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1

Are distributed energy technologies a viable alternative for institutional settings? : lessons from MIT Cogeneration Plant  

E-print Network

During the last decades, distributed energy (DE) resources received considerable attention and support because of the confluence of technology development - particularly gas turbines - and deregulation - which would allow ...

Tapia-Ahumada, Karen de los Angeles

2005-01-01

2

Trans-aortic counterpulsation: a viable alternative?  

PubMed

Transthoracic intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion has been a relatively rare and uncommon procedure. However, it is an established beneficial option in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD) accompanied with bi-lateral femoral arterial occlusion. There are several viable alternatives to trans-aortic IABP insertion, including trans-axillary or in abdominal aorta (requiring a laparotomy). Cardiac surgery has the advantage of an open sternum, facilitating effortless direct intra-aortic balloon (IAB) insertion into the aorta. The IAB can be inserted either through a 9-mm graft or directly into the ascending aorta. During cardiac surgery, direct insertion into the ascending aorta with the balloon tip lying distally in the abdominal aorta is facilitated with an open sternum. The base of the balloon lies approximately 2 cm below the left subclavian and can be confirmed through a trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Elimination of a graft insertion saves the team from time-consuming maneuvers and additional hemorrhagic complications. In our experience, postoperative vasoplegic syndrome coupled with myocardial edema contributed to patent instability and was treated with vasopressin and transthoracic IAB insertion. The CS 100 (Datascope Corp., Mahwah, NJ) console allowed the ability to time the balloon accurately. This case report details our experience with one such patient and establishes trans-aortic counter-pulsation as a safe and viable option in patients with severe PVD, where percutaneous insertion is precluded or has failed. PMID:17672190

Datt, Bharat; Hutchison, Lisa; Peniston, Charles

2007-06-01

3

Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO technology, its capabilities and its limitations. The paper will investigate how FSO technology has evolved to its current stage for deployment in MANs, LANs, wireless backhaul and metropolitan network extensions - applications that fall within the category of last mile. The paper will address the market, drivers and the adoption of FSO, plus provide a projection of future FSO technology, based on today's product roadmaps. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations.

Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

2001-10-01

4

A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

Hester, Jesse Stuart

5

Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica,  

E-print Network

1 Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB 1 alternative to Magma, MapleTM , Mathematica R , and MATLAB R , which are the most popular non-free closed. Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research Incorporated. MATLAB is a registered trademark

Stein, William

6

ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev  

E-print Network

ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev Submitted May 16th not require dark matter but rather relies on classical Newtonian dynamics and an overlooked effect of quantum: dark matter ­ galaxies: spiral ­ galaxies: kinematics and dynamics 1. INTRODUCTION Directly applied

Giles, C. Lee

7

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube, Facebook, MySpace and Twitter and smart devices such as iPhone and BlackBerry useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay lip service to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

8

Ballast water treatment technologies: hydrocyclonic a viable option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many governments, international maritime environmental entities and public health organizations have recognized the environmental,\\u000a economic and health threats caused by the translocation and release of ballast water. A wide variety of ballast water treatment\\u000a systems are available at both commercial and under evaluation levels. The available ballast water treatment technologies are\\u000a reviewed. This work reviews the various types of technologies

Mazen M. Abu-Khader; Omar Badran; Menwer Attarakih

2011-01-01

9

Enumeration of probiotic strains: Review of culture-dependent and alternative techniques to quantify viable bacteria.  

PubMed

Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Standard culture techniques are commonly used to quantify probiotic strains, but cell culture only measures replicating cells. In response to the stresses of processing and formulation, some fraction of the live probiotic microbes may enter a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in which they are dormant but metabolically active. These microbes are capable of replicating once acclimated to a more hospitable host environment. An operating definition of live probiotic bacteria that includes this range of metabolic states is needed for reliable enumeration. Alternative methods, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), nucleic acid amplification techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR), reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR), propidium monoazide-PCR, and cell sorting techniques such as flow cytometry (FC)/fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) offer the potential to enumerate both culturable and VBNC bacteria. Modern cell sorting techniques have the power to determine probiotic strain abundance and metabolic activity with rapid throughput. Techniques such as visual imaging, cell culture, and cell sorting, could be used in combination to quantify the proportion of viable microbes in various metabolic states. Consensus on an operational definition of viability and systematic efforts to validate these alternative techniques ultimately will strengthen the accuracy and reliability of probiotic strain enumeration. PMID:24814752

Davis, Catherine

2014-08-01

10

Alternative nuclear technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

Schubert, E.

1981-10-01

11

Imiquimod therapy for extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva: a viable non-surgical alternative.  

PubMed

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepidermal adenocarcinoma that can affect the vulval skin. Surgical excision is the gold-standard treatment, however, recurrence rates are high and extensive excisions can produce long-lasting cosmetic and functional defects. We describe one of the largest case series to-date (n = 6) on the use of topical 5% imiquimod cream as a novel treatment option and discuss our experiences. With the addition of our six cases to the literature, there are now 29 documented cases of vulval EMPD treated with 5% imiquimod cream. Of these, 50% of primary disease cases and 73% of recurrent primary disease cases have achieved clinical resolution with 5% imiquimod therapy alone. These findings suggest that imiquimod provides a viable alternative to surgical excision for vulval EMPD. However, we acknowledge that this is a simple retrospective analysis and that treatment scheduling and follow-up needs investigation in a trial setting. PMID:23815201

Sanderson, P; Innamaa, A; Palmer, J; Tidy, J

2013-07-01

12

Centre for Alternative Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

2007-06-28

13

Prototype Personality Diagnosis in Clinical Practice: A Viable Alternative for DSM-V and ICD-11  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that a prototype matching approach yields diagnoses of comparable validity to the more complex diagnostic algorithms outlined in DSM-IV. Furthermore, clinicians prefer prototype diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs) to the current categorical diagnostic system or alternative dimensional methods. An important extension of this work is to investigate the degree to which clinicians are able to make prototype diagnoses reliably. The aim of this study is to assess the inter-rater reliability of a prototype matching approach to personality diagnosis in clinical practice. Using prototypes derived empirically in prior research, outpatient clinicians diagnosed patients personality after an initial evaluation period. External evaluators independently diagnosed the same patients after watching videotapes of the same clinical hours. Inter-rater reliability for prototype diagnosis was high, with a median r = .72. Cross-correlations between disorders were low, with a median r = .01. Clinicians and clinically trained independent observers can assess complex personality constellations with high reliability using a simple prototype matching procedure, even with prototypes that are relatively unfamiliar to them. In light of its demonstrated reliability, efficiency, and versatility, prototype diagnosis appears to be a viable system for DSM-V and ICD-11 with exceptional utility for research and clinical practice. PMID:21532930

Westen, Drew; DeFife, Jared A.; Bradley, Bekh; Hilsenroth, Mark J.

2010-01-01

14

Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,  

E-print Network

FOR FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES MICHAEL P. RAMAGE, NAE,[1] Chair, ExxonMobil Research number of vehicles that can be fueled by hydrogen by 2020 and potential fuel and CO2 savings � Determine11 Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug

15

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

16

Building brand community membership within organizations: a viable internal branding alternative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper seeks to propose and test the appropriateness of a brand community within an internal branding framework. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Using the multidimensional constructs of brand community and the strengths of internal branding strategies, this study explores the theoretical underpinnings of combining the two constructs. Findings Intraorganizational brand communities are presented as a viable strategic possibility for

P. Raj Devasagayam; Cheryl L. Buff; Timothy W. Aurand; Kimberly M. Judson

2010-01-01

17

Nonproliferation and alternative nuclear technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluations (I.N.F.C.E.) has undertaken a study of changes that could be made in the nuclear fuel cycle to conserve uranium and minimize proliferation risks. Alternative nuclear technologies will be evaluated in terms of their technical and economic feasibility, resource utilization, and their closeness to commercialization. Light water reactors (LWR's) could be redesigned to improve fuel

Hafemeister

1979-01-01

18

Drug Delivery Interfaces in the 21st Century: From Science Fiction Ideas to Viable Technologies  

PubMed Central

Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micron-scale submarines and Cyborg body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the pre-defined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J.; Succi, Marc D.; Langer, Robert S.

2013-01-01

19

APPLICATION OF THE CROSS BATTERY APPROACH IN THE ASSESSMENT OF AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines current psychometric and testing practices that appear to do a limited job of assessing the intelligence of American Indian individuals. For several reasons, contemporary approaches are found to be inadequate. Unfortunately, these practices are then employed in making educational decisions and placing these same children into Special Education programs. Alternative methods of testing, including the Gf-Gc Cross-

Gary A. Plank

20

Is thermal annealing a viable alternative for crystallization in triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene organic transistors?  

E-print Network

Triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (TESADT) holds considerable promise for organic transistor applications due to the high electrical mobilities attained by post-deposition crystallization using solvent vapour annealing. We have studied thermal annealing as an alternative route to post-deposition crystallization of TESADT films. Thermal annealing initially appears promising, producing mm-sized crystal domains, but poor electrical performance is obtained, which we attribute to a combination of crack formation and potentially also structural transition during the anneal process. We also find that illumination has a significant positive effect on crystallization, possibly due to an optically-induced enhancement in molecular mobility during annealing. This suggests further studies of how solvent exposure, heat, substrate surface properties and particularly light exposure influence the ordering kinetics of TESADT are warranted.

K. Muhieddine; R. W. Lyttleton; J. Badcock; M. A. Loth; J. Stride; J. E. Anthony; A. P. Micolich

2014-04-06

21

Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

Tuttle

2001-01-01

22

Alternative energy technologies in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is imperative that Brazil consider alternative energy production and conservation techniques in order to cope with the energy crisis. Brazil imports about 650,000 bbl.\\/day of petroleum, which accounts for more than 78 percent of total consumption. Oil amounts to 50 percent of the total energy utilized in Brazil. After a brief review of the energy resources in Brazil (water

Miccolis

1977-01-01

23

Closed-loop operation with alternative dewatering technology  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of dewatering devices for closed-loop drilling-fluid circulating systems and reserve pits is derived from technology that has been used in the industrial- and sanitary-waste treatment industries for years. This paper describes an overview of the need for closed-loop systems and provides the optimum design layout, including the fit of a dewatering device, for a drilling location. The introduction of a nonconventional dewatering device, called a screw press/thickener, is reviewed. A case history describing use of this technology in a southern Louisiana inland-marsh-area well is analyzed for the technical and economic viability of operating in a closed-loop mode. Results from this effort include a viable alternative to hauling off waste fluids from drilling sites and the realization that use of this technology can be justified economically.

Halliday, W.S.; Bray, R.P.; Youens, J.W.

1993-03-01

24

An evaluation framework for viable business models for m-commerce in the information technology sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the characteristics of viable business models in the field of Mobile Commerce (m-commerce).\\u000a Mobility has given new dimensions to the way commerce works. All over the world various stakeholder organisations are consistently\\u000a probing into the areas where m-commerce can be exploited and can generate revenue or value for them, even though some of those

Sulabh Sharma; Jairo Alberto Gutirrez

2010-01-01

25

Alternative Technologies for Processing Raw Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is need for diversification and concerned efforts to simply find efficient conventional material technologies to process a broader spectrum of local conventional materials in order to add value to them. The study presents a concept of alternative te...

1991-01-01

26

Study of alternative probe technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

1977-01-01

27

New Technology and Energy Alternatives  

E-print Network

, which is equal to 1000 watts consumed for one hour. It represents the fuel the uti I ity burns to produce the energy consumed. Peak demand charges are usually based on the highest 30 minute peak demand in kilowatts experienced during a given month... of hours that customer can be interrupted. Knowing your facil ity's type of rate is the basis for finding alternative and energy reducing schemes. This information is available from your uti I ity company. With this brief background, we can discuss...

Lamphere, F. J.

28

Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual  

SciTech Connect

This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

None

1980-02-01

29

Technological feasibility of alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. energy shortage is discussed. The technology of coal gasification or liquefication, shale oil from oil shale, and geothermal energy recovery is presented in sufficient detail to show feasibility of these as energy source alternatives to petroleum crude. Technical trade publications data show that essentially all necessary process technology is known, although important improvements are possible, and have been

M. L. Zweigle

1974-01-01

30

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2011-07-01

33

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2010-07-01

34

Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

Shedrow, C.B.

1999-11-29

35

Robotic UV Curing for Automotive Exterior Applications: A cost-effective and technically viable alternative for UV curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As car makers continue to look at UV curable coatings as a future exterior paint finish there has been a significant effort to develop coatings that meet the cosmetic and performance requirements of the customer. At the same time, many car makers have lamented that not enough effort has been put forth to develop a cost-effective and technically viable means

P. Mills

36

Human Tissue in the Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of New Medicines: A Viable Alternative to Animal Models?  

PubMed Central

The pharma Industry's ability to develop safe and effective new drugs to market is in serious decline. Arguably, a major contributor to this is the Industry's extensive reliance on nonhuman biology-based test methods to determine potential safety and efficacy, objective analysis of which reveals poor predictive value. An obvious alternative approach is to use human-based tests, but only if they are available, practical, and effective. While in vivo (phase 0 microdosing with high sensitivity mass spectroscopy) and in silico (using established human biological data), technologies are increasingly being used, in vitro human approaches are more rarely employed. However, not only are increasingly sophisticated in vitro test methods now available or under development, but the basic ethically approved infrastructure through which human cells and tissues may be acquired is established. Along with clinical microdosing and in silico approaches, more effective access to and use of human cells and tissues in vitro provide exciting and potentially more effective opportunities for the assessment of safety and efficacy of new medicines. PMID:22389860

Coleman, Robert A.

2011-01-01

37

Aldehyde dehydrogenase as an alternative to enumeration of total and viable CD34(+) cells in autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation.  

PubMed

We validated the correlation of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH(br) cells with total and viable CD34(+) cells in fresh and thawed hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) products, and looked for a correlation with time to white blood cell (WBC) and platelet engraftment after autologous transplantation, using simple linear regression analyzes. We found a significant correlation between pre-freeze ALDH(br) cell numbers and pre-freeze total CD34(+) (P < 0.001), viable CD34(+) (P < 0.001) and post-thaw viable CD34(+) (P < 0.001) cell numbers. We suggest that ALDH(br) may be substituted for CD34(+) cell numbers when evaluating HPC. As post-thaw viability testing apparently adds no significant information, we suggest that it may not be necessary. Finally, neither marker correlated with time to engraftment in our patients, supporting previous data suggesting the existence of a threshold dose for timely engraftment around 2.5 10(6) cells/kg. PMID:21905957

Veeraputhiran, Muthu; Katragadda, Lakshmikanth; Balamurugan, Appathurai; Cottler-Fox, Michele

2011-11-01

38

Reading and Technology: Viable Partners for Multiple Educational Settings: Telecommunications and Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predominant telecommunications technologies, video and computer-based telecommunications, have multiple applications for reading education. The telecomputers of tomorrow will process, store, create and transmit images which can be distributed via fiber optics networks in a manner similar to the voice communications of today. Thus, the

Dillon, Connie L.

