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1

Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

Demers, Denise

1989-01-01

2

Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica,  

E-print Network

1 Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB 1.1 Introduction The goal of the Sage project (http://www.sagemath.org) is to create a viable free open source explain some of the motivation for starting the Sage project, in Section 1.3 we describe the basic

Stein, William

3

A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

Hester, Jesse Stuart

4

Developing a viable alternative to Medicare's physician payment strategy.  

PubMed

Since 1992 Medicare has reimbursed physicians on a fee-for-service basis that weights physician services according to the effort and expense of providing those services and converts the weights to dollars using a conversion factor. In 1997 Congress replaced an existing spending constraint with the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) to reduce reimbursements if overall physician spending exceeded the growth in the economy. Congress, however, has routinely overridden the SGR because of concerns that reduced payments to physicians would limit patients' access to care. Under continued pressure to override scheduled fee reductions or eliminate the SGR altogether, Congress is now considering legislation that would reimburse physicians to improve quality and lower costs-two things that the current system does not do. This article reviews several promising models, including patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and various payment bundling pilots, that could offer lessons for a larger reform of physician payment. Pilot projects that focus exclusively on alternative ways to reimburse physicians apart from payments to hospitals, such as payments for episodes of care, are also needed. Most promising, Congress is now showing bipartisan, bicameral interest in revising how Medicare reimburses physicians. PMID:24334312

Wilensky, Gail R

2014-01-01

5

ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev  

E-print Network

ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev Submitted May 16th not require dark matter but rather relies on classical Newtonian dynamics and an overlooked effect of quantum: dark matter ­ galaxies: spiral ­ galaxies: kinematics and dynamics 1. INTRODUCTION Directly applied

Giles, C. Lee

6

Alternative energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

M. S. Dresselhaus; I. L. Thomas

2001-01-01

7

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube, Facebook, MySpace and Twitter and smart devices such as iPhone and BlackBerry useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay lip service to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

8

Are the alternatives still viable. The insight study of alternative energy investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investors in energy supplies need to be alert to the factors that determine the prices of traditional energy forms and to changes in government policies toward financial incentives that encourage the development of alternatives. A review of solar thermal, photovoltaics, geothermal, wind energy, cogeneration conservation, and energy management systems concludes that solar photovoltaic, cogeneration, and conservation industries are the strongest,

Reeck

1983-01-01

9

Centre for Alternative Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

2007-06-28

10

Coal era in the United States: a study of our viable alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Coal and coal derivatives combined with light water reactors will be the primary energy sources in the post-petroleum era, although renewable resources will provide some modest help. Energy will be available for those who have or can pay for resources, several countries having already made their decision for one or the other. Synthetic liquid and gas fuels made from coal can maintain petroleum- liquid fuels at 70% of 1980 levels, but coal use will increase 350% by 2060. Coal is shown to be the viable decision for the US, and documentation is given on the resource potential and the costs of producing synthetic fuels from coal. The rationale for this approach is outlined in a way that answers public questions relating to coal technologies, efficiency, and cost. 77 references, 7 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

Reed, C.B.

1981-01-01

11

Alternative food safety intervention technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

12

Gestational carriers: A viable alternative for women with medical contraindications to pregnancy*  

PubMed Central

Objective Compare the efficacy of surrogate or gestational carrier (GC) cycles to that of autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI) in patients with gynecologic or medical co-morbidities contraindicative to pregnancy. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Infertility patients from a single university hospital-based program from 1998-2009. Intervention(s) 128 GC cycles from 80 intended parents were identified and compared with 15,311 IVF or ICSI cycles. Main Outcome Measure(s) The peak estradiol (E2), number of oocytes retrieved, cycle cancellation, ongoing pregnancy, and live-birth were compared between GCs and autologous IVF carriers. Indications for GC use were also identified. Multiple cycles contributed by the same patient were accounted for using multivariable generalized estimating equations and two-sided Wald p-values. Results Uterine factors (67%) was the most common indication for using a GC, followed by non-gynecologic medical conditions including coagulopathies (13%), end stage renal disease (10%), cardiovascular disease (5%) and cancer (5%). Adjusting for age, ovulation induction in GC cycles had similar peak E2 levels and number of oocytes retrieved relative to IVF cycles (p = 0.23 and 0.43, respectively). Clinical pregnancy (49% vs. 42%, p = 0.28) and live-birth rates (31% vs. 32%, p = 0.74) were also comparable. A sub-analysis of GC cycles in those women with uterine factor indications, demonstrated significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.2 - 3.5) with 60% greater odds of live-birth relative to IVF/ICSI cycles, however this odds was not statistically significant for differences in live-birth (CI = 0.9 - 2.9). Conclusions: GCs are a viable alternative to start families for patients with medical co-morbidities precluding pregnancy.

Correia, Katharine F.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.

2015-01-01

13

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

14

Inferior gluteal artery perforator flap: a viable alternative for ischial pressure sores.  

PubMed

The ischial area is by far the most common site for pressure sores in wheelchair-bound paraplegic patients, because most of the pressure of the body is exerted on this area in the seated position. Even after a series of successful pressure sore treatments, the site is very prone to relapse from the simplest everyday tasks. Therefore, it is crucial to preserve the main pedicle during primary surgery. Several surgical procedures, such as myocutaneous flap and perforator flap, have been introduced for the treatment of pressure sores. During a 4-year time period at our institute, we found favourable clinical results using the inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) procedure for ischial sore treatment. A total of 23 patients (20 males and three females) received IGAP flap surgery in our hospital from January 2003 to January 2007. Surgery was performed on the same site again in 10 (43%) patients who had originally relapsed after undergoing the conventional method of pressure sore surgery. The average age of patients was 47.4 years (range 26-71 years). Most of the patients were paraplegic (16 cases, 70%) and others were either quadriplegic (four cases, 17%) or ambulatory (three cases, 13%). Based on hospital records and clinical photographs, we attempted to assess the feasibility and practicability of the IGAP flap procedure through comparative analysis of several parameters including the size of the defective area, treatment modalities, relapses, complications, and postoperative treatments. The average follow-up duration for 23 subjects was 25.4 months (range 5-42 months). All flaps survived without major complications. Partial flap necrosis developed in one case but secondary healing was achieved and the final outcome was not impaired. Most of the cases healed well during the follow-up period. Postoperative complications such as wound dehiscence and fistula developed in some subjects, but all healed well with a secondary treatment. A total of five cases relapsed after surgery due to tissue deficit and these were treated with bursectomy and muscle transposition flap to fill the dead space. We propose that the IGAP flap should be considered a viable alternative to other methods of ischial pressure sore surgery owing to its many advantages, which include the ability to preserve peripheral muscle tissue, the variability of flap designs, relatively good durability, and the low donor site morbidity rate. PMID:18799379

Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk; Yoo, Won Min; Lee, Won Jai; Tark, Kwan Chul

2009-10-01

15

The Centre for Alternative Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes operation and activities of The National Center for Alternative Technology (NCAT), built on the site of a former quarry. A major center function involves encouraging and assisting students toward a holistic approach to their environment. Also describes and includes a map of major center exhibits. (JN)

Randle, Joan; Randle, Damian

1983-01-01

16

Nonimaging solar energy concentrators (CPC's) with fully illuminated flat receivers: A viable alternative to flat-plate collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-concentration, stationary, nonimaging concentrators (CPC's) with flat receivers illuminated on both sides are considered as viable alternatives to flat-plate solar collectors. Closed-form, analytic formulae are derived for the geometric characteristics of two concentrator types of greatest interest (i.e., stationary collectors for year-round energy delivery), which enable calculations of collectible energy without computer ray-tracing stimulations. The relative merits of these concentrators

J. M. Gordon

1986-01-01

17

Section 1985(3): A Viable Alternative to Title VII for Sex-Based Employment Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Section 1985(3) is shown to be an alternative to Title VII. Inadequacies of and alternatives to Title VII are noted and questions are raised concerning section 1985(3)'s application to private sex-based discrimination, the single entity rule, and whether sex discrimination is sufficiently class-based to activate section 1985(3). (AF)

Duke, Celine Ellet

1978-01-01

18

A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

2011-10-01

19

Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.  

PubMed

Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

2013-10-01

20

Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it

John Chung-Ling Chien; Noam Lior

2011-01-01

21

Is a Finance-led growth regime a viable alternative to Fordism? A preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability and desirability of a finance-led growth regime is first assessed against the historical evidence about the many alternative regimes that have been proposed as successors to Fordism. A purely hypothetical model is then built by assembling various hypotheses derived from the observation of current American trends. The imposition of financial norms, such as shareholder value, requires a new

Robert Boyer

2000-01-01

22

CD-ROM--A Viable Alternative to Online Searching for Academic Libraries?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of CD-ROM as an alternative to online searching for academic libraries focuses on a comparison between online and CD-ROM costs at the University of Natal (South Africa) library. Other factors examined include funding methods; user fees; staff involvement; user training; user access, including search intermediaries and networking; and

Dubbeld, Catherine E.

1991-01-01

23

Alternate Keyboards: Technology User in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information about access to computers through alternate keyboards used by students who have physical impairments. Part 1 describes a typical technology team and the alternate keyboard selection process. Part 2 discusses the practical aspects of everyday teaching and living with an alternate keyboard user and includes

Heiner, Donna

24

Closed-loop operation with alternative dewatering technology  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of dewatering devices for closed-loop drilling-fluid circulating systems and reserve pits is derived from technology that has been used in the industrial- and sanitary-waste treatment industries for years. This paper describes an overview of the need for closed-loop systems and provides the optimum design layout, including the fit of a dewatering device, for a drilling location. The introduction of a nonconventional dewatering device, called a screw press/thickener, is reviewed. A case history describing use of this technology in a southern Louisiana inland-marsh-area well is analyzed for the technical and economic viability of operating in a closed-loop mode. Results from this effort include a viable alternative to hauling off waste fluids from drilling sites and the realization that use of this technology can be justified economically.

Halliday, W.S.; Bray, R.P.; Youens, J.W.

1993-03-01

25

Alternative Energy Technologies: Fuel Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Allan J. Jacobson of the University of Houston provides an introduction to fuel cell technology. The history of fuel cells, the potential future applications of the technology, technical challenges involved and the specifics of hydrogen production are all outlined. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

Jacobson, Allan J.

2012-02-28

26

A methodology for the comparative evaluation of alternative bioseparation technologies.  

PubMed

Advances in upstream technologies and growing commercial demand have led to cell culture processes of ever larger volumes and expressing at higher product titers. This has increased the burden on downstream processing. Concerns regarding the capacity limitations of packed-bed chromatography have led process engineers to begin investigating new bioseparation techniques that may be considered as "alternatives" to chromatography, and which could potentially offer higher processing capacities but at a lower cost. With the wide range of alternatives, which are currently available, each with their own strengths and inherent limitations, coupled with the time pressures associated with process development, the challenge for process engineers is to determine which technologies are most worth investigating. This article presents a methodology based on a multiattribute decision making (MADM) analysis approach, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data, which can be used to determine the "industrial attractiveness" of bioseparation technologies, accounting for trade-offs between their strengths and weaknesses. By including packed-bed chromatography in the analysis as a reference point, it was possible to determine the alternatives, which show the most promise for use in large-scale manufacturing processes. The results of this analysis show that although the majority of alternative techniques offer certain advantages over conventional packed-bed chromatography, their attractiveness overall means that currently none of these technologies may be considered as viable alternatives to chromatography. The methodology introduced in this study may be used to gain significant quantitative insight as to the key areas in which improvements are required for each technique, and thus may be used as a tool to aid in further technological development. PMID:19194909

Tran, Richard; Zhou, Yuhong; Lacki, Karol M; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

2008-01-01

27

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2010-07-01

28

New Technology and Energy Alternatives  

E-print Network

, which is equal to 1000 watts consumed for one hour. It represents the fuel the uti I ity burns to produce the energy consumed. Peak demand charges are usually based on the highest 30 minute peak demand in kilowatts experienced during a given month... of hours that customer can be interrupted. Knowing your facil ity's type of rate is the basis for finding alternative and energy reducing schemes. This information is available from your uti I ity company. With this brief background, we can discuss...

Lamphere, F. J.

29

Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands  

SciTech Connect

All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

Pytlinski, J.T. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico))

1992-01-01

30

Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

Shedrow, C.B.

1999-11-29

31

Coir Dust, A Viable Alternative to Peat Moss http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/Environmental/Media_Nutrition/COIR%20p... 1 of 6 2/8/2007 11:05 AM  

E-print Network

Coir Dust, A Viable Alternative to Peat Moss http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/Environmental/Media_Nutrition/COIR%20p... 1 of 6 2/8/2007 11:05 AM Coir Dust, A Viable Alternative to Peat Moss Alan W. Meerow Associate, the short fibers (2mm or less) and dust ("pith") left behind have accumulated as a waste product for which

Mazzotti, Frank

32

Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology  

SciTech Connect

This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1996-05-01

33

Case studies in using alternative sampling technologies  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, site assessments for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon releases have been conducted in several phases. One way to improve the traditional assessment and remedial investigation methodology is to utilize alternative sampling techniques such as drive point sampling, combined with on-site field analytical methods. There are several drive point sampling technologies which have been used successfully in the past several years to collect both soil and groundwater samples. These drive point techniques include the Geoprobe{trademark}, Hydropunch{trademark}, Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) and KV{trademark} Sampling System. Utilized in combination with an on-site mobile laboratory equipped to conduct headspace analysis by EPA method 3810, these drive point sampling methods provide immediate, real-time data at a lower cost per data point. This paper presents three case studies in utilizing the Geoprobe{trademark} as an alternative sampling technology to gather both soil and groundwater data to delineate site contamination and provide for more informed, remedial solutions. In two of the cases (retail service stations), remediation by groundwater pump and treat had been on-going for several years with little remedial progress. The use of the alternative sampling technologies provided the needed information to expedite site clean-up. The remaining site is a petroleum refining facility where an active recovery system was planned. In this case, the data provided through the expedited assessment provided imperative design information.

Endy, K.D.; Kneucker, M.

1994-12-31

34

A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

2001-02-01

35

A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

36

Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-07-01

37

Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology Analysis Group

1995-05-24

38

Expansion and growth histories in massive bigravity: introducing a viable modified-gravity alternative to the standard model of cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of dark energy has now been around for more than 15 years after the striking discovery of the late-time acceleration of the Universe from the measurements of distant supernovae. Despite its excellent agreement to various cosmological data sets, the simplest explanation of the cosmic acceleration by assuming a nonzero, but small, cosmological constant has been strongly debated, mainly due to the unprecedented difficulties in theoretically justifying the value of the constant from the current understanding of how the Universe works at microscopic levels. Several alternative explanations have now been proposed in which the acceleration is a consequence of cosmic evolution of some unknown dynamical field called dark energy. While this assumption is yet to be tested observationally using the existing and forthcoming high-quality cosmological observations, a different approach based on modifications of Einstein's theory of gravity has also been considered recently as a serious alternative. In this talk, I will focus on the cosmological implications of one of such interesting modifications in which gravity becomes massive in a theoretically consistent way. The model is based on a recently proposed nonlinear theory of massive gravity in which the gravitational sector is extended by adding an extra spin-2 particle with metric properties and the theory is free of ghost instabilities. I will show how the model can explain the late-time acceleration without resorting to an explicit cosmological constant. Both the background evolution and growth of structures in this model will be discussed in comparison to the standard LambdaCDM model, existing and future observational constraints on the model parameters from galaxy surveys such as the ESA's Euclid mission will be explored, and possible signatures for distinguishing the model from the standard model will be introduced.

Akrami, Yashar; Solomon, Adam; Koivisto, Tomi

39

Bosch - An alternate CO2 reduction technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bosch process is the most promising CO2 reduction concept for future prolonged space missions. The paper presents the design of a three-person-capacity preprototype B-CRS (Bosch-based CO2 Reduction Subsystem). It is sized to reduce 3.0 kg/d CO2 generated by the crew and to supply the product water to an O2 generation subsystem to obtain O2. The design supports future development of the B-CRS as an alternative CO2 reduction subsystem to the Sabatier-based process presently under test at NASA. The discussion covers the Bosch CO2 reduction concept, process and hardware description, performance parameters, design specifications, subsystem schematic and operation, mechanical subsystem summary, control/monitor instrumentation, and subsystem packaging. A B-CRS with a proven technological base is an attractive CO2 reduction subsystem that eliminates overboard venting.

Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

1979-01-01

40

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory by the Energy Commission. Under the Program, the following shall be eligible for funding: 3 · Alternative, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter

41

Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative  

PubMed Central

The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication. PMID:24883281

DeFazio, Michael Vincent; Han, Kevin Dong

2014-01-01

42

A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

43

Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL).  

PubMed

Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45?m has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-?s pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1?m, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73?m were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications. PMID:22278348

Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco

2012-11-01

44

Roadmap: Engineering Technology Green and Alternative Energy Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Engineering Technology ­ Green and Alternative Energy ­ Bachelor of Science [RE 26636 Project Management for Administrative Professionals 1 Green and Alternative Energy Elective 3 and Material Science 3 Green and Alternative Energy Elective 3 See note 2 on page 2 Kent Core Requirement 3

Sheridan, Scott

45

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter "Program") to be administered by the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission).1 AB 118 authorizes

46

Thermo Fisher Student Venture Fund $50K and Business Development Aid for a Commercially Viable Science Technology Applicable to  

E-print Network

for scientific proof-of-principal and market analysis. Thermo Fisher may choose further funding or licensing in participating in the Thermo Fisher Scientific SVF will be given the following guidelines for project proposalsThermo Fisher Student Venture Fund $50K and Business Development Aid for a Commercially Viable

Linsley, Braddock K.

47

Promotional issues on alternative energy technologies in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative energy technologies are being disseminated in many countries with an objective to reduce the uses of traditional and commercial energy sources. These technologies convert local resources to usable energy forms. Since the scale of these technologies is small, their implementation is targeted mainly to individual households or small communities. However, due to various constraints, these implementation programmes have not

Shaligram Pokharel

2003-01-01

48

Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

1981-01-01

49

Promising Secure Element Alternatives for NFC Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the Near Field Communication (NFC) forum was formed to promote and supervise the use of the NFC technology. Nowadays, 150 members are taking part init and a growing number of stakeholders are fully involved in the development of this emerging technology. Consequently, many pilots have been launched worldwide in order to test and improve it. Issues related to

Marie Reveilhac; Marc Pasquet

2009-01-01

50

Alternative food safety intervention technologies: flash pasteurization of finfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

51

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

52

Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the worldâ??s hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements - around 530 oC and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and reactions going to completion without side reactions, and lower demands on materials of construction. Three university research groups from PSU, USC, and TU as well as a group from ANL have been collaborating on the development of enabling technologies for the Cu-Cl cycle, including experimental work on the Cu-Cl cycle reactions, modeling and simulation, and particularly electrochemical reaction for hydrogen production using a CuCl electrolyzer. The Consortium research was distributed over the participants and organized in the following tasks: (1) Development of CuCl electrolyzer (PSU), (2) Thermodynamic modeling of anolyte solution (PSU), (3) Proton conductive membranes for CuCl electrolysis (PSU), (4) Development of an analytical method for online analysis of copper compounds in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (USC), (5) Electrodialysis as a means for separation and purification of the streams exiting the electrolyzer in the Cu-Cl cycle (USC), (6) Development of nanostructured electrocatalysts for the Cu-Cl electrolysis (USC), (7) Cu-Cl electrolyzer modeling (USC), (8) Aspen Plus modeling of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (TU), (9) International coordination of research on the development of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (ANL). The results obtained in the project clearly demonstrate that the Cu-Cl alternative thermochemical cycle is a promising and viable technology to produce hydrogen efficiently.

The Pennsylvania State Univeristy: Serguei Lvov, Mike Chung, Mark Fedkin, Victor Balashov, Elena, Chalkova, Nikolay Akinfiev; University of South Carolina: Carol Stork, Thomas Davis, Francis Gadala-Maria, Thomas Stanford, John Weidner; Tulane University: Victor Law, John Prindle; ANL: Michele Lewis

2011-01-06

53

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines E Appendix E to Subpart...Part 35Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines 1. Purpose. These...considered to be part of alternative technology systems for the purpose of this...

2010-07-01

54

Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)

Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

55

Investigation of the technology development status of alternate fuel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of the introduction of alternate fuel vehicles is to contribute to the reduction of pollution, the alternate energy for petroleum, and the energy savings. This report describes the development status of methanol, natural gas, and electric vehicles, which have high potential as alternate fuel vehicles. Characteristics of alternate fuel vehicles are compared by using the same factors on the basis of technological data. Outlines of individual alternate fuel vehicles are illustrated. Then, practicabilities of the alternate fuel vehicles are compared with each other, as for the output and energy densities, maximum output and torque of motors, power performance, specific consumption of energy, driving distance, initial cost, running cost and life cycle cost, convenience of fuel and energy supply, low pollution, and health effects.

1993-03-01

56

The AGT101 technology - An automotive alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the technology base necessary to produce gas turbine powertrains for automotive applications that will have: (1) reduced fuel consumption, (2) the ability to use a variety of fuels, (3) low emissions, and (4) competitive cost/performance. The AGT101 powertrain being developed consists of a regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine flat rated at 74.6 kW (100 hp) coupled to a split-differential gearbox and a Ford automatic overdrive production transmission. Performance predictions for the AGT101 powertrain represent a 59-percent improvement in mileage estimates over a 1985 conventionally-powered automobile for the combined federal driving cycle.

Rackley, R. A.; Davis, K. A.

1981-01-01

57

Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

2007-04-20

58

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Not Available

2014-10-01

59

Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies  

E-print Network

#12;Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies S. K. Fischer P. J. Hughes P .............................................. 1.3 1.3 Global Warming Potential Index ................................... 1.6 1.4 Methodology .......................................... 2.9 3. APPLICATION-DEPENDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS 3.1 Introduction

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

60

Geospatial methods for monitoring alternative control technology sites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monitoring alternative feedlot runoff control technology effectiveness, especially vegetative treatment systems (VTS), is of interest to both cattlemen and regulatory agencies. Producers have constructed VTS in several mid-western states under an agreement with the Iowa Cattlemen Association and the...

61

Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

Fischer, S.

1998-07-01

62

International Training Center training in alternative energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper on the Training in Alternative Energy Technology relates the need for such training, how the International Training Center came about, and how it was set up. It gives the history of the program, the administration, the technical program and its details, the selection of the participants, the details of the training, and the followup procedure to ensure that

Farber

1981-01-01

63

Force-controlled spatial manipulation of viable mammalian cells and micro-organisms by means of FluidFM technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FluidFM technology uses microchanneled atomic force microscope cantilevers that are fixed to a drilled atomic force microscope cantilevers probeholder. A continuous fluidic circuit is thereby achieved extending from an external liquid reservoir, through the probeholder and the hollow cantilever to the tip aperture. In this way, both overpressure and an underpressure can be applied to the liquid reservoir and hence to the built-in fluidic circuit. We describe in this letter how standard atomic force microscopy in combination with regulated pressure differences inside the microchanneled cantilevers can be used to displace living organisms with micrometric precision in a nondestructive way. The protocol is applicable to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells (e.g., mammalian cells, yeasts, and bacteria) in physiological buffer. By means of this procedure, cells can also be transferred from one glass slide to another one or onto an agar medium.

Drig, Pablo; Stiefel, Philipp; Behr, Pascal; Sarajlic, Edin; Bijl, Daniel; Gabi, Michael; Vrs, Jnos; Vorholt, Julia A.; Zambelli, Tomaso

2010-07-01

64

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Analytical approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of various advanced energy conversion systems were compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. The ground rules established by NASA and assumptions made by the General Electric Company in performing this cogeneration technology alternatives study are presented. The analytical methodology employed is described in detail and is illustrated with numerical examples together with a description of the computer program used in calculating over 7000 energy conversion system-industrial process applications. For Vol. 1, see 80N24797.

Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

65

Alternatives to Industrial Cogeneration: A Pinch Technology Perspective  

E-print Network

provides basic insights into the proper placement and design of . cogeneration systems. The merits of cogeneratlon can and should, be compared to those of other options for reducing energy costs and investing available capital resources. Qften... and economic merits stack up against alternative means of reducing energy costs or, more generally, operating costs. PINCH TECHNOLOGY INSIGHTS To assess the relative merits of? cogeneration, one must first of all be'able to determine what the options are...

Karp, A.

66

Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open

G. D. Sagerman; G. J. Barna; R. K. Burns

1979-01-01

67

Hot dry rock: A versatile alternative energy technology  

SciTech Connect

Hot dry rock (HDR) is the most abundant geothermal resource, and is found almost everywhere at depth. The technology to extract energy from HDR for practical use has been under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than twenty years. During the 1970`s, the possibility of mining the heat from HDR by circulating water through an engineered geothermal reservoir was first demonstrated on a small scale. Between 1980 and 1986 a larger, deeper, and hotter HDR reservoir was constructed. This large reservoir was subsequently mated to a permanent surface plant. A number of flow tests of this large HDR reservoir were conducted between 1991 and 1995. The results of these tests have indicated that it should be practical to operate an HDR heat mining facility to produce power on a sustained basis. An industry-led, government cost-shared project to produce and market energy generated from HDR is currently being put in place. That project should help demonstrate that HDR reservoirs can be operated to provide energy for long periods of time at rates sufficient to be commercially viable. In the longer run, additional applications of HDR technology such as water and waste treatment, and steam generation for oil field flooding may come into widespread use.

Duchane, D.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

1995-01-01

68

Alternative treatment technology information center computer database system  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) computer database system was developed pursuant to the 1986 Superfund law amendments. It provides up-to-date information on innovative treatment technologies to clean up hazardous waste sites. ATTIC v2.0 provides access to several independent databases as well as a mechanism for retrieving full-text documents of key literature. It can be accessed with a personal computer and modem 24 hours a day, and there are no user fees. ATTIC provides {open_quotes}one-stop shopping{close_quotes} for information on alternative treatment options by accessing several databases: (1) treatment technology database; this contains abstracts from the literature on all types of treatment technologies, including biological, chemical, physical, and thermal methods. The best literature as viewed by experts is highlighted. (2) treatability study database; this provides performance information on technologies to remove contaminants from wastewaters and soils. It is derived from treatability studies. This database is available through ATTIC or separately as a disk that can be mailed to you. (3) underground storage tank database; this presents information on underground storage tank corrective actions, surface spills, emergency response, and remedial actions. (4) oil/chemical spill database; this provides abstracts on treatment and disposal of spilled oil and chemicals. In addition to these separate databases, ATTIC allows immediate access to other disk-based systems such as the Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment Technologies (VISITT) and the Bioremediation in the Field Search System (BFSS). The user may download these programs to their own PC via a high-speed modem. Also via modem, users are able to download entire documents through the ATTIC system. Currently, about fifty publications are available, including Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program documents.

Sullivan, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)

1995-10-01

69

Primordial Germ Cell-Mediated Chimera Technology Produces Viable Pure-Line Houbara Bustard Offspring: Potential for Repopulating an Endangered Species  

PubMed Central

Background The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs) was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16) gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian species that cannot breed in captivity. PMID:21209914

Wernery, Ulrich; Liu, Chunhai; Baskar, Vijay; Guerineche, Zhor; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Jrg; Wernery, Renate

2010-01-01

70

Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study \\/CTAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste

G. D. Sagerman; G. J. Barna; R. K. Burns

1979-01-01

71

Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1  

E-print Network

of a global carbon tax and alternative assumptions about the future availability of key energy supplyDecomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1 Karen;1 Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth ABSTRACT What

Wing, Ian Sue

72

Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

1979-01-01

73

DEVELOPMENT OF MB ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR POSTHARVEST FRESH COMMODITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest endeavors to develop methyl bromide (MB) alternatives for fresh fruit commodities rest essentially on two basic requisites: (a) any chemical or non-chemical alternative treatment must be efficacious against a targeted quarantine pest resulting in 100% mortality; and (b) the alternative regulatory treatments must not injure or reduce the postharvest quality of fresh commodities for sale and consumption. Thus, in

Louis H. Aung; J. F. Jenner; J. G. Leesch; F. R. Ryan; D. M. Obenland; L. Zettler

74

System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for Nordic H2  

E-print Network

different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied fromSystem Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for Nordic H2 Energy Foresight Tiina Jørgensen Title: System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for the Nordic H2 Energy

75

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar  

Microsoft Academic Search

No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For

E. L. Etnier; A. P. Watson

1981-01-01

76

Alternative Treatment Technologies ? Working With the Pathogen Equivalency Committee  

EPA Science Inventory

Under current Federal regulations (40 CFR 503), municipal sludge must be treated prior to land application. The regulations identify two classes of treatment with respect to pathogen reduction: Class B (three alternatives) which provides a minimum acceptable level of treatment;...

77

Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

1992-01-01

78

Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

79

Technological Singularity and Transcendental Monism: Co-producers of Sustainable Alternative Futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a fusion between technological singularity and transcendental monism is posited as the best compromise for sustainable alternative futures. Four possible futures could emanate from a combination of two types of technological progress and metaphysical monism: (a) Technological singularity and material monism could lead to the end of humanity as we know it and usher in the era

Jan H. Naude

80

Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

1986-01-01

81

THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE TO ASSESS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging field of sustainability science recognizes the important role of technologies in reaching the conditional goals of sustainable development. Research in sustainable te chnologies requires transdisciplinarity to determin e the resilience, adaptive capacity, and complexity of social-ecological syste ms to assess the potential of such technologies for increasing the carrying capacity and improving the resilience of social-eco logical systems,

ALAN C BRENT

82

Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder

Bassam Mrayyan

2004-01-01

83

SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

84

A preliminary technology assessment of alternative uses for offshore petroleum platforms  

E-print Network

and an inventory of offshore platforms located on federal lands in the Gulf of Mexico was made. The following alternatives were selected on the basis of their technical feasibility: artificial reefs, fishing cooperatives, fish processing plants, scientific... tool by performing a preliminary technology assessment of alternative uses for offshore petroleum platforms. The follow- ing alternatives were selected on the basis of their technical 7 feasibility: artificial reef, fishing cooperative, fish process...

Lawlor, Frank James

2012-06-07

85

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act 35.908 Innovative...the construction of waste water treatment works. Such technologies...the construction of waste water treatment works under this...

2014-07-01

86

CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO RADIOLOGICAL SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air awarded a contract to demonstrate that non-nuclear measurement using optical and magnetic technology can replace radioactive devices used to measure the thickness and density of various paper, film, and plastic sheets....

87

Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

2010-06-01

88

Toward a Concept of Facilitative Theorizing: An Alternative to Prescriptive and Descriptive Theory in Educational Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept of facilitative theorizing as an alternative to prescriptive and descriptive theory in educational technology. The authors contend that these traditional forms of theory do not offer sufficient assistance to practitioners as they go about everyday design work. Facilitative theorizing, as an alternative, is

Yanchar, Stephen C.; Faulconer, James E.

2011-01-01

89

INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

2000-03-01

90

Fuel Cell Technology: An Alternative Energy System For the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom unit will help students learn the basic concepts related to fuel cell technology. It may be suitable for grades 6-12, depending on which portions of the material you choose to implement in your classroom. Students will define a fuel cell and its purpose, label the parts of a fuel cell, describe the process of how a fuel cell operates, define fuel cell technology and chemical processes and list and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fuel cells. Student worksheets are included in the materials. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-07-26

91

Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

Samsa, M.

1980-01-01

92

Surface technologies 2006Alternative energies and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science

Lars Rose

2007-01-01

93

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

A cooperative demonstration project was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enable the Village of Cayuga, N.Y. to install and demonstrate water filtration technology that may be appropriate for small water systems that use surface water sources. A prefabri...

94

Alternative technologies of manufacture and decoration of wood balusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that balusters made of stone, metal, gypsum can be found in modern interior, wood is the most popular material for balusters still. The aim of research is to research new forms of designer balusters and technologies of their production. Segmentation allows plane and curved surfaces to be produced independent from each other, and increases the artistic (aesthetic) expressiveness of products.

Krauinsh, D.; Zhukova, N.; Volkova, M.; Kukhta, A.

2014-10-01

95

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 1: Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications were compared to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler. Also included in the comparisons and evaluations are results extrapolated to the national level.

Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.; Sagerman, G. D.

1980-01-01

96

The Aluminum Smelting Process and Innovative Alternative Technologies  

PubMed Central

Objective: The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. Methods: This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. Results: At present, there are two main technological challenges for the processto reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A future step may be carbon dioxide gas capture and sequestration related to the electric power generation from fossil sources. Conclusions: Workers' health and safety have now become an integrated part of the aluminum business. Work-related injuries and illnesses are preventable, and the ultimate goal to eliminate accidents with lost-time injuries may hopefully be approached in the future. PMID:24806723

Drabls, Per Arne

2014-01-01

97

Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

1979-01-01

98

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and out-gassing and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released pollutants from furnishings, building materials, and indoor combustion.

Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

1981-09-01

99

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 1: Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications were compared to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines,

G. J. Barna; R. K. Burns; G. D. Sagerman

1980-01-01

100

Environmental aspects of alternative energy technologies for California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: cost-benefit analysis of energy impacts on biological, geophysical, and social environments; impacts of soft and transition technologies such as solar heat, on-site\\/central wind systems, waste\\/farm biomass systems, geothermal heat\\/electricity, hydroelectric dams, and fluidized-bed coal burners; observations on increased efficiency; and needs for further work. An appendix on biomass includes discussions of environmental impacts associated with

J. P. Holdren; G. Morris; G. Tanenbaum

1978-01-01

101

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 1: Summary report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial congeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period was studied. Six current and thirty-one advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance-of-plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on-site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Overall, fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal-derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on-site gasification systems.

1980-01-01

102

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

1980-01-01

103

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

1980-01-01

104

Technology alternatives for tapping the pruning residue resource.  

PubMed

Four commercial harvesters were compared with respect to recovery of pruning residues for energy conversion. These harvesters were tested side-by-side on 17 test fields, totaling 15 ha. The test fields consisted of vineyards and apple and pear orchards. The residue yield was between 0.7 and 9 green tonne per hectare, at a moisture content from 37% to 48%. Yield was highest for the orchards, and lowest for vineyards. Harvesters collected the residues and moved them to the roadside at a cost of between 11 and 60 per green tonne, depending on field conditions and technology choice. Single-pass harvesting was the cheapest, especially if applied through a dedicated tractor and a towed unit with a large integral container. Two-pass harvesting was the most flexible, but also the most expensive: it should be favored only when space, weather or other management constraints limit the application of the other systems. PMID:23246703

Magagnotti, Natascia; Pari, Luigi; Picchi, Gianni; Spinelli, Raffaele

2013-01-01

105

TECHNOLOGIES OF THE FUTURE - WHAT CAN WE KNOW? ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGICAL PATHWAYS INTO THE 21ST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipative technological policy making needs technology foresight. The methods used include trend extrapolation, Delphi surveys, and technology demand analysis. It is shown that these methods are implicitly based on certain models of technological development, that they imply specific methodological problems and have their re- spective forecasting horizons. Specific emphasis is put on the question, how technol- ogy demand - arising

John Freeman Dyson

106

Potential for using alternative energy technologies in group central heating systems in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide a description of the stock of Swedish group centrals and to determine the different factors which must be taken into account when considering alternative energy technologies in existing group centrals. This work is part of a larger effort that should eventually lead to an evaluation of the potential for using alternative energy sources in group central heating systems.

Olsson, S.

1983-01-01

107

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 5: Cogeneration systems results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of various advanced energy conversion systems is examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. The methodology and results of matching the cogeneration energy conversion systems to approximately 50 industrial processes are described. Results include fuel energy saved, levelized annual energy cost saved, return on investment, and operational factors relative to the noncogeneration base cases.

Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

108

A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

1990-01-01

109

Assessing alternative energy technologies for developing countries: Technology assessment groups and software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two forms of public participation in the assessment of appropriate energy technologies: a centralised top- down approach, and an approach based on grass roots empowerment. The example chosen to demonstrate the former is the Community Based Technology Assessment Program in the United States, and examples of the latter are drawn from efforts at assessing biogas technologies in

Nagendra Subbakrishna; Julia E. Gardner

1989-01-01

110

An alternate approach to the application of MHD power generation technology in a utility environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation technology offers an attractive generation potential to the electric utilities. This paper presents an alternate approach to accelerate the commercial deployment of this new technology. By retrofitting an existing generating station, the MHD system concept can be demonstrated in a utility environment as early as 1986. It is shown that this approach may be technically feasible. This accelerated approach could supplement the current national MHD program which places emphasis on large-scale, base-load applications.

Fung, T. K.; Griswold, J. W.; Moyer, J. W.

1980-06-01

111

Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. A description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies is presented.

Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

1980-01-01

112

Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies  

SciTech Connect

The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

Not Available

1980-08-01

113

Cognitive Influences of Students' Alternative Conceptions within a Hands-On Gene Technology Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a German out-of-school laboratory, 293 medium-achieving 10th-grade students participated in a lesson unit about gene technology. They were divided into two groups (I-1, I-2), both of which followed the same hands-on lesson procedure. Students within I-2 were additionally confronted with alternative conceptions to central issues of the specific

Franke, Gaitano; Bogner, Franz X.

2011-01-01

114

MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL ALTERNATIVE FOR OBTAINING ECOLOGICAL ENERGY - EQUIPMENT FOR RECYCLING OF THE ORGANIC WASTES IN AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a modern technological alternative for obtaining ecological energy - equipment for recycling of the organic wastes in agriculture. It is presented a cost-benefits analysis which must be carried to prioritize rural agricultural project with a higher return on the use of solid organic wastes.

AVRAMESCU VALERIU; STANCA GRIGORE; TEODORESCU FLORIN; MARIN GHEORGHE; BIRTU CRISTIAN; CRACIUNOIU STEFAN; GREJDENESCU ROXANA; PAUN LOREDANA

115

Implementation of alternative energy technologies in Nepal: towards the achievement of sustainable livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative energy technologies (AETs) (such as biogas plants, micro-hydro plants, solar photovoltaic systems and improved cooking stoves) have been deployed in Nepal with a view to provide efficient energy services. The AETs, which are friendly to the environment, have a potential to increase social and economic opportunities at the local level and help in improving people's livelihood. They are especially

Ishara Mahat

2004-01-01

116

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities  

E-print Network

production plant, with a lower carbon footprint, while creating jobs, improving air quality, and improvingAlternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production for stormwater runoff. These upgrades are complimentary to process improvements that validate production

117

Processing technologies: an alternative for cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruits and cladodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus pear has become an important fruit crop in many semi-arid lands of the world. The fruit and the young cladodes (nopalitos) have commonly been consumed fresh, but the last decade's research studies on cactus pear processing have produced another alternative which prevents damage to the fruit and, in spite of technological characteristics that make processing a challenge (high

Carmen Saenz

2000-01-01

118

Updated: March 22, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technologies Program  

E-print Network

Updated: March 22, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technologies Program FY 2011 Fuels Alliance Will Coleman ­ Mohr Davidow Ventures Peter Cooper ­ California Labor Federation Daniel ­ California Electric Transportation Coalition Justin Ward ­ California Fuel Cell Partnership (courtesy

119

Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D., III; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

2008-01-01

120

Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are

Oliver, M.

2011-01-01

121

An assessment of technology alternatives for telecommunications and information management for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President Bush set forth ambitious goals for expanding human presence in the solar system. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) addresses these goals beginning with Space Station Freedom, followed by a permanent return to the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars. A well designed, adaptive Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) infrastructure is vital to the success of these missions. Utilizing initial projections of user requirements, a team under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Operations developed overall architectures and point designs to implement the TNIM functions for the Lunar and Mars mission scenarios. Based on these designs, an assessment of technology alternatives for the telecommunications and information management functions was performed. This technology assessment identifies technology developments necessary to meet the telecommunications and information management system requirements for SEI. Technology requirements, technology needs and alternatives, the present level of technology readiness in each area, and a schedule for development are presented.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.

1991-01-01

122

Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.  

PubMed

The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively. PMID:24654768

Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

2014-04-15

123

Putting people first: re-thinking the role of technology in augmentative and alternative communication intervention.  

PubMed

Current technologies provide individuals with complex communication needs with a powerful array of communication, information, organization, and social networking options. However, there is the danger that the excitement over these new devices will result in a misplaced focus on the technology, to the neglect of what must be the central focus - the people with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In order to truly harness the power of technology, rehabilitation and educational professionals must ensure that AAC intervention is driven, not by the devices, but rather by the communication needs of the individual. Furthermore, those involved in AAC research and development activities must ensure that the design of AAC technologies is driven by an understanding of motor, sensory, cognitive, and linguistic processing, in order to minimize learning demands and maximize communication power for individuals with complex communication needs across the life span. PMID:24229334

Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

2013-12-01

124

Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production  

SciTech Connect

The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process has been developed combining initial dry milling of corn with subsequent solvent extraction of protein and conversion of starch to syrup. Based on laboratory studies of the alternative process, the water removal load is less than half of that for wet milling and a full scale plant using the alternative technology should require 30% less energy than a corresponding wet milling facility. Further developmental work is in progress on a pilot plant scale to allow process optimization and to afford more accurate evaluations of the energy requirements of the proposed process.

Russell, M.H.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-01-01

125

Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

Smith, R.T.

1981-05-01

126

Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration  

PubMed Central

A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 C, 121 C and 131 C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 C and 131 C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management. PMID:22690168

Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

2012-01-01

127

Peracetic acid as an alternative disinfection technology for wet weather flows.  

PubMed

Rain-induced wet weather flows (WWFs) consist of combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, and stormwater, all of which introduce pathogens to surface waters when discharged. When people come into contact with the contaminated surface water, these pathogens can be transmitted resulting in severe health problems. As such, WWFs should be disinfected. Traditional disinfection technologies are typically cost-prohibitive, can yield toxic byproducts, and space for facilities is often limited, if available. More cost-effective alternative technologies, requiring less space and producing less harmful byproducts are currently being explored. Peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated as one such alternative and this research has confirmed the feasibility and applicability of using PAA as a disinfectant for WWFs. Peracetic acid doses ranging from 5 mg/L to 15 mg/L over contact times of 2 to 10 minutes were shown to be effective and directly applicable to WWF disinfection. PMID:25306784

Coyle, Elizabeth E; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Brion, Gail M

2014-08-01

128

Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: CHP with steam turbine technology; gasification CHP using gas engine; bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, K?rlis

2013-12-01

129

ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

DADO MA

2008-07-31

130

Genome engineering with TAL-effector nucleases and alternative modular nuclease technologies.  

PubMed

Over three years following the discovery of the TAL code, artificial TAL effector DNA binding domains have emerged as the premier platform for building site-specific DNA binding polypeptides for use in biological research. Here, we provide an overview of TAL effector and alternative modular DNA binding domain (mDBD) technologies, focusing on their use in established and emerging architectures for building site-specific endonucleases for genome engineering applications. We also discuss considerations for choosing TAL effector/mDBD or alternative nuclease technologies for genome engineering projects ranging from basic laboratory gene editing of cultured cell lines to therapeutics. Finally, we highlight how the rapid pace of development of mDBD-based, such as monomeric TALENs (I-TevI-TAL), and more recently RNA-guided nucleases (CRISPR-Cas9) has led to a transition in the field of genome engineering towards development of the next generation of technologies aimed at controlling events that occur after targeted DNA breaks are made. PMID:23888878

Scharenberg, Andrew M; Duchateau, Philippe; Smith, Julianne

2013-08-01

131

Safe disposal of lethal chemical agents: Protecting public health during the debate over alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

The United States Army is required to destroy its stockpile of lethal chemical weapons (nerve and mustard agents), and has concluded that incineration is the preferred method. The steps of the proposed procedure, public concerns regarding the procedure, and the risks of continued storage are discussed in this paper. Continued public opposition to incineration prompted the Army to ask the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council to investigate possible alternatives and recommend courses of action. Political considerations which might render use of the incineration technology impossible induced the National Research Council to recommend investigation of a limited number of alternatives. Plans for laboratory and bench-scale tests of stand-alone neutralization and neutralization followed by biodegradation are summarized.

Leffingwell, S.S. [HLM Consultants, Dacula, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

132

High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

133

Alternative general-aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

Tomazic, W. A.

1976-01-01

134

Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-07-01

135

Cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation by alternative household wastewater management technologies.  

PubMed

Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain uncertain. This paper addresses two key questions: (1) what are the total costs, nitrogen mitigation potential, and cost-effectiveness of a range of conventional and alternative municipal wastewater treatment technologies, and (2) what uncertainties influence these outcomes and how can we improve our understanding of these technologies? We estimate a household nitrogen mass balance for various household wastewater treatment systems and combine this mass balance with life cycle cost assessment to calculate the cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation, which we define as nitrogen removed from the local watershed. We apply our methods to Falmouth, MA, where failing septic systems have caused heightened eutrophication in local receiving water bodies. We find that flushing and dry (composting) urine-diversion toilets paired with conventional septic systems for greywater management demonstrate the lowest life cycle cost and highest cost-effectiveness (dollars per kilogram of nitrogen removed from the watershed). Composting toilets are also attractive options in some cases, particularly best-case nitrogen mitigation. Innovative/advanced septic systems designed for high-level nitrogen removal are cost-competitive options for newly constructed homes, except at their most expensive. A centralized wastewater treatment plant is the most expensive and least cost-effective option in all cases. Using a greywater recycling system with any treatment technology increases the cost without adding any nitrogen removal benefits. Sensitivity analysis shows that these results are robust considering a range of cases and uncertainties. PMID:25575282

Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Hawkins, Troy; Xue, Xiaobo; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Garland, Jay

2015-03-01

136

Specific detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish wastewater treatment plants by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes detection in wastewater can be difficult because of the large amount of background microbiota and the presence of viable but non-culturable forms in this environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) assay combined with Direct Viable Count (DVC) method for detecting viable L. monocytogenes in wastewater samples, as an alternative

Yolanda Moreno; Lorena Ballesteros; Jorge Garca-Hernndez; Paula Santiago; Ana Gonzlez; M. Antonia Ferrs

2011-01-01

137

Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks  

SciTech Connect

A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-02-01

138

Economic feasibility study for new technological alternatives in wastewater treatment processes: a review.  

PubMed

The concept of sustainability involves the integration of economic, environmental, and social aspects and this also applies in the field of wastewater treatment. Economic feasibility studies are a key tool for selecting the most appropriate option from a set of technological proposals. Moreover, these studies are needed to assess the viability of transferring new technologies from pilot-scale to full-scale. In traditional economic feasibility studies, the benefits that have no market price, such as environmental benefits, are not considered and are therefore underestimated. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new methodology to assess the economic viability of wastewater treatment technologies that considers internal and external impacts. The estimation of the costs is based on the use of cost functions. To quantify the environmental benefits from wastewater treatment, the distance function methodology is proposed to estimate the shadow price of each pollutant removed in the wastewater treatment. The application of this methodological approach by decision makers enables the calculation of the true costs and benefits associated with each alternative technology. The proposed methodology is presented as a useful tool to support decision making. PMID:22339025

Molinos-Senante, Mara; Hernndez-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramn

2012-01-01

139

Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. PMID:22366515

Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

2012-01-01

140

Two innovative healthcare technologies at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy.  

