systems is dependent upon a clear understanding of the neural sources of response components. The primary aim of the current research in the chicken was to critically test the hypotheses that 1) responses are generated by both peripheral and central neurons and 2) peaks P1 and N1 originate from first order vestibular neurons, whereas later waves primarily depend on activity in higher order neurons. The principal strategy used here was to surgically isolate the eighth nerve as it enters the brainstem. Interruption of primary afferents of the eighth nerve in the brainstem substantially reduced or eliminated peaks beyond P2, whereas P1 and N1 were generally spared. Surgical sections that spared vestibular pathways had little effect on responses. The degree of change in response components beyond N1 was correlated with the extent of damage to central vestibular relays. These findings support the conclusion that responses are produced by both peripheral and central elements of the vestibular system. Further, response peaks later than N1 appear to be dependent upon central relays, whereas P1 and N1 reflect activity of the peripheral nerve. These findings clarify the roles of peripheral and central neurons in the generation of vestibular evoked potentials and provide the basis for a more useful and detailed interpretation of data from vestibular response testing.

  18. Responses of central vestibular neurons to sinusoidal yaw rotation in compensated macaques after unilateral labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Min

    2013-01-01

    After vestibular labyrinth injury, behavioral measures of vestibular function partially recover through the process of vestibular compensation. The present study was performed to improve our understanding of the physiology of macaque vestibular nucleus neurons in the compensated state (>6 wk) after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). The responses of neurons to sinusoidal yaw rotation at a series of frequencies (0.1–2.0 Hz) and peak velocities (7.5–210°/s) were examined to determine how the behavior of these cells differed from those in animals with intact labyrinths. The sensitivity of neurons responding to ipsilateral rotation (type I) did not differ between the intact and injured sides after UL, although this sensitivity was lower bilaterally after lesion than before lesion. The sensitivity of neurons that increase firing with contralateral rotation (type II) was higher ipsilateral to the UL than before lesion or in the nucleus contralateral to the UL. UL did not increase asymmetry in the responses of individual type I or II neurons to ipsilateral vs. contralateral rotation, nor does it change the power law relationship between neuronal firing and level of stimulation. Increased sensitivities of contralesional type I neurons to the remaining vestibular nerve input and increased efficacy of inhibitory vestibular commissures projecting to the ipsilesional vestibular nucleus appear to be responsible for recovery of dynamic function of central vestibular neurons in compensated animals. The portion of type I neurons on the ipsilesional side is reduced in compensated animals, which likely accounts for the asymmetries in vestibular reflexes and perception that characterize vestibular function after UL. PMID:23864379

  19. Reconsidering the Role of Neuronal Intrinsic Properties and Neuromodulation in Vestibular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Beraneck, Mathieu; Idoux, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    The sensorimotor transformations performed by central vestibular neurons constantly adapt as the animal faces conflicting sensory information or sustains injuries. To ensure the homeostasis of vestibular-related functions, neural changes could in part rely on the regulation of 2° VN intrinsic properties. Here we review evidence that demonstrates modulation and plasticity of central vestibular neurons’ intrinsic properties. We first present the partition of Rodents’ vestibular neurons into distinct subtypes, namely type A and type B. Then, we focus on the respective properties of each type, their putative roles in vestibular functions, fast control by neuromodulators and persistent modifications following a lesion. The intrinsic properties of central vestibular neurons can be swiftly modulated by a wealth of neuromodulators to adapt rapidly to temporary changes of ecophysiological surroundings. To illustrate how intrinsic excitability can be rapidly modified in physiological conditions and therefore be therapeutic targets, we present the modulation of vestibular reflexes in relation to the variations of the neuromodulatory inputs during the sleep/wake cycle. On the other hand, intrinsic properties can also be slowly, yet permanently, modified in response to major perturbations, e.g., after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). We revisit the experimental evidence, which demonstrates that drastic alterations of the central vestibular neurons’ intrinsic properties occur following UL, with a slow time course, more on par with the compensation of dynamic deficits than static ones. Data are interpreted in the framework of distributed processes that progress from global, large-scale coping mechanisms (e.g., changes in behavioral strategies) to local, small-scale ones (e.g., changes in intrinsic properties). Within this framework, the compensation of dynamic deficits improves over time as deeper modifications are engraved within the finer parts of the vestibular-related networks. Finally, we offer perspectives and working hypotheses to pave the way for future research aimed at understanding the modulation and plasticity of central vestibular neurons’ intrinsic properties. PMID:22403570

  20. The effect of clinorotation on vestibular compensation in upside-down swimming catfish.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Ken; Okamoto, Noritomo; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Akihisa; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2003-10-01

    Upside-down swimming catfish Synodontis nigriventris can keep upside-down swimming posture stably under pseudo-microgravity generated by clinostat. When the vestibular organ is unilaterally ablated, the operated S. nigriventris shows disturbed swimming postures under the clinorotation condition. However, about 1 month after the operation, unilateral vestibular organ-ablated S. nigriventris shows stable upside-down swimming posture under the condition (vestibular compensation). In contrast, a closely related upside-up swimming catfish Synodontis multipunctatus belonging to same Synodontis family can not keep stable swimming postures under the clinorotation conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of continuous clinorotation on vestibular compensation in intact and unilateral vestibular organ-ablated Synodontis nigriventris and Synodontis multipunctatus. After the exposure to continuous clinorotation, the postures of the catfish were observed under microgravity provided by parabolic flights of an aircraft. Unilateral vestibular organ-ablated S. nigriventris which had been exposed to continuous clinorotation showed stable swimming postures and did not show dorsal light reaction (DLR) under microgravity. This postural control pattern of the operated catfish was similar to that of intact catfish. Intact and unilateral vestibular organ-ablated S. multipunctatus showed DLR during microgravity. Our results confirmed that S. nigriventris has a novel balance sensation which is not affected by microgravity. DLR seems not to play an important role in postural control. It remains unclear that the continuous clinorotation effects on vestibular compensation because we could not keep used unilateral vestibular organ-ablated fish alive under continuous clinorotation for uninterrupted 25 days. This study suggests that space flight experiments are required to explore whether gravity information is essential for vestibular compensation. PMID:14676355