39

Is there a viable alternative to ordinary least squares regression when security abnormal returns are the dependent variable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression analysis is often used to estimate a linear relationship between security abnormal returns and firm-specific variables.\\u000a If the abnormal returns are caused by a common event (i.e., there is event clustering) the error term of the cross-sectional\\u000a regression will be heteroskedastic and correlated across observations. The size and power of alternative test statistics for\\u000a the event clustering case has

Imre Karafiath

2009-01-01

40

Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-07-01

41

Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative  

PubMed Central

The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication. PMID:24883281

DeFazio, Michael Vincent; Han, Kevin Dong

2014-01-01

42

Comparison of different autografts for aural cartilage in aesthetic rhinoplasty: is the tragal cartilage graft a viable alternative?  

PubMed

Auricular cartilage is an important source of grafts for various reconstructive procedures such as aesthetic rhinoplasty. The purpose of this investigation was to compare tragal cartilage with auricular cartilage harvested from the concha and scapha, and describe its clinical viability, indications, and morbidity in rhinoplasty. A total of 150 augmentation rhinoplasties with a total of 170 grafts were included. The donor sites were tragus (n=136), concha (n=26), and scapha (n=8). The time needed to harvest the grafts, the donor site morbidity, and the indications for operation were recorded. The anthropometric changes to 4 auricular variables after the cartilage had been harvested were analysed and compared with those on the opposite side in 48 patients using Student's paired t-test. Intraobserver reliability was assessed using Pearson's intraclass correlation. The mean (SD) harvesting time was 27 (8) min for the concha, 4.5 (1.4) min for the tragus, and 5.7 (1.6) min for the scapha. The largest graft was taken from the concha (2819 mm), followed by the tragus (2012 mm), and the scapha (186 mm). The grafts were placed at the following sites: tip grafts (n=123), columella struts (n=80), shield (n=20), rim (n=17), and dorsal onlay (n=15). Harvesting tragal cartilage is safe, simple, fast, and has a low morbidity, but it can affect the patient's ability to wear earphones. Tragal cartilage is a good alternative for nasal reconstruction if a graft of no longer than 20 mm is required. PMID:23701830

Zinser, Max J; Siessegger, Mathias; Thamm, Oliver; Theodorou, Panangiotis; Maegele, Mark; Ritter, Lutz; Kreppel, Matthias; Sailer, Martin H; Zller, Joachim E; Mischkowski, Robert A

2013-12-01

43

Impact of ancient cereals, pseudocereals and legumes on starch hydrolysis and antiradical activity of technologically viable blended breads.  

PubMed

Wheat flour replacement from 22.5% up to 45% by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours provided technologically viable and acceptable sensory rated multigrain breads with superior nutritional value compared to the 100% wheat flour (WT) counterparts. Blended breads exhibited superior nutritional composition, larger amounts of bioaccessible polyphenols, higher anti-radical activity, and lower and slower starch digestibility. Simultaneous lower rapidly digestible starch (57.1%) and higher slowly digestible starch (12.9%) and resistant starch (2.8%) contents (g per 100g fresh bread), considered suitable nutritional trends for dietary starch fractions, were met by the blend formulated 7.5% T, 15% GP, 15% BK. The associated mixture that replaced 37.5% WT, showed a rather lower extent and slower rate of starch hydrolysis with medium-low values for C?, and H90, and lowest k, and intermediate expected Glycaemic Index (86). All multigrain breads can be labelled as source of dietary fibre (?3g dietary fibre/100g bread). PMID:25256469

Collar, Concha; Jimnez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino

2014-11-26

44

Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology Analysis Group

1995-05-24

45

Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

1981-04-01

46

Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

Amutha Rani, D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Deegan, D. [Tetronics Ltd., South Marston Business Park, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, C.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk

2008-11-15

47

40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...projects using unit processes or techniques which the Regional Administrator...alternative technology shall receive increased grants under 35.2152...of any project funded with increased grant funding in accordance...failure has significantly increased operation and...

2010-07-01

48

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

49

Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)

Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

50

Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

2007-04-20

51

Outside the Box: Will Information Technology Be a Viable Intervention to Improve the Quality of Cancer Care?  

PubMed Central

The use of health information technology (IT) to resolve the crisis in communication inherent within the fragmented service environment of medical care in the United States is a strategic priority for the Department of Health and Human Services. Yet the deployment of health IT alone is not sufficient to improve quality in health service delivery; what is needed is a human factors approach designed to optimize the balance between health-care users, health-care providers, policies, procedures, and technologies. An evaluation of interface issues between primary and specialist care related to cancer reveals opportunities for human factors improvement along the cancer care continuum. Applications that emphasize cognitive support for prevention recommendations and that encourage patient engagement can help create a coordinated health-care environment conducive to cancer prevention and early detection. An emphasis on reliability, transparency, and accountability can help improve the coordination of activities among multiple service providers during diagnosis and treatment. A switch in emphasis from a transaction-based approach to one emphasizing long-term support for healing relationships should help improve patient outcomes during cancer survivorship and end-of-life care. Across the entire continuum of care, an emphasis on meaningful use of health ITrather than on IT as an endpointshould help put cancer on a path toward substantive continuous quality improvement. The accompanying research questions will focus on reducing the variance between the social and technical subsystems as IT is used to improve patient outcomes across the interfaces of care. PMID:20386056

Hanna, Christopher; Massett, Holly A.

2010-01-01

52

Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective  

SciTech Connect

A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity.

House, P W; Coleman, J A; Shull, R D; Matheny, R W; Hock, J C

1981-02-01

53

Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

Fischer, S.

1998-07-01

54

Supercritical technology as an alternative to fractionate prebiotic galactooligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, supercritical technology based on carbon dioxide has been used as an alternative to fractionate galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in a dairy-based prebiotic ingredient. The main challenge of the fractionation of the commercial mixture is the combination of GOS with monosaccharides and disaccharides. Considering that the beneficial health effects of the commercial mixture, such as the improvement of the

F. Montas; A. Olano; G. Reglero; E. Ibez; T. Fornari

2009-01-01

55

Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies  

E-print Network

#12;Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies S. K. Fischer P. J. Hughes P .............................................. 1.3 1.3 Global Warming Potential Index ................................... 1.6 1.4 Methodology .......................................... 2.9 3. APPLICATION-DEPENDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS 3.1 Introduction

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

56

Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m\\/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new

Donia Said Elkhamy

2007-01-01

57

Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis cannot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. A method is proposed for improving the Nation's approach to this problem: health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations.

House, P. W.; Coleman, J. A.; Shull, R. D.; Matheny, R. W.; Hock, J. C.

1981-02-01

58

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Analytical approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of various advanced energy conversion systems were compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. The ground rules established by NASA and assumptions made by the General Electric Company in performing this cogeneration technology alternatives study are presented. The analytical methodology employed is described in detail and is illustrated with numerical examples together with a description of the computer program used in calculating over 7000 energy conversion system-industrial process applications. For Vol. 1, see 80N24797.

Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

59

Hot dry rock: A versatile alternative energy technology  

SciTech Connect

Hot dry rock (HDR) is the most abundant geothermal resource, and is found almost everywhere at depth. The technology to extract energy from HDR for practical use has been under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than twenty years. During the 1970`s, the possibility of mining the heat from HDR by circulating water through an engineered geothermal reservoir was first demonstrated on a small scale. Between 1980 and 1986 a larger, deeper, and hotter HDR reservoir was constructed. This large reservoir was subsequently mated to a permanent surface plant. A number of flow tests of this large HDR reservoir were conducted between 1991 and 1995. The results of these tests have indicated that it should be practical to operate an HDR heat mining facility to produce power on a sustained basis. An industry-led, government cost-shared project to produce and market energy generated from HDR is currently being put in place. That project should help demonstrate that HDR reservoirs can be operated to provide energy for long periods of time at rates sufficient to be commercially viable. In the longer run, additional applications of HDR technology such as water and waste treatment, and steam generation for oil field flooding may come into widespread use.

Duchane, D.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

1995-01-01

60

Determination of the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro: MGIT 960 as a viable alternative for BACTEC 460.  

PubMed

BACTEC 460 has now been phased out, so the search for an alternative is imperative. We have determined the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro, by using BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be 0.2, 0.8, 8.0, and 5.0 ?g/mL, respectively, by both methods. These results show a significant (p<0.001) concordance between minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained by these two different methods. MGIT 960 system uses a robust florescence quenching-based oxygen sensor, requires no radioisotope, is safe, and relatively easy to operate. Apparently, this is the first report wherein MGIT 960 has been validated for anti-tubercular susceptibility testing against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our preliminary data thus clearly demonstrate that the MGIT 960 method can be considered as a promising alternative to BACTEC 460 method. PMID:24709416

Jhamb, Sarbjit Singh; Goyal, Amit; Singh, Prati Pal

2014-01-01

61

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

PubMed Central

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:21811389

Fuller, Philip; Roth, Sanford

2011-01-01

62

40 CFR 35.2211 - Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. 35.2211 Section 35...STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works 35.2211 Field testing for Innovative and Alternative Technology Report. The grantee shall...

2010-07-01

63

Alternative Extension Approaches to Technology Dissemination for Sustainable Agriculture in the Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agricultural development demands practices and technologies, which are technically appropriate, economically viable, environmentally non-degrading and socially acceptable. Sustainable development involves management and conservation of the natural resource base and the orientation of the technology and institutional changes in such a manner to ensure the continued fulfillment of human needs for present and future generations. The concept of sustainable agricultural

KHALID M. CHAUDHRY; SHER MUHAMMAD; IJAZ ASHRAF

64

Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation. A Report to the Council on Library and Information Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is as yet no viable long-term strategy to ensure that digital information will be readable in the future. Digital documents are vulnerable to loss via the decay and obsolescence of the media on which they are stored, and they become inaccessible and unreadable when the software needed to interpret them, or the hardware on which that software

Rothenberg, Jeff

65

Double-Dose: A Viable Instructional Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A feasible instructional method for reducing failure in first-year algebra is the double-dose approach pioneered by Douglas MacIver. Two studies conducted in Roxbury, Massachusetts, and in Norfolk, Virginia, reveal the educational benefits of providing second math periods for ninth-grade algebra students. (MLH)

Peele, Louise Loughran

1998-01-01

66

Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processesan electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

1996-07-01

67

Centers for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technology Pre-Application Workshop Attendee List  

E-print Network

. Clements Clean Air / Alternative Fuel / School Transportation Experience 559-356-1334 johndclements56@gmailPON-13-605 Centers for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technology Pre-Application Workshop

68

Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program Erie County  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings?¢????quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center, Daemen will continue to host a range of events on campus for the general public. The College does not charge fees for speakers or most other events. This has been a long-standing tradition of the College.

Robert C. Beiswanger, Jr.

2010-05-20

69

Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

1979-01-01

70

Ecosystem Viable Yields  

E-print Network

The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

2011-01-01

71

Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The successful results of this work have led to the filing of a US patent disclosing the method for producing ATP yarns with high yarn twist efficiency using a high convergence angle at the self ply point together with applying ply torque.

Elkhamy, Donia Said

72

System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for Nordic H2  

E-print Network

System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for Nordic H2 Energy Foresight Tiina Jørgensen Title: System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for the Nordic H2 Energy energy systems model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis

73

PROCESS SIMULATION TO MAKE PERSONALISATION ECONOMICALLY VIABLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of fashion products can be customised to better meet the needs and preferences of individual consumers. Although the technology to achieve this is becoming available, it is still unclear whether mass customisation of fashion products will be economi- cally viable. This paper explores how the economics of different customisation approaches in the textile industry can be assessed by

Claudia M. Eckert; David C. Wynn; P. John Clarkson; Sandy Black

2008-01-01

74

An Alternative Model to Implementing Technology Integration in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal educational technology grant coordinators from seven small liberal arts colleges were interviewed to determine the ways in which technology had been infused in teacher education programs over the life of the grant. Substantive integration of technology had occurred in each of the schools. Traditional change models were unable to explain

Carroll, James B.; Morrell, Patricia D.; Eifler, Karen E.

2007-01-01

75

Alternative Technologies for Destruction of PCB and Other POPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternatives to incineration for the destruction of organochlorine materials involve the use of non-oxidative conditions and\\u000a thereby avoid the formation of toxic products such as poly-chlorodibenzodioxins and -furans. These alternatives include the\\u000a use of plasma are facilities in which molecules are broken down to atoms and allowed only to recombine to form small molecules,\\u000a through chemical reductions using gaseous hydrogen

Ian D. Rae

76

IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez. Urban consolidation and logistics sharing. III. Multi-stakeholder mutli-criteria methodology. A seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban consolidation centres, but it is still

Boyer, Edmond

77

Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

78

Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

1986-01-01

79

Supplement to energy for rural development: Renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication energy for rural development: renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries, which presented information on a variety of subjects, including direct uses of solar energy (heating, cooling, distillation, crop drying, photovoltaics), indirect uses of solar energy (wind power, hydropower, photosynthesis, biomass), geothermal energy, and energy storage is reviewed. New technologies developed and advances made in technologies are discussed.

80

Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

2010-01-01

81

Future subsonic transport engine technology improvements and resultant propulsion alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major contenders for engines to power future subsonic transports include the conventional high bypass turbofan, the geared turbofan of somewhat higher bypass ratio, and the high disk loading turboprop. Typical designs involving projected advancements in technology are described and compared to a current turbofan. The key technology features for each of the advanced engines are identified and their relative

R. E. Neitzel

1977-01-01

82

Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as part of CDEP. The technologies and the scenarios are described. The cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies provide the basis of the macroeconomic analyses.

Whitfield, R. G.; Habegger, L. J.; Levine, E. P.; Tanzman, E.

1981-04-01

83

Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide outlines who may benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches, such as individuals with speech handicaps, visual impairments, physical disabilities, and cognitive impairments. The guide distinguishes between "low tech" approaches such as signal systems and communication boards and "high tech" approaches which

Mineo, Beth

84

Technology and alternative cancer therapies: an analysis of heterodoxy and constructivism.  

PubMed

Theories of the construction of technology are reviewed from the wider interdisciplinary conversation known as science and technology studies (STS) and from the growing field of the anthropology of science and technology. These theories are used to contribute to research situated at the intersection of the anthropology of alternative medicine and of medical technologies. Cases drawn from the research tradition on microbial theories of cancer are considered to show how unorthodox medical theories become embedded in technologies through choices in microscope design and treatment technologies. In turn, the technologies contribute to the heterodox standing of the researchers, their research, and their therapies. PMID:8979243

Hess, D J

1996-12-01

85

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES NEEDING FURTHER DEVELOPMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL SOURCE REPLACEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air awarded a contract to support evaluate innovative uses of x-ray technology that has potential to replace devices currently using gamma and beta radiation in the plastics, pulp, and paper industries....

86

CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO RADIOLOGICAL SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air awarded a contract to demonstrate that non-nuclear measurement using optical and magnetic technology can replace radioactive devices used to measure the thickness and density of various paper, film, and plastic sheets....

87

SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

88

CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

Norris, Rober [ORNL] [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL] [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company] [The Dow Chemical Company

2013-10-01

89

The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect

Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

2010-03-31

90

Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity  

E-print Network

on the costs of a range of `alternative' energy sources for electricity generation and transport marketsSynthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low contexts4 . This note pulls together key sources of current and future projections of costs of bio energy

91

INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

2000-03-01

92

Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities

Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

2011-01-01

93

Alternate Approaches to Teaching Medical Technology: The Simulated Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of a non-traditional, self-contained Medical Laboratory Technology (MLT) program at Hudson Valley Community College is presented. This community based associate degree program has used simulated laboratories for 26 years and is seeking initial accreditation through a national accrediting agency. Until recently allied health programs

Bauer, Sally McLaughlin; Newman, Dianna L.