PubMed

Using game technologies and digital media for improving physical and mental health and for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people is an area of study that is rapidly expanding. Much research in this emerging field is centered at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. In this paper the authors describe their transdisciplinary work at this intersection: i) an integrative system of psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace currently being prototyped in Second Life with the aim of offering new and virtual translations of traditional expressive therapies (virtual sandplay, virtual drama therapy, digital expressive therapy, and virtual safe spaces) and ii) a mature body of research entitled SoundScapes that is exploring the use of interactive video games and abstract creative expression (making music, digital painting, and robotic device control) as a supplement to traditional physical rehabilitation intervention. Aside from introducing our work to a broader audience, our goal is to encourage peers to investigate ideas that reach across disciplines-to both risk and reap the benefits of combining technologies, theories, and methods stemming from multiple disciplines. PMID:25488221

Brahnam, Sheryl; Brooks, Anthony L

2014-01-01

141

Microalgae harvesting and cell disruption: a preliminary evaluation of the technology electroflotation by alternating current.  

PubMed

Some species of microalgae have high productivity and lipid content, which makes them good candidates for biodiesel production. Biomass separation and cell disruption are important steps in biodiesel production from microalgae. In this work, we explored the fundamentals of electroflotation by alternating current (EFAC) with non-consumable electrodes to simultaneously harvest microalgae and disrupt cells from mixed microalgae obtained from waste stabilization ponds. The harvesting efficiency was evaluated using chlorophyll-a and turbidity, which reached removals of 99% and 95%, respectively, during a batch time of 140 min. Cell disruption was evaluated using lipid extraction, and the best results were achieved with a batch time of 140 min, which resulted in a 14% yield. Therefore, EFAC was shown to be an attractive potential technology for simultaneous microalgal harvesting and cell disruption. PMID:25051479

de Carvalho Neto, Riamburgo Gomes; do Nascimento, Jos Gilmar da Silva; Costa, Mayara Carantino; Lopes, Alexandre Colzi; Abdala Neto, Eliezer Fares; Filho, Csar Rossas Mota; Dos Santos, Andr Bezerra

2014-01-01

142

Effect of Thickness of HA-Coating on Microporous Silk Scaffolds Using Alternate Soaking Technology  

PubMed Central

Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated on various materials surface and has the function of osteogenicity. Microporous silk scaffold has excellent biocompatibility. In this study, alternate soaking technology was used to coat HA on microporous silk scaffolds. However, the cell proliferation was found to decrease with the increasing thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating. This study aims to determine the best thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds. The SEM observation showed that group with one cycle of alternate soaking (1C-HA) has the most optimal porosity like non-HA-modified microporous silk scaffolds. The proliferation of osteoblasts has no significant difference between noncoated HA (N-HA) and 1C-HA groups, which are both significantly higher than those in two cycles of soaking (2C-HA) and three cycles of soaking (3C-HA) groups. The transcription levels of specific genes (runx2 and osteonectin) in osteoblasts of 1C-HA group were significantly higher than those of N-HA group. Moreover, the levels showed no significant difference among 1C-HA, 2C-HA, and 3C-HA groups. In conclusion, microporous silk scaffold with 1 cycle of HA-coating can combine the biocompatibility of silk and osteogenicity of HA. PMID:25093176

Zhu, Rui; Xue, Yingsen; Hao, Zhangying; Xie, Zhenghong; Fan, Xiangli; Fan, Hongbin

2014-01-01

143

Evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Solar Ponds Plume, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process used to select a remedial alternative for handling contaminated groundwater emanating from the Solar Evaporation Ponds (Solar Ponds) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) and prevent it from reaching the nearest surface water body, North Walnut Creek. Preliminary results of field investigations conducted to provide additional information for the alternatives analysis are also presented. The contaminated groundwater is referred to as the Solar Ponds Plume (SPP). The primary contaminants in the SPP are nitrate and uranium; however, some metals exceed the site action levels at several locations and volatile organic compounds, originating from other sources, also have been detected. Currently the SPP, local surface water runoff, and infiltrated precipitation are collected by a trench system located downgradient of the Solar Ponds and pumped to three storage tanks. The water (two to three million gallons annually) is then pumped to an on-site treatment plant for evaporation at an approximate cost of $7.57 per liter.

Hranac, K.C. [Morrison Knudsen Corp., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site; Chromec, F.W.; Fiehweg, R. [Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site; Hopkins, J. [Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1998-07-01

144

Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

1980-01-01

145

Caspian Energy: A viable alternative to the Persian Gulf?  

Microsoft Academic Search

T he collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in the emergence of the eight independent states in Central Eurasia and changed the control of the Caspian Sea basin from the Soviet Union and Iran to Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The oil and natural gas reserves of the five Caspian Sea states are about 14.6 percent of the world's

Mehdi Parvizi Amineh

146

Synchronous Reluctance Machines-A Viable Alternative for AC Drives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although design of the variable reluctance (switched reluctance( type of synchronous machine has experienced intense activity in recent years, relatively little effort has been expended on improving the torque capability of the synchronous reluctance type of motor drive. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, it appears that substantial improvements can be made in the design of such motor

T. A. Lipo

1991-01-01

147

The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2008-01-01

148

Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

1995-12-01

149

Use of Ethidium Monoazide and PCR in Combination for Quantification of Viable and Dead Cells in Complex Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinction between viable and dead cells is a major issue in many aspects of biological research. The current technologies for determining viable versus dead cells cannot readily be used for quantitative differ- entiation of specific cells in mixed populations. This is a serious limitation. We have solved this problem by developing a new concept with the viable\\/dead stain ethidium

Knut Rudi; Birgitte Moen; S. M. Dromtorp; Askild L. Holck

2005-01-01

150

A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES  

SciTech Connect

Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used to measure the inferential variables, which can then be applied (through the data correlations) to convert existing flow meters (ultrasonic, orifice, turbine, rotary, Coriolis, diaphragm, etc.) for on-line energy measurement. The practical issues for field development were evaluated using two transducers extracted from a $100 ultrasonic domestic gas meter, and a $400 infrared sensor.

Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

1999-01-01

151

PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

2011-01-01

152

On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

2012-04-12

153

Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios

Amit Kumar; S. C Bhattacharya; H. L Pham

2003-01-01

154

Assistive technology as a predictor of general or alternate assessment among elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 specifically mandates that all students participate in the general assessment process or some form of alternate assessment as a measure of school accountability for student academic progress. Although levels of communication difficulties, intellectual impairment, and specific diagnoses such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are correlated with increased probability of participating in alternate assessment methods, very little empirical research has focused on identifying predictors for students' assessment modality. Archival data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS; 2005) were used to examine variables that predict whether elementary school students with ASD participated in the general or alternate assessment. Results indicated that receptive and expressive communication abilities appear to influence participation in the general vs. alternate assessment in tandem with access to assistive technology. Students with ASDs were approximately 2.71 times more likely to participate in the general assessment when they had access to assistive technology. Next, we performed a second, follow-up analysis for only ASD students with communication problems. The odds ratio value increased to 14.9 indicating that ASD students with communication problems that had access to assistive technology were almost 15 times more likely to participate in the general assessment than students with communication problems without access to assistive technology. PMID:25112052

Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Thompson, Samuel; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

2014-01-01

155

The Effect of Using Alternative Assessment Activities on Students' Success and Attitudes in Science and Technology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design with control group was used in this study, in which the impact of alternative assessment activities on students' academic achievement levels and attitudes were explored by employing these activities in the unit "Electricity in Our Lives" of the Science and Technology Course. The research was

Kirikkaya, Esma Bulus; Vurkaya, Gurbet

2011-01-01

156

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-01-01

157

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-12-31

158

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...significant public benefits through the advancement of technology which would...greater potential benefits must be possible...innovative technology projects where...innovative technology if he desires...the potential benefits are...

2013-07-01

159

76 FR 78889 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology [Docket Number: 111208744-1741-01...the National Institute of Standards and Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2011-12-20

160

77 FR 51518 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology [Docket Number 120706223-2223-01...the National Institute of Standards and Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2012-08-24

161

77 FR 36485 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology [Docket Number 120531129-2129-01...the National Institute of Standards and Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2012-06-19

162

77 FR 48128 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology [Docket Number: 120706222-2222-01...the National Institute of Standards and Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2012-08-13

163

76 FR 539 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology [Docket Number: 101129594-0594-02...the National Institute of Standards and Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2011-01-05

164

Modeling learning when alternative technologies are learning & resource constrained : cases In semiconductor & advanced automotive manufacturing  

E-print Network

When making technology choice decisions, firms must consider technology costs over time. In many industries, technology costs have been shown to decrease over time due to (a) improvements in production efficiency and the ...

Rand-Nash, Thomas

2012-01-01

165

Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.  

PubMed

Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation. PMID:25209330

Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

2014-10-01

166

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

SciTech Connect

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a non-thermal process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the applicability of SET{sup TM} to currently problematic waste streams that have very limited treatment alternatives. In summary: SET{sup TM} operates as a non-thermal destruction process under low pressure. The process occurs in a closed system producing no hazardous off-gases and no regulated by-products such as dioxins or furans or their precursors. Advantages of SET{sup TM} include: - Organic contaminants are destroyed, not just removed, diluted or concentrated. - Operates as a closed system - produces no regulated secondary wastes. - Holds an EPA permit for PCB destruction. - Operates at ambient temperatures (70 deg. F). - Portable and sets up quickly in less than 4000 square feet of space. - Scalable to accommodate any size waste stream. - Requires minimal amounts of power, water and infrastructure. - Applicable to heterogeneous waste streams in all phases. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.9999% effective in destroying organic constituents of RCRA and TSCA waste, explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In November 2007, Commodore completed a treatability study on Pyranol to determine the effectiveness of SET{sup TM} treatment on oil containing 600,000 PPM PCBs. Laboratory results proved destruction of PCBs to less than 1 PPM at low temperatures and pressures. SET{sup TM} is a proven, safe and cost-effective alternative to incineration for some of the most difficult waste treatment problems that exist today. (authors)

Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

167

Science and Technology: an alternative perspective of science or an integration of disciplines?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly the curriculum area of science is being linked with technology. However, traditionally, technology education has been a major component of the technical or trades subjects in the secondary school. To what degree is this contemporary science and technology an amalgamation of two previously separate secondary curriculum areas and what implications does this current development have for science\\/ technology teachers

Peter Ferguson; Jeffrey Graham

1993-01-01

168

Innovative and Alternative Technologies. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovative and alternative methods of wastewater treatment can improve the efficiency and lower the cost of waste treatment procedures. Described in this instructor's guide is a one-hour learning session for citizens interested in improving water quality planning and decision making. Among the topics covered are the need for alternative wastewater

Cole, Charles A.

169

Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

NONE

1996-09-01

170

Historical London through the Lens of Technology A Facilitative Learning Approach as Authentic Alternative for Teaching the History of Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a unique course developed by a multidisciplinary team of faculty from the College of Applied Science at the University of Cincinnati. The course provides an opportunity for Honors Program students to develop an appreciation for the strong inter-relationship between technology and society by exploring the history and developing technology of four structures in London: the Tower of

Eric Inglert; Kathleen Ossman

2005-01-01

171

Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

1993-06-01

172

Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.  

PubMed

Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

2012-11-01

173

A System Analysis for Determining Alternative Technological Issues for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering methodology is provided, by which future technological ventures may be examined utilizing particular national, corporate, or individual value judgments. Three matrix analyses are presented. The first matrix is concerned with the effect of technology on population increase, war, poverty, health, resources, and prejudice. The second matrix explores an analytical technique for determining the relative importance of different areas of technology. The third matrix explores how an individual or corporate entity may determine how its capability may be used for future technological opportunities. No conclusions are presented since primary effort has been placed on the methodology of determining future technological issues.

Magistrale, V. J.; Small, J.

1967-01-01

174

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam November the appli- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam April 21- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model

176

Investigating Technology Implementation in a Neurosurgical Teleconsultation Program: A Case Study in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments of telemedicine have proliferated in recent years. While healthcare organizations and individual professionals have become increasingly interested in and knowledgeable about telemedicine, its ultimate success as a viable alternative service delivery or collaboration mode requires adequate addressing of crucial issues pertaining to technological and organizational concerns. The current study examined the technology implementation that has taken place in a

Paul Jen-hwa Hu; Patrick Y. K. Chau; Y. K. Chan; John Kwok

2001-01-01

177

How to proceed with competing alternative energy technologies: A real options analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about CO2 emissions create incentives for the development and deployment of energy technologies that do not use fossil fuels. Indeed, such technologies would provide tangible benefits in terms of avoided fossil-fuel costs, which are likely to increase as restrictions on CO2 emissions are imposed. However, a number of challenges need to be overcome prior to market deployment, and the

Afzal Siddiqui; Stein-Erik Fleten

2010-01-01

178

How to Proceed with Competing Alternative Energy Technologies: a Real Options Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns with CO2 emissions are creating incentives for the development and deployment of energy technologies that do not use fossil fuels. Indeed, such technologies would provide tangible benefits in terms of avoided fossil-fuel costs, which are likely to increase as restrictions on CO2 emissions are imposed. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome, and the

Afzal Siddiqui; Stein-Erik Fleten

2008-01-01

179

Technological Minimalism: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Course Design and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of minimum levels of technology, or technological minimalism, for Web-based multimedia course content. Highlights include cost effectiveness; problems with video streaming, the use of XML for Web pages, and Flash and Java applets; listservs instead of proprietary software; and proper faculty training. (LRW)

Lorenzo, George

2001-01-01

180

Technological development in a dual economy: Alternative policy levers for economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although technological development is widely recognized as a function of human ingenuity and innovation and seen by many development scientists as an important means for achieving economic development, its actual use as a policy lever remains largely underutilized, since the process of its implementation is unclear. This paper attempts to identify operational instruments for supporting technological development so it can

Khalid Saeed; Ponthep Prankprakma

1997-01-01

181

Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety

Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

2009-01-01

182

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX CONTROL: ALTERNATE FUELS AND FLUIDIZED-BED COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effect of alternate fuels and fluidized coal combustion in controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The current trend in energy use in the U.S. is toward greater use of coal and coal derived fuels, and on ensuring that these fuels are produced an...

183

Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity  

E-print Network

;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections-energy options for both electricity and fuels. There is a considerable body of recent work on the cost of low/kWh) Medium term projections Comments Present fossil fuel plant 1 Gas CCGT Coal 3-4 3.5-4.5 Depends on fuel

184

Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process

M. H. Russell; G. T. Tsao

1981-01-01

185

Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

1978-01-01

186

Alternative technology for transit-bus air conditioning: the rotary-screw compressor. Final report 1981-82  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the test and evaluation of a prototype rotary-screw compressor design. The UMTA-funded RandD program consisted of two phases. The objectives of the first phase were to ascertain the extent of the problems with current bus air-conditioning systems and to determine the feasibility of adapting alternative compressor technology for use in transit buses. This work was carried out by the (Garrett) AiResearch Manufacturing Co. of Torrance, California and Dunham-Bush, Inc. of W. Hartford, Connecticut and has been documented in UMTA Report No. CA-06-0145-80-1 (NTIS No. PB-215-502). The second phase was to test a prototype alternative compressor under a wide range of simulated, and actual, bus revenue service environmental conditions and was also conducted by Dunham-Bush, Inc. It is the results of this effort that are documented in this report.

Perez, D.

1984-11-01

187

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies  

SciTech Connect

This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

none,

1992-10-01

188

Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, ?) = { f( t, ?, u)} u?U is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function ? and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

Haddad, Georges

189

Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

Gejji, Raghvendra R.

1993-01-01

190

Natural Transfer of Viable Microbes in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including:radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays; dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radiusdensity), combined with dose

Curt Mileikowsky; Francis A. Cucinotta; John W. Wilson; Brett Gladman; Gerda Horneck; Lennart Lindegren; Jay Melosh; Hans Rickman; Mauri Valtonen; J. Q. Zheng

2000-01-01

191

Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration  

E-print Network

PETROLEUM COKE: A VIABLE FUEL FOR COGENERATION RAYMOND E. DYMOND, DIRECTOR-PETROLEUM COKE, THE PACE CONSULTANTS, INC., HOUSTON, TEXAS OVERVIEW Petroleum coke is a by-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual... oils into higher-valued transportation, heating and industrial fuels. Pace forecasts that by the year 2000 petroleum coke production will increase from 36 million to 47 million short tons/year. Because the crude pool will continue to become more...

Dymond, R. E.

192

Alternative management and funding options for aeronautics programs, Task 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and technology will be at lower program levels with basic military research for aviation decreasing as fewer aircraft programs are initiated and the present new aircraft programs move into the prototype and production status. The key question is can industry take on the management and financing role and meet the criteria and characteristics considered essential for a viable research and technology program. The criteria for evaluating alternative approaches include an examination of the nature of the product to be provided, responsiveness to changing needs, efficiency in terms of costs, ability to provide leadership, and to provide impartial and independent evaluation of approaches, and to provide technological inputs for regulating functions.

1975-01-01

193

Control technology alternatives and costs for compliance: elemental phosphorus plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On April 6, 1983, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act limiting airborne polonium-210 emissions for calciner operations at domestic elemental phosphorus plants to 1 Ci/yr. To evaluate the effect of the proposed standard, physical and chemical properties of polonium through plant processes assessed. Results indicate that polonium is volatilized from phosphate ore during calcining and, for the most part, deposited on fine particulates leaving the process. Projected emissions for each elemental phosphorus plant were determined using available data, and the uncertainty associated with each estimated release was evaluated. After taking into account this uncertainty, two plants were determined to exceed the proposed limiting standard for airborne polonium emissions. One plant was found in borderline compliance. Emission control alternatives are proposed for the three plants. Cost estimates associated with each proposed alternative are provided.

Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.; Redding, R.T.; deLesdernier, D.L.; Horton, W.F.

1983-12-01

194

Assessing alternative aquaculture technologies: life cycle assessment of salmonid culture systems in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify and compare the potential environmental impacts of culturing salmonids in a conventional marine net-pen system with those of three reportedly environmentally-friendly alternatives; a marine floating bag system; a land-based saltwater flow- through system; and a land-based freshwater recirculating system. Results of the study indicate that while the use of these closed-containment

Nathan W. Ayer; Peter H. Tyedmers

2008-01-01

195

Assessing alternative aquaculture technologies: life cycle assessment of salmonid culture systems in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify and compare the potential environmental impacts of culturing salmonids in a conventional marine net-pen system with those of three reportedly environmentally-friendly alternatives; a marine floating bag system; a land-based saltwater flow-through system; and a land-based freshwater recirculating system. Results of the study indicate that while the use of these closed-containment systems

Nathan W. Ayer; Peter H. Tyedmers

2009-01-01

196

Potential Energy Savings by Using Alternative Technologies for the Separation of Fluid Mixtures  

E-print Network

) and dehydration. TEXAS AT AUSTIN In the most commonly used pro accomplished by distillation cess both steps (Figure 1) [2J. are The dehydration step is done using an organic entrainer to "break" the azeotrope and allow production of anhydrous ethanol... of ethanol is in the production of gasohol, which is a mixture of gasoline and ethanol. Some processing advantages are present to reduce the energyrequi rements for production of gasohol. Three alternatives appear to offer the best possibilities...

Bravo, J. L.

197

Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative  

E-print Network

within the Monod-type equation were determined by using the Newton-Raphson numerical method for non 8 4.1 Least-Squares Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2 Newton-Raphson to the Newton-Raphson Computer Program . . 13 #12;Microbial Fuel Cell technology Zielke v List of Figures 1

198

ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

199

STATUS OF POROUS BIOMASS SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT: AN INNOVATIVE/ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to assess the emerging wastewater treatment technology of porous biomass support systems (PBSS). These systems use large numbers of small, open-cell or reticulated polyurethane foam pads to support high concentrations of biomass in an aeration basin. Visits ...

200

Friction drive and bogies for OWL's main axes, technological step backwards or cost effective alternative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drive and bearing technologies have a major impact on the static and dynamic performances of a steerable telescope. The costs related to the complexity of the design and its Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) are not negligible. The design constraints of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) depart from those applicable to the current generation of 8 to 10 meter

Enzo Brunetto; Franz Koch; F. Biancat Marchet; Martin Dimmler

2003-01-01

201

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

1980-01-01

202

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS OF CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT) SOILS AND DEBRIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted a research and regulatory development program for establishing the best demonstrated and available technology (DBAT) for RCRA and Superfund wastes in response to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazard...

203

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

E. J Anthony

1995-01-01

204

REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING ALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. To meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on ...

205

Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This paper summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test conducted over one year. The AWP recovered 90% of water from four crewmembers using (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater, including urine, hygiene, laundry and humidity condensate. Downstream, a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system removed large organics and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed and a 29% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attachedgrowth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume and consumable-saving design that doesn't require toxic pretreatment. This paper will explain the reasons for this and will discuss steps to optimize each subsystem to increase effluent quality from the MABRs and the FOST to advance the system.

Vega, Leticia; Meyer, Caitlin

2015-01-01

206

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

2000-01-01

207

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Comparison and evaluation of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CTAS compared and evaluated various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications. The principal aim of the study was to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development (R&D) funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for a wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment (ROI) as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler.

1984-08-01

208

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Comparison and evaluation of results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CTAS compared and evaluated various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications. The principal aim of the study was to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development (R&D) funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for a wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment (ROI) as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler.

1984-01-01

209

More viable parameter space for leptogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lepton flavor asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrino masses are substantially below 109 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the beginning of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass scale.

Garbrecht, Bjrn

2014-09-01

210

More Viable Parameter Space for Leptogenesis  

E-print Network

Lepton flavour asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where Leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrinos masses are substantially below 10^9 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the begin of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass-scale.

Bjorn Garbrecht

2014-09-25

211

The use of alternative technologies to develop malolactic fermentation in wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the malolactic fermentation, bioconversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid, is a difficult and time-consuming process that does not always proceed favorably under the natural conditions of wine. Traditional fermentations are used worldwide to produce high-quality wines, although delay or failure is not an unusual outcome. During recent years several technologies have been proposed to induce biological

S. Maicas

2001-01-01

212

Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

Batzias, Dimitris F.

2012-12-01

213

An analysis of alternative technologies for the removal of ethylene from the CELSS biomass production chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of technologies were analyzed for their potential to remove ethylene from the CELSS Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). During crop production (e.g., lettuce, wheat, soybean, potato) in the BPC ethylene can accumulate in the airspace and subsequently affect plant viability. The chief source of ethylene is the plants themselves which reside in plastic trays containing nutrient solution. The main sink for ethylene is chamber leakage. The removal technology can be employed when deleterious levels (e.g., 50 ppb for potato) of ethylene are exceeded in the BPC and perhaps to optimize the plant growth process once a better understanding is developed of the relationship between exogenous ethylene concentration and plant growth. The technologies examined were catalytic oxidation, molecular sieve, cryotrapping, permanganate absorption, and UV degradation. Upon analysis, permanganate was chosen as the most suitable method. Experimental data for ethylene removal by permanganate during potato production was analyzed in order to design a system for installation in the BPC air duct. In addition, an analysis of the impact on ethylene concentration in the BPC of integrating the Breadboard Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (BSAB) with the BPC was performed. The result indicates that this unit has no significant effect on the ethylene material balance as a source or sink.

Rakow, Allen L.

1995-01-01

214

Alternative polymer separation technology by centrifugal force in a melted state.  

PubMed

In order to upgrade polymer waste during recycling, separation should take place at high purity. The present research was aimed to develop a novel, alternative separation opportunity, where the polymer fractions were separated by centrifugal force in melted state. The efficiency of the constructed separation equipment was verified by two immiscible plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; low density polyethylene, LDPE), which have a high difference of density, and of which large quantities can also be found in the municipal solid waste. The results show that the developed equipment is suitable not only for separating dry blended mixtures of PET/LDPE into pure components again, but also for separating prefabricated polymer blends. By this process it becomes possible to recover pure polymer substances from multi-component products during the recycling process. The adequacy of results was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement as well as optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:24999097

Dobrovszky, Kroly; Ronkay, Ferenc

2014-11-01

215

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS) Volume 5: Analytical approach and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985 to 2000 time period are provided. Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasification systems.

1980-01-01

216

Climate and energy: a comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate were assessed. The energy technologies examined were coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focused on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emissions of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long-range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100-fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that primary particulate emissions from coal combustion constitute a small percentage of total atmospheric particulates; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO/sub 2/, which may, by about 2050, increase world temperature 2 to 3/sup 0/C, with pronounced effects on world climate; that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of an SPS may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences; and that much research in climatology is needed before potential effects can be quantitatively predicted with any confidence. Although climatic impact is an appropriate concern in formulating long-term energy policy, the level of uncertainty about it suggests that it is not currently useful as a decision criterion. 88 references.

Kellermeyer, D.A.

1980-01-01

217

Microfluidics in silicon/polymer technology as a cost-efficient alternative to silicon/glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate TMMF photopolymer as a cost-efficient alternative to glass for the leak-tight sealing of high-density silicon microchannels. TMMF enables low temperature sealing and access to structures underneath via lamination and standard UV-lithography instead of costly glass machining and anodic bonding. TMMF is highly transparent and has a low autofluorescence for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. As the photopolymer is too thin for implementing bulky world-to-chip interfaces, we propose adhesive bonding of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) modules. All materials were tested according ISO 10993-5 and showed no cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of L929 cells. To quantify the cost efficiency of the proposed techniques, we used an established silicon/Pyrex nanoliter dispenser as a reference and replaced structured Pyrex wafers by TMMF laminates and COC modules. Thus, consumable costs, manpower and machine time related to sealing of the microchannels and implementing the world-to-chip interface could be significantly reduced. Leak tightness was proved by applying a pressure of 0.2 MPa for 5 h without delamination or crosstalk between neighboring microchannels located only 100 m apart. In contrast to anodic bonding, the proposed techniques are tolerant to surface inhomogeneities. They enable manufacturing of silicon/polymer microfluidics at lower costs and without compromising the performance compared to corresponding silicon/glass devices.

Kalkandjiev, K.; Riegger, L.; Kosse, D.; Welsche, M.; Gutzweiler, L.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

2011-02-01

218

Alternative technologies to optical monitoring systems relating to regulatory compliance (Title V)  

SciTech Connect

Due to the development of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments and public awareness of environmentally safe processes, particulate emissions monitoring has become a subject of great importance to the manufacturing sector. An increasing number of monitoring devices are available, and when used in the correct applications, can accurately monitor particulate emissions. This allows identification of a system problem before emissions can reach the stack and trigger non-compliance. This paper focuses on the most widely used technologies for continuous particulate monitoring, specifically the CPM product line, which has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Technical data is presented in regard to the CPM operation as well as a case study of a CPM monitor in the asphalt industry.

Craney, B. [BHA Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

219

Viable Supersymmetry and Leptogenesis with Anomaly Mediation  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_B-L. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1)_B-L and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu

2005-01-13

220

[PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

Snow, Ted

1998-01-01

221

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2014-10-01

222

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2011-10-01

223

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2013-10-01

224

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2012-10-01

225

Alternative Energy COLLEGE of ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy technology COLLEGE of ENGINEERING AlternativeEnergyTechnologyProgram Collegeof program and alternative energy technology master's degree program t One of 23 U.S. PACE institutions to a alternative energy technology degree. The EDGE program trains engineering students in the entrepreneurial

Berdichevsky, Victor

226

REGULATION SCOPING Alternative and Renewable  

E-print Network

REGULATION SCOPING PAPER Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (Program California's fuel and vehicle types. The Program will help meet the state's alternative fuel use

227

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and maintenance. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas occurs near all geothermal sites and wherever organic matter decomposes anaerobically. Respiratory damage has occurred to laborers in geothermal fields, while farm workers have been fatally overcome when employed near agitating liquid manure systems. However, the most frequent and severe of reported injuries to geothermal workers is dermal exposure to caustic sludges produced by H2S abatement systems. Principal health and safety considerations of biomass pathways are directly related to the diffuse nature of solar energy fixation by photosynthesis and subsequent transfer to animal food chains. Since the potential fuel is in an unconcentrated form, cultivation, harvest, and transport are necessarily laborintensive. Thus, a significant potential for occupational injuries and fatalities exists. Of all biomass systems evaluated, direct burning of solid fuels presents the greatest public health risk. Data are presented to characterize the population at risk and the frequency and severity of injuries.

Watson, A. P.; Etnier, E. L.

1981-07-01

228

Digial Technology Qualification Task 2 - Suitability of Digital Alternatives to Analog Sensors and Actuators  

SciTech Connect

The next generation reactors in the U.S. are an opportunity for vendors to build new reactor technology with advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems (control rooms, DCS, etc.). The advances made in the development of many current generation operating reactors in other parts of the world are being used in the design and construction of new plants. These new plants are expected to have fully integrated digital control rooms, computerized procedures, integrated surveillance testing with on-line monitoring and a major effort toward improving the O&M and fault survivability of the overall systems. In addition the designs are also incorporating major improvements in the man-machine interface based on lessons learned in nuclear and other industries. The above relates primarily to the scope of supply in instrumentation and control systems addressed by Chapter 7 of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) NUREG-0800 (Reference 9.5), and the associated Balance of Plant (BOP) I&C systems. This does not relate directly to the actuator and motor, breaker, initiation circuitry, valve position, etc. which is the subject of this report and normally outside of the traditional Distributed Control System (DCS), for both safety and non-safety systems. The recommendations presented in this report will be used as input to I&C research programming for the implementation of lessons learned during the early phases of new build both for large light water reactors (LWR) and also small modular reactors (SMR). This report is intended to support current research plans and provide user (vendor, owner-operator) input to the optimization of these research plans.

Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck

2012-09-01

229

The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The

Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

2008-01-01

230

TECHNICAL PAPER Viable cell handling with high aspect ratio polymer chopstick  

E-print Network

to demonstrate manipulation of cells in aqueous media. The develop- ment of microfluidic technology using on a nano precision manipulator Karthik S. Colinjivadi ? Jeong-Bong Lee ? Rockford Draper Received: 16 July This paper presents the development of an optimized contact technique for viable cell manipulation utilizing

Lee, Jeong-Bong

231

'Emerging technologies for the changing global market' - Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

1993-01-01

232

Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian

Subhash Mallah; N. K. Bansal

2010-01-01

233

Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice  

SciTech Connect

Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

2007-07-15

234

Constitutive exposure of phosphatidylserine on viable cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cells are quickly recognized and engulfed by phagocytes to prevent the release of noxious materials from dying cells. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells is a proposed eat-me signal for the phagocytes. Transmembrane protein 16F (TMEM16F), a membrane protein with eight transmembrane segments, has the Ca-dependent phospholipid scramblase activity. Here we show that when lymphoma cells were transformed with a constitutively active form of TMEM16F, they exposed a high level of PS that was comparable to that observed on apoptotic cells. The PS-exposing cells were morphologically normal and grew normally. They efficiently responded to interleukin 3 and underwent apoptosis upon treatment with Fas ligand. The viable PS-exposing cells bound to peritoneal macrophages at 4 C, but not at 25 C. Accordingly, these cells were not engulfed by macrophages. When apoptotic cells were injected i.v. into mice, they were phagocytosed by CD11c+CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) in the spleen, but the PS-exposing living cells were not phagocytosed by these DCs. Furthermore, when PS-exposing lymphoma cells were transplanted s.c. into nude mice, they generated tumors as efficiently as parental lymphoma cells that did not expose PS. These results indicated that PS exposure alone is not sufficient to be recognized by macrophages as an eat-me signal. PMID:22084121

Segawa, Katsumori; Suzuki, Jun; Nagata, Shigekazu

2011-01-01

235

Emerging technologies for the changing global market  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi-quantative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

1993-01-01

236

A critical review of electrical water-bath stun systems for poultry slaughter and recent developments in alternative technologies.  

PubMed

Prior to slaughter, most farmed birds move through a constant-voltage, multiple-bird, electrical water-bath stun system. Using this system subjects live birds to stressful and painful shackling, and the potential exists for them to receive prestun electric shocks and induction of seizures while still conscious. The existing electrical water-bath stunner settings, particularly those used in U.S. slaughter plants, are not necessarily based on sound scientific data that they produce a consistent, immediate stun, and research indicates that they are not effective in all birds. Further, in multiple-bird, electrical water-bath systems, birds may miss the stunner completely. Evidence suggests that some birds may still be alive when they reach the scald vat. For these reasons, electrical water-bath systems are increasingly under scrutiny on nonhuman-animal welfare grounds. Controlled Atmosphere Killing (CAK), a promising alternative technology, uses gas mixtures to render birds unconscious. CAK systems that stun birds while they are still in their transport crates avoid many of the welfare problems associated with the live-hang process and electrical water-bath stunning. PMID:20865613

Shields, Sara J; Raj, A B M

2010-01-01

237

Survival of pre-viable infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200499g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200499g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 19851988 versus 19951999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

2005-01-01

238

Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

1989-01-01

239

Quantification of Viable Plesiomonas shigelloides in a Mixture of Viable and Dead Cells Using Ethidium Bromide Monoazide and Conventional PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and efficient method for quantitative detection of viable Plesiomonas shigelloides in pure culture containing a mixture of viable and heat-killed cells was developed using ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) in combination with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The addition of EMA (1 ?g\\/ml) to mixtures of viable and heat-killed cells of P. shigelloides inhibited the PCR amplification of DNA

Weimin Gu; Robert E. Levin

2007-01-01

240

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live\\/dead cells. In non-viable cells

Jola M. Pisz; John R. Lawrence; Alexis N. Schafer; Steven D. Siciliano

2007-01-01

241

HF RFID versus UHF RFID--Technology for Library Service Transformation at City University of Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since libraries first used RFID systems in the late 1990s, more and more libraries have identified the advantages of the technology. With advances in HF and UHF RFID, both alternatives are now viable in library applications. While some librarians are still skeptical towards UHF RFID as unproven in the library arena, the City University of Hong

Ching, Steve H.; Tai, Alice

2009-01-01

242

Alternatives to Animal Use in Research and Testing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives, policy issues, and options for Congressional action that relate most directly to the development and implementation of alternatives to animal use in research and testing are addressed in this report. Testimonies and reports include those from the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Institute of Health, and the Food and Drug

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

243

Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identifying and selecting alternative materials and technologies that have the potential to reduce the identified HazMats and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), while incorporating sound corrosion prevention and control technologies, is a complicated task due to the fast pace at which new technologies emerge and rules change. The alternatives are identified through literature searches, electronic database and Internet searches, surveys, and/or personal and professional contacts. Available test data was then compiled on the proposed alternatives to determine if the materials meet the test objectives or if further)laboratory or field-testing will be required. After reviewing technical information documented in the PAR, government representatives, technical representatives from the affected facilities, and other stakeholders involved in the process will select the list of viable alternative coatings for consideration and testing under the project's Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes and Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both prepared by ITB. Test results will be reported in a Joint Test Report upon completion oftesting. The selection rationale and conclusions are documented in this PAR. A cost benefit analysis will be prepared to quantify the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coating processes, however, some initial cost data has been included in this PAR. For this coatings project, isocyanates, as found in aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes, were identified as the target HazMat to be eliminated. Table 1-1 lists the target HazMats, the related process and application, current specifications, and affected programs.

Lewis, pattie

2011-01-01

244

Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

Ringeisen, Bradley

2001-03-01

245

Evaluation of alternatives for best available technology treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated wastewater at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) C-400 Decontamination Facility generates aqueous solutions that originate in drum washing, machine parts and equipment cleaning, and other decontamination processes. The chemical composition of the waste depends on the particular operation involved. In general, the waste contains uranyl, fluoride, carbonate, and nitrate ions, plus soaps, detergents, secondary contaminants, and particulate matter. The uranium content is rather variable ranging between 0.5 and 30 g/l. The main contaminants are fluoride, technetium, uranium, and other heavy metals. The plan included (1) a literature search to support best available technology (BAT) evaluation of treatment alternatives, (2) a quality assurance/quality control plan, (3) suggestion of alternative treatment options, (4) bench-scale tests studies of the proposed treatment alternatives, and (5) establishment of the final recommendation. The following report records the evaluation of items (1) to (3) of the action plan for the BAT evaluation of alternatives for the treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated wastewater at the PGDP C-400 treatment facility. After a thorough literature search, five major technologies were considered: (1) precipitation/coprecipitation, (2) reverse osmosis, (3) ultrafiltration, (4) supported liquid membranes, and (5) ion exchange. Biosorption was also considered, but as it is a fairly new technology with few demonstrations of its capabilities, it is mentioned only briefly in the report. Based on C-400's requirements and facilities, the precipitation/coprecipitation process appears to be the best suited for use at the plant. Four different treatment options using the precipitation/coprecipitation technology are proposed. Bench-scale studies of the four options are suggested. 37 refs.

Del Cul, G.D.; Osborne, P.E.; Beck, D.E.

1991-01-01

246

Evaluation of alternatives for best available technology treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated solutions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Decontamination Facility generators aqueous solutions that originate in drum washing, machine parts and equipment cleaning, and other decontamination processes. In general, the waste contains uranyl, fluoride, carbonate, and nitrate ions, in addition to soaps, detergents, secondary contaminants, and particulate matter. The main contaminants are fluoride, technetium, uranium, and other heavy metals. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, the releases of radioactive materials must be as low as reasonably achievable and be below the derived concentration guide limits. To comply with the DOE order, an action plan was formulated. The action plan included a literature search to support best available technology evaluation of treatment alternatives, a quality assurance/quality control plan, suggestion of alternative treatment options, bench-scale test studies of the proposed treatment alternatives, and establishment of the final recommendation. Five major technologies were considered: precipitation/coprecipitation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, supported liquid membranes, and ion exchange. Biosorption was also briefly considered. Based on C-400's requirements and facilities, the precipitation/coprecipitation process appears to be the best suited for use at the plant. Four different treatment options using the precipitation/coprecipitation technology were proposed. Bench-scale studies of all four options were suggested. Options 1 and 2 represent a combination of lime-softening and iron coprecipitation. Laboratory test evaluations were initiated and the results involving Options 1 and 2 reported here. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Del Cul, G.D.

1991-02-01

247

Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

NONE

1995-06-01

248

An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are

Hong, Sunggye

2012-01-01

249

Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells.  

PubMed

The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 10(3)), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6?mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research. PMID:25487434

Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J; Harouaka, Ramdane A; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

2014-01-01

250

Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

2014-12-01

251

Black Holes or Frozen Stars? A Viable Theory of Gravity without Black Holes  

E-print Network

Do observations of black hole candidates rule out alternative theories of gravity without horizon formation? This depends on the existence, viability and reasonableness of alternative theories of gravity without black holes. Here a theory of gravity without black hole horizon formation is presented. The gravitational collapse stops shortly before horizon formation and leaves a stable frozen star. In the limit $\\Xi, \\Upsilon\\to 0$ the Einstein equations of GR are recovered, and the frozen stars become observationally indistinguishable from GR black holes. The theory therefore provides a counterexample to recent claims that observational evidence from black hole candidates "all but requires the existence of a horizon". The theory presented here shares its equations with RTG. Nonetheless, as is shown, there remain important conceptual and physical differences. In particular, some serious problems of RTG are not present in the theory proposed here. So it can be argued that the theory is a physically viable and conceptually sound alternative to GR.

I. Schmelzer

2012-10-30

252

ESTIMATION OF VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES DOWNWIND FROM A POINT SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Modification of the Pasquill atmospheric diffusion equations for estimating viable microbial airborne cell concentrations downwind from a continuous point source is presented. A graphical method is given to estimate the ground level cell concentration given (1) microbial death ra...

253

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY College of Engineering  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering eng.wayne.edu STEERING YOUR WAY INTO A HIGH or registration questions, call (313) 577-3716 or e-mail aet@wayne.edu. Alternative Energy Technology College Energy Technology (AET) curriculum is designed to be a premier program in alternative energy research

Berdichevsky, Victor

254

"Happy and Excited": Perceptions of Using Digital Technology and Social Media by Young People Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people are using digital technology and online social media within their everyday lives to enrich their social relationships. The UK government believes that using digital technology can improve social inclusion. One well-recognized outcome measure for establishing social inclusion is to examine opportunities for self-determination.

Hynan, Amanda; Murray, Janice; Goldbart, Juliet

2014-01-01

255

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

256

Teachers Make It Happen: From Professional Development to Integration of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Technologies in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a multiphase teacher professional development package on student use of speech-generating augmentative and alternative communication devices (SGDs). Teachers were taught (a) device operation and programming, (b) device integration and embedding using environmental arrangement strategies, and (c) systematic

Mcmillan, Julie M.

2008-01-01

257

Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.  

PubMed

In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

2014-10-01

258

November 2008 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

November 2008 Alternative Energy Technologies for BC R.L. Evans CleaN eNergy researCh CeNtre, UNiversity of british ColUmbia PaCifiC iNstitUte for Climate solUtioNs AlternAtive energy #12;Pacific Ministry of the Environment. #12;3alternative energy ExECuTIvE SummAry British Columbia is well

Pedersen, Tom

259

Economic and technological advantages of using high speed sintering as a rapid manufacturing alternative in footwear applications  

E-print Network

Rapid manufacturing is a family of technologies that employ additive layer deposition techniques to construct parts from computer based design models.[2] These parts can then be used as prototypes or finished goods. One ...

Vasquez, Mike (George Mike)

2009-01-01

260

TECHNOLOGY REQUIRED FOR ALTERNATIVE ANALYSES FOR A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT (TRACE) IN SUPPORT OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent trends in current and evolving environmental regulatory strategies dictate that EPA will have to rely more heavily on predictive modeling technologies in carrying out the increasingly complex array of exposure and risk assessments necessary in developing scientifically def...

261

33 CFR 151.2060 - What must each application for approval of an alternative compliance technology contain? [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compliance technology contain? [Reserved] 151.2060 Section 151.2060 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States 151.2060 What must each application for approval of an...

2010-07-01

262

33 CFR 151.2060 - What must each application for approval of an alternative compliance technology contain? [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compliance technology contain? [Reserved] 151.2060 Section 151.2060 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States 151.2060 What must each application for approval of an...

2011-07-01

263

RENEWABLE ENERGY: A VIABLE CHOICE By Antonia V. Herzog, Timothy E. Lipman, Jennifer L. Edwards, and Daniel M. Kammen  

E-print Network

RENEWABLE ENERGY: A VIABLE CHOICE By Antonia V. Herzog, Timothy E. Lipman, Jennifer L. Edwards, and Daniel M. Kammen Published in Environment, Vol. 43 No. 10 (December 2001) Renewable energy systems.1 Renewable energy technologies have made important and dramatic technical, economic

Kammen, Daniel M.

264

Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

2000-01-01

265

Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

Whelan, R. H.

1985-01-01

266

Investigation of high-pressure micro jet technology as an alternative to diamond disc conditioning in ILD CMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of an alternative to conventional diamond conditioning in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) was evaluated in this study. The high pressure micro jet (HPMJ) system sprays ultra-pure water (UPW) at pressures ranging from 10 to 20MPa onto a CMP pad to clean the pad of slurry residue, remove embedded slurry particles, and re-establish pad asperities. The system is employed

Darren DeNardis; Yoshiyuki Seike; Mineo Takaoka; Keiji Miyachi; Ara Philipossian

2006-01-01

267

Magnetostrictive Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

268

Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

1985-01-01

269

An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

1989-12-01

270

Alternating Current Circuit Jee-Hwan Ryu  

E-print Network

of Technology and Education EFS161 Korea University of Technology and Education (Direct Current) #12;Korea University of Technology and Education (Alternating Current) Korea University of Technology and Education Why AC ? , , , #12;Korea University of Technology and Education

Ryu, Jee-Hwan

271

Alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

272

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS (SUMMARY OF PHASE I AND PHASE II)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted in two phases. n the first phase, a synthetic soil matrix was prepared as a theoretical composite of Superfund soils nationwide. n the second phase, soils from actual Superfund sites were treated. hree treatment technologies were evaluated in both phases:...

273

Nitrogen removal by recycle water nitritation as an attractive alternative for retrofit technologies in municipal wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycle water from sludge processing in municipal wastewater treatment plants causes many serious problems in the efficiency and stability of the mainstream process. Thus, the design approach for recycle water is an important part of any biological nutrient removal system design when a retrofit technology is required for upgrading an existing plant. Moreover, the application of nitrogen removal from

K.-I. Gil; E. Choi

2004-01-01

274

Rapid detection of total viable count of chilled pork using hyperspectral scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid nondestructive measurement method for determining the total viable count of chilled pork was studied. Chilled pork samples were purchased from supermarket and then stored in refrigerator at 4C. Every 24 hours, hyperspectral images were collected from the chilled pork samples in 400-1100nm region, in parallel total viable counts were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods. The 3-parameter modified lorentzian distribution function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of all samples and the fitting results were satisfactorily high in region 470-943 nm. Then the parameters extracted were used to establish PLSR models. The prediction results for the parameter a, b, c, bc are 0.945, 0.918, 0.919, 0.935 respectively. The study show that the hyperspectral technology can accurately tracks the increase of total viable count of chilled pork during 2-14 days storage at 4C, and so indicate it a valid tool for assessing the quality and safety properties of chilled pork rapidly and nondestructively in the future.

Peng, Yankun; Tao, Feifei; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingjing; Wu, Jianhu; Dhakal, Sagar

2010-04-01

275

UPDATE/ADDITIONS TO CURRENT OUST PUBLICATION: "HOW TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES: A GUIDE FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN REVIEWERS"  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance manual is comprised of several chapters, each of which describes in detail alternative cleanup technologies for underground storage tank sites. Each chapter provides diagrams and tables to aide in determining whether a particular technology may be applicable for cl...

276

Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria  

E-print Network

Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria Jenny A. Lichter,, M. Todd, 2008 The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding

Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

277

A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

278

Cobalt-substituted Polyoxometalates as Viable WaterOxidation Catalysts.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Cobalt-substituted Polyoxometalates as Viable Water Oxidation Catalysts By Jeffrey Miles Tan The cobalt-substituted polyoxometalate K10[Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2]·22H2O was studied and evaluated for catalytic water oxidation activity. (more)

Tan, Jeffrey Miles Tiu

2009-01-01

279

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01

280

Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed  

E-print Network

hollow-fiber ultrafil- tration membranes used in this study were assembled in a shell-and-tube configuration of 68 hollow fibers with 0.043-in. (0.109 cm) inside di- ameter for a total of 1 ft2 surface areaRECYLING ABSTRACT Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed

Abubakr, Said

281

Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State

Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

282

IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

of collaborative urban freight transport systems, where the different stakeholders of urban logistics can make system (TMS), a risk management module and a multi- criteria analysis method. In this paper we focusIS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez

Boyer, Edmond

283

Fort Osage School District Works toward Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators at Fort Osage School District in Independence, Missouri, feel it is their responsibility to provide students with a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Based on Dr. Robert Marzano's model, district leaders set out to alter their curriculum so that it could be taught adequately in the time allotted for instruction. They wanted to

Technology & Learning, 2007

2007-01-01

284

The New China Syndrome: Delayed Return as a Viable Alternative to the "Brain Drain" Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the "brain drain" phenomenon particularly in the context of Chinese students studying in the United States and the People's Republic of China's attempts to respond. An opening section critiques the "brain drain" notion arguing that it is an inadequate construct for the actual flow of personnel and ideas between industrialized

Pedersen, Paul

285

Peer Mentoring--Is a Virtual Form of Support a Viable Alternative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online

Smailes, Joanne; Gannon-Leary, Pat

2011-01-01

286

Can PT-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics be a Viable Alternative Quantum Theory?  