94

Alternative technologies of manufacture and decoration of wood balusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that balusters made of stone, metal, gypsum can be found in modern interior, wood is the most popular material for balusters still. The aim of research is to research new forms of designer balusters and technologies of their production. Segmentation allows plane and curved surfaces to be produced independent from each other, and increases the artistic (aesthetic) expressiveness of products.

Krauinsh, D.; Zhukova, N.; Volkova, M.; Kukhta, A.

2014-10-01

95

The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect

This article identifies and describes five alternative cooling technologies (magnetic, thermionic, thermoacoustic, thermoelectric, and thermotunnel) and qualitatively assesses the prospects of each technology relative to vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. Assessment of the alternatives was based on the theoretical maximum % of Carnot efficiency, the current state of development, the best % of Carnot efficiency currently achieved, developmental barriers, and the extent of development activity. The prospect for each alternative was assigned an overall qualitative rating based on the subjective, composite view of the five characteristics.

Brown, Daryl R.; Stout, Tyson E.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas

2012-12-01

96

Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment  

SciTech Connect

An important effort in the Satellite Power System (SPS) Comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. This report summarizes the ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies. The final set of central-station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open-cycle gas turbine with integral low-Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic-confinement fusion.

Samsa, M.E.

1980-04-01

97

Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

Samsa, M.

1980-01-01

98

The Aluminum Smelting Process and Innovative Alternative Technologies  

PubMed Central

Objective: The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. Methods: This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. Results: At present, there are two main technological challenges for the processto reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A future step may be carbon dioxide gas capture and sequestration related to the electric power generation from fossil sources. Conclusions: Workers' health and safety have now become an integrated part of the aluminum business. Work-related injuries and illnesses are preventable, and the ultimate goal to eliminate accidents with lost-time injuries may hopefully be approached in the future. PMID:24806723

Drabls, Per Arne

2014-01-01

99

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and out-gassing and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released pollutants from furnishings, building materials, and indoor combustion.

Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

1981-09-01

100

Demonstration of alternative traffic information collection and management technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the components associated with the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to support a traffic management center (TMC) such as remote control cameras, traffic speed detectors, and variable message signs, have been available for many years. Their deployment, however, has been expensive and applied primarily to freeways and interstates, and have been deployed principally in the major metropolitan areas in the US; not smaller cities. The Knoxville (Tennessee) Transportation Planning Organization is sponsoring a project that will test the integration of several technologies to estimate near-real time traffic information data and information that could eventually be used by travelers to make better and more informed decisions related to their travel needs. The uniqueness of this demonstration is that it will seek to predict traffic conditions based on cellular phone signals already being collected by cellular communications companies. Information about the average speed on various portions of local arterials and incident identification (incident location) will be collected and compared to similar data generated by "probe vehicles". Successful validation of the speed information generated from cell phone data will allow traffic data to be generated much more economically and utilize technologies that are minimally infrastructure invasive. Furthermore, when validated, traffic information could be provided to the traveling public allowing then to make better decisions about trips. More efficient trip planning and execution can reduce congestion and associated vehicle emissions. This paper will discuss the technologies, the demonstration project, the project details, and future directions.

Knee, Helmut E.; Smith, Cy; Black, George; Petrolino, Joe

2004-03-01

101

Innovation and alternative technologies for the paper industry  

SciTech Connect

The North American pulp and paper industry is the continent`s largest discharger of organochlorine pollutants into water. Organochlorines produced by the pulp and paper industry have been linked to adverse effects on aquatic environments and wildlife downstream from pulp mills. The North American response to organochlorine pollution has focused on a reduction in chlorine input to the mill - through the use of chlorine dioxide - coupled with a reliance on primary and secondary effluent treatment to reduce concentrations of organochlorine pollutants. Pulp and paper products produced by this process are called elemental chlorine-free or ECF. European technical response to organochlorine pollution has been to convert bleaching chemicals to non-chlorinated alternatives, primarily oxygen-based. Pulp and paper products produced by this process are called totally chlorine-free or TCF. This paper examines the environmental and economic ramifications resulting from each of these decisions.

Floegel, M. [Chlorine Campaign, Greenpeace, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

102

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

1980-01-01

103

Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

1979-01-01

104

Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and

J. E. Brockmann; C. L. J. Adkins; F. Gelbard

1991-01-01

105

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

1980-01-01

106

Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

Sanford, C.W.

1992-12-01

107

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 5: Cogeneration systems results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of various advanced energy conversion systems is examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. The methodology and results of matching the cogeneration energy conversion systems to approximately 50 industrial processes are described. Results include fuel energy saved, levelized annual energy cost saved, return on investment, and operational factors relative to the noncogeneration base cases.

Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

108

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

1980-01-01

109

A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

1990-01-01

110

A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

1990-01-01

111

Providing Assistive Technology and Alternate Media in Community Colleges: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

While required by federal and state law, full access at the community college level for students with assistive technology\\u000a (AT) and alternate media needs presents multiple challenges. Programs must be carefully planned to not only instruct students\\u000a in assistive technologies which will enable them to access instructional materials, but entire campuses and college systems\\u000a must work as cohesive units in

Calais Roussel

2002-01-01

112

Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies  

SciTech Connect

The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

Not Available

1980-08-01

113

Data for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

/ 34 #12;Drinking water for Boriwali or for that matter, a savings and micro-lending analysisData for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas GISE Lab, CSE IIT Agriculture/Livelihoods ­post-harvest, foods Water sector ­drinking water, policy. Environmental planning

Sohoni, Milind

114

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities  

E-print Network

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

115

Improving the Design of Augmentative and Alternative Technologies for Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

If children with significant communication disabilities are to attain the power of language, literacy, and communication early in their development, they must have access to appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. AAC technologies for young children should (a) be highly appealing, capturing, and sustaining of their interest; (b) be seamlessly integrated into all aspects of daily living; (c) provide

Janice C. Light; Kathryn D. R. Drager

2002-01-01

116

Viable but Not Cultivable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-studied, long-term survival mechanism employed by Gram-positive bacteria is formation of endospores. For Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria, the assumption has been that a survival state does not exist. However, a dormancy state has been described for Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria and designated as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) strategy of nonspore-forming cells. A variety of environmental\\u000a factors are involved in induction of the

Rita R. Colwell

117

Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are

Oliver, M.

2011-01-01

118

Universal design and assistive technology in communication and information technologies: alternatives or complements?  

PubMed

Universal design and assistive technology present advantages and disadvantages in accommodating the needs of people with disabilities. The best solution may be a combination of the two, using universal design wherever possible and commercially practical and using assistive technologies wherever it is necessary or provides sufficient additional advantage to the user. Three approaches are discussed for the individual who is unable to interact with their world: change the individual, provide them with tools they can use, or change the environment. Examples of each are illustrated using personal workstations and shared, public, and encountered systems. The final decision may rest on commercial practicality, and several new technologies are explored. Ultimately, we need to continue to move forward both on the universal design and the assistive technology fronts if we are to address the needs of people with disabilities and those who are aging. PMID:10181148

Vanderheiden, G C

1998-01-01

119

An assessment of technology alternatives for telecommunications and information management for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President Bush set forth ambitious goals for expanding human presence in the solar system. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) addresses these goals beginning with Space Station Freedom, followed by a permanent return to the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars. A well designed, adaptive Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) infrastructure is vital to the success of these missions. Utilizing initial projections of user requirements, a team under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Operations developed overall architectures and point designs to implement the TNIM functions for the Lunar and Mars mission scenarios. Based on these designs, an assessment of technology alternatives for the telecommunications and information management functions was performed. This technology assessment identifies technology developments necessary to meet the telecommunications and information management system requirements for SEI. Technology requirements, technology needs and alternatives, the present level of technology readiness in each area, and a schedule for development are presented.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.

1991-01-01

120

Regional on-road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies.  

PubMed

This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or compression engines, hybrids, fuel cell, and electric. Road link-based emission models are developed using modal fuel use and emission rates applied to facility- and speed-specific driving cycles. For an urban case study, passenger cars were found to be the largest sources of HC, CO, and CO(2) emissions, whereas trucks contributed the largest share of NO(x) emissions. When alternative fuel and propulsion technologies were introduced in the fleet at a modest market penetration level of 27%, their emission reductions were found to be 3-14%. Emissions for all pollutants generally decreased with an increase in the market share of alternative vehicle technologies. Turnover of the light duty fleet to newer Tier 2 vehicles reduced emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) substantially. However, modest improvements in fuel economy may be offset by VMT growth and reductions in overall average speed. PMID:19924983

Frey, H Christopher; Zhai, Haibo; Rouphail, Nagui M

2009-11-01

121

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16

122

Are offshore power plants realistic. [Alternative to nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore fossil-fueled electric power plants offer a positive alternative to nuclear proliferation, a viable technology for providing electricity to coastal cities. Such plants combine new technology from the offshore oil industry with efficient power generation techniques, are cheaper than nuclear plants, and could burn coal or solid waste or a mixture of both. Offshore power plants could utilize ocean water

Adler

1976-01-01

123

The Health Effects of Cultured Milk Products with Viable and Nonviable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In food regulations, the viability of bacteria is emphasised in food standards and regulations for yoghurt and fermented milks. Non-viable cultured milks have longer shelf-life and easier storage which favour the technology, but it has been claimed that only dairy products with viable microorganisms have beneficial health effects. In the case of lactose tolerance by lactase-deficient subjects, viable and non-viable

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo J. Salminen

1998-01-01

124

[Viable non-culturable bacteria].  

PubMed

Viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) are defined as live bacteria, but which do not either grow or divide. Such bacteria cannot be cultivated on conventional media (they do not form colonies on solid media, they do not change broth appearance), but their existence can be proved using other methods. The switch to the VBNC stage has been described and documented for several bacterial species: Vibrio spp. (cholerae, vulnificus and other species), Escherichia coli (including EHEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolytica, Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Providencia spp., Morganella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterococcus spp. The capacity of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to enter the VBNC stage started to concern microbiologists in the field of food industry (food and water safety) and pharmaceutical industry. Many studies have shown that processes meant to achieve bactericidal effects can favour bacterial switch to VBNC. Viable but non-culturable stage is reversible. Concerns are due to the capacity of VBNC, especially of potentially pathogen cells, to switch to the infectious stage once in the host organism. PMID:21038700

N??cu?iu, Alexandra-Maria

2010-01-01

125

Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-09-01

126

Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production  

SciTech Connect

The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process has been developed combining initial dry milling of corn with subsequent solvent extraction of protein and conversion of starch to syrup. Based on laboratory studies of the alternative process, the water removal load is less than half of that for wet milling and a full scale plant using the alternative technology should require 30% less energy than a corresponding wet milling facility. Further developmental work is in progress on a pilot plant scale to allow process optimization and to afford more accurate evaluations of the energy requirements of the proposed process.

Russell, M.H.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-01-01

127

Peracetic acid as an alternative disinfection technology for wet weather flows.  

PubMed

Rain-induced wet weather flows (WWFs) consist of combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, and stormwater, all of which introduce pathogens to surface waters when discharged. When people come into contact with the contaminated surface water, these pathogens can be transmitted resulting in severe health problems. As such, WWFs should be disinfected. Traditional disinfection technologies are typically cost-prohibitive, can yield toxic byproducts, and space for facilities is often limited, if available. More cost-effective alternative technologies, requiring less space and producing less harmful byproducts are currently being explored. Peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated as one such alternative and this research has confirmed the feasibility and applicability of using PAA as a disinfectant for WWFs. Peracetic acid doses ranging from 5 mg/L to 15 mg/L over contact times of 2 to 10 minutes were shown to be effective and directly applicable to WWF disinfection. PMID:25306784

Coyle, Elizabeth E; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Brion, Gail M

2014-08-01

128

Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

Smith, R.T.

1981-05-01

129

Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration  

PubMed Central

A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 C, 121 C and 131 C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 C and 131 C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management. PMID:22690168

Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

2012-01-01

130

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application,

W. L. Foutz; J. E. Rogers; J. D. Mather

2008-01-01

131

Viable skin efficiently absorbs and metabolizes bisphenol A.  

PubMed

Skin contact has been hypothesized to contribute to human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). We examined the diffusion and metabolism of BPA using viable skin models: human skin explants and short-term cultures of pig ear skin, an alternative model for the study of the fate of xenobiotics following contact exposure. 14C-BPA [50-800 nmol] was applied on the surface of skin models. Radioactivity distribution was measured in all skin compartments and in the diffusion cells of static cells diffusion systems. BPA and metabolites were further quantified by radio-HPLC. BPA was efficiently absorbed in short-term cultures, with no major difference between the models used in the study [viable pig ear skin: 65%; viable human explants: 46%; non-viable (previously frozen) pig skin: 58%]. BPA was extensively metabolized in viable systems only. Major BPA metabolites produced by the skin were BPA mono-glucuronide and BPA mono-sulfate, accounting together for 73% and 27% of the dose, in pig and human, respectively. In conclusion, experiments with viable skin models unequivocally demonstrate that BPA is readily absorbed and metabolized by the skin. The trans-dermal route is expected to contribute substantially to BPA exposure in human, when direct contact with BPA (free monomer) occurs. PMID:21030062

Zalko, Daniel; Jacques, Carine; Duplan, Hlne; Bruel, Sandrine; Perdu, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

132

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn

1997-01-01

133

Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: CHP with steam turbine technology; gasification CHP using gas engine; bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, K?rlis

2013-12-01

134

ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

DADO MA

2008-07-31

135

The role of the Technology Application Center in the technology transfer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for and use of an active technology dissemination program by the Environmental Protection Agency is elaborated. The complexities associated with arriving at an acceptable solution to an environmental problem are addressed, and the mechanisms and associated products used by the technology transfer program to transfer the latest viable technological alternatives to the potential user are explained.

Shinnick, W. A.; Grogan, N. M.

1974-01-01

136

Genome engineering with TAL-effector nucleases and alternative modular nuclease technologies.  

PubMed

Over three years following the discovery of the TAL code, artificial TAL effector DNA binding domains have emerged as the premier platform for building site-specific DNA binding polypeptides for use in biological research. Here, we provide an overview of TAL effector and alternative modular DNA binding domain (mDBD) technologies, focusing on their use in established and emerging architectures for building site-specific endonucleases for genome engineering applications. We also discuss considerations for choosing TAL effector/mDBD or alternative nuclease technologies for genome engineering projects ranging from basic laboratory gene editing of cultured cell lines to therapeutics. Finally, we highlight how the rapid pace of development of mDBD-based, such as monomeric TALENs (I-TevI-TAL), and more recently RNA-guided nucleases (CRISPR-Cas9) has led to a transition in the field of genome engineering towards development of the next generation of technologies aimed at controlling events that occur after targeted DNA breaks are made. PMID:23888878

Scharenberg, Andrew M; Duchateau, Philippe; Smith, Julianne

2013-08-01

137

Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-07-01

138

Individual Characteristics and Stated Preferences for Alternative Energy Sources and Propulsion Technologies in Vehicles: A Discrete Choice Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric

Andreas Ziegler

2010-01-01

139

Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

1980-01-01

140

Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks  

SciTech Connect

A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-02-01

141

Economic feasibility study for new technological alternatives in wastewater treatment processes: a review.  