E-print Network

Update: A time-independent $n\\times n$ PT-symmetric (and symmetric) Hamiltonian is diagonalizable since it has all distinct real eigenvalues and the resulting diagonal matrix is a real symmetric matrix. The diagonalization results an isometry so there shouldn't be any issue with unitarity and unfortunately this very elementary mathematical fact somehow did not draw the authors' attention. However, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is not out of trouble. For time-dependent PT-symmetric (and symmetric) Hamiltonians (even $2\\times 2$ ones) the authors observed that there is a violation of unitarity. Moreover, the first named author showed in his recent article arXiv:1312.7738 that PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is indeed a certain kind of Hermitian quantum mechanics and that in order for time-evolution to be unitary with respect to $J$-inner product (one that gives rise to a Hilbert space structure on the space of state functions), the potential energy operator $V(x)$ must be real. This means that those complex PT-symmetric Hamiltonians that have been studied by physicists are unfortunately unphysical. The first named author discussed in a subsequent article arXiv:1401.5149 that while finite-state PT-symmetric quantum mechanics with time-independent Hamiltonians is not physically any different from Hermitian quantum mechanics, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics exhibits a distinctive symmetry from that of Hermitian quantum mechanics.

Sungwook Lee; Lawrence R. Mead

2014-05-18

287

Ventricular Assist Devices: Is Destination Therapy a Viable Alternative in the Non-Transplant Candidate?  

PubMed Central

The topic of this article, stated a more familiar way, is whether left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are ready for Primetime as a therapeutic option in and of themselves. In order to provide an update and insight on this question, we briefly review from where the field has come, and in more detail describe its current state and where we are heading. We believe the short answer to this question is Yes, but like many things, a short answer is not adequate. Here we attempt to deliver a more comprehensive answer, providing some historical context, outlining the great achievements that have been made, as well as the many challenges that still remain before LVADs become a truly mainstream therapy. PMID:23129352

Hrobowski, Tara; Lanfear, David E.

2012-01-01

288

Distance Learning as a Viable Staff Development Alternative for Behavioral Healthcare Direct Support Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quasi-experiment utilized three groups of direct service staff to explore the effectiveness of three methods of training and an optional survey was offered after the study. The researcher used a counterbalance design. Three courses developed by an independent distance learning company were utilized to provide the learning experience. Each

Gill, James G., Jr.

2011-01-01

289

Mechanically-Fastened FRP (MF-FRP)-A Viable Alternative for Strengthening RC Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: A method for strengthening reinforced concrete members using mechanical fasteners has re-cently been developed. The strengthening is obtained by attaching FRP strips, having high bearing and longi-tudinal strengths, to concrete elements using many closely spaced steel Power Actuated (PA) fastening \\

L. C. Bank

290

The Corail stem for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures - a viable alternative.  

PubMed

Cementless hemiarthroplasty in hip fracture surgery has been associated with poorer outcomes and more pain than cemented hemiarthroplasty. The aim was to investigate clinical and radiographic outcomes for a cementless tapered titanium fully hydroyxapatite-coated (Corail System) stem in this consecutive cohort of hip fracture patients. We retrospectively evaluated the results of 68 consecutive elderly patients with displaced intracapsular hip fractures, treated with this implant. Mean clinical follow-up was 4.3 years (2-6 years). One-year mortality was 24%. 95% of patients had no/occasional/mild mid-thigh pain, with moderate pain in 5%. 39% achieved independent or walking-stick mobility. 36 patients had follow-up radiography. Osseointegration was noted in 34, with a mixed bony/fibrous in-growth in 2. One patient had revision for subsidence of an undersized implant, with no conversions to total hip arthroplasty. The Corail stem can be used effectively for the treatment of femoral neck fractures in the elderly. PMID:21484738

Cawley, Derek T; Curtin, Paul D; Lohan, Derek; O'Sullivan, Michael; Curtin, William

2011-04-01

291

The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.  

PubMed

The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatrys internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserls phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now. PMID:24096395

Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adn-Manes, Jaime

2013-01-01

292

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01

293

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies  

SciTech Connect

The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

none,

1992-10-01

294

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H.; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.

2011-01-01

295

Sensitive Rapid Detection Method for Viable Bacterial Cells  

PubMed Central

A rapid sensitive method for the detection of viable bacterial cells is described in which P32 as inorganic orthophosphate is used to label the cells. Factors affecting the uptake of P32 by cells as well as the sensitivity of the method have been explored with suspensions of Aerobacter aerogenes. The uptake of P32O4 is dependent on several factors. Of various incubation media tested, one composed of 0.005 m KCl, 0.002 m MgSO4 and 10 mg/ml of glucose was found to best stimulate the uptake of the tracer. Incubation time and temperature and level of isotope and of unlabeled P also affected uptake. Labeled cells were collected on a membrane filter for measurement of radioactivity. Under optimal conditions, as few as 23 viable cells per milliliter were detected in 1 hr with 95% confidence. PMID:16349705

MacLeod, Robert A.; Light, Marilyn; White, Lloyd A.; Currie, J. F.

1966-01-01

296

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with\\u000a intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when\\u000a the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem.\\u000a Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation

Jian-Fei Luo; Wei-Tie Lin; Yong Guo

2010-01-01

297

Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models  

SciTech Connect

We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ? 10{sup ?66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup ?33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup ?24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup ?9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.

Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: louis.lineage@msa.hinet.net, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2011-08-01

298

Formation and Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella typhi  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4C or ?20C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at ?20C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

299

Alternative Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and

Kuehn, Kerri L.

2004-01-01

300

Specific detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish wastewater treatment plants by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and PCR.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes detection in wastewater can be difficult because of the large amount of background microbiota and the presence of viable but non-culturable forms in this environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) assay combined with Direct Viable Count (DVC) method for detecting viable L. monocytogenes in wastewater samples, as an alternative to conventional culture methods. 16S rRNA sequence data were used to design a specific oligonucleotide probe. In order to assess the suitability of the method, the assays were performed on naturally (n=87) and artificially (n=14) contaminated samples and results were compared to those obtained with the isolation of cells on selective media and with a PCR method. The detection limit of FISH and PCR assays was 10(4) cells/mL without enrichment and 10 cells/mL after enrichment. A total of 47 samples, including 3 samples from effluent sites, yielded FISH positive results for L. monocytogenes. Using DVC-FISH technique, the presence of viable L. monocytogenes cells was detected in 23 out of these 47 FISH positive wastewater samples. PCR and culture methods yielded 27 and 23 positive results, respectively. According to these results, FISH technique has the potential to be used as a sensitive method for the detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes in environmental wastewater samples. PMID:21762946

Moreno, Yolanda; Ballesteros, Lorena; Garca-Hernndez, Jorge; Santiago, Paula; Gonzlez, Ana; Ferrs, M Antonia

2011-10-01

301

Fourth World Congress New technologies in developing animal alternatives Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward Fewer Animals and Safer Patients  

E-print Network

Summary This paper presents the current status of computer-based simulation in medicine. Recent technological advances have enabled this field to emerge from esoteric explorations in academic laboratories to commercially available simulators designed to train users to perform medical procedures from start to finish. Today, more than a dozen companies are producing virtual reality simulators and interactive manikins for training in endoscopy, laparoscopy, anaesthesia, trauma management, angiography, and needle insertion. For many of these procedures, thousands of animals are still being used in training. Yet simulation has many advantages that can transcend scientific, ethical, economic and logistical problems that arise when using animals. The first validation studies of medical simulators began appearing in the late 1990s, and the early results indicate that these devices measure what they are intended to, and that they can improve performance relative to traditional learning methods. In addition to expanded use for new and existing minimally invasive procedures, medical simulators will probably soon be used in physician credentialing, and they may someday allow surgeons to rehearse procedures in a patient-specific operating environment. Replacing animals with simulators in medical training is limited no longer by technical feasibility but by a willingness of the medical community to embrace it.

Jonathan Balcombe

302

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction: another tool to evaluate viable virus content in live attenuated orf vaccine.  

PubMed

A probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene of orf virus (ORFV) for the quality control of attenuated orf vaccine is reported. Primary lamb testis (PLT) cells were infected with orf vaccine virus and harvested at a critical time point to obtain maximum viable virus content as determined by real-time PCR. DNA extracted from these harvests was subjected to real-time PCR. A critical time point for the harvesting of PLT cells infected with various log(10) dilutions of vaccine virus was found to be 42 h (highest slope of 3.335), which was obtained by comparing the slopes of standard curves of different time intervals. The assay was employed to evaluate viable virus content in different batches of orf vaccine. The titres estimated by real-time PCR and conventional TCID(50) were comparable with a correlation of 0.8169. Thus, the real-time PCR assay could provide an alternative method or supplementary tool to estimate live ORFV particles in attenuated orf vaccine. PMID:23277123

Bora, Durlav Prasad; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Prabhu, Manimuthu; Yogisharadhya, Revaniah

2012-01-01

303

Alternating Current Jee-Hwan Ryu  

E-print Network

and Education MEC240 Korea University of Technology and Education (Direct Current) #12;Korea University of Technology and Education (Alternating Current) Korea University of Technology and Education Why AC ? , , , #12;Korea University of Technology and Education

Ryu, Jee-Hwan

304

Economic viability of biogas technology  

SciTech Connect

Biogas has emerged as a suitable technology for providing alternative and additional sources of energy, especially for rural areas of developing countries. Although the experience gained in China and India established its technological success, social scientists are still involved in the controversial issue of its economic viability. The available literature presents very contradictory situations, ranging between the two extreme poles of high economic viability and nonviability. Such contradictory conclusions are derived since economic benefits from the technology are influenced by a number of factors. A review of the literature reveals that various factors are either not considered, or that the economics have been worked out assuming a very ideal situation, while biogas plants are operating under very different conditions. Using the coal replacement method even as coal is seldom used by villages is only a single example of this approach. In most of the developing countries, rural populations depend mainly on non-commercial fuels like firewood, dungcakes, agricultural wastes and leaves for cooking and heating purposes. Under the present technological limitations, biogas can most commonly be used for cooking and lighting. For testing the economic viability of biogas systems, a number of authors have considered the benefits in terms of savings in traditional fuels. But considering the actual thermal efficiency of different non-commercial fuel items, as well as biogas, it has still be be decided at what point of the market prices of fuel items that the biogas system becomes economically viable and remains viable. The present paper thus reviews different approaches adopted and suggested for working out the economics or the cost-benefit ratio of the biogas technology at the first stage, and then spells out the factors influencing the economic benefits of the technology under various situations, with the help of empirical

Agrawal, S.C.; Agrawal, S.; Khare, O.P.

1983-12-01

305

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

306

Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Steven Abel; John Rizos

2014-06-16

307

January 31, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel  

E-print Network

the Alternative and Renewable Fuels and Vehicle Technology Program at the Energy Commission to develop and deploy alternative and renewable fuels and advanced transportation technologies. The statute requires the Energy-2012 Investment Plan for the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program can be found at \\http://www.energy

308

Models with radiative neutrino masses and viable dark matter candidates  

E-print Network

We provide a list of particle physics models at the TeV-scale that are compatible with neutrino masses and dark matter. In these models, the Standard Model particle content is extended with a small number (\\leq 4) of scalar and fermion fields transforming as singlets, doublets or triplets under SU(2), and neutrino masses are generated radiatively via 1-loop diagrams. The dark matter candidates are stabilized by a Z_2 symmetry and are in general mixtures of the neutral components of such new multiplets. We describe the particle content of each of these models and determine the conditions under which they are consistent with current data. We find a total of 35 viable models, most of which have not been previously studied in the literature. There is a great potential to test these models at the LHC not only due to the TeV-scale masses of the new fields but also because about half of the viable models contain particles with exotic electric charges, which give rise to background-free signals. Our results should serve as a first step for detailed analysis of models that can simultaneously account for dark matter and neutrino masses.

Diego Restrepo; Oscar Zapata; Carlos Yaguna

2013-08-16

309

Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective  

PubMed Central

The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

2013-01-01

310

The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, promising technologies and a network architecture are presented for future optical packet switched networks. The overall network concept is presented and the major choices are highlighted and compared with alternative solutions. Both long and shorter term approaches are considered, as well as both the wide-area network and multiple-area networks parts of the network. The results presented in

L. Dittmann; C. Develder; D. Chiaroni; F. Neri; F. Callegati; W. Koerber; A. Stavdas; M. Renaud; A. Rafel; J. Sole-Pareta; W. Cerroni; N. Leligou; Lars Dembeck; B. Mortensen; M. Pickavet; N. Le Sauze; M. Mahony; B. Berde; G. Eilenberger

2003-01-01

311

Alternative Reproductive Technologies: Implications for Children and Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (May 21, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hearing was held for the purpose of receiving testimony about alternative reproductive technologies and their implications for children, families, and society. Testimony provided: (1) a comparison of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer, and trends in in vitro fertilization; (2) a summary of definitions, statistics, and the

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

312

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2014-01-01

313

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2012-01-01

314

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2013-01-01

315

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2011-01-01

316

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2010-01-01

317

Alternative Energy Technologies Solar Power  

E-print Network

Rare Earth Elements Platinum Group Metals Copper Manganese Aluminum Hot List #12;0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70-Br Zinc, Cerium, Bromine Lead Acid Lead Ni ­ MH Rare Earth Elements, Nickel Lithium-ion Cobalt, Manganese ........... . China Gallium .......... China, Russia, Ukraine Rare Earths..... China Platinum Group ..Russia, Ukraine

Scott, Christopher

318

Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

319

Silicon bipolar transistor: a viable candidate for high speed applications at liquid nitrogen temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its inherent speed advantage over CMOS technologies under loaded conditions, the silicon bipolar transistor historically has been dismissed as a viable candidate for digital applications in the 77 K environment. The principal reason for this is the well documented degradation in the device current gain at low temperatures. It is demonstrated in this paper that this conclusion is no longer valid with respect to state-of-the-art devices. The transistors used in this investigation have sufficient current gain at 77 K for most digital applications without intentional profile modification. Emitter coupled logic (ECL) circuits switch at < 100 ps speeds at 77 K, and reduced logic-swing operation offers the benefits of an attractive power-delay product. This paper examines the physics, design and performance issues associated with the low temperature operation of silicon bipolar transistors, and discusses the potential advantages of such devices for high speed applications in future low temperature computer systems.

Cressler, John D.

1990-12-01

320

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2013-01-01

321

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2010-01-01

322

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2014-01-01

323

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2012-01-01

324

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2011-01-01

325

Alternative Energy Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from Misty Scevola serves as an assessment of student knowledge of alternative energy technologies. This document would be useful for instructors looking to expand their students' knowledge of alternative energy and sustainability. The document is intended to be used twice: once before learning about the concepts outlined, and once after the class has been completed. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Scevola, Misty

2012-04-18

326

Characterization of Exposure to Low Levels of Viable Penicillium chrysogenum Conidia and Allergic Sensitization Induced by a Protease Allergen Extract from Viable P. chrysogenum Conidia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous evidence by our laboratory has shown that mice inoculated with viable Penicillium chrysogenum conidia or spores at levels comparable to those found in contaminated buildings induced spore antigen-specific allergic responses. We proposed that mice exposed to low levels of viable P. chrysogenum conidia would not develop allergic symptoms. We also hypothesized that the symptoms induced by high numbers

Christopher J. Schwab; J. Danny Cooley; Trevor Brasel; Cynthia A. Jumper; Suzanne C. Graham; David C. Straus

2003-01-01

327

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; Baysinger, M. F.; Maples, C. D.; Capizzo, P. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Hornsby, L. S.; Percy, T. K.; Thomas, S. D.

2012-01-01

328

Viable Options: Intensive Supervision Programs for Juvenile Delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wayne County Juvenile Court in Detroit, Michigan, recently developed and evaluated three in-home, intensive supervision programs as alternatives to commitment for adjudicated delinquents. More than 500 youths were randomly assigned to either intensive supervision or a control group that was committed to the state for placement. The evaluation found the in-home programs to be as effective as commitment for

William H. Barton; Jeffrey A. Butts

1990-01-01

329

Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.  

PubMed

Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. PMID:25552560

Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

2015-01-20

330

Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

Sakstein, Jeremy

2015-01-01

331

Sialoendoscopy: a viable treatment for I(131) induced sialoadenitis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the viability, efficacy, and safety of sialoendoscopy for the diagnosis and management of radioiodine I(131-) related sialoadenitis, we retrospectively reviewed 30 patients referred between September 2007 and July 2013 from the Thyroid Surgery Unit to the Maxillofacial Unit of the Second University of Naples Hospital with persistent sialoadenitis after treatment with I(131). After the affected gland had been isolated, the endoscope was introduced into the duct under local anaesthesia with 2% lignocaine and continuous lavage with isotonic saline, and was advanced until it reached the ductal system. We studied 24 women and 6 men, mean (SD) age 52 (??) years. In 25 patients I(131) was given for papillary (83%), in 3 for medullary (10%), and in 2 for follicular thyroid carcinoma (7%). Stenosis alone was found in 30 glands (40%), mucous plugs alone in 35 (47%), and mucous plugs, stenosis, and kinks in 10 (13%). Of the 75 glands, dilatation of the ducts was successful in 70, and we completely removed all mucous plugs and kinks. We achieved symptomatic improvement in 23 patients (77%) during a follow-up ranging from 2 weeks to 84 months. Sialoendoscopy is a viable technique for the diagnosis of obstructive salivary disease, and is a safe and effective way to treat sialoadenitis, the most common complication of treatment with I(131). PMID:24894709

De Luca, R; Vicidomini, A; Trodella, M; Tartaro, G; Colella, G

2014-09-01

332

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01

333

Viable f(T) models are practically indistinguishable from ?CDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the cosmological predictions of several f(T) models, with up to two parameters, at both the background and the perturbation levels. Using current cosmological observations (geometric supernovae type Ia, cosmic microwave background and baryonic acoustic oscillation and dynamical growth data) we impose constraints on the distortion parameter, which quantifies the deviation of these models from the concordance ? cosmology at the background level. In addition we constrain the growth index ? predicted in the context of these models using the latest perturbation growth data in the context of three parametrizations for ?. The evolution of the best fit effective Newton constant, which incorporates the f(T)-gravity effects, is also obtained along with the corresponding 1? error regions. We show that all the viable parameter sectors of the f(T) gravity models considered practically reduce these models to ?CDM. Thus, the degrees of freedom that open up to ?CDM in the context of f(T) gravity models are not utilized by the cosmological data leading to an overall disfavor of these models.

Nesseris, S.; Basilakos, S.; Saridakis, E. N.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

2013-11-01

334

Technology Utilization Conference Series, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and results of a series of technology utilization conferences are presented. The conference series represents the development of a viable and successful means of encouraging the transfer of technology to the minority business community.

1975-01-01

335

Investigations of the environmental acceptability of fluorocarbon alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons.  

PubMed Central

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are currently used in systems for preservation of perishable foods and medical supplies, increasing worker productivity and consumer comfort, conserving energy and increasing product reliability. As use of CFCs is phased out due to concerns of ozone depletion, a variety of new chemicals and technologies will be needed to serve these needs. In choosing alternatives, industry must balance concerns over safety and environmental acceptability and still meet the preformance characteristics of the current technology, the only viable alternatives meeting the safety, performance, and environmental requirements for the remaining 40% of demand are fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs and HFCs possess many of the desirable properties of the CFCs, but because of the, hydrogen, they results in shorter atmospheric lifetimes compared to CFCs and reduces their potential to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or global warming; HFCs do not contain chlorine and have no potential to destroy ozone. This paper provides an overview of challenges faced by industry, regulators, and society in general in continuing to meet societal needs and consumer demands while reducing risk to the enviroment without compromising consumer or worker safety. PMID:11607257

McFarland, M

1992-01-01

336

Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program  

SciTech Connect

An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

Lee Nelson

2013-11-01

337

Making silicon nitride film a viable gate dielectric  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend the scaling limit of thermal SiO2 in the ultrathin regime when the direct tunneling current becomes significant, members of this author's research team at Yale University, in collaboration with the Jet Process Corporation, embarked on a program to explore the potential of silicon nitride as an alternative gate dielectric. In this paper, high-quality silicon nitride (or oxynitride) films

T. P. Ma

1998-01-01

338

Recognizing and nurturing artisanal mining as a viable livelihood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the discourse and literature on artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in sub-Saharan Africa has inherently prescriptive recommendations on how the sector should develop. Devaluation, misrecognition, and criminalization of artisanal, largely illegal miners hamper their participation not only in environmental and political decision-making but also in negotiating potential alternative livelihoods. This article addresses the following three questions: (a) what

Petra Tschakert

2009-01-01

339

Viability PCR, a Culture-Independent Method for Rapid and Selective Quantification of Viable Legionella pneumophila Cells in Environmental Water Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR-based methods have been developed to rapidly screen for Legionella pneumophila in water as an alternative to time-consuming culture techniques. However, these methods fail to discriminate between live and dead bacteria. Here, we report a viability assay (viability PCR (v-PCR)) for L. pneumophila that combines ethidium monoazide bromide with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The ability of v-PCR to differentiate viable

Pilar Delgado-Viscogliosi; Lydie Solignac; Jean-Marie Delattre

2009-01-01

340

Alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and

R. W. Todd

1982-01-01

341

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

342

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

343

Augmentative & Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your

Murphy, Patti

2007-01-01

344

40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Physical containment and control technologies... 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies...following criteria for physical containment and control technologies...procedures must reduce viable microbial populations by at least...

2011-07-01

345

40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Physical containment and control technologies... 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies...following criteria for physical containment and control technologies...procedures must reduce viable microbial populations by at least...

2012-07-01

346

40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Physical containment and control technologies... 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies...following criteria for physical containment and control technologies...procedures must reduce viable microbial populations by at least...

2013-07-01

347

40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Physical containment and control technologies... 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies...following criteria for physical containment and control technologies...procedures must reduce viable microbial populations by at least...

2010-07-01

348

40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Physical containment and control technologies... 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies...following criteria for physical containment and control technologies...procedures must reduce viable microbial populations by at least...

2014-07-01

349

Tomography from the next generation of cosmic shear experiments for viable f(R) models  

SciTech Connect

We present the cosmic shear signal predicted by two viable cosmological models in the framework of modified-action f(R) theories. We use f(R) models where the current accelerated expansion of the Universe is a direct consequence of the modified gravitational Lagrangian rather than Dark Energy (DE), either in the form of vacuum energy/cosmological constant or of a dynamical scalar field (e.g. quintessence). We choose Starobinsky's (St) and Hu and Sawicki's (HS) f(R) models, which are carefully designed to pass the Solar System gravity tests. In order to further support or rule out f(R) theories as alternative candidates to the DE hypothesis, we exploit the power of weak gravitational lensing, specifically of cosmic shear. We calculate the tomographic shear matrix as it would be measured by the upcoming ESA Cosmic Vision Euclid satellite. We find that in the St model the cosmic shear signal is almost completely degenerate with ?CDM, but it is easily distinguishable in the HS model. Moreover, we compute the corresponding Fisher matrix for both the St and HS models, thus obtaining forecasts for their cosmological parameters. Finally, we show that the Bayes factor for cosmic shear will definitely favour the HS model over ?CDM if Euclid measures a value larger than ? 0.02 for the extra HS parameter n{sub HS}.

Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ''A. Avogadro'', Universit degli Studi di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cardone, Vincenzo F., E-mail: camera@ph.unito.it, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: winnyenodrac@gmail.com [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy)

2011-07-01

350

Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole  

SciTech Connect

At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Green, M.A.

1989-02-01

351

Selective quantification of viable Escherichia coli bacteria in biosolids by quantitative PCR with propidium monoazide modification.  

PubMed

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mgliter(-1). PMID:21602375

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-07-01

352

Isolation of erythrocytes infected with viable early stages of Plasmodium falciparum by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The erythrocytic life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum is highly associated with severe clinical symptoms of malaria that causes hundreds of thousands of death each year. The parasite develops within human erythrocytes leading to the disruption of the infected red blood cell (iRBC) prior to the start of a new cycle of erythrocyte infection. Emerging mechanisms of resistance against antimalarial drugs require improved knowledge about parasite's blood stages to facilitate new alternative antimalarial strategies. For the analysis of young blood stages of Plasmodium at the molecular level, the isolation of ring stages is essential. However, early stages can hardly be separated from both, late stages and non-infected red blood cells using conventional methods. Here, iRBCs were stained with the DNA-binding dyes Vybrant DyeCycle Violet and SYBR Green I. Subsequently, cells were subjected to flow-cytometric analysis. This enabled the discrimination of early stage iRBCs as well as late-stage iRBCs from non-infected erythrocytes and the properties of the used dyes were evaluated. Moreover, early stage iRBCs were isolated with high purity (>98%) by FACS. Subsequently, development of sorted early stages of the parasite was monitored over time and compared with control cultures. The described flow cytometry method, based on staining with Vybrant DyeCycle Violet, allows the isolation of viable ring stages of the malarial agent P. falciparum, and thereby provides the basis for new, broad-range molecular investigations of the parasite. PMID:23136095

Philipp, Stephan; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Janssen, Ottmar; Leippe, Matthias; Gelhaus, Christoph

2012-12-01

353

Viable Three-Dimensional Medical Microwave Tomography: Theory and Numerical Experiments.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional microwave tomography represents a potentially very important advance over 2D techniques because it eliminates associated approximations which may lead to more accurate images. However, with the significant increase in problem size, computational efficiency is critical to making 3D microwave imaging viable in practice. In this paper, we present two 3D image reconstruction methods utilizing 3D scalar and vector field modeling strategies, respectively. Finite element (FE) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms are used to model the electromagnetic field interactions in human tissue in 3D. Image reconstruction techniques previously developed for the 2D problem, such as the dual-mesh scheme, iterative block solver, and adjoint Jacobian method are extended directly to 3D reconstructions. Speed improvements achieved by setting an initial field distribution and utilizing an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) FDTD are explored for 3D vector field modeling. The proposed algorithms are tested with simulated data and correctly recovered the position, size and electrical properties of the target. The adjoint formulation and the FDTD method utilizing initial field estimates are found to be significantly more effective in reducing the computation time. Finally, these results also demonstrate that cross-plane measurements are critical for reconstructing 3D profiles of the target. PMID:20352084

Fang, Qianqian; Meaney, Paul M; Paulsen, Keith D

2010-02-01

354

Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mgliter?1. PMID:21602375

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-01-01

355

Utilizing(Assistive(Technology(to(Promote(Speech(and(Language(Development( We!are!in!the!process!of!setting!up!a!monthly!Augmentative!Alternative!Communication!(AAC)!  

E-print Network

!process!of!setting!up!a!monthly!Augmentative!Alternative!Communication!(AAC)! Clinic!in!the!Rousso!communication!devices;!these!function!only!as!communication!devices!and!not! general!purpose!tablets.!We

Brown, Lucy L.

356

Alternative Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs promoting

Stefonek, Tom; And Others

1991-01-01

357

Angular confinement in solar cells: viable micro-optical designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing solar cell conversion efficiency by angular confinement of radiative emission (photoluminescence) requires a combination of (1) high external luminescent efficiency, and (2) optics that can substantially and efficiently limit the angular range of cell luminescence. After covering the basic principles and recent proposals for suitable micro-optics, we investigate an assortment of alternative micro-optical designs that can improve device compactness considerably, which would reduce the amount of material required and would ease micro-fabrication, while offering liberal optical tolerance and high collection efficiency.

Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Feuermann, Daniel; Mashaal, Heylal

2014-09-01

358

All-printed smart structures: a viable option?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

2014-03-01

359

The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional

Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

2011-01-01

360

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Alternative Energy- New Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers new directions for alternative energy such as thermoacoustics, thermoelectrics, magnetocalorics, sun heat thermochemical storage, liquid metal batteris and fusion. Each technology is described in depth and useful graphics are included to illustrate the material. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-07-23

361

Soil washing technology evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

Suer, A.

1995-04-01

362

Preservation of viable biological samples for experiments in space laboratories.  

PubMed

Standard viable preservation methods for biological samples using low temperatures have been investigated concerning their storage capabilities under higher temperature levels than usual. For a representative set of organism classes (plants, mammalian cells, arthropods and aquatic invertebrates), the minimum appropriate storage conditions have been identified by screening storage temperatures at -196 degrees, -80 degrees, -20 degrees, +4 degrees, +20 degrees/25 degrees C for periods from 2 days to 4 weeks. For storage below 0 degree C, as a typical cryopreservative, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was used. For some samples, the addition of trehalose (as cryopreservative) and the use of a nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. After storage, the material was tested for vitality. The findings demonstrated that acceptable preservation can be achieved under higher storage temperatures than are typically applied. Small, dense cultured plant cells survive for 21 d when moderately cooled (+4 degrees to -20 degrees C); addition of trehalose enhances viability at -20 degrees C. For mammalian cells, the results show that human lymphocytes can be preserved for 3 d at 25 degrees C, 7 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -80 degrees C. Friend leukaemia virus transformed cells can be stored for 3 d at 25 degrees C, 14 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -80 degrees C. Hybridoma cells can be kept 7 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -20 degrees C or -80 degrees C. Model arthropod systems are well preserved for 2 weeks if maintained at lower temperatures that vary depending on the species and/or stage of development; e.g., 12 degrees C for Drosophila imagoes and 4-6 degrees C for Artemia nauplii. For aquatic invertebrates such as sea urchins, embryonic and larval stages can be preserved for several weeks at +6 degrees C, whereas sperm and eggs can best be stored at + 4 degrees C for up to 5 d at maximum. These results enhance the range of feasible space experiments with biological systems. Moreover, for typical terrestrial preservation methods, considerable modification potential is identified. PMID:8987576

Anthony, P; Ausseil, J; Bechler, B; Bengura, A; Blackhall, N; Briarty, L G; Cogoli, A; Davey, M R; Garesse, R; Hager, R; Loddenkemper, R; Marchant, R; Marco, R; Marthy, H J; Perry, M; Power, J B; Schiller, P; Ugalde, C; Volkmann, D; Wardrop, J

1996-06-27

363

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations.  

PubMed

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier studies did not focus on the fractions of airborne allergenic fungi with respect to the total airborne fungal load. To fill these knowledge gaps, volumetric paired assessments of airborne viable and non-viable fungi were performed in five outdoor sampling stations during two consecutive years in a rural agricultural area of India. Samples were collected at 10-day intervals by the Burkard Personal Slide Sampler and the Andersen Two-Stage Viable Sampler. The data on the concentrations of total and individual fungal types from five stations and 2 different years were analyzed and compared by statistical methods. The allergenicity of the prevalent airborne viable fungi was estimated by the skin-prick tests of >100 rural allergy patients using the antigenic fungal extracts from isolates collected with the Andersen sampler. The ranges of total fungal spore concentration were 82-2365 spores per cubic meter of air (spores/m3) in the first sampling year and 156-2022 spores/m3 in the second sampling year. The concentration ranges of viable fungi were 72-1796 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) in the first sampling year and 155-1256 CFU/m3 in the second sampling year. No statistically significant difference was observed between the total spore data of the 2 years, however, the data between five stations showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between stations and years with respect to the concentration of viable fungi. When the data of individual allergenic fungal concentrations were compared between stations and years, no statistically significant difference was observed in all cases except for Aspergillus japonicus and Rhizopus nigricans, which showed significant difference in case of stations and years, respectively. The ratios between the total fungal spores collected by the Burkard sampler and the viable fungi collected by the Andersen sampler from all sampling stations ranged between 0.29 and 7.61. The antigenic extracts of eight prevalent viable airborne fungi (A. flavus, A. japonicus, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia pallescens, Fusarium roseum, and R. nigricans) demonstrated >60% positive reactions in the skin prick test. These selected allergenic fungi collectively represented 31.7-63.2% of the total airborne viable fungi in different stations. The study concluded that: (i) a rich fungal airspora existed in the rural study area, (ii) to achieve representative information on the total airborne fungal spores of an area, the monitoring in multiple sampling stations is preferable over a single sampling station; for viable fungi, however, one station can be considered, (iii) the percentage of airborne fungal viability is higher in rural agricultural areas, and (iv) approximately 52% of the viable airborne fungi in the rural study area were allergenic. PMID:15142771

Adhikari, Atin; Sen, Moon M; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati; Chanda, Sunirmal

2004-06-29

364

Innovative Technologies and a Technology Selection Roadmap for Optimization of Pipeline Inspection and Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past five years, a multitude of new inspection technologies have emerged as viable sources of pipeline condition data. Furthermore, many of these new technologies provide quantitative (versus qualitative) data that can significantly improve diagnostic and predictive capab...

365

An Alternative in Engineering Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To meet increased technical demands, alternative engineering and technical degree programs are needed, such as four-year programs in engineering technology. A technical college and university in Florence, SC, are collaborating on such a 1+2+1 alternative degree program. (SK)

Garrett, Rick L.

1996-01-01

366

Technology needs for high speed rotorcraft (2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was conducted to identify rotorcraft concepts best capable of combining a cruise speed of 350 to 450 knots with helicopter-like low speed attributes, and to define the technology advancements needed to make them viable by the year 2000. A systematic approach was used to compare the relative attributes and mission gross weights for a wide range of concepts, resulting in a downselect to the most promising concept/mission pairs. For transport missions, tilt-wing and variable diameter tilt-rotor (VDTR) concepts were found to be superior. For a military scout/attack role, the VDTR was best, although a shrouded rotor concept could provide a highly agile, low observable alternative if its weight empty fraction could be reduced. A design speed of 375 to 425 knots was found to be the maximum desirable for transport missions, with higher speed producing rapidly diminishing benefits in productivity. The key technologies that require advancement to make the tilt-wing and VDTR concepts viable are in the areas of wing and proprotor aerodynamics, efficient structural design, flight controls, refinement of the geared flap pitch control system, expansion of the speed/descent envelope, and the structural and aerodynamic tradeoffs of wing thickness and forward sweep. For the shrouded rotor, weight reduction is essential, particularly with respect to the mechanism for covering the rotor in cruise.

Scott, Mark W.

1991-01-01

367

Developing technologies for bioacoustic vocal profiling as a viable component of integrative medical diagnostics and treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 20+ years the pioneering field of Human Bioacoustics, which includes voice spectral analysis, has begun to model the frequencies and architecture of human vocalizations to identify the innate mathematical templates found within the various system of the human body. Using the idea that the voice is a holographic representation of health and wellness, these non-invasive techniques are being advanced to the extent that a computerized Vocal Profile, using a system of Frequency Equivalents, can be used to accurately quantify, organize, interpret, define, and extrapolate biometric information from the human voice. This information, in turn, provides the opportunity to predict, direct, and maintain intrinsic form and function. This novel approach has provided an accumulation of significant data but until recently has been without an efficient biological framework of reference. The emerging Mathematical Model being assembled through Human Bioacoustic research likely has the potential to allow Vocal Profiling to be used to predict and monitor health issues from the very first cries of a newborn through the frequency foundations of disease and aging.

Edwards, Sharry K.

2005-04-01

368

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

369

careersIN APPLIED MATHEMATICS ...alternatives to academia for STEM majors  

E-print Network

of the design of experiments. · Is ethanol a viable solution for the world's dependence on fossil fuels? CancareersIN APPLIED MATHEMATICS ...alternatives to academia for STEM majors Society for Industrial

Maxwell, Bruce D.

370

Evaluating Importance Ratings as an Alternative to Mental Models in Predicting Driving Crashes and Moving Violations  

E-print Network

The present study investigated the extent to which importance ratings (i.e., a measure of perceived importance for driving-related concepts) are a viable alternative to traditional mental model assessment methods in predicting driving performance...

McDonald, Jennifer Nicole

2012-07-16

371

Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

Hendricks, Robert C.

2007-01-01

372

Field technologies for the measurement of PCBs  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative effort between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Energy (DOE), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents a viable team to administer, plan, execute, and report on demonstrations of commercially available field characterization and monitoring technologies. This effort is part of the EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. One of the overriding goals of this effort is to develop regulatory-accepted and cost effective alternatives to conventional fixed laboratory analyses through the identification and evaluation of innovative, field technologies. A technology demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques will occur during July 22 through 30, 1997. The demonstration will be conducted at a DOE site (ORNL) where there is a substantial repository of PCB-contaminated materials from multiple DOE sites. Technology developers with PCB monitoring instrumentation will be evaluated. These instruments will include field portable gas chromatographs with surface acoustic wave and electron capture detectors, and field analysis kits, such as immunoassay and ion specific electrode kits. These instruments are suitable for the quantification of PCBs in a variety of matrices. Soil and surface samples will be evaluated during the demonstration. The demonstration will focus on the current DOE-Oak Ridge analytical needs to support Toxic Substance and Control Act (TSCA) decisions, while allowing developers to showcase the features of their technologies.

Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carden, D.M. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Operations Office; Billets, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). National Exposure Research Lab.

1997-08-01

373

An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of the magnetic bearing and its use in exotic applications has been conceptualized for many years, over a century, in fact. Patented, passive systems using permanent magnets date back over 150 years. More recently, scientists of the 1930s began investigating active systems using electromagnets for high-speed ultracentrifuges. However, passive magnetic bearings are physically unstable and active systems only provide proper stiffness and damping through sophisticated controllers and algorithms. This is precisely why, until the last decade, magnetic bearings did not become a practical alternative to rolling element bearings. Today, magnetic bearing technology has become viable because of advances in micro-processing controllers that allow for confident and robust active control. Further advances in the following areas: rotor and stator materials and designs which maximize flux, minimize energy losses, and minimize stress limitations; wire materials and coatings for high temperature operation; high-speed micro processing for advanced controller designs and extremely robust capabilities; back-up bearing technology for providing a viable touchdown surface; and precision sensor technology; have put magnetic bearings on the forefront of advanced, lubrication free support systems. This paper will discuss a specific joint program for the advancement of gas turbine engines and how it implies the vitality of magnetic bearings, a brief comparison between magnetic bearings and other bearing technologies in both their advantages and limitations, and an examination of foreseeable solutions to historically perceived limitations to magnetic bearing.

Clark, Daniel J.; Jansen, Mark J.; Montague, Gerald T.

2004-01-01

374

Alternating Hemiplegia  

MedlinePLUS

... have a poor prognosis because intellectual and mental capacities do not respond to drug therapy, and balance ... Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation (AHCF) 31250 Plymouth Road Livonia, MI 48150 sharon@ahckids.org http://www. ...

375

Alternative Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an alternative method of assessment, students create portfolios by submitting monthly entries that demonstrate and expand their understanding of science concepts. Teachers can also use the portfolios to assess the success of their teaching practices an

Valdez, Penelope S.

2001-11-01

376

SituationAwareness,MentalWorkload,andTrust inAutomation:Viable,EmpiricallySupported  

E-print Network

& Design Division ABSTRACT: Cognitive engineering needs viable constructs and principles to promote better of viable constructs and principles to promote better understanding of human performance in complex systems is that the constructs and/or principles are quantifiable in the form of either mathematical or computational models

Parasuraman, Raja

377

Personal sampler for monitoring of viable viruses; modelling of outdoor sampling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new personal bioaerosol sampler has recently been developed and verified to be very efficient for monitoring of viable airborne bacteria, fungi and viruses. The device is capable of providing high recovery rates even for microorganisms which are rather sensitive to physical and biological stresses. However, some mathematical procedure is required for realistic calculation of an actual concentration of viable

A. I. Borodulin; B. M. Desyatkov; N. A. Lapteva; A. N. Sergeev; I. E. Agranovski

2006-01-01

378

Barriers and Facilitators to the Use of High-Technology Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There has been a rapid growth in recent years of available technologies for individuals with communication difficulties. Research in the area is currently underdeveloped with practitioners having a limited body of work on which to draw to guide the process of intervention. Concerns have been raised that this newly developed technology

Baxter, Susan; Enderby, Pam; Evans, Philippa; Judge, Simon

2012-01-01

379

High-speed civil transport issues and technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strawman program plan is presented, consisting of technology developments and demonstrations required to support the construction of a high-speed civil transport. The plan includes a compilation of technology issues related to the development of a transport. The issues represent technical areas in which research and development are required to allow airframe manufacturers to pursue an HSCT development. The vast majority of technical issues presented require flight demonstrated and validated solutions before a transport development will be undertaken by the industry. The author believes that NASA is the agency best suited to address flight demonstration issues in a concentrated effort. The new Integrated Test Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility is considered ideally suited to the task of supporting ground validations of proof-of-concept and prototype system demonstrations before night demonstrations. An elaborate ground hardware-in-the-loop (iron bird) simulation supported in this facility provides a viable alternative to developing an expensive fill-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator. Drygen's SR-71 assets, modified appropriately, are a suitable test-bed for supporting flight demonstrations and validations of certain transport technology solutions. A subscale, manned or unmanned flight demonstrator is suitable for flight validation of transport technology solutions, if appropriate structural similarity relationships can be established. The author contends that developing a full-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator is the best alternative to ensuring that a positive decision to develop a transport is reached by the United States aerospace industry.

Hewett, Marle D.

1992-01-01

380

Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

Not Available

1993-10-01

381

Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Under stress conditions, many species of bacteria enter into starvation mode of metabolism or a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Several human pathogenic bacteria have been reported to enter into the VBNC state under these conditions. The pathogenic VBNC bacteria cannot be grown using conventional culture media, although they continue to retain their viability and express their virulence. Though there have been debates on the VBNC concept in the past, several molecular studies have shown that not only can the VBNC state be induced under in vitro conditions but also that resuscitation from this state is possible under appropriate conditions. The most notable advance in resuscitating VBNC bacteria is the discovery of resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf), which is a bacterial cytokines found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. VBNC state is a survival strategy adopted by the bacteria, which has important implication in several fields, including environmental monitoring, food technology, and infectious disease management; and hence it is important to investigate the association of bacterial pathogens under VBNC state and the water/foodborne outbreaks. In this review, we describe various aspects of VBNC bacteria, which include their proteomic and genetic profiles under the VBNC state, conditions of resuscitation, methods of detection, antibiotic resistance, and observations on Rpf. PMID:25133139

Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Ghosh, Amit; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio

2014-01-01

382

FRAMEWORK FOR VALIDATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IN VITRO TOXICITY TESTS: REPORT OF THE VALIDATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER COMMITTEE OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. owever, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coo...

383

Culturing with trehalose produces viable endothelial cells after cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Dimethylsulfoxide, the most commonly employed cryoprotectant for cells, has well documented cytotoxic effects in patients. Among the compounds available that may provide protection to cells and tissues during preservation with less cytotoxicity is trehalose. Some animals, such as brine shrimp and tardigrades, accumulate trehalose during periods of extreme environmental stress. In this study, experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of culturing a bovine endothelial cell line (ATCC #CCL-209) in the presence of trehalose prior to preservation by freezing. A number of factors were shown to contribute to cell retention of metabolic activity and proliferative potential including cell culture time with trehalose and the solution conditions during cryopreservation. Using an optimized protocol consisting of 24 h of cell culture with 0.2 M trehalose followed by cryopreservation with 0.2-0.4 M trehalose in sodium bicarbonate buffered Eagles minimum essential medium at pH 7.4 resulted in 874% post-preservation cell metabolic activity expressed as relative fluorescence based upon reduction of resazurin to resorufin. This new method provides an alternative preservation strategy to the more classical preservation methods employing dimethylsulfoxide available for cells and tissues. PMID:22366172

Campbell, Lia H; Brockbank, Kelvin G M

2012-06-01

384

Alternative calcination development status report  

SciTech Connect

The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

Boardman, R.D.

1997-12-01

385

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

386

Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A Viable Functional Lung Imaging Modality?  

PubMed Central

The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output. PMID:17890035

Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

2008-01-01

387

Hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI: a viable functional lung imaging modality?  

PubMed

The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used (3)He as their imaging agent of choice rather than (129)Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, (3)He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized (129)Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized (129)Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO(2)) by observation of (129)Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO(2) by observation of (129)Xe signal decay is more complex than that for (3)He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of (129)Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO(2) that accounts for both traditional T(1) decay from pO(2) and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output. PMID:17890035

Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I; Ruset, Iulian C; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P

2007-12-01

388

Passive immunotherapy - a viable treatment for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Passive immunotherapy is one of the most exciting and extensively researched areas in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) today, harbouring the potential to become the first disease-modifying treatment for the disease. The interest in immunotherapy as a treatment stemmed from the significant dangers of toxic side-effects and major obstacles in selectivity for currently pursued therapies against amyloid beta (A?) proteins and neurofibrillary tangles. Passive immunotherapy especially, has received much limelight, seen as having the potential to be the safer alternative to active immunisation which encountered a significant setback with the notorious AN-1972 trial in which 6% of the vaccinated patients developed meningoencephalitis. At present, passive immunisation research in animal models have exclusively focused on targeting A? proteins, a widely accepted pathology of AD. Following on from this, the preliminary results of phase II trials of three distinct passive immunisation strategies were demonstrated at the 2008 International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease (ICAD). The three therapeutic strategies each targeted the N-terminal of A?, the central epitope or utilised a polyclonal approach. The results demonstrated potential as well as caution. Efficacy was undoubtedly present but not to the extent that was hoped and side-effects, most notably vasogenic oedema occurred in the N-terminal targeting antibody, bapineuzimab. Lessons have been learnt by identifying the possible cause of the problems and have been taken on board to nurture the proven efficacious results. Key points to be addressed currently are dosage of the agent to ensure that high enough concentrations enter the central nervous system to be available to cause effect and early enough time of administration to cause effect. The results of the efficacy and safety phase III trials and the development of newer passive immunotherapeutic agents addressing the problems are eagerly awaited in the hope of finally yielding a disease modifying therapy of AD. PMID:25413550

Yi, Keonwoo

2014-11-01

389

Relationship of total viable and culturable cells in epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed

The direct viable count method, used to detect viable but nonculturable bacteria in aquatic systems, was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. Viable-population sizes determined from the number of cells that elongated when incubated with yeast extract and nalidixic acid were compared with those determined by the conventional plate count method. The plate count method accurately determined the number of viable cells in epiphytic P. syringae populations in a state of active growth under conditions of high relative humidity. The plate count method also accurately determined the number of viable cells in P. syringae inoculum, or a growing P. syringae population, subject to desiccation stress under conditions of low relative humidity. In epiphytic populations of P. syringae older than 80 h, however, the plate count underestimated the viable-population size by about two- to fourfold, suggesting that up to 75% of the P. syringae population was nonculturable. These nonculturable cells may have entered a starvation-survival state, induced by low nutrient availability in the phyllosphere environment. Epiphytic P. syringae populations undergoing rapid size changes due to growth and death under fluctuating environmental conditions in the field should be accurately enumerated by the plate count method. However, the possible underestimation of viable-population size under some circumstances should be considered in epidemiological studies of phytopathogenic bacteria and when genetically engineered microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems are monitored. PMID:1476434

Wilson, M; Lindow, S E

1992-12-01

390

Regulated overexpression of the survival factor bcl-2 in CHO cells increases viable cell density in batch culture and decreases DNA release in extended fixed-bed cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using multicistronic expression technology we generated a stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (MG12) expressing a model secreted heterologous glycoprotein, the secreted form of the human placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), and bcl-2, best known as an apoptosis inhibitor, in a tetracycline-repressible dicistronic configuration. In batch cultivations in serum-containing medium, MG12 cells reached twice the final viable cell density when

Martin Fussenegger; Dieter Fassnacht; Regine Schwartz; James A. Zanghi; Michael Graf; James E. Bailey; Ralf Prtner

2000-01-01

391

Laser Coating Technology; A Commercial Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial acceptance of laser coating technology suffered for many years due to questions about its economic viability. During this period, however, many companies, universities, and government research groups were busy developing the technology to overcome these questions. Today, laser coating technology is having a major impact as a high quality, economical method of hardfacing for wear and corrosion resistance in several key industries. This has occurred because of advances in five key areas: 1. High power laser design 2. Method of alloy deposition, and associated hardware 3. In-process feed back control system hardware/software development 4. Alloy systems 5. Marketing/sales sophistication High power lasers have improved in mode stability, power conversion efficiency, and optical flexibility (reflective vs. transmissive materials). This has enabled the process engineer to increase deposition efficiency, and maintain flexibility on the use of optics specifically designed for a user application. Improvements in the method of alloy deposition have led to developments such as the DPF system with specialized nozzles developed for specific user applications. Another effective technique includes the use of pre-fabricated cast alloy chips that are welded to the component surface on the specific area requiring protection. The development of feedback control systems that integrate process control software with hard tooling, the laser, and the alloy delivery system are greatly improving process reliability and product quality. Because of this, "in-process" quality control is becoming a viable alternative to traditional methods of quality control. Metallurgical evaluations of some of the most widely used hardfacing alloys and base materials have been investigated by numerous researchers. Analysis has confirmed that laser applied coatings are of high metallurgical quality, extremely low in dilution, and distort less due to low heat input. The technology can also be used to apply. wear/corrosion resistant alloys heretofore considered unweldable. These technological advances, coupled with application experience have proven that laser coating technology is not only a viable alternative to conventional hardface and/or spray coatings; but in many cases significantly reduces the overall manufacturing costs of a coated product. Early marketing efforts focused on direct "coating process to coating process" comparisons with competing technologies.