PubMed

The concept of sustainability involves the integration of economic, environmental, and social aspects and this also applies in the field of wastewater treatment. Economic feasibility studies are a key tool for selecting the most appropriate option from a set of technological proposals. Moreover, these studies are needed to assess the viability of transferring new technologies from pilot-scale to full-scale. In traditional economic feasibility studies, the benefits that have no market price, such as environmental benefits, are not considered and are therefore underestimated. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new methodology to assess the economic viability of wastewater treatment technologies that considers internal and external impacts. The estimation of the costs is based on the use of cost functions. To quantify the environmental benefits from wastewater treatment, the distance function methodology is proposed to estimate the shadow price of each pollutant removed in the wastewater treatment. The application of this methodological approach by decision makers enables the calculation of the true costs and benefits associated with each alternative technology. The proposed methodology is presented as a useful tool to support decision making. PMID:22339025

Molinos-Senante, Mara; Hernndez-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramn

2012-01-01

142

Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

2010-01-01

143

A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that

Jesse Stuart Hester

2009-01-01

144

High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

145

Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. PMID:22366515

Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

2012-01-01

146

An economically viable space power relay system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussedthose with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

1999-09-01

147

Probabilistic comparison of alternative characterization technologies at the Fernald Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The performance of four alternative characterization technologies proposed for use in characterization of surficial uranium contamination in soil at the Incinerator and Drum Baling Areas at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in southwestern Ohio has been evaluated using a probabilistic, risk-based decision-analysis methodology. The basis of comparison is to minimize a computed total cost for environmental cleanup. This total-cost-based approach provides a framework for evaluating the trade-offs among remedial investigation, the remedial design, and the risk of regulatory penalties. The approach explicitly recognizes the value of information provided by remedial investigation; additional measurements are only valuable to the extent that the information they provide reduces total cost.

Rautman, C.A.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.; Kaplan, P.G.

1993-12-31

148

Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

1980-01-01

149

Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Headquarters National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of the AP2 Office are to: (1) Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials (HazMats) or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. (2) A void duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate HazMats through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. This project will identify, evaluate and approve alternative surface preparation technologies for use at NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) installations. Materials and processes will be evaluated with the goal of selecting those processes that will improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated. This Joint Test Protocol (JTP) contains the critical requirements and tests necessary to qualify alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel Applications. These tests were derived from engineering, performance, and operational impact (supportability) requirements defined by a consensus of NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) participants. The Field Test Plan (FTP), entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, prepared by ITB, defines the field evaluation and testing requirements for validating alternative surface preparation/depainting technologies and supplements the JTP.

Lewis, Pattie

2005-01-01

150

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options  

SciTech Connect

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

Wang, M.Q.

1997-05-20

151

The Effect of Using Alternative Assessment Activities on Students' Success and Attitudes in Science and Technology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design with control group was used in this study, in which the impact of alternative assessment activities on students' academic achievement levels and attitudes were explored by employing these activities in the unit "Electricity in Our Lives" of the Science and Technology Course. The research was

Kirikkaya, Esma Bulus; Vurkaya, Gurbet

2011-01-01

152

Assistive technology as a predictor of general or alternate assessment among elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 specifically mandates that all students participate in the general assessment process or some form of alternate assessment as a measure of school accountability for student academic progress. Although levels of communication difficulties, intellectual impairment, and specific diagnoses such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are correlated with increased probability of participating in alternate assessment methods, very little empirical research has focused on identifying predictors for students' assessment modality. Archival data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS; 2005) were used to examine variables that predict whether elementary school students with ASD participated in the general or alternate assessment. Results indicated that receptive and expressive communication abilities appear to influence participation in the general vs. alternate assessment in tandem with access to assistive technology. Students with ASDs were approximately 2.71 times more likely to participate in the general assessment when they had access to assistive technology. Next, we performed a second, follow-up analysis for only ASD students with communication problems. The odds ratio value increased to 14.9 indicating that ASD students with communication problems that had access to assistive technology were almost 15 times more likely to participate in the general assessment than students with communication problems without access to assistive technology. PMID:25112052

Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Thompson, Samuel; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

2014-01-01

153

Modeling learning when alternative technologies are learning & resource constrained : cases In semiconductor & advanced automotive manufacturing  

E-print Network

When making technology choice decisions, firms must consider technology costs over time. In many industries, technology costs have been shown to decrease over time due to (a) improvements in production efficiency and the ...

Rand-Nash, Thomas

2012-01-01

154

Virtualness and Knowledge in Teams: Managing the Love Triangle in Organizations, Individuals, and Information Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology can facilitate the dissemination of knowledge across the organization even to the point of making virtual teams a viable alternative to face-to-face work. However, unless managed, the combination of information technology and virtual work may serve to change the distribution of different types of knowledge across individuals, teams, and the organization. Implications include the possibility that information technology

Terri L. Griffith; John E. Sawyer; Margaret A. Neale

2003-01-01

155

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

SciTech Connect

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a non-thermal process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the applicability of SET{sup TM} to currently problematic waste streams that have very limited treatment alternatives. In summary: SET{sup TM} operates as a non-thermal destruction process under low pressure. The process occurs in a closed system producing no hazardous off-gases and no regulated by-products such as dioxins or furans or their precursors. Advantages of SET{sup TM} include: - Organic contaminants are destroyed, not just removed, diluted or concentrated. - Operates as a closed system - produces no regulated secondary wastes. - Holds an EPA permit for PCB destruction. - Operates at ambient temperatures (70 deg. F). - Portable and sets up quickly in less than 4000 square feet of space. - Scalable to accommodate any size waste stream. - Requires minimal amounts of power, water and infrastructure. - Applicable to heterogeneous waste streams in all phases. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.9999% effective in destroying organic constituents of RCRA and TSCA waste, explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In November 2007, Commodore completed a treatability study on Pyranol to determine the effectiveness of SET{sup TM} treatment on oil containing 600,000 PPM PCBs. Laboratory results proved destruction of PCBs to less than 1 PPM at low temperatures and pressures. SET{sup TM} is a proven, safe and cost-effective alternative to incineration for some of the most difficult waste treatment problems that exist today. (authors)

Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

156

Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.  

PubMed

Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation. PMID:25209330

Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

2014-10-01

157

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-01-01

158

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-12-31

159

Isolation of viable human pancreatic islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a method for the isolation of viable pancreatic islets from the human pancreas. Isolated islets were obtained from human pancreata of cadavers, patients undergoing surgical operations, and fetuses, using a freehand microdissection procedure. Viability was assessed by light microscopy of sections stained with aldehyde fuchsin and by measuring the insulin output of islets in response to a

John Ferguson; Roger H. Allsopp; Ross M. R. Taylor; Ivan D. A. Johnston

1977-01-01

160

Inkjet printing of viable mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a commercial thermal printer to deposit Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and embryonic motoneuron cells into pre-defined patterns. These experiments were undertaken to verify the biocompatibility of thermal inkjet printing of mammalian cells and the ability to assemble them into viable constructs. Using a modified Hewlett Packard (HP) 550C computer

Tao Xu; Joyce Jin; Cassie Gregory; James J. Hickman; Thomas Boland

2005-01-01

161

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam April 21- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model

162

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam November the appli- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS WORKSHOP Organized by: the INNOVATIVE ENERGY and ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY WORKGROUP  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS WORKSHOP Organized by: the INNOVATIVE ENERGY and ENVIRONMENTAL, NJ 08505 8:30 ­ 9:00 am Registration and Coffee 9:00 ­ 9:10 am Welcome and Workshop Objectives - Dave: Opportunities for Alternative Transportation Fuels ­ Marybeth Brenner, Chief of Staff, NJ Board of Public

Garfunkel, Eric

164

Innovative and Alternative Technologies. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovative and alternative methods of wastewater treatment can improve the efficiency and lower the cost of waste treatment procedures. Described in this instructor's guide is a one-hour learning session for citizens interested in improving water quality planning and decision making. Among the topics covered are the need for alternative wastewater

Cole, Charles A.

165

Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

1993-06-01

166

Modeling and fabrication of micro 3K-2-type planetary gear reducer utilizing SU8 photoresist as alternative LIGA technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIGA type process, utilizing SU-8 photoresist as alternative LIGA technology, can fabricate high aspect ratio microstructures without employing synchrotron light and suitable X-ray mask. Based on LIGA type process in this paper, detailed investigations of the modeling and fabrication of micro 3K-2 type planetary gear reducer, such as the modeling and design of micro reducer, CAD of micro gear

Weiping Zhang; Wenyuan Chen; Di Chen; Xiaomei Chen; Xiaosheng Wu; Zhengfu Xu

2001-01-01

167

New Literacy Studies: An Alternative Frame for Preparing Teachers to Use Assistive Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as research continues to suggest the potential of assistive technology for improving student outcomes, it remains under-utilized in schools. Among numerous challenges to the effective utilization of assistive technology, research has suggested that educators are inadequately prepared to consider and implement the use of such technologies. In

Naraian, Srikala; Surabian, Mark

2014-01-01

168

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treatment processes and techniques under 35.917-1(d)(8); b. Increased grants for eligible...alternative processes and techniques under 35.915-1...toxic materials or increased environmental benefits...treatment processes and techniques are generally...

2010-07-01

169

A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs.

Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

1994-06-30

170

A System Analysis for Determining Alternative Technological Issues for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering methodology is provided, by which future technological ventures may be examined utilizing particular national, corporate, or individual value judgments. Three matrix analyses are presented. The first matrix is concerned with the effect of technology on population increase, war, poverty, health, resources, and prejudice. The second matrix explores an analytical technique for determining the relative importance of different areas of technology. The third matrix explores how an individual or corporate entity may determine how its capability may be used for future technological opportunities. No conclusions are presented since primary effort has been placed on the methodology of determining future technological issues.

Magistrale, V. J.; Small, J.

1967-01-01

171

Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

1981-04-01

172

Natural Transfer of Viable Microbes in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including:radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays; dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radiusdensity), combined with dose

Curt Mileikowsky; Francis A. Cucinotta; John W. Wilson; Brett Gladman; Gerda Horneck; Lennart Lindegren; Jay Melosh; Hans Rickman; Mauri Valtonen; J. Q. Zheng

2000-01-01

173

The transfer of viable microorganisms between planets.  

PubMed

There is increasing acceptance that catastrophic cosmic impacts have played an important role in shaping the history of terrestrial life. Large asteroid and cometary impacts are also capable of displacing substantial quantities of planetary surface material into space. The discovery of Martian rocks on Earth suggests that viable microorganisms within such ejecta could be exchanged between planets. If this conjecture is correct, it will have profound implications for the origin and evolution of life in the solar system. PMID:9243022

Davies, P C

1996-01-01

174

Alternatives to flat panel displays in vehicle turrets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space is a premium in vehicle turrets. Reducing the footprint of displays inside turrets frees up space for the warfighter. Traditional military ruggedized flat panel displays cannot reside flush with the curved turret wall and consumes more space than their advertized size. The lack of turret space also makes balancing human factors difficult. To better meet the Warfighter needs, alternatives and incremental upgrades to the flat panel displays in turrets were compiled. Each alternative technology was assessed against the constraints of a turret. Benefits, issues, and predictions to implementation are summarized. Viable alternatives are being developed into suitable options.

Nicholson, Gail

2011-06-01

175

Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies

Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

2009-01-01

176

Addressing Vocational Training and Retraining through Educational Technology: Policy Alternatives. Information Series No. 276.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the potential application of educational technology to vocational training and retraining. Its purpose is to assist program planners in the U.S. Department of Education to make more informed decisions concerning the federal role in the use of educational technology. Five questions are addressed. General findings include the

Herschbach, Dennis R.

177

Technology-based Learning: Using Water Studies as the Basis for an Alternative Teaching Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Technology-Based Learning in School Science (tBLISS) project which investigates the feasibility of technology-based science curriculum implementation and examines the science process skills of students. Water is the major theme of the curriculum. (YDS)

Colley, Kabba E.

2001-01-01

178

Vision, Action and the Future Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

, Appropriate Technology, Policy and Governance Sectors-the knowledge base Water, Soil and Agriculture, Energy machines and implements energy and drudgery saving devices KVIC nodal center herbal oils extraction process. W. Date-Appropriate Technology, Rural systems U. N.Gaitonde-Mechanical Engineering, Energy

Sohoni, Milind

179

Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the

2004-01-01

180

Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety

Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

2009-01-01

181

Gaseous-fueled vehicles - an alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels - liquefied or compressed natural gas, propane, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, and electricity - has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and

J. K. Lyons; G. A. McCoy

1993-01-01

182

Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process

M. H. Russell; G. T. Tsao

1981-01-01

183

Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

1978-01-01

184

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

none,

1992-10-01

185

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX CONTROL: ALTERNATE FUELS AND FLUIDIZED-BED COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effect of alternate fuels and fluidized coal combustion in controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The current trend in energy use in the U.S. is toward greater use of coal and coal derived fuels, and on ensuring that these fuels are produced an...

186

Outsourcing information technology  

SciTech Connect

Although it has become almost routine in most industries, outsourcing has only emerged as a hot topic in the utility industry over the past few years. Information technology (IT) is a prime candidate for outsourcing alternatives. And while not a panacea for all utilities, the trend to consider outsourcing one or more IT functions will become increasingly important as companies struggle to cope with deregulation and competitive pressures. This article describes how to determine if outsourcing is a viable alternative for a utility, and how to determine what is to be outsourced and how to manage the contract.

Gordon, K.A. (Planmetrics Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-01-15

187

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

2000-01-01

188

Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

Gejji, Raghvendra R.

1993-01-01

189

Alternative treaty monitoring approaches using ultra-low background measurement technology  

SciTech Connect

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty includes a network of stations and laboratories for collection and analysis of radioactive aerosols. Alternative approaches to IMS operations are considered as a method of enhancing treaty verification. Ultra-low background (ULB) detection promises the possibility of improvements to IMS minimum detectable activities (MDAs) well below the current approach, requiring MDAp30 mBq/m3 of air for 140Ba, or about 106 fissions per daily sample.

Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Fast, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Seifert, Allen

2009-05-01

190

Air quality and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario, Canada and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The life-cycle (LC) impacts of utilizing alternative fuels for transportation purposes is considered in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The vehicles considered are plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)

Ivan Kantor; Michael W. Fowler; Amirhossein Hajimiragha; Ali Elkamel

2010-01-01

191

Alternative strategies for implementing silicon-ribbon technology for photovoltaic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interactive computer models are being designed to support the development of technological and economic data required to define the potential of silicon sheet growth for large scale photovoltaic applications. Technology projection and sensitivity analysis suggest that single-ribbon growth systems offer the best potential for achieving low-cost silicon sheet material within the shortest period of time. Such systems must be highly reliable, be capable of near unattended growth, and feature automatic melt replenishment. Processing-technology improvement, such as the following, are the key elements for reducing the cost of silicon sheet material: (i) increasing ribbon width; (ii) speeding up the growth rate; and (iii) decreasing ribbon thickness. Such tasks should be pursued in that order to minimize sheet material cost. One interesting finding is that significant reductions in sheet material cost are achievable in the near future by increasing ribbon width to 5 cm.

Kran, A.

1976-01-01

192

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. III. Fossil energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews both innovative fossil energy sources (tar sands, oil shale, and unconventional natural gas), and more established technologies that are being considered as suppliers of gaseous and liquid fuels (that is, coal gasification and liquefaction). Potential health and safety issues related to the technologies are discussed, although the absence of commercial-scale facilities in the United States restricts the discussion to health effects information derived from related processes. The available epidemiological and carcinogenic studies give cause for concern. The study of the health and environmental impacts of the emerging fossil fuel technologies will be important for quantification of adverse effects and rectification of problems before commitment to large-scale commercialization occurs.