Blake, Andrew G.; Mangaly, A. A.; Everett, M. A.; Hammeke, A. H.

1988-10-01

392

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

393

ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

394

Cogeneration alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogeneration is one alternative energy source with a long history of useful application and a potential for contributing up to 10% of US electricity. The high efficiency provided by the four basic cogeneration cycles, with steam- and combustion-turbine topping cycles dominating, has environmental as well as economic benefits for users. Two case studies demonstrate the advantages of cogeneration to utilities.

Schnorr

1983-01-01

395

Appropriate technology for rural India to produce biogas from vegetative wastes  

SciTech Connect

Most of the huge amount (91%) of energy in rural India is used as domestic fuel. Forest wood constitutes half of this energy, which could be saved by providing an alternative kitchen fuel. Biogas provides the only viable alternative. While the basics of biogas production have been known for several decades, serious research efforts are required to evolve appropriate technology of biogas production for Indian villages. It is easy to design devices which work on the economy of large scale; it is a formidable task to achieve the same at down-to-earth level of economy. Considering the vast majority of small farmers, a cheap, manual, continuous fermentation straw gas plant is likely to offer appropriate technology. Efforts have continued since 1965 to develop such a plant: the latest model is quite competitive in all respects with the KVIC biogas plant, except for its stirring system. Efforts are being made to develop a suitable stirring system.

Goswami, K.P. (College of Agriculture, Gujarat Agricultural Univ., Anand (IN))

1989-01-01

396

Online Supervision as a Viable Alternative to One Face-to-Face On-Site Elementary Teacher Intern Supervision Visit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the location of the college institution, CSC teacher interns have been placed in cooperating schools within a 375 mile radius of Chadron, NE. It has not been unusual for CSC faculty members to travel several hours from Chadron to supervise teacher interns. Following the mandates of the Nebraska Department of Education [NDE], (2008),

Enos, Karen

2009-01-01

397

Birth attendants as perinatal verbal autopsy respondents in low- and middle-income countries: a viable alternative?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the feasibility of using birth attendants instead of bereaved mothers as perinatal verbal autopsy respondents. Methods Verbal autopsy interviews for early neonatal deaths and stillbirths were conducted separately among mothers (reference standard) and birth attendants in 38 communities in four developing countries. Concordance between maternal and attendant responses was calculated for all questions, for categories of questions and for individual questions. The sensitivity and specificity of individual questions with the birth attendant as respondent were assessed. Findings For early neonatal deaths, concordance across all questions was 94%. Concordance was at least 95% for more than half the questions on maternal medical history, birth attendance and neonate characteristics. Concordance on any given question was never less than 80%. Sensitivity and specificity varied across individual questions, more than 80% of which had a sensitivity of at least 80% and a specificity of at least 90%. For stillbirths, concordance across all questions was 93%. Concordance was 95% or greater more than half the time for questions on birth attendance, site of delivery and stillborn characteristics. Sensitivity and specificity varied across individual questions. Over 60% of the questions had a sensitivity of at least 80% and over 80% of them had a specificity of at least 90%. Overall, the causes of death established through verbal autopsy were similar, regardless of respondent. Conclusion Birth attendants can substitute for bereaved mothers as verbal autopsy respondents. The questions in existing harmonized verbal autopsy questionnaires need further refinement, as their sensitivity and specificity differ widely. PMID:22461715

Garces, A; Jehan, I; Ditekemena, J; Phiri, M; Thorsten, V; Mazariegos, M; Chomba, E; Pasha, O; Tshefu, A; Wallace, D; McClure, EM; Goldenberg, RL; Carlo, WA; Wright, LL; Bose, C

2012-01-01

398

Pretreatment Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect

This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

Barker, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-03-01

399

Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy  

E-print Network

Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy storage technologies and what the future may hold for multi-scale storage applications Presented by: Dave Lucero, Director Alternative Energy · Industry initiatives · Technology · Energy Storage Market · EaglePicher initiatives · Summary #12

400

Evaluation of AK-225(R), Vertrel(R) MCA and HFE A 7100 as Alternative Solvents for Precision Cleaning and Verification Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Materials Science Division conducted a study to evaluate alternative solvents for CFC-113 in precision cleaning and verification on typical samples that are used in the KSC environment. The effects of AK-225(R), Vertrel(R), MCA, and HFE A 7100 on selected metal and polymer materials were studied over 1, 7 and 30 day test times. This report addresses a study on the compatibility aspects of replacement solvents for materials in aerospace applications.

Melendez, Orlando; Trizzino, Mary; Fedderson, Bryan

1997-01-01

401

Diet-induced hypermethylation at agouti viable yellow is not inherited transgenerationally through the female  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of nonmutagenic environmental exposures can sometimes be transmitted for several generations, suggesting transgenerational inheritance of induced epigenetic variation. Methyl donor supplementation of female mice during pregnancy induces CpG hypermethylation at the agouti viable yellow (A...

402

Solar System Constraints on a Cosmologically Viable $f(R)$ Theory  

E-print Network

Recently, a model $f(R)$ theory is proposed \\cite{recent} which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

Yousef Bisabr

2009-07-22

403

Diclofenac metabolic profile following in vitro percutaneous absorption through viable human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe extent of metabolism of diclofenac sodium in excised viable human skin was investigated using combination HPLC and radioactivity\\u000a assay. In an earlier diffusion experiment using anin vitro flow-through diffusion system, radiolabelled diclofenac sodium in either lotion (PennsaidPR) or aqueous solution was applied to viable human skin, either as single dose or multiple dose (8 times over 2 days). In

H. TANOJOI; R. C. Wester; J. Z. Shainhouse; H. I. Maibach

1999-01-01

404

Assessment of Bioaerosol Sampling Techniques for Viable Legionella pneumophila by Ethidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella pneumophila causes severe pneumonia and Pontiac fever in humans. Rapid and sensitive bioaerosol monitoring techniques for viable L. pneumophila are unavailable. Coupled with a newly developed viable assay called ethidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (EMA-qPCR), this study applies EMA-qPCR to aerobiology for the first time to evaluate the effects of the method of sampling (all-glass impinger (AGI-30), BioSampler, and

Ching-Wen Chang; Fang-Chen Chou

2011-01-01

405

Recovery of Viable Bacteria from Probiotic Products that Target Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Probiotic therapy has predominantly been directed toward promoting and maintaining intestinal health. In recent years, however, probiotic regimens that target oral health have appeared on the market. These regimens are often delivered in the form of lozenges. Despite the oral health claims made by the manufacturers of these products, there is little independent evidence in the literature to support such claims. In theory, probiotic organisms can be beneficial by several different means including direct inhibition of pathogens and boosting of the host immune response, with the underlying assumption that these mechanisms require a critical number of viable organisms. In this study, five brands of probiotics marketed for oral health were tested for the recovery of viable bacteria. For only one brand could viable bacteria be recovered within one log of the manufacturers stated starting amount of bacteria. Nearly a billion viable bacteria could be recovered from a lozenge of this brand. The other brands claimed similar starting amounts of bacteria at the time of manufacture but at least a three-log drop off was observed in the amount of viable bacteria recovered from those products. Refrigeration of the probiotics significantly improved the recovery for one brand, but recoveries for all but one brand remained below the recommended daily dosage for probiotic regimens. It is concluded that probiotic brands differ significantly in the quantities of bacteria that remain viable with most failing to meet recommended dosage targets. PMID:24015157

Banas, Jeffrey A.; Popp, Eric T.

2013-01-01

406

DDGS as a Potential Alternative Protein for Aquaculture Feeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the ethanol industry continues to expand, more coproduct materials, especially distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) will become available. Currently, it is used for animal feed, primarily beef, dairy, swine, and poultry rations. DDGS also may be a potentially viable alternative protein ...

407

Alternative Career Paths in Physical Education: Sport Management. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior to the late 1960s, physical education professional preparation programs in the United States were principally concerned with preparing coaches of sport and teachers of physical education. However, in recent decades, the field has spawned a number of alternative career tracks of which none has proven to be more viable than sport management.

Stier, William F., Jr.

408

DDGS as a Potential Alternative Protein for Aquaculture Feeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the ethanol industry continues to expand, more coproduct materials, especially distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) will become available. Currently, it is used for animal feed, primarily beef, dairy, swine, and poultry rations. DDGS also may be a potentially viable alternative protein s...

409

Alternatives to petroleum-based biocides for protecting hardwood lumber and manufactured products. Transferring technologies for industry No. 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report addresses the current and prospective mechanisms for developing environmentally responsible treatments for wood products that prevent stain, decay, and insect damage. The author examines various aspects of the problem and current prevention techniques, including an extended discussion of the attributes and shortcomings of six treatments reviewed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, in An Efficacy Review of Control Measures for Potential Pests of Imported Soviet Timber. The portion of the report labeled Uncommercialized Technologies presents the new, uncommercialized technologies discovered through this project. They include: guayule shrub-derived wood preservative; biological control strategies; tannins derived from tree bark; insect-specific toxins from arthropod and vertebrate venoms; and natural biocidal repellents.

Murdoch, C.W.

1993-03-30

410

Human migration to space: Alternative technological approaches for long-term adaptation to extraterrestrial environments and the implications for human evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As humans embark upon the next phase of Space exploration---establishing human outposts in low-Earth orbit, on the Moon, and on Mars---the scope of human factors must expand beyond the meager requirements for short-term missions to Space to include issues of comfort and well-being necessary for long-term durations. However, to habitate---to dwell in a place---implies more than creature comforts in order to adapt. Human factors research must also include a phenomenological perspective---an understanding of how we experience the places we live in---in order for a community to be robust and to thrive. The first phase of migration will be an especially tenuous one requiring intensive technological intervention. The modes by which those technologies are implemented will have significant bearing on the process of human adaptation: the nature of the mediation can be either one of domination, subordination, avoidance, or integration. Ultimately, adaptation is best ensured if symbiotic processes of negotiation and cooperation between subject and environment are espoused over acts of conquest or acquiescence. The adaptive mechanisms we choose to develop and employ will have wider implications for long-range human evolution. The transformations we will undergo will be influenced by both the initial decision to migrate to Space (technological), as well as the actual conditions of Space (environmental). Migration to extraterrestrial environments will be unequivocally the most profound catalyst for evolution in the history of humankind---not only for the human species itself but also for the new environments we will eventually inhabit. At the same time, we also find ourselves---via a new generation of bio-, nano-, and digital technologies---in the position to consciously and willfully direct our own evolution. Technology has always been transformative, but in the not-so-distant future, we will soon possess the capacity to radically re-invent ourselves in almost any way conceivable. The discourse on human evolution in Space must be situated in the confluence of these two variables.

Lockard, Elizabeth Song

411

Technology and Economics, Inc. Technology Application Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology + Economics, Inc. (T+E), under contract to the NASA Headquarters Technology Transfer Division, operates a Technology Applications Team (TATeam) to assist in the transfer of NASA-developed aerospace technology. T+E's specific areas of interest are selected urban needs at the local, county, and state levels. T+E contacts users and user agencies at the local, state, and county levels to assist in identifying significant urban needs amenable to potential applications of aerospace technology. Once viable urban needs have been identified in this manner, or through independent research, T+E searches the NASA technology database for technology and/or expertise applicable to the problem. Activities currently under way concerning potential aerospace applications are discussed.

Ballard, T.; Macfadyen, D. J.

1981-01-01

412

Controlled viable release of selectively captured label-free cells in microchannels  

PubMed Central

Selective capture of cells from bodily fluids in microchannels has broadly transformed medicine enabling circulating tumor cell isolation, rapid CD4+ cell counting for HIV monitoring, and diagnosis of infectious diseases. Although cell capture methods have been demonstrated in microfluidic systems, the release of captured cells remains a significant challenge. Viable retrieval of captured label-free cells in microchannels will enable a new era in biological sciences by allowing cultivation and post-processing. The significant challenge in release comes from the fact that the cells adhere strongly to the microchannel surface, especially when immuno-based immobilization methods are used. Even though fluid shear and enzymes have been used to detach captured cells in microchannels, these methods are known to harm cells and affect cellular characteristics. This paper describes a new technology to release the selectively captured label-free cells in microchannels without the use of fluid shear or enzymes. We have successfully released the captured CD4+ cells (3.6% of the mononuclear blood cells) from blood in microfluidic channels with high specificity (89% 8%), viability (94% 4%), and release efficiency (59% 4%). We have further validated our system by specifically capturing and controllably releasing the CD34+ stem cells from whole blood, which were quantified to be 19 cells per million blood cells in the blood samples used in this study. Our results also indicated that both CD4+ and CD34+ cells released from the microchannels were healthy and amenable for in vitro culture. Manual flow based microfluidic method utilizes inexpensive, easy to fabricate microchannels allowing selective label-free cell capture and release in less than 10 minutes, which can also be used at the point-of-care. The presented technology can be used to isolate and purify a broad spectrum of cells from mixed populations offering widespread applications in applied biological sciences, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, rare cell and stem cell isolation, proteomic/genomic research, and clonal/population analyses. PMID:22002065

Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Anand, Tarini; Tas, Huseyin; Elkan, David; Akay, Altug; Keles, Hasan Onur; Demirci, Utkan

2013-01-01

413

The resistance of viable permafrost algae to simulated environmental stresses: implications for astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

54 strains of viable green algae and 26 strains of viable cyanobacteria were recovered from 128 and 56 samples collected from Siberian and Antarctic permafrost, respectively, with ages from modern to a few million years old. Although species of unicellular green algae belonged to Chlorococcales were subdominant inside permafrost, green algae Pedinomonas sp. were observed in Antarctic permafrost. Filamentous cyanobacteria of Oscillatoriales, Nostocales were just found in Siberian permafrost. Algal biomass in the permanently frozen sediments, expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, was 0.06-0.46 [mu]g g[minus sign]1. The number of viable algal cells varied between <102 and 9-103 cfu g[minus sign]1, but the number of viable bacterial cells was usually higher from 102 to 9.2-105 cfu g[minus sign]1. Frozen but viable permafrost algae have preserved their morphological characteristics and photosynthetic apparatus in the dark permafrost. In the laboratory, they restored their photosynthetic activity, growth and development in favourable conditions at positive temperatures and with the availability of water and light. The discovery of ancient viable algae within permafrost reflects their ability to tolerate long-term freezing. In this study, the tolerance of algae and cyanobacteria to freezing, thawing and freezing-drying stresses was evaluated by short-term (days to months) low-temperature experiments. Results indicate that viable permafrost microorganisms demonstrate resistance to such stresses. Apart from their ecological importance, the bacterial and algal species found in permafrost have become the focus for novel biotechnology, as well as being considered proxies for possible life forms on cryogenic extraterrestrial bodies.

Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Spirina, E. V.; Shatilovich, A. V.; Erokhina, L. G.; Vorobyova, E. A.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

2003-07-01

414

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

415

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

416

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

417

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

418

Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

Kevin L Kenney

2011-09-01

419

Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

Not Available

2005-07-01

420

An environmentally viable waste disposal method for oil-producing countries.  

PubMed

The increasing amount of oil field waste is a matter of concern. This study proposes the Slurry Fracture Injection (SFI) technique as an alternative waste disposal method. The proposed waste disposal method is complete and leaves few future liabilities. The entire waste can be injected into an isolated deep geologic zone with no contamination of water-bearing formations or formations outside the targeted zone. The method can lead to the reclamation of oil industry landfills and the oil pits and dumps. We propose a two-tiered screening method for evaluating the feasibility of this technology and identification of a suitable target zone. A stringent environmental monitoring program should complement the SFI process to ensure environmental compatibility. PMID:19748946

ud din, S; Reza Oskui, G P; Al-Dousari, A; Al Ghadban, A N; Al Murad, M

2010-02-01

421

PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

2012-01-01

422

Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

Childress, Amy E.

2011-07-01

423

Evaluation of GS Junior and MiSeq next-generation sequencing technologies as an alternative to Trugene population sequencing in the clinical HIV laboratory.  

PubMed

Population HIV-1 sequencing is currently the method of choice for the identification and follow-up of HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance. It has limited sensitivity and results in a consensus sequence showing the most prevalent nucleotide per position. Moreover concomitant sequencing and interpretation of the results for several samples together is laborious and time consuming. In this study, the practical use of GS Junior and MiSeq bench-top next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms as an alternative to Trugene Sanger-based population sequencing in the clinical HIV laboratory was assessed. DeepChek()-HIV TherapyEdge software was used for processing all the protease and reverse transcriptase sequences and for resistance interpretation. Plasma samples from nine HIV-1 carriers, representing the major HIV-1 subtypes in Israel, were compared. The total number of amino acid substitutions identified in the nine samples by GS Junior (232 substitutions) and MiSeq (243 substitutions) was similar and higher than Trugene (181 substitutions), emphasizing the advantage of deep sequencing on population sequencing. More than 80% of the identified substitutions were identical between the GS Junior and MiSeq platforms, most of which (184 of 199) at similar frequency. Low abundance substitutions accounted for 20.9% of the MiSeq and 21.9% of the GS Junior output, the majority of which were not detected by Trugene. More drug resistance mutations were identified by both the NGS platforms, primarily, but not only, at low abundance. In conclusion, in combination with DeepChek, both GS Junior and MiSeq were found to be more sensitive than Trugene and adequate for HIV-1 resistance analysis in the clinical HIV laboratory. PMID:25445792

Ram, Daniela; Leshkowitz, Dena; Gonzalez, Dimitri; Forer, Relly; Levy, Itzchak; Chowers, Michal; Lorber, Margalit; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

2015-02-01

424

Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.  

PubMed

Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9% and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10() Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. PMID:23452953

Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

2013-02-01

425

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

426

Comparison of ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide for the selective detection of viable Legionella cells.  

PubMed

Ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) have been utilized for selective PCR amplification of DNA from viable bacterial cells. In this study, we compared the abilities of EMA and PMA, together with real-time PCR, to specifically distinguish dead Legionella cells from viable cells. Several experiments showed that PMA or EMA treatment could specifically prevent the PCR amplification of DNA from dead Legionella cells in water samples. However, a 4-fold higher concentration of PMA than EMA was required to achieve this effect. EMA may therefore be more useful for practical environmental investigations of Legionella. PMID:20332575

Chang, Bin; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Sugiyama, Kanji; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Haruo

2010-03-01

427

Approximating pollution abatement costs via alternative specifications of a multi-output production technology: a case of the US electric utility industry.  

PubMed

Using a panel of observations from the US electric utility industry, we analyze the output set frontiers that are produced by modeling the technology with different functional forms. Our specifications rely on a series of mapping regimes, based on the paths in which the outputs are scaled toward the frontier, and their outcomes are assessed against the general axiomatic framework of the production model. We demonstrate that different parameterization methodologies produce different empirical analogues of the output set and, as a consequence, can generate rather different estimates of the shadow prices of socially undesirable outputs, or 'bads,' as well. We benchmark our results by assessing the shadow price estimates, often interpreted as the opportunity cost of pollution reduction, against the market prices of pollution permits. The outcomes of our analysis suggest that the estimate of the output set boundary varies with the choice of a parameterization technique, which provides a possible explanation for the sizeable differences between the shadow prices of bads reported in the literature. We also demonstrate that among a variety of existing parametric methodologies no single technique is superior to all others. PMID:16377071

Vardanyan, Michael; Noh, Dong-Woon

2006-07-01

428

Alternative Fuel Implementation Toolkit  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................................................................3 Considering Alternative Transportation Fuels who already know which fuels are the best fit for them. Considering Alternative Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels ­ biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas

429

Development of a low-cost technology for mass production of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus as an alternative live food for first feeding fish larvae.  

PubMed

The free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus is a suitable food source for first feeding fish. In the present report, a new method for the mass production of P. redivivus is presented. The technique involves multiplication of the nematode in monoxenic (single microorganism: Saccharomyces cerevisiae) solid culture (fluid media supported by 1- to 4-cm(3) sponge cubes) in autoclavable plastic bags (size range: 50 x 30 cm to 75 x 67 cm). Two growing media were tested: oat-meal medium (OM), which is an oat-based medium (16.7% oat-meal flour in 0.8% saline solution), and purified ingredient medium (PIM), a semi-synthetic medium (1.64% meat peptone, 0.94% yeast extract, 12.6% corn starch, 0.24% glucose, 1.48% sunflower oil, in 0.8% saline solution). The bags were inoculated with 350 nematodes/g medium. After an average period of 12 days (11-13 days) at 25 degrees C, the average yield (number of nematodes/g medium) was 241 x 10(3) for OM and 333 x 10(3) for PIM in 12-l bags (50 x 30 cm). The production scale has currently reached a bag volume of 50 l (75 x 67 cm); using PIM and the conditions described above, it was possible to harvest more than 1.3 x 10(9) nematodes/bag (291 x 10(3) nematodes/g medium). In PIM, when sun flower oil was replaced with the same amount of fish oil or cod liver oil, yields of 259 x 10(3) and 290 x 10(3) nematodes/g medium, respectively, were attained. The technology for mass production and formulation of P. redivivus should enable fish-hatchery operators to rely on a cheap, standardised, and permanently available live food product for first feeding fish larvae. PMID:12536255

Ricci, M; Fifi, A P; Ragni, A; Schlechtriem, C; Focken, U

2003-01-01

430

Perspectives on Alternative Assessment Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored classroom assessment reform from four perspectives: technological, cultural, political, and postmodern. Interviewed teachers about their understandings of alternative assessment. Responses of 29 teachers in Ontario, Canada, show how teachers integrated changes into their practices and the successes and obstacles they encountered during

Hargreaves, Andy; Earl, Lorna; Schmidt, Michele

2002-01-01

431

Is garlic alternative medicine?  