Walsh, P. J.; Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

1981-11-01

193

Power supply technology for electric guns  

SciTech Connect

Power supply technology for electric guns continues to mature at a rapid pace. Batteries, flywheels, capacitors, pulsed alternators, homopolar generators, inductors and high power switches are all viable components for electric gun systems. In this paper an assessment of the state-of-the-art technology for these components and potential for near-term and long-term growth is presented. Pulse power requirements for coilguns, electrothermal guns, and railguns are addressed, as well as energy storage techniques for multishot performance.

Gully, J.H. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Electromechanics)

1991-01-01

194

Hospital adoption of medical technology: an empirical test of alternative models.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study examines hospital motivations to acquire new medical technology, an issue of considerable policy relevance: in this case, whether, when, and why hospitals acquire a new capital-intensive medical technology, magnetic resonance imaging equipment (MRI). STUDY DESIGN. We review three common explanations for medical technology adoption: profit maximization, technological preeminence, and clinical excellence, and incorporate them into a composite model, controlling for regulatory differences, market structures, and organizational characteristics. All four models are then tested using Cox regressions. DATA SOURCES. The study is based on an initial sample of 637 hospitals in the continental United States that owned or leased an MRI unit as of 31 December 1988, plus nonadopters. Due to missing data the final sample consisted of 507 hospitals. The data, drawn from two telephone surveys, are supplemented by the AHA Survey, census data, and industry and academic sources. PRINCIPAL FINDING. Statistically, the three individual models account for roughly comparable amounts of variance in past adoption behavior. On the basis of explanatory power and parsimony, however, the technology model is "best." Although the composite model is statistically better than any of the individual models, it does not add much more explanatory power adjusting for the number of variables added. CONCLUSIONS. The composite model identified the importance a hospital attached to being a technological leader, its clinical requirements, and the change in revenues it associated with the adoption of MRI as the major determinants of adoption behavior. We conclude that a hospital's adoption behavior is strongly linked to its strategic orientation. PMID:7649751

Teplensky, J. D.; Pauly, M. V.; Kimberly, J. R.; Hillman, A. L.; Schwartz, J. S.

1995-01-01

195

Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1991-12-31

196

Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

197

Evaluation of noise control technology and alternative noise certification procedures for propeller-driven small airplanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report considers the effectiveness of current noise regulations in Appendix F of FAR Part 36, examines the potential effectiveness of future technology to achieve further noise reduction, and evaluates a number of new concepts for noise certification procedures for propeller-driven small aircraft. The latter were based, in part, on results of a flight test program carried out with Cessna

D. Brown; L. C. Sutherland

1982-01-01

198

Economic impact of the integration of alternative vehicle technologies into the New Zealand vehicle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-regional integrated energy systems model is developed to assess the economic impact of hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen internal combustion, and battery electric technologies on the economy of New Zealand. Base case results suggest that a hydrogen fuel dominant vehicle fleet offers economic savings over a conventional fleet but requires the largest sequestration capacity as 75% of hydrogen fuel production

Jonathan Leaver; Kenneth Gillingham

2010-01-01

199

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

1980-01-01

200

ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

201

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS OF CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT) SOILS AND DEBRIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted a research and regulatory development program for establishing the best demonstrated and available technology (DBAT) for RCRA and Superfund wastes in response to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazard...

202

Alternative Teaching Aids, or Why We Can Do Without the New Technology in Political Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies educators should refrain from using computer-assisted instruction as much as possible; instead, they should create a program that reveals the hard facts of a computerized society and its dangers to civil liberties and human dignity. Past examples of the standardizing effects of technology reach as far back as the printing press.

Langeveld, Willem

203

Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative  

E-print Network

within the Monod-type equation were determined by using the Newton-Raphson numerical method for non 8 4.1 Least-Squares Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2 Newton-Raphson to the Newton-Raphson Computer Program . . 13 #12;Microbial Fuel Cell technology Zielke v List of Figures 1

204

Technology Transfer and Innovation Initiatives in Strategic Management: Generating an Alternative Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper taps the strategic management discipline to inform our understanding of technology transfer and innovation (TTI) initiatives. With special focus on the UK Foresight programme it considers the impacts that the resource-based and core competence approaches to strategy can have on understanding the nature and effectiveness of TTI

Major, E.

2003-01-01

205

Environmental and safety aspects of alternative nuclear power technologies. Fusion power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of environmental and safety issues associated with advanced nuclear power technologies is being conducted by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs. Part of this effort has been devoted to a review of fusion power systems. In the past several years, progress in fusion power research and development has led to the production of conceptual power plant designs for

B. J. Mann

1976-01-01

206

The Story of Crownpoint Institute of Technology and Its Alternative Livestock Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To foster economic growth in the Navajo communities served by Crownpoint Institute of Technology, an initiative developed networks among educational, industrial, and nonprofit organizations. By promoting the sharing of knowledge between Navajo medicine men and veterinarians, Crownpoint has developed high quality training, employment, and small

VanAlstine, Matthew; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami; Sanchez, Timothy

2002-01-01

207

Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

1992-01-01

208

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

209

Building Low Carbon Cities: Framework to Design and Evaluate Alternative Technologies and Policies for Land Use Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annex I parties of the Kyoto Protocol are facing even greater pressures to fulfill their commitment for GHG reduction as they enter the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol 2008-2012. In Japanese context, one such challenge is to reduce CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors because CO2 emissions from the both sectors has increased by 12% and 20% respectively since 1990 while the industry has achieved 21% of CO2 emissions reduction. Land use planning, which, either directly or indirectly, controls appropriate uses for land within jurisdictions, might play very important roles to deal with CO2 reductions from the household and business sectors. In this research, aiming at effective reductions of air- conditioning energy consumption and resultant CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors, the framework to design and evaluate land use planning was developed. The design and evaluation processes embraced in this framework consist of GIS database, technology and policy inventory for planning, one- dimensional urban canopy model which evaluate urban climate at neighborhood level and air-conditioning load calculation procedure. The GIS database provides spatial information of target areas such as land use, building use and road networks, which, then, helps design alternative land use plans. The technology and policy inventory includes various planning options ranging from those for land over control to those for building energy control, which, combined with the GIS database, serves for planning process. The urban canopy model derives vertical profiles of local climate, such as temperature and humidity, using the information of land use, building height and so on, aided by the GIS database. Vertical profiles of the urban climate are then utilized to derive air-conditioning load and associated CO2 emissions for each building located in target areas. The framework developed was applied to the coastal district of Kawasaki, Japan, with an area of 40 square kilometers, for August 2006, to explore effective combinations of technologies and policies for land use planning. Six alternative land use policies were designed, including BaU in which current land use continues, and were, then, evaluated to seek more effective alternatives. Our findings suggested that about 541 MWh power and 204 tons of CO2 emission be saved at maximum by greening building sites, introducing water retentive pavement and installing energy-saving technologies for buildings in an appropriate manner.

Hashimoto, S.; Hamano, H.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.

2008-12-01

210

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Comparison and evaluation of results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CTAS compared and evaluated various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications. The principal aim of the study was to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development (R&D) funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for a wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment (ROI) as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler.

1984-01-01

211

Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

Batzias, Dimitris F.

2012-12-01

212

An analysis of alternative technologies for the removal of ethylene from the CELSS biomass production chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of technologies were analyzed for their potential to remove ethylene from the CELSS Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). During crop production (e.g., lettuce, wheat, soybean, potato) in the BPC ethylene can accumulate in the airspace and subsequently affect plant viability. The chief source of ethylene is the plants themselves which reside in plastic trays containing nutrient solution. The main sink for ethylene is chamber leakage. The removal technology can be employed when deleterious levels (e.g., 50 ppb for potato) of ethylene are exceeded in the BPC and perhaps to optimize the plant growth process once a better understanding is developed of the relationship between exogenous ethylene concentration and plant growth. The technologies examined were catalytic oxidation, molecular sieve, cryotrapping, permanganate absorption, and UV degradation. Upon analysis, permanganate was chosen as the most suitable method. Experimental data for ethylene removal by permanganate during potato production was analyzed in order to design a system for installation in the BPC air duct. In addition, an analysis of the impact on ethylene concentration in the BPC of integrating the Breadboard Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (BSAB) with the BPC was performed. The result indicates that this unit has no significant effect on the ethylene material balance as a source or sink.

Rakow, Allen L.

1995-01-01

213

Alternative polymer separation technology by centrifugal force in a melted state.  

PubMed

In order to upgrade polymer waste during recycling, separation should take place at high purity. The present research was aimed to develop a novel, alternative separation opportunity, where the polymer fractions were separated by centrifugal force in melted state. The efficiency of the constructed separation equipment was verified by two immiscible plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; low density polyethylene, LDPE), which have a high difference of density, and of which large quantities can also be found in the municipal solid waste. The results show that the developed equipment is suitable not only for separating dry blended mixtures of PET/LDPE into pure components again, but also for separating prefabricated polymer blends. By this process it becomes possible to recover pure polymer substances from multi-component products during the recycling process. The adequacy of results was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement as well as optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:24999097

Dobrovszky, Kroly; Ronkay, Ferenc

2014-11-01

214

Energy technology perspectives: conservation, carbon dioxide reduction and production from alternative sources  

SciTech Connect

The book contains 13 papers from the symposium on carbon dioxide reduction metallurgy 2009 and 14 papers from the symposium TMS 2009 annual and exhibition: Energy conservation in metals extraction and materials processing II. Papers include: Recent developments in carbon dioxide capture materials and process for energy industry; Reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in steel industry based on LCA methodology; Enhanced energy efficiency and emission reduction through oxy-fuel technology in the metals industry; Mechanism and application of catalytic combustion of pulverized coal; and Oxyfuel-energy efficient melting.

N. Neelameggham; R. Reddy; C. Belt; E. Vidal (eds.) [Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

215

Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils - Phase 2 Report: Screening of Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification (ISV) processes and their applicability to remediation of the Weldon Spring site based on existing information and previous PNL experience with similar wastes. Subsequent treatability tests and product analysis were conducted by PNL to further evaluate the JHCM and ISV processes. The treatability tests involved laboratory and bench-scale tests with actual raffinate sludge and uncontaminated soil from the Weldon Spring site. The vitrified product from the JHCM and ISV treatability tests was analyzed for a wide range of characteristics, including durability (leach resistance), strength, and toxicity. Both the process performance test and product quality were used to assess the two PNL vitrification technologies to determine their effectiveness, implementability, and cost. 11 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

Koegler, S.S.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Bates, S.O.

1989-11-01

216

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS) Volume 5: Analytical approach and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985 to 2000 time period are provided. Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasification systems.

1980-01-01

217

Climate and energy: a comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate were assessed. The energy technologies examined were coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focused on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emissions of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long-range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100-fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that primary particulate emissions from coal combustion constitute a small percentage of total atmospheric particulates; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO/sub 2/, which may, by about 2050, increase world temperature 2 to 3/sup 0/C, with pronounced effects on world climate; that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of an SPS may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences; and that much research in climatology is needed before potential effects can be quantitatively predicted with any confidence. Although climatic impact is an appropriate concern in formulating long-term energy policy, the level of uncertainty about it suggests that it is not currently useful as a decision criterion. 88 references.

Kellermeyer, D.A.

1980-01-01

218

Combining direct viable count (DVC) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to enumerate viable E. coli in rivers and wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a combination of the direct viable count procedure (DVC) and the FISH method was used to monitor by epifluorescence microscopy the abundance of viable E. coli in river water and wastewater samples. The DVC procedure consisted of exposing bacterial cells to a resuscitation medium containing antibiotics preventing cellular division and, thus, inducing an elongation of the viable

T. Garcia Armisen; P. Servais

219

The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The

Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

2008-01-01

220

Microfluidics in silicon/polymer technology as a cost-efficient alternative to silicon/glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate TMMF photopolymer as a cost-efficient alternative to glass for the leak-tight sealing of high-density silicon microchannels. TMMF enables low temperature sealing and access to structures underneath via lamination and standard UV-lithography instead of costly glass machining and anodic bonding. TMMF is highly transparent and has a low autofluorescence for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. As the photopolymer is too thin for implementing bulky world-to-chip interfaces, we propose adhesive bonding of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) modules. All materials were tested according ISO 10993-5 and showed no cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of L929 cells. To quantify the cost efficiency of the proposed techniques, we used an established silicon/Pyrex nanoliter dispenser as a reference and replaced structured Pyrex wafers by TMMF laminates and COC modules. Thus, consumable costs, manpower and machine time related to sealing of the microchannels and implementing the world-to-chip interface could be significantly reduced. Leak tightness was proved by applying a pressure of 0.2 MPa for 5 h without delamination or crosstalk between neighboring microchannels located only 100 m apart. In contrast to anodic bonding, the proposed techniques are tolerant to surface inhomogeneities. They enable manufacturing of silicon/polymer microfluidics at lower costs and without compromising the performance compared to corresponding silicon/glass devices.

Kalkandjiev, K.; Riegger, L.; Kosse, D.; Welsche, M.; Gutzweiler, L.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

2011-02-01

221

Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Preschool Children: Intervention goals and use of technology  

PubMed Central

This study sought to describe speech-language interventions for preschool-aged children who required AAC as provided by AAC experts and by general speech language pathologists who were not AAC experts. The study also examined the types of technology used in AAC intervention by AAC experts. A retrospective chart review was conducted in which clinic records of 38 preschool-aged children who received expert AAC services were examined. Results showed that interventions provided to the children by general speech language pathologists (who were not AAC experts) tended to be broader in scope, focusing on reducing underlying impairments. Interventions provided by AAC experts tended to focus on improving activities and participation and were oriented toward improving functional communication. The most commonly used AAC intervention tools by AAC experts were low tech and simple digitized devices. PMID:18645910

Hustad, Katherine C.; Keppner, Kirsten; Schanz, Amanda; Berg, Alycia

2008-01-01

222

The multicentre transcervical balloon tuboplasty study: conclusions and comparison to alternative technologies.  