PubMed

Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

Rivlin, Richard S

2006-03-01

432

OPTIMAL VIABLE PATH SEARCH FOR A CHEESE RIPENING PROCESS USING A MULTI-OBJECTIVE EA  

E-print Network

OPTIMAL VIABLE PATH SEARCH FOR A CHEESE RIPENING PROCESS USING A MULTI-OBJECTIVE EA Salma Mesmoudi-food process modeling, cheese ripening. Abstract: Viability theory is a very attractive theoretical approach address here is a real size problem from dairy industry, the modeling of a Camembert cheese ripening

Boyer, Edmond

433

Food Tourism as a Viable Market Segment: It's All How You Cook the Numbers!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether food is a special interest or mainstream tourism product. Much of the research on special interest tourism examines the activity in isolation of the broader suite of products available in the destination mix. Such a myopic approach may produce impressive looking numbers, but may not define viable market segments. Instead, based on their research findings, the

Bob McKercher; Fevzi Okumus; Bendegul Okumus

2008-01-01

434

ESTIMATION OF DOWNWIND VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES FROM A WET COOLING TOWER - INCLUDING SETTLING  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years, reuse of municipal waste water as the coolant in drift-producing cooling towers at electrical generating plants has become increasingly common. A hueristic model is presented that can be used to estimate the concentrations of viable airborne microbes in the drift...

435

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Starved and Viable but Nonculturable Vibrio vulnificus Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. Because of the low nutrient levels and temperature fluctuations found in the organism's natural habitat, the starvation state and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state are of particular interest. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed previously for the detection of V. vulnificus

JENNIFER M. WARNER; JAMES D. OLIVER

1998-01-01

436

Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.110(4)-2.610(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706

Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

2013-07-01

437

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio cholerae  

E-print Network

that is controlled by cell density. V. cholerae strains carrying mutations in genes required for quorum sensing suggest that a temporary loss of quorum sensing due to dilution of extracel- lular autoinducers confers viable environmental cells (CVEC) | quorum sensing | transmissibility of cholera Bacterial gene

Mekalanos, John

438

Finding viable seed URLs for web corpora: a scouting approach and comparative study of available sources  

E-print Network

Finding viable seed URLs for web corpora: a scouting approach and comparative study of available rely heavily on URLs ob- tained from search engines. Recently, the corresponding querying process are needed. My scouting approach using open-source software leads to a URL di- rectory enriched with metadata

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

Kobe University Law Department Workshop Is Japan a Viable Hard Power in the Academe?  

E-print Network

Kobe University Law Department Workshop Is Japan a Viable Hard Power in the Academe? Following up of Japanese Studies in North America, it became quite evident that the state of Japanese studies was in midst majorities of new generation of scholars of East Asia were now shifting their academic focus towards China

Banbara, Mutsunori

440

COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NON-VIABLE BIOLOGICAL PM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a preliminary research effort to develop a methodology for the measurement of non-viable biologically based particulate matter (PM), analyzing for mold, dust mite, and ragweed antigens and endotoxins. Using a comparison of analytical methods, the research obj...

441

Agouti signaling protein stimulates cell division in "viable yellow" (A vy/a) mouse liver  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enhanced linear growth, hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis are well-known characteristics of "viable yellow" agouti Avy/- mice (1); however, the functional basis for this aspect of the phenotype is unknown. In the present study, we ascertained whether agouti signaling protein (ASIP) levels in Avy/a or a...

442

Viable real-time PCR in environmental samples: can all data be interpreted directly?  

PubMed

Selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes--ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA)--represent one of the most successful recent approaches to detect viable cells (as defined by an intact cell membrane) by PCR and have been effectively evaluated in different microorganisms. However, some practical limitations were found, especially in environmental samples. The aim of this work was to show that in the application of viable real-time PCR, there may be significant biases and to propose a strategy for overcoming some of these problems. We present an approach based on the combination of three real-time PCR amplifications for each sample that should provide an improved estimation of the number of viable cells. This approach could be useful especially when it is difficult to determine a priori how to optimize methods using PMA or EMA. Although further studies are required to improve viable real-time PCR methods, the concept as outlined here presents an interesting future research direction. PMID:20632000

Fittipaldi, Mariana; Codony, Francesc; Adrados, Barbara; Camper, Anne K; Morat, Jordi

2011-01-01

443

Determination of viable wine yeast using DNA binding dyes and quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and quantification of wine yeast can be misleading due to under or overestimation of these microorganisms. Underestimation may be caused by variable growing rates of different microorganisms in culture media or the presence of viable but non-cultivable microorganisms. Overestimation may be caused by the lack of discrimination between live and dead microorganisms if quantitative PCR is used to

Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso; Jos M. Guillamn; Albert Mas

2010-01-01

444

Research Paper A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grmsvtn vol- canic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water be- fore and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from

ERIC GAIDOS; BRIAN LANOIL; THORSTEINN THORSTEINSSON; ANDREW GRAHAM; MARK SKIDMORE; SUK-KYUN HAN; TERRI RUST; BRIAN POPP

445

Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University  

E-print Network

Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University of merit, ZT, characterizes the efficiency and viability of a material as a thermoelectric device: ZT = S2 vibrations Thermoelectrics: What they do and how they work m m m m k k k 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0.00001 0

Suzuki, Masatsugu

446

Modeling the Lag Time of Listeria monocytogenes from Viable Count Enumeration and Optical Density Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following two factors significantly influence estimates of the maximum specific growth rate (max) and the lag-phase duration (): (i) the technique used to monitor bacterial growth and (ii) the model fitted to estimate parameters. In this study, nine strains of Listeria monocytogenes were monitored simultaneously by optical density (OD) analysis and by viable count enumeration (VCE) analysis. Four usual

F. Baty; J. P. Flandrois; M. L. Delignette-Muller

2002-01-01

447

Time-dependent changes in viable numbers and activities of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in subsurface samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vadose and saturated zone sediment cores from depths to 212 m were obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in south-central Washington by cable tool drilling, and volcanic ashfall tuff samples were obtained from tunnels 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. Numbers of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria

J. K. Fredrickson; S. W. Li; F. J. Brockman; D. L. Haldeman; P. S. Amy; D. L. Balkwill

1995-01-01

448

Toward a zero-carbon energy policy in Europe: defining a viable solution  

SciTech Connect

The present pace of carbon emission is not sustainable. Human societies need to react and to change. A rational responsive policy to deliver the required carbon emission reduction can be delineated if the key objective parameters are identified and addressed. This article attempts to lay the groundwork for a viable carbon energy policy for Europe. (author)

Jones, Christopher; Glachant, Jean-Michel

2010-04-15

449

Technology Theme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of technology. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Material is divided into four sections.

Garrahy, Dennis J.

450

A novel approach for using dielectric spectroscopy to predict viable cell volume (VCV) in early process development.  

PubMed

Online monitoring of viable cell volume (VCV) is essential to the development, monitoring, and control of bioprocesses. The commercial availability of steam-sterilizable dielectricspectroscopy probes has enabled successful adoption of this technology as a key noninvasive method to measure VCV for cell-culture processes. Technological challenges still exist, however. For some cell lines, the techniques accuracy in predicting the VCV from probepermittivity measurements declines as the viability of the cell culture decreases. To investigate the cause of this decrease in accuracy, divergences in predicted vs. actual VCV measurements were directly related to the shape of dielectric frequency scans collected during a cell culture. The changes in the shape of the beta dispersion, which are associated with changes in cell state, are quantified by applying a novel area ratio (AR) metric to frequency-scanning data from the dielectric-spectroscopy probes. The AR metric is then used to relate the shape of the beta dispersion to single-frequency permittivity measurements to accurately predict the offline VCV throughout an entire fed-batch run, regardless of cell state. This work demonstrates the possible feasibility of quantifying the shape of the beta dispersion, determined from frequency-scanning data, for enhanced measurement of VCV in mammalian cell cultures by applying a novel shape-characterization technique. In addition, this work demonstrates the utility of using changes in the shape of the beta dispersion to quantify cell health. PMID:24851255

Downey, Brandon J; Graham, Lisa J; Breit, Jeffrey F; Glutting, Nathaniel K

2014-01-01

451

Improved performance alternator with fully integrated Switched-Mode Rectifier  

E-print Network

The use of Power Electronic circuits has helped to advance the technology of automotive alternators. The use of a Switched-Mode Rectifier (SMR) allows the alternator to run at a load-matched condition, optimizing power and ...

Mesa, Armando

2008-01-01

452

HOW TO ACCESS TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

ATTIC (Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center) is an on-line computer database and repository for information on remediation and treatment technologies. t contains several of EPA's technology databases, including the Treatment Technology Database, the RREL (Risk Redu...

453

Validation of the Soleris NF-TVC method for determination of total viable count in a variety of foods.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of the Soleris Non-fermenting-Total Viable Count (NF-TVC) automated growth-based method for semiquantitative detection of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in a variety of food products. A probability of detection (POD) statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using reference dilution plating procedures. Nine naturally contaminated food products were tested, with Soleris testing performed at three or four threshold levels for each food. Using the POD model, all Soleris test results were in statistical agreement with the reference plating procedures with the exception of a single threshold level in two trials with black pepper, and a single threshold level in the independent laboratory trial with cheesecake. Results of ruggedness testing showed that the Soleris method produced accurate results even when minor variances in operating parameters, including sample volume and incubation temperature, were introduced. Results of the internal and independent laboratory validation studies showed that the Soleris NF-TVC method can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional dilution plating procedures for evaluation of microbial counts at threshold levels, while saving 24 h or more in analysis time. PMID:23767366

Mozola, Mark; Gray, R Lucas; Feldpausch, Jill; Alles, Susan; McDougal, Susan; Montei, Carolyn; Sarver, Ron; Steiner, Brent; Cooper, Christine; Rice, Jennifer

2013-01-01

454

ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

455

Hydrofluoropolyethers: Another alternative to CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Fluorinated fluids are widely used because of their unique properties: They are chemically and biologically inert, nontoxic, stable, nonflammable, and miscible in most solvents. However, because many of these fluids cause ozone-depleting and global-warming effects, one must search for viable alternatives. A recent CHEMTECH article described the properties of perfluorinated ethers as alternative refrigerants. Here the authors describe hydrofluoropolyethers (HFPEs), a new family of fluoropolyethers they have synthesized, which show promise as fire-extinguishing agents and heat exchange fluids. The molecules they discuss have terminal hydrogen atoms in the difluoromethoxy groups at the end of a linear perfluorinated polyether backbone that contains only CF{sub 2}O and CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O units. These products maintain the chemical and thermooxidative inertness of perfluorinated fluids. However, their solubility parameters are significantly modified, allowing higher compatibility with organic polar solvents. The reactivity toward radical reactions involving the terminal C{single_bond}H bonds limits the atmospheric lifetime of these molecules. Furthermore, no long-lived secondary decomposition products are formed; atmospheric decomposition results in the complete mineralization of the molecule.

Visca, M.; Silvani, R.; Marchionni, G.

1997-02-01

456

Alternative Energy Options for Antarctic Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique problems of designing an alternative energy system for the Australian and French Antarctic research stations and the possible options that can be pursued to obtain a clean, efficient, safe and reliable energy system. The adoption of the alternative systems will rely on the further technological and commercial development of equipment

John Steel; Antoine Guichard

457

Exploring the Switchgrass Transcriptome Using Second-Generation Sequencing Technology  

PubMed Central

Background Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial grass and widely popular as an important bioenergy crop. To accelerate the pace of developing high yielding switchgrass cultivars adapted to diverse environmental niches, the generation of genomic resources for this plant is necessary. The large genome size and polyploid nature of switchgrass makes whole genome sequencing a daunting task even with current technologies. Exploring the transcriptional landscape using next generation sequencing technologies provides a viable alternative to whole genome sequencing in switchgrass. Principal Findings Switchgrass cDNA libraries from germinating seedlings, emerging tillers, flowers, and dormant seeds were sequenced using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, generating 980,000 reads with an average read length of 367 bp. De novo assembly generated 243,600 contigs with an average length of 535 bp. Using the foxtail millet genome as a reference greatly improved the assembly and annotation of switchgrass ESTs. Comparative analysis of the 454-derived switchgrass EST reads with other sequenced monocots including Brachypodium, sorghum, rice and maize indicated a 7080% overlap. RPKM analysis demonstrated unique transcriptional signatures of the four tissues analyzed in this study. More than 24,000 ESTs were identified in the dormant seed library. In silico analysis indicated that there are more than 2000 EST-SSRs in this collection. Expression of several orphan ESTs was confirmed by RT-PCR. Significance We estimate that about 90% of the switchgrass gene space has been covered in this analysis. This study nearly doubles the amount of EST information for switchgrass currently in the public domain. The celerity and economical nature of second-generation sequencing technologies provide an in-depth view of the gene space of complex genomes like switchgrass. Sequence analysis of closely related members of the NAD+-malic enzyme type C4 grasses such as the model system Setaria viridis can serve as a viable proxy for the switchgrass genome. PMID:22479570

Iyer, Niranjani J.; Bryant, Douglas W.; Mockler, Todd C.; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

2012-01-01

458

Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

459

Assessment of bioremediation technologies: Focus on technologies suitable for field-level demonstrations and applicable to DOD contaminants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contaminants. Research activities continue to uncover new bioremediation technologies, increasing the need for field-level demonstrations. The goal of this study is to identify bioremediation technologies that have demonstrated viability in laboratory or pilot studies, but require additional field demonstrations to determine the capabilities and limitations of the technology. In selecting technologies that

A. M. Andrews; R. E. Dugan

1995-01-01

460

Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. PMID:24522164

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2014-03-17

461

Matter Power Spectra in Viable $f(R)$ Gravity Models with Massive Neutrinos  

E-print Network

We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable $f(R)$ theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, $\\Sigma m_{\

Geng, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Jia-Liang

2014-01-01

462

Analysis of intact ladderane phospholipids, originating from viable anammox bacteria, using RP-LC-ESI-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, many attempts have been made in order to identify\\u000a these environmentally important bacteria in natural environments. Anammox bacteria contain a unique class of lipids, called\\u000a ladderane lipids and here we present a novel method to detect viable anammox bacteria in sediments and waste water treatment\\u000a plants based on the use

Ingela Lanekoff; Roger Karlsson

2010-01-01

463

The Viable Systems Model Applied to a National System of Innovation to Inform Policy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines how the viable systems model (VSM) can provide insights into a National System of Innovation by focussing\\u000a on the necessary variety needed to match the system's changing external environment. Because an innovation system is more\\u000a diffuse than a firm, the VSM needs to be described within an ecological metaphor. This approach gives insights into the\\u000a system's learning

Sean Devine

2005-01-01

464

New Targeted Fluorescent-Imaging Compound Allows Researchers to Detect Viable Cancer Cells in Mice  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have developed a new type of imaging compound that allows them to visualize viable breast cancer cells that have spread to the lungs in mice. The compound binds to a protein called HER2, which is found on the surface of some breast cancer cells, and it glows, or fluoresces, only when taken inside living cells. This method of targeting and activation allowed researchers to detect specific types of live cancer cells in a mouse model of breast cancer.

465

Viable Real-Time PCR in Environmental Samples: Can All Data Be Interpreted Directly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective nucleic acid intercalating dyesethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA)represent one of the most\\u000a successful recent approaches to detect viable cells (as defined by an intact cell membrane) by PCR and have been effectively\\u000a evaluated in different microorganisms. However, some practical limitations were found, especially in environmental samples.\\u000a The aim of this work was to show that in the

Mariana Fittipaldi; Francesc Codony; Barbara Adrados; Anne K Camper; Jordi Morat

2011-01-01

466

Discrimination of viable Vibrio vulnificus cells from dead cells in real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) was utilized to selectively allow the real-time PCR (RT-PCR) amplification of a targeted DNA sequence in viable but not dead cells of Vibrio vulnificus. The optimized light exposure time to achieve cross-linking of DNA by the EMA in dead cells and to photolyse the free EMA in solution was at least 15 min. The use of

Shishan Wang; Robert E. Levin

2006-01-01

467

An advanced PCR method for the specific detection of viable total coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk.  

PubMed

Pasteurized milk is a complex food that contains various inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and may contain a large number of dead bacteria, depending on the milking conditions and environment. Ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA)-PCR is occasionally used to distinguish between viable and dead bacteria in foods other than pasteurized milk. EMA is a DNA-intercalating dye that selectively permeates the compromised cell membranes of dead bacteria and cleaves DNA. Usually, EMA-PCR techniques reduce the detection of dead bacteria by up to 3.5 logs compared with techniques that do not use EMA. However, this difference may still be insufficient to suppress the amplification of DNA from dead Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., total coliform bacteria) if they are present in pasteurized milk in large numbers. Thus, false positives may result. We developed a new method that uses real-time PCR targeting of a long DNA template (16S-23S rRNA gene, principally 2,451bp) following EMA treatment to completely suppress the amplification of DNA of up to 7logs (10(7)cells) of dead total coliforms. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of proteinase K (25U/ml) removed PCR inhibitors and simultaneously increased the signal from viable coliform bacteria. In conclusion, our simple protocol specifically detects viable total coliforms in pasteurized milk at an initial count of ?1colony forming unit (CFU)/2.22ml within 7.5h of total testing time. This detection limit for viable cells complies with the requirements for the analysis of total coliforms in pasteurized milk set by the Japanese Sanitation Act (which specifies <1CFU/2.22ml). PMID:22644523

Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-ichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

2012-07-01

468

Banking of non-viable skin allografts using high concentrations of glycerol or propylene glycol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to investigate the kinetics of the current glycerol banking method for the preservation of non-viable\\u000a skin allografts; to improve it with respect to efficiency and microbial safety; and to investigate the possibility of using\\u000a propylene glycol in place of glycerol to provide a more rapid process. Skin grafts were preserved in 98% v\\/v glycerol

Qizhi Huang; David E. Pegg; John N. Kearney

2004-01-01

469

Breakthrough in Mars balloon technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the end of 1997, JPL initiated the Mars Balloon Validation Program (MABVAP) to develop and validate the technology needed for a Mars balloon mission. The main focus of MABVAP was to develop and to test a viable concept for the Martian balloon that could be implemented on the small-scale dedicated or piggy-back mission.

Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J.; Cooper, H.; Hall, J.; MacDonald, B.; Pauken, M.; White, C.; Yavrouian, A.; Castano, A.; Cathey, H.; Fairbrother, D.; Smith, S.; Shreves, C.; Lachenmeir, T.; Rainwater, E.; Smith, M.

2002-01-01

470

Elimination of harmonic induced viable bifurcations with TCSC for ac-fed electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AC-fed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are known with their unbalanced, excessively nonlinear and time varying load characteristics. The nonlinear oscillations produced by EAF operation cause several problems to interconnected feed system. Injection of harmonics/interharmonics and rising flicker effects on the feed system are two of major problems produced by EAF. These nonlinear effects result into quasistatic changes in the feed system parameters (L - R) . In last decade many studies have been reported that such quasistatic changes in the feed system parameters result in viable bifurcation formations which strictly cause sudden and drastic changes on system behaviors. This paper presents an analytical control procedure to eliminate viable bifurcation points on L - I and R - I curves that cause sudden resonant peak arc currents. After control procedure, stability margins of EAF are extended into larger levels and viable bifurcation points on the feed system parameter have been eliminated. During study, possible roles of small parameter changes of uncontrolled EAF around bifurcation points and controlled EAF have been traced over time series analysis, phase plane analysis and bifurcation diagrams. A wide collection of useful dynamic analysis procedures for the exploration of studied arc furnace dynamics have been handled through the AUTO open-source algorithms.

Varan, Metin; Uyaroglu, Y?lmaz

2012-11-01

471

Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

2011-11-01

472

Retention of enteropathogenicity by viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli exposed to seawater and sunlight.  

PubMed Central

The effect of natural sunlight on culturability and persistence of pathogenicity of Escherichia coli was examined in the field, i.e., in the Morlaix Estuary, France, using an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli H10407. Results showed that E. coli responds to the estuarine diurnal solar cycle by entering the viable but nonculturable state upon exposure to sunlight. That is, direct counts of viable cells remained stable without significant change, but E. coli cells remained fully culturable only when exposed to seawater in control chambers in the dark, i.e., without solar irradiation. The effect of sunlight on the pathogenicity of E. coli H10407 was studied, using both the rabbit intestinal loop assay and ganglioside-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-ELISA), a sensitive procedure for testing for production of enterotoxin. Results of the GM1-ELISA demonstrated that strains of E. coli, after exposure to sunlight and entering the viable but nonculturable state, as well as culturable E. coli, retained pathogenicity, i.e., produced enterotoxin. The GM1-ELISA is concluded to be more sensitive than the rabbit intestinal loop assay for analysis of enterotoxin in natural water samples. PMID:8953732

Pommepuy, M; Butin, M; Derrien, A; Gourmelon, M; Colwell, R R; Cormier, M

1996-01-01

473

Viable quantitative PCR for assessing the response of Candida albicans to antifungal treatment.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) treatment has been used before nucleic acid detection methods, such as PCR, to distinguish between live and dead cells using membrane integrity as viability criterion. The performance of these DNA intercalating dyes was compared in many studies utilizing different microorganisms. These studies demonstrated that EMA and PMA differ in their abilities to identify nonviable cells from mixed cell populations, depending on the microorganism and the nature of the sample. Due to this heterogeneity, both dyes were used in the present study to specifically distinguish dead from live Candida albicans cells using viable quantitative PCR (qPCR). The viable qPCR was optimized, and the best results were obtained when pre-treating the cells for 10min in the dark with 25?M EMA followed by continuous photoactivation for 15min. The suitability of this technique to distinguish clotrimazole- and fluconazole-treated C. albicans cells from untreated cells was then assessed. Furthermore, the antifungal properties of two commercial essential oils (Thymus vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla) were evaluated. The viable qPCR method was determined to be a feasible technique for assessing the viability of C. albicans after drug treatment and may help to provide a rapid diagnostic and susceptibility testing method for fungal infections, especially for patients treated with antifungal therapies. PMID:23132341

Agust, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morat, Jordi; Codony, Francesc

2013-01-01

474

The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed. PMID:24917854

Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D.; Faucher, Sebastien P.

2014-01-01

475

Technology alternatives and the Indian energy crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that while the recent concern for the energy crisis resulting from the increase in OPEC oil prices affected the consumption-oriented lifestyle of the urban elite in India, the rural poor have been facing the real energy crisis of surviving on zero-cost non-commercial energy long before 1973. The origins of the recent energy crisis are summarized and

A. K. N. Reddy; K. K. Prasad

1977-01-01

476

REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-Es REACT Project, short for Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

None

2012-01-01

477

Detection of viable Zygosaccharomyces bailii in fruit juices using ethidium monoazide bromide and real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we use ethidium monoazide (EMA) a dye commonly used to differentiate viable and nonviable populations of bacteria in real-time PCR (QPCR) assays to eliminate the nonviable cells from the Z. bailii population. Thus we are able to determine the viable Z. bailii population using QPCR plus EMA. To do this we first, optimized the EMA exposure conditions;

Helen Rawsthorne; Trevor G. Phister

2009-01-01

478

Modification of Seed Germination Performance through Cold Plasma Chemistry Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

growth regulators to seeds (Silcock and Smith, 1982; Taylor and Harman, 1990; Zarnstorff et al., 1994). One This study was conducted to determine if an alternate seed treat- such treatment is seed coating, the direct application of ment approach based on plasma chemistry would offer a more viable material to a seed surface. Seeds can be treated by alternative over

John C. Volin; Ferencz S. Denes; Raymond A. Young; Scott M. T. Park

2000-01-01

479

ACTTive Technology, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four issues of "ACTTive Technology" include major articles, editorials, suggested curriculum activities, reviews of software and educational media, early childhood and technology news items, and conference calendars. Major articles include: "Teaching and Learning with Technology" (Joyce Johanson); "Use Switches and Alternate Keyboards To Add Music

Hutinger, Patricia L., Ed.

1998-01-01

480

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31

481

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells initiate a complex chemokine and cytokine network and are a viable drug target in chronic HCV patients  

PubMed Central

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the professional type I interferon (IFN)-producing cells, and upon activation they traffic to lymph organs, where they bridge innate and adaptive immunity. Using multianalyte profiling (MAP), we have mapped the key chemokines and cytokines produced in response to pDC activation, taking into consideration the role of autocrine IFN, as well as paracrine effects on other innate cells (e.g., mon