PubMed

Transvaginal tubal catheterization procedures have been suggested as an alternative to microsurgery and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in the treatment of women with proximal tubal occlusion. A transcervical balloon tuboplasty (TBT) catheter was specifically developed and tested in a prospective multicentre trial. A total of 151 women with confirmed bilateral or unilateral tubal occlusion were studied. The primary study population included 106 women who, after exclusion of patients for protocol violations, represented those females who were treated for complete tubal occlusion with TBT. TBT is an ambulatory, minimally invasive catheter procedure, performed under paracervical block or mild sedation, which utilizes a co-axial balloon catheter under fluoroscopic guidance. Re-canalization, pregnancy and reocclusion rates following the procedure were documented. A total of 28 patients demonstrating uni- or bilateral tubal patency after either hysterosalpingography and/or selective salpingography represented the control population. TBT established tubal patency of at least one Fallopian tube in 95/106 patients (90%) and in 167/205 obstructed oviducts (82%). Clinical pregnancies occurred in 37/106 females (35%), with a life table adjusted rate of 37%. Patients without distal disease had significantly higher pregnancy rates than those with bipolar tubal disease (49% versus 12%, life table adjusted rate; P = 0.0002) but pregnancy rates were independent of underlying aetiology for tubal disease. Pregnancy rates in control patients who did not reach TBT because of tubal patency after hysterosalpingography and/or selective salpingography were significantly lower than in those successful treated with TBT (P = 0.027), and occurred only for four cycles after hysterosalpingography and with approximately a 1 year delay after selective salpingography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8408524

Gleicher, N; Confino, E; Corfman, R; Coulam, C; DeCherney, A; Haas, G; Katz, E; Robinson, E; Tur-Kaspa, I; Vermesh, M

1993-08-01

223

Modeling and fabrication of micro 3K-2-type planetary gear reducer utilizing SU-8 photoresist as alternative LIGA technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LIGA type process, utilizing SU-8 photoresist as alternative LIGA technology, can fabricate high aspect ratio microstructures without employing synchrotron light and suitable X-ray mask. Based on LIGA type process in this paper, detailed investigations of the modeling and fabrication of micro 3K-2 type planetary gear reducer, such as the modeling and design of micro reducer, CAD of micro gear mask, SU-8 UV photolithography, micro electroforming, micro molding, have been performed. And 400 um thickness sun gear, 400 um thickness planet gear, 200 um thickness fixed inner gear, and 200 um thickness rotary inner gear, whose teeth are 15,11,36,39 respectively, have been obtained. Utilizing these gears, the micro reducer whose modulus, outer diameter and velocity ratio are 0.03, 2mm, 44.2:1, has been assembled and applied in (phi) 2mm micro electro magnetic motor successfully.

Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Chen, Di; Chen, Xiaomei; Wu, Xiaosheng; Xu, Zhengfu

2001-10-01

224

Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.  

PubMed

Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good. PMID:18096578

Crigger, Nancy J

2008-01-01

225

The SOLAR Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

1984-01-01

226

Survival of pre-viable infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200499g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200499g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 19851988 versus 19951999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

2005-01-01

227

Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

1989-01-01

228

COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)  

SciTech Connect

COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

Not Available

1990-09-01

229

Alternative nuclear technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required

E. Schubert

1981-01-01

230

Water-use efficiency for alternative cooling technologies in arid climates Energy and Buildings, Volume 43, Issues 23, FebruaryMarch 2011, Pages 631-638  

E-print Network

Water-use efficiency for alternative cooling technologies in arid climates Energy and Buildings, Volume 43, Issues 2­3, February­March 2011, Pages 631-638 Theresa Pistochini, Mark Modera 1 Water-site water use and the impact of poor water quality on their performance. While compressor-based systems do

California at Davis, University of

231

'Emerging technologies for the changing global market' - Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

1993-01-01

232

Acoustophoretic Sorting of Viable Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Device  

PubMed Central

We report the first use of ultrasonic acoustophoresis for the label-free separation of viable and nonviable mammalian cells within a microfluidic device. Cells that have undergone apoptosis are physically smaller than viable cells, and our device exploits this fact to achieve efficient sorting based on the strong size dependence of acoustic radiation forces within a microchannel. As a model, we have selectively enriched viable MCF-7 breast tumor cells from heterogeneous mixtures of viable and nonviable cells. We found that this mode of separation is gentle and enables efficient, label-free isolation of viable cells from mixed samples containing 106 cells/mL at flow rates of up to 12 mL/h. We have extensively characterized the device, and we report the effects of piezoelectric voltage and sample flow rate on device performance and describe how these parameters can be tuned to optimize recovery, purity, or throughput. PMID:23157478

Yang, Allen H. J.; Soh, H. Tom

2013-01-01

233

Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

Ringeisen, Bradley

2001-03-01

234

Rapid Method for Enumeration of Viable Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp. in Water  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific method has been developed to enumerate viable L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water by epifluorescence microscopy in a short period of time (a few hours). This method allows the quantification of L. pneumophila or other Legionella spp. as well as the discrimination between viable and nonviable Legionella. It simultaneously combines the specific detection of Legionella cells using antibodies and a bacterial viability marker (ChemChrome V6), the enumeration being achieved by epifluorescence microscopy. The performance of this immunological double-staining (IDS) method was investigated in 38 natural filterable water samples from different aquatic sources, and the viable Legionella counts were compared with those obtained by the standard culture method. The recovery rate of the IDS method is similar to, or higher than, that of the conventional culture method. Under our experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the IDS method was <176 Legionella cells per liter. The examination of several samples in duplicates for the presence of L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. indicated that the IDS method exhibits an excellent intralaboratory reproducibility, better than that of the standard culture method. This immunological approach allows rapid measurements in emergency situations, such as monitoring the efficacy of disinfection shock treatments. Although its field of application is as yet limited to filterable waters, the double-staining method may be an interesting alternative (not equivalent) to the conventional standard culture methods for enumerating viable Legionella when rapid detection is required. PMID:16000824

Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Simonart, Tristan; Parent, Virginie; Marchand, Gregory; Dobbelaere, Marie; Pierlot, Eric; Pierzo, Veronique; Menard-Szczebara, Florence; Gaudard-Ferveur, Elisabeth; Delabre, Karine; Delattre, Jean Marie

2005-01-01

235

Emerging technologies for the changing global market  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi-quantative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

1993-01-01

236

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide.  

PubMed

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live/dead cells. In non-viable cells EMA intercalates into the DNA which prevents amplification by PCR. We adapted and evaluated the EMA technique for soil, elemental sulfur and river biofilm samples. Quantitative PCR determined that EMA suppressed 99.99% of E. coli LKI gfp+ signal in non-viable cultures and 100.00% when the cultures were added to soil samples. The same technique was also successful at suppressing DNA amplification from spiked non-viable cells in elemental sulfur samples by 100.00%, but not in three Saskatchewan River biofilms. In sub Antarctic soil, EMA-Q-PCR was used to detect the prevalence of a functional gene, amoA, and this was closely correlated to nitrification activity measurements. The ability of EMA to differentiate between viable and non-viable populations in soil was confirmed by the similarity of the 16S rRNA denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis DNA fingerprint of EMA treated soil and the 16S rRNA cDNA fingerprint of non-EMA treated soil. The EMA technique effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable spiked controls, closely mirrored activity assays and yielded community composition profiles similar to rRNA techniques. The use of EMA in soil effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable organism DNA, however it was not effective in biofilm samples and EMA partially inhibited amplification of viable organism DNA in elemental sulfur samples. PMID:17963903

Pisz, Jola M; Lawrence, John R; Schafer, Alexis N; Siciliano, Steven D

2007-12-01

237

Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multiparametric flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor, as fragile dinoflagellates, such as Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae), survived electronic cell sorting to yield viable cells. The rate of successful isolation of large-scale (> 4 litres) cultures was higher for manual picking than for electronic cell sorting (2% vs 0.5%, respectively). However, manual picking of cells is more labor intensive and time consuming. Most manually isolated cells required repicking, as the cultures were determined not to be unialgal after a single round of isolation; whereas, no cultures obtained in this study from electronic single-cell sorting required resorting. A broad flow cytometric gating logic was employed to enhance species diversity. The percentages of unique genotypes produced by manual picking or electronic cell sorting were similar (57% vs 54%, respectively), and each approach produced a variety of dinoflagellate or raphidophyte genera. Alternatively, a highly restrictive gating logic was successfully used to target K. brevis from a natural bloom sample. Direct electronic single-cell sorting was more successful than utilizing a pre-enrichment sort followed by electronic single-cell sorting. The appropriate recovery medium may enhance the rate of successful isolations. Seventy percent of isolated cells were recovered in a new medium (RE) reported here, which was optimized for axenic dinoflagellate cultures. The greatest limiting factor to the throughput of electronic cell sorting is the need for manual postsort culture maintenance and assessment of the large number of isolated cells. However, when combined with newly developed automated methods for growth screening, electronic single-cell sorting has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new algal strains. PMID:20305733

Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Winshell, Jamie; Guerrero, Maria A.; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W.; Eaton, Richard W.; Brand, Larry; Rein, Kathleen S.

2009-01-01

238

Black Holes or Frozen Stars? A Viable Theory of Gravity without Black Holes  

E-print Network

Do observations of black hole candidates rule out alternative theories of gravity without horizon formation? This depends on the existence, viability and reasonableness of alternative theories of gravity without black holes. Here a theory of gravity without black hole horizon formation is presented. The gravitational collapse stops shortly before horizon formation and leaves a stable frozen star. In the limit $\\Xi, \\Upsilon\\to 0$ the Einstein equations of GR are recovered, and the frozen stars become observationally indistinguishable from GR black holes. The theory therefore provides a counterexample to recent claims that observational evidence from black hole candidates "all but requires the existence of a horizon". The theory presented here shares its equations with RTG. Nonetheless, as is shown, there remain important conceptual and physical differences. In particular, some serious problems of RTG are not present in the theory proposed here. So it can be argued that the theory is a physically viable and conceptually sound alternative to GR.

I. Schmelzer

2010-03-07

239

Evaluation of alternatives for best available technology treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated solutions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Decontamination Facility generators aqueous solutions that originate in drum washing, machine parts and equipment cleaning, and other decontamination processes. In general, the waste contains uranyl, fluoride, carbonate, and nitrate ions, in addition to soaps, detergents, secondary contaminants, and particulate matter. The main contaminants are fluoride, technetium, uranium, and other heavy metals. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, the releases of radioactive materials must be as low as reasonably achievable and be below the derived concentration guide limits. To comply with the DOE order, an action plan was formulated. The action plan included a literature search to support best available technology evaluation of treatment alternatives, a quality assurance/quality control plan, suggestion of alternative treatment options, bench-scale test studies of the proposed treatment alternatives, and establishment of the final recommendation. Five major technologies were considered: precipitation/coprecipitation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, supported liquid membranes, and ion exchange. Biosorption was also briefly considered. Based on C-400's requirements and facilities, the precipitation/coprecipitation process appears to be the best suited for use at the plant. Four different treatment options using the precipitation/coprecipitation technology were proposed. Bench-scale studies of all four options were suggested. Options 1 and 2 represent a combination of lime-softening and iron coprecipitation. Laboratory test evaluations were initiated and the results involving Options 1 and 2 reported here. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Del Cul, G.D.

1991-02-01

240

November 2008 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

? In this paper we will discuss a range of alternative primary energy sources and alternative energy carriersNovember 2008 Alternative Energy Technologies for BC R.L. Evans CleaN eNergy researCh CeNtre, UNiversity of british ColUmbia PaCifiC iNstitUte for Climate solUtioNs AlternAtive energy #12;Pacific

Pedersen, Tom

241

Technology disrupted  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, the author presented a report on power generation technologies which in summary said 'no technology available today has the potential of becoming transformational or disruptive in the next five to ten years'. In 2006 the company completed another strategic view research report covering the electric power, oil, gas and unconventional energy industries and manufacturing industry. This article summarises the strategic view findings and then revisits some of the scenarios presented in 2003. The cost per megawatt-hour of the alternatives is given for plants ordered in 2005 and then in 2025. The issue of greenhouse gas regulation is dealt with through carbon sequestration and carbon allowances or an equivalent carbon tax. Results reveal substantial variability through nuclear power, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass remain competitive through every scenario. Greenhouse gas scenario analysis shows coal still be viable, albeit less competitive against nuclear and renewable technologies. A carbon tax or allowance at $24 per metric ton has the same effect on IGCC cost as a sequestration mandate. However, the latter would hurt gas plants much more than a tax or allowance. Sequestering CO{sub 2} from a gas plant is almost as costly per megawatt-hour as for coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Papatheodorou, Y. [CH2M Hill (United States)

2007-02-15

242

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

243

Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

NONE

1995-06-01

244

Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.  

PubMed

In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

2014-10-01

245

Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

2000-01-01

246

Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

1985-01-01

247

Integrating Alternative Assessment in a Project-Based Learning Course for Pre-Service Science and Technology Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with a required methods course, based on the national curriculum of science and technology for junior high schools. The course participants are pre-service teachers who study towards a B.Sc. degree in education in science and technology parallel to their studies in one of the faculties of sciences or engineering. Working in small

Frank, Moti; Barzilai, Abigail

2004-01-01

248

"Happy and Excited": Perceptions of Using Digital Technology and Social Media by Young People Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people are using digital technology and online social media within their everyday lives to enrich their social relationships. The UK government believes that using digital technology can improve social inclusion. One well-recognized outcome measure for establishing social inclusion is to examine opportunities for self-determination.

Hynan, Amanda; Murray, Janice; Goldbart, Juliet

2014-01-01

249

The effect of alternative approaches to design instruction (structural or functional) on students mental models of technological design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to examine the relationship between alternative approaches towards problem solving\\/design teaching (structural or functional), students' mental modeling of the design process, and the quality of their solutions to design tasks. The structural approach emphasizes the need for an ordered and systematic learning of the design process stages, while the functional approach emphasizes the teaching and study of

David Mioduser; Osnat Dagan

2007-01-01

250

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Cost Share: Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program.  

E-print Network

PON08010 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Cost Share: Alternative is working on a joint proposal for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds with other agencies as the total amount awarded does not exceed the funding allocation for #12;PON08010 American Recovery

251

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01

252

Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide, Matt University of Delaware Energy Institute #12;Efficiency drives reduced $/W.... http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/! Shockley-Queisser Limit! *adopted from http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/MSD-full-spectrum-solar

Firestone, Jeremy

253

Descriptions -a viable choice for video game authors Neesha Desai  

E-print Network

Descriptions - a viable choice for video game authors Neesha Desai Department of Computing Science dszafron@ualberta.ca ABSTRACT Modern video game development activities have become as specialized as movie, scripting the video game content usually requires a high level of programming knowledge. Some scripting

Szafron, Duane

254

Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed  

E-print Network

RECYLING ABSTRACT Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed flexographic pigments from the deink- ing water loop. This work examines the effects of surface-active materials an ultrafiltration efficiency. A logarith- mic relationship between permeate flax and pigment

Abubakr, Said

255

Economic and technological advantages of using high speed sintering as a rapid manufacturing alternative in footwear applications  

E-print Network

Rapid manufacturing is a family of technologies that employ additive layer deposition techniques to construct parts from computer based design models.[2] These parts can then be used as prototypes or finished goods. One ...

Vasquez, Mike (George Mike)

2009-01-01

256

Giant cervical lipoma excision under cervical epidural anesthesia: A viable alternative to general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

The technique of Cervical Epidural Anesthesia (CEA) was first described by Dogliotti in 1933 for upper thoracic procedures. Administration of local anesthetic into cervical epidural space results in anesthesia of the neck, upper extremity, and upper thoracic region. CEA provides high-quality analgesia and anesthesia of above dermatomes and, at the same time, it has favorable effect on hemodynamic variable by blocking sympathetic innervation of the heart. CEA is not practiced routinely because of its potential complications. We selected this technique of CEA for excision of giant cervical lipoma on the back of the neck in an adult patient, as the patient was unwilling for general anesthesia. CEA was induced with 10 ml of 1% lignocaine-adrenaline mixture administered into C7-T1 space through 18G Tuohy needle. Our patient maintained vital parameters throught the procedure. The added advantage of epidural anesthesia was that the patient was awake and comfortable throughout the procedure.

Singh, Ram Pal; Shukla, Aparna; Verma, Satyajeet

2011-01-01

257

Is repositioning of drugs a viable alternative in the treatment of tuberculosis?  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem because of the scarcity of new antibiotics effective against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistance is particularly worrying in tuberculosis (TB), since the causative bacteria have become resistant to almost all available first- and second-line drugs and resistance is a threat to achieving control of the disease. Development of new drugs is a lengthy and costly endeavour. This is a particular problem for antibiotics, usage of which is likely to be of limited duration, and is even more true of antibiotics whose use is restricted to the treatment of a disease, such as TB, that is considered to be 'poverty related', and for which the return on the investment is seen as non-attractive. In spite of this, there is an emerging pipeline of new drugs under development that hopefully will bring new anti-TB drugs to the market in the near future. The strategy of drug repurposing, finding new uses for existing approved medicines, has seen unexpected success in other medical areas. More than one blockbuster drug has originated from this strategy. And in the field of TB, there have been several examples in recent years of this approach leading to the use of drugs for which there is undeniable evidence of efficacy in the treatment of the disease, the best example being the fluoroquinolones, which were not developed originally to treat TB. This article reviews some examples of repurposing of drugs in the treatment of TB, newer candidates for repurposing for which there is already preliminary evidence of activity and possible new options that merit further investigation. PMID:23075693

Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi

2013-02-01

258

Distance Learning as a Viable Staff Development Alternative for Behavioral Healthcare Direct Support Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quasi-experiment utilized three groups of direct service staff to explore the effectiveness of three methods of training and an optional survey was offered after the study. The researcher used a counterbalance design. Three courses developed by an independent distance learning company were utilized to provide the learning experience. Each

Gill, James G., Jr.

2011-01-01

259

Is there a viable alternative to name-based HIV reporting?  

PubMed

The National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA) and the American Civil Liberties Union issued separate statements opposing the use of individuals' names in HIV case surveillance and favoring the establishment of unique alpha-numeric identifiers. The latter system would enable policy makers to obtain necessary epidemiological data without jeopardizing the confidentiality and anonymity of HIV patients. Unique identifiers are already in use in the United Kingdom, France, and Australia. Maryland and Texas are testing the unique identifiers system to track HIV cases. Maryland officials report success while Texas officials are considering changing systems. Both Texas and Maryland use a 12-digit number consisting of the last four digits of the person's Social Security number, the numerical date of birth, and one-digit for the person' gender and race or ethnicity. There has been some difficulty in obtaining patient's Social Security numbers. If additional elements of the identifier are missing it becomes difficult and labor intensive to track patients. PMID:11364777

1997-10-31

260

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: A viable alternative to amputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). Methods: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major

Russell H. Samson; D. P. Showalter; J. P. Yunis

1999-01-01

261

Abstract--Nanobundle network transistors (NBTs) have emerged as a viable, higher performance alternative to poly-  

E-print Network

many recent reports of NBT whose channel material is composed of nanobundles of single wall carbon: (a) A schematic of NBT. (b) A nano-stick between the S/D electrodes making an angle with the channel) in the strong tube-tube coupling limit is compared with experimental resultsP 6 P. The number after each curve

Alam, Muhammad A.

262

Magnetostrictive Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

263

Light-induced immobilisation of biomolecules as an attractive alternative to microdroplet dispensing-based arraying technologies.  

PubMed

The present work shows how UV 'light-induced molecular immobilisation' (LIMI) of biomolecules onto thiol reactive surfaces can be used to make biosensors, without the need for traditional microdispensing technologies. Using 'LIMI,' arrays of biomolecules can be created with a high degree of reproducibility. This technology can be used to circumvent the need for often expensive nano/microdispensing technologies. The ultimate size of the immobilised spots is defined by the focal area of the UV beam, which for a diffraction-limited beam can be less than 1 microm in diameter. LIMI has the added benefit that the immobilised molecules will be spatially oriented and covalently bound to the surface. The activity of the sensor molecules is retained. Antibody sensor arrays made using LIMI demonstrated successful antigen binding. In addition, the pattern of immobilised molecules on the surface is not restricted to conventional array formats. The ultimate consequence of the LIMI is that it is possible to write complex protein patterns using bitmaps at high resolution onto substrates. Thus, LIMI of biomolecules provides a new technological platform for biomolecular immobilisation and the potential for replacing present microdispensing arraying technologies. PMID:17907272

Duroux, Meg; Skovsen, Esben; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Duroux, Laurent; Gurevich, Leonid; Petersen, Steffen B

2007-10-01

264

Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

Callison, Daniel

2002-01-01

265

An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

1989-12-01

266

The Role of Technology and Computer-Based Instruction in a Disadvantaged Alternative School's Culture of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New approaches to instruction are increasingly being advocated to meet the needs of diverse learners. Educational researchers have identified the further development and application of computer-based instruction technologies for managing differentiated learning for all students as essential for shifting to a learner-centered paradigm of

Watson, Sunnie Lee; Watson, William R.

2011-01-01

267

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS (SUMMARY OF PHASE I AND PHASE II)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted in two phases. n the first phase, a synthetic soil matrix was prepared as a theoretical composite of Superfund soils nationwide. n the second phase, soils from actual Superfund sites were treated. hree treatment technologies were evaluated in both phases:...

268

Alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

269

KNUDSEN CELL REACTOR FOR CATALYST RESEARCH RELATED TO HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrogen has been identified as a viable sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Hydrogen as an energy source is ecologically feasible, socially desirable, and with continued research and development promises to become economically viable. The faculty advisors listed...

270

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H.; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.

2011-01-01

271

Expansion of an Alternative School Typology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alternative education program remains a viable response for engaging students who would otherwise be dropouts. Raywid (1994) synthesized and advanced an alternative school typology describing organizational characteristics with related effectiveness that appeared useful for considering and improving program practices. A Unique opportunity

Henrich, Randy S.

2005-01-01

272

A new viable region of the inert doublet model  

SciTech Connect

The inert doublet model, a minimal extension of the Standard Model by a second Higgs doublet, is one of the simplest and most attractive scenarios that can explain the dark matter. In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of a new viable region of the inert doublet model featuring dark matter masses between M{sub W} and about 160 GeV. Along this previously overlooked region of the parameter space, the correct relic density is obtained thanks to cancellations between different diagrams contributing to dark matter annihilation into gauge bosons (W{sup +}W{sup ?} and Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}). First, we explain how these cancellations come about and show several examples illustrating the effect of the parameters of the model on the cancellations themselves and on the predicted relic density. Then, we perform a full scan of the new viable region and analyze it in detail by projecting it onto several two-dimensional planes. Finally, the prospects for the direct and the indirect detection of inert Higgs dark matter within this new viable region are studied. We find that present direct detection bounds already rule out a fraction of the new parameter space and that future direct detection experiments, such as Xenon100, will easily probe the remaining part in its entirety.

Honorez, Laura Lopez [Service de Physique Thorique, Universit Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Yaguna, Carlos E., E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uam.es, E-mail: llopezho@ulb.ac.be [Departamento de Fsica Terica C-XI and Instituto de Fsica Terica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2011-01-01

273

Formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4C or -20C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

274

Formation and Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella typhi  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4C or ?20C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at ?20C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

275

UPDATE/ADDITIONS TO CURRENT OUST PUBLICATION: "HOW TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES: A GUIDE FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN REVIEWERS"  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance manual is comprised of several chapters, each of which describes in detail alternative cleanup technologies for underground storage tank sites. Each chapter provides diagrams and tables to aide in determining whether a particular technology may be applicable for cl...

276

Molecular approaches to the investigation of viable dinoflagellate cysts in natural sediments from estuarine environments.  

PubMed

Molecular methods offer an efficient alternative to microscopic identification of dinoflagellate cysts in natural sediments. Unfortunately, amplification of DNA also detects the presence of dead cells and is not a reliable indication of cyst viability. Because mRNA transcripts are more labile than DNA, the presence of specific transcripts may be used as a proxy for cyst viability. Here, we evaluate mRNA detection capabilities for identification of viable cysts of the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, in natural sediment samples. We targeted transcripts for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, cytochrome b (COB), and Tags 343 and 277, recently identified by serial analysis of gene expression. Expression was confirmed in laboratory cultures and compared with natural sediment samples. Three of the transcripts were detected in sediments by RT-PCR. The fourth transcript, for COB, was not detected in sediments, perhaps because of down-regulation of the gene in anoxic conditions. Our results suggest that methods targeting specific mRNA transcripts may be useful for detection of viable cysts in natural sediment samples. In addition, dinoflagellate cysts, which sustain extended periods of anoxia, may provide an important source of data for studies of anoxia tolerance by microbial eukaryotes. PMID:15817113

Coyne, Kathryn J; Craig Cary, S

2005-01-01

277

Carbon dioxide-based copolymers: environmental benefits of PPC, an industrially viable catalyst.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide-based copolymers utilize the green house gas CO(2) and can be applied in research and industry. Here we focus on industrially viable CO(2)-based catalysts in China and beyond. Poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC), an alternating copolymer of CO(2) and propylene oxide, is one of the emerging low-cost biodegradable plastics. We describe the thermal and mechanical performances of as-polymerized PPC, where amorphous state, low glass transition temperature, and biodegradability are the three main properties. We also describe modification of the PPC, the so-called toughening and strengthening at high temperature, and plasticizing at low temperature, including incorporation of a third monomer unit by chemical terpolymerization, and introduction of special intermolecular interactions or crystallizable components by physical blending. The fast development in catalyst design and performance improvement for PPC has created new chances for industry. In particular, high molecular weight PPC from rare earth ternary catalyst is becoming an economically viable biodegradable plastic with tens of thousands of tons produced per year, providing a new solution to overcome the problem of high cost in biodegradable plastics. PMID:21058318

Qin, Yusheng; Wang, Xianhong

2010-11-01

278

40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...achieved by this clean condensate alternative technology are equal to or...install and operate a clean condensate alternative technology with a continuous...complying with the clean condensate alternative technology. (f) For...

2010-07-01

279

Performed and preferred participation in science and technology across Europe: Exploring an alternative idea of "democratic deficit".  

PubMed

Republican ideals of active scientific citizenship and extensive use of deliberative, democratic decision making have come to dominate the public participation agenda, and academic analyses have focused on the deficit of public involvement vis--vis these normative ideals. In this paper we use latent class models to explore what Eurobarometer survey data can tell us about the ways in which people participate in tacit or in policy-active ways with developments in science and technology, but instead of focusing on the distance between observed participation and the dominant, normative ideal of participation, we examine the distance between what people do, and what they themselves think is appropriate in terms of involvement. The typology of citizens emerging from the analyses entails an entirely different diagnosis of democratic deficit, one that stresses imbalance between performed and preferred participation. PMID:23825243

Mejlgaard, Niels; Stares, Sally

2013-08-01

280

Genetic algorithms and the search for viable string vacua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 1010 models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 105 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Abel, Steven; Rizos, John

2014-08-01

281

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

282

Sodium chloride affects propidium monoazide action to distinguish viable cells.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a DNA-intercalating agent used to selectively detect DNA from viable cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, we report that high concentrations (>5%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) prevents PMA from inhibiting DNA amplification from dead cells. Moreover, Halobacterium salinarum was unable to maintain cell integrity in solutions containing less than 15% NaCl, indicating that extreme halophilic microorganisms may not resist the concentration range in which PMA fully acts. We conclude that NaCl, but not pH, directly affects the efficiency of PMA treatment, limiting its use for cell viability assessment of halophiles and in hypersaline samples. PMID:22728959

Barth, Valdir C; Cattani, Fernanda; Ferreira, Carlos A S; de Oliveira, Slvia D

2012-09-15

283

Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Steven Abel; John Rizos

2014-04-29

284

Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Abel, Steven

2014-01-01

285

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-09-30

286

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

287

Alternative Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and

Kuehn, Kerri L.

2004-01-01

288

Specific and Rapid Enumeration of Viable but Nonculturable and Viable-Culturable Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Flow Cytometry ?  

PubMed Central

An issue of critical concern in microbiology is the ability to detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and viable-culturable (VC) cells by methods other than existing approaches. Culture methods are selective and underestimate the real population, and other options (direct viable count and the double-staining method using epifluorescence microscopy and inhibitory substance-influenced molecular methods) are also biased and time-consuming. A rapid approach that reduces selectivity, decreases bias from sample storage and incubation, and reduces assay time is needed. Flow cytometry is a sensitive analytical technique that can rapidly monitor physiological states of bacteria. This report outlines a method to optimize staining protocols and the flow cytometer (FCM) instrument settings for the enumeration of VBNC and VC bacterial cells within 70 min. Experiments were performed using the FCM to quantify VBNC and VC Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells after staining with different fluorescent probes: SYTO 9, SYTO 13, SYTO 17, SYTO 40, and propidium iodide (PI). The FCM data were compared with those for specific standard nutrient agar to enumerate the number of cells in different states. By comparing results from cultures at late log phase, 1 to 64% of cells were nonculturable, 40 to 98% were culturable, and 0.7 to 4.5% had damaged cell membranes and were therefore theoretically dead. Data obtained using four different Gram-negative bacteria exposed to heat and stained with PI also illustrate the usefulness of the approach for the rapid and unbiased detection of dead versus live organisms. PMID:20543046

Khan, Mohiuddin M. Taimur; Pyle, Barry H.; Camper, Anne K.

2010-01-01

289

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01

290

Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

2002-02-26

291

Evaluation of silicon-germanium (SiGe) bipolar technologies for use in an upgraded atlas detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technologies promise several advantages over CMOS for the front-end readout electronics for the ATLAS upgrade. We have evaluated the relative merits of the latest generations of IBM SiGe HBT BiCMOS technologies, the 8WL and 8HP platforms. These 130 nm SiGe technologies show promise to operate at lower power than do CMOS technologies and would provide a viable alternative for the silicon strip detector and liquid argon calorimeter upgrades, provided that the radiation tolerance studies at multiple gamma and neutron irradiation levels, included in this investigation, show them to be sufficiently radiation tolerant.

Ulln, M.; Rice, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Cressler, J. D.; Damiani, D.; Dez, S.; Gadfort, T.; Grillo, A. A.; Hackenburg, R.; Hare, G.; Jones, A.; Kierstead, J.; Kononenko, W.; Mandi?, I.; Martinez-McKinney, F.; Metcalfe, J.; Newcomer, F. M.; Parsons, J. A.; Phillips, S.; Rescia, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spieler, H.; Sutton, A. K.; Tazawa, Y.; Wilder, M.; Wulf, E.

2009-06-01

292

Minimum viable population sizes and global extinction risk are unrelated.  

PubMed

Theoretical and empirical work has shown that once reduced in size and geographical range, species face a considerably elevated risk of extinction. We predict minimum viable population sizes (MVP) for 1198 species based on long-term time-series data and model-averaged population dynamics simulations. The median MVP estimate was 1377 individuals (90% probability of persistence over 100 years) but the overall distribution was wide and strongly positively skewed. Factors commonly cited as correlating with extinction risk failed to predict MVP but were able to predict successfully the probability of World Conservation Union Listing. MVPs were most strongly related to local environmental variation rather than a species' intrinsic ecological and life history attributes. Further, the large variation in MVP across species is unrelated to (or at least dwarfed by) the anthropogenic threats that drive the global biodiversity crisis by causing once-abundant species to decline. PMID:16623722

Brook, Barry W; Traill, Lochran W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

2006-04-01

293

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2011-07-01

294

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2012-07-01

295

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2010-07-01

296

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2013-07-01

297

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative energy sources and technologies can play a vital role

Denis Kouroussis; Shahram Karimi

2006-01-01

298

Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT)  

NASA Video Gallery

The Adaptable, Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project will test and demonstrate a deployable aeroshell concept as a viable thermal protection system for entry, descent, and landing o...

299

Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

1994-01-01

300

GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

1991-11-01

301

Alternative Media Technologies for the Open University. A Research Report on Costed Alternatives to the Direct Transmission of Audio-Visual Materials. Final Report. I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting No. 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines alternatives to direct transmission of television and radio programs for courses with low student enrollment at the Open University. Examined are cut-off points in terms of student numbers at which alternative means of distributing audio or audio-visual materials become more economical than direct television or radio

Bates, Tony; Kern, Larry

302

Detection of viable and non-viable cells of Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica in inoculated tubers of var. Bintje with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe ELISA technique was unable to distinguish between viable an non-viable cells (killed with ethanol) ofErwinia carotovora var.atroseptica in inoculated tubers during 8 weeks storage at C. The use of this technique to determine latent infections is questioned.

E. J. Cother; H. Vruggink

1980-01-01

303

A Novel Viable Allele of Arabidopsis CULLIN1 Identified in a Screen for Superroot2 Suppressors by Next Generation Sequencing-Assisted Mapping  

PubMed Central

Map-based cloning (MBC) is the conventional approach for linking phenotypes to genotypes, and has been successfully used to identify causal mutations in diverse organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer unprecedented possibilities to sequence the entire genomes of organisms, thereby in principle enabling direct identification of causal mutations without mapping. However, although mapping-by-sequencing has proven to be a cost effective alternative to classical MBC in particular situations, methods based solely on NGS still have limitations and need to be refined. Aiming to identify the causal mutations in suppressors of Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 phenotype, generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment, we combined NGS and classical mapping, to rapidly identify the point mutations and restrict the number of testable candidates by defining the chromosomal intervals containing the causal mutations, respectively. The NGS-assisted mapping approach we describe here facilitates unbiased identification of virtually any causal EMS-generated mutation by overlapping the identification (deep sequencing) and validation (mapping) steps. To exemplify the useful marriage of the two approaches we discuss the strategy used to identify a new viable recessive allele of the Arabidopsis CULLIN1 gene in the non-reference Wassilewskija (Ws-4) accession. PMID:24955772

Pacurar, Daniel I.; Pacurar, Monica L.; Pacurar, Andrea M.; Gutierrez, Laurent; Bellini, Catherine

2014-01-01

304

Alternative nuclear technologies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to compare the lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. The study used a conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems in its

Schubert

1981-01-01

305

Alternative Energy Technologies Solar Power  

E-print Network

B. Cadmium-Tellurium Vulcanizing rubber Copper & Stainless Steel alloys Newest Flash Memory Devices-Br Zinc, Cerium, Bromine Lead Acid Lead Ni ­ MH Rare Earth Elements, Nickel Lithium-ion Cobalt, Manganese Rare Earth Elements Platinum Group Metals Copper Manganese Aluminum Hot List #12;0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Scott, Christopher

306

Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility  

E-print Network

cultures to improve productivity in livestock husbandry. In comparison with antimicrobial agents, yeast that the effect of yeast culture on ru- men fermentation may depend on the nature of.the diet. Living yeast cell culture offers a natural alternative to manipulate animal performance. Positive effects of a yeast culture

Boyer, Edmond

307

American Counseling Association Branch Journals: Viable, Scholarly Means for Publishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the efficacy of publishing research, theoretically based articles, and in-the-field articles in refereed, professional branch journals of American Counseling Association (ACA). Addresses means and ways of writing successfully for publication. Presents ACA branch journals as alternative means for publishing and to encourage professional

McGowan, A. Scott

1994-01-01

308

Alternative Reproductive Technologies: Implications for Children and Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (May 21, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hearing was held for the purpose of receiving testimony about alternative reproductive technologies and their implications for children, families, and society. Testimony provided: (1) a comparison of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer, and trends in in vitro fertilization; (2) a summary of definitions, statistics, and the

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

309

A viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the NMSSM by adding vector-like matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the FCNC and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the non-thermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the BBN era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z_3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vector-like quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-12-14

310

The pattern of growth in viable f(R) cosmologies  

E-print Network

We study the evolution of linear perturbations in metric f(R) models of gravity and identify a potentially observable characteristic scale-dependent pattern in the behavior of cosmological structures. While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic LCDM, the differences in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to be seen with future weak lensing surveys. While working in the Jordan frame, we perform an analytical study of the growth of structures in the Einstein frame, demonstrating the equivalence of the dynamics in the two frames. We also provide a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the dynamics of an effective dark energy fluid with a non-zero shear. We find that the growth of structure in f(R) is enhanced, but that there are no small scale instabilities associated with the additional attractive "fifth force". We then briefly consider some recently proposed observational tests of modified gravity and their utility for detecting the f(R) pattern of structure growth.

Levon Pogosian; Alessandra Silvestri

2007-09-04

311

Pattern of growth in viable f(R) cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of linear perturbations in metric f(R) models of gravity and identify a potentially observable characteristic scale-dependent pattern in the behavior of cosmological structures. While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic Lambda Cold Dark Matter, the differences in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to be seen with future weak lensing surveys. While working in the Jordan frame, we perform an analytical study of the growth of structures in the Einstein frame, demonstrating the equivalence of the dynamics in the two frames. We also provide a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the dynamics of an effective dark energy fluid with a nonzero shear. We find that the growth of structure in f(R) is enhanced, but that there are no small scale instabilities associated with the additional attractive ''fifth force.'' We then briefly consider some recently proposed observational tests of modified gravity and their utility for detecting the f(R) pattern of structure growth.

Pogosian, Levon [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Silvestri, Alessandra [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

2008-01-15

312

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01

313

A Microscopic Multiphase Diffusion Model of Viable Epidermis Permeability  

PubMed Central

A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-?m layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, Depi, and partition coefficient, Kepi/w, for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small soluteswater, L-glucose, and hydrocortisonecovering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes. PMID:23708370

Nitsche, Johannes M.; Kasting, Gerald B.

2013-01-01

314

The Heating of the ICM: Energy Crisis and viable solutions  

E-print Network

X-ray observations indicate that non-gravitational processes play a key role in the thermodynamics of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM). The effect of non-gravitational processes is imprinted in the ICM as an entropy minimum, whose effects are visible in the Luminosity-Temperature relation and in the Entropy-Temperature relation. However, the X-ray emission alone cannot discriminate between different mechanisms and sources of heating. There are no answers at present to the following questions: how much non-gravitational energy per baryons is present in the ICM? When was this energy injected? Which are the sources of heating? The embarrassment in front of these questions is amplified by the fact that the most viable sources of heating, SNae and stellar winds, seem to be inefficient in bringing the ICM to the observed entropy level. We may call it the energy crisis. Here we review the main aspects of this crisis, listing possible solutions, including other sources, like AGNs and Radio Galaxies, or other mechanisms, like large scale shocks and selective cooling.

Paolo Tozzi

2001-09-05

315

Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.  

SciTech Connect

Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2011-09-01

316

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY College of Engineering  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering eng.wayne.edu STEERING YOUR WAY INTO A HIGH the development of new energy sources as a national priority, Wayne State has been a key player. In fact, WSU or registration questions, call (313) 577-3716 or e-mail aet@wayne.edu. Alternative Energy Technology College

Berdichevsky, Victor

317

Utility solar hot water programs: A viable DSM option  

SciTech Connect

The growing acceptance and importance of demand-side management (DSM) programs for utilities sets the stage for the increased use of solar technologies within those programs. Opportunities are growing for solar hot water technologies to be woven into the fabric of an overall DSM strategy. This article is a synopsis of utility solar hot water programs that are underway in Florida, California, and Wisconsin.

Siciliani, J.

1993-01-01

318

Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of information and knowledge management in the knowledge intensive and time critical environment of law enforcement has posed an interesting problem for information technology professionals in the field. Coupled with this challenging environment are issues relating to the integration of multiple systems, each having different functionalities resulting in difficulty for the end-user. The COPLINK project ties together the

Roslin V. Hauck; Hsinchun Chen

319

Alternative Remedies  

MedlinePLUS

... or remedies that are not part of the traditional medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare professional. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is called complementary medicine . Alternative remedies can ...

320

The role of the U.S. medical complex and the media in value transformation: The case of viable organ transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the unintended consequences of marketing a specific technology viable organ transplantation. A content analysis of print media is conducted to compare accounts of the world's first heart transplant (1967) with accounts of subsequent local transplants in a southwestern city. Results of this analysis suggest that objective coverage of transplant incidents convey changes in the construction of the

KerenAmi Johnson; Scott D. Roberts

1997-01-01

321

Lysis of Viable Rumen Bacteria in Bovine Rumen Fluid  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus bovis and Butyrivibrio sp. were labeled with thymidine-methyl-3H, washed, and resuspended in rumen fluid or rumen fluid fractions obtained from Holstein and Jersey cows fed alfalfa hay once daily. Factors affecting the lytic activity found in untreated rumen fluid were examined. Day to day variation and differences before and after feeding were observed for the same cow. There were also differences between cows on the same day. For a given rumen fluid, the rate of release of label was roughly proportional to the number of labeled cells present over a 100-fold range in concentration. Removal of protozoa largely abolished the lytic action of fresh rumen fluid for S. bovis, but some soluble lytic activity remained. Mixed rumen protozoa added to media containing labeled S. bovis caused label to appear in solution. In a sample of rumen fluid containing 4.3 104 protozoa/ml 5.2% of the S. bovis population were destroyed by protozoa per hr. The mean rate of destruction for 12 runs on whole rumen fluid was 8.7% per hr with a standard deviation of 6.05. Parallel experiments with Butyrivibrio indicated that soluble lytic factors were more important for this organism. They could be destroyed by autoclaving and were generated when viable rumen bacteria were resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The lysis of S. bovis and Butyrivibrio, at equal cell densities, by mixed rumen protozoa was compared in 30% rumen fluid media, and Butyrivibrio appeared to be more readily lysed than S. bovis. PMID:5659364

Jarvis, B. D. W.

1968-01-01

322

Technologies Technologies  

E-print Network

UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES Département ETUDIE *-*-*-*-*-*-*-* #12;UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR Sciences et Technologies Dossier de-baccalauréat : ANNEE DUREE ENTREPRISE SUJET #12;UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR Sciences et Technologies Dossier de

Sart, Remi

323

Alternate breeding cycles for nuclear power: an analysis (revised August 1980). Report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, Second Session  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis by the Congressional Research Service is to provide the Committee on Science and Technology with a working tool for future consideration of the development of alternative breeder reactors. The analysis considers five alternatives, including two breeders that could produce plutonium or uranium-233 - the liquid metal cooled and the gas cooled fast neutron reactors; and three that would produce only uranium-233 - the light water ''breeder,'' the molten salt breeder, and possibly a heavy water breeder. The CRS analysis focuses on four of the factors likely to affect decisions by Congress on future development and use of alternative breeders. These four are the stages of technological development, safety, commercial attractiveness, and proliferation risks. Omitted are factors such as radioactive waste management, environmental effects, occupational health and safety risks, public attitudes, and licensability. These commonly affect all alternatives, with little discernible difference seen in the analysis. It should be noted that each of the breeder alternatives involves some kind of processing of used fuels, whether it be called reprocessing, coprocessing or by some other term.

Not Available

1980-01-01

324

Angular confinement in solar cells: viable micro-optical designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing solar cell conversion efficiency by angular confinement of radiative emission (photoluminescence) requires a combination of (1) high external luminescent efficiency, and (2) optics that can substantially and efficiently limit the angular range of cell luminescence. After covering the basic principles and recent proposals for suitable micro-optics, we investigate an assortment of alternative micro-optical designs that can improve device compactness considerably, which would reduce the amount of material required and would ease micro-fabrication, while offering liberal optical tolerance and high collection efficiency.

Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Feuermann, Daniel; Mashaal, Heylal

2014-09-01

325

All-printed smart structures: a viable option?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

2014-03-01

326

The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional

Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

2011-01-01

327

Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?  

SciTech Connect

In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter {gamma}, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|{>=}2.3x10{sup 4}. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k{yields}{infinity}. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p{sub 0}=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p{sub 1}=-(1/2){epsilon} in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

Eingorn, Maxim [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil)

2011-02-15

328

Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT) in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%), 8 (50%), and 6 (37%) had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10) of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ?S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this. PMID:24669118

Al Othman, Khalid; Al Hathal, Naif; Mokhtar, Alaa

2014-01-01

329

Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mgliter?1. PMID:21602375

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-01-01

330

Viable Three-Dimensional Medical Microwave Tomography: Theory and Numerical Experiments  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional microwave tomography represents a potentially very important advance over 2D techniques because it eliminates associated approximations which may lead to more accurate images. However, with the significant increase in problem size, computational efficiency is critical to making 3D microwave imaging viable in practice. In this paper, we present two 3D image reconstruction methods utilizing 3D scalar and vector field modeling strategies, respectively. Finite element (FE) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms are used to model the electromagnetic field interactions in human tissue in 3D. Image reconstruction techniques previously developed for the 2D problem, such as the dual-mesh scheme, iterative block solver, and adjoint Jacobian method are extended directly to 3D reconstructions. Speed improvements achieved by setting an initial field distribution and utilizing an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) FDTD are explored for 3D vector field modeling. The proposed algorithms are tested with simulated data and correctly recovered the position, size and electrical properties of the target. The adjoint formulation and the FDTD method utilizing initial field estimates are found to be significantly more effective in reducing the computation time. Finally, these results also demonstrate that cross-plane measurements are critical for reconstructing 3D profiles of the target. PMID:20352084

Fang, Qianqian; Meaney, Paul M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

2010-01-01

331

Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6months storage at 4 and 25C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6months of storage at 4C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6months of storage at 25C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2012-11-01

332

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

333

Waste-heat steam generation is economically viable in ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Generation of electric power by turbine-driven generators serviced by waste heat boilers is not a blue sky dream. It is time-proven technology, employing time-proven equipment-equipment that is expected to run uninterrupted in fouryear cycles. This equipment and its control are made right here in the U.S. The equipment is very simple to operate and maintain. This article describes the applications of ceramics in this industry.

McMann, F.C.; Marshall, R.W.

1984-03-01

334

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; Baysinger, M. F.; Maples, C. D.; Capizzo, P. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Hornsby, L. S.; Percy, T. K.; Thomas, S. D.

2012-01-01

335

Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

Hendricks, Robert C.

2007-01-01

336

Investigations of the environmental acceptability of fluorocarbon alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons.  

PubMed

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are currently used in systems for preservation of perishable foods and medical supplies, increasing worker productivity and consumer comfort, conserving energy and increasing product reliability. As use of CFCs is phased out due to concerns of ozone depletion, a variety of new chemicals and technologies will be needed to serve these needs. In choosing alternatives, industry must balance concerns over safety and environmental acceptability and still meet the preformance characteristics of the current technology, the only viable alternatives meeting the safety, performance, and environmental requirements for the remaining 40% of demand are fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs and HFCs possess many of the desirable properties of the CFCs, but because of the, hydrogen, they results in shorter atmospheric lifetimes compared to CFCs and reduces their potential to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or global warming; HFCs do not contain chlorine and have no potential to destroy ozone. This paper provides an overview of challenges faced by industry, regulators, and society in general in continuing to meet societal needs and consumer demands while reducing risk to the enviroment without compromising consumer or worker safety. PMID:11607257

McFarland, M

1992-02-01

337

Investigations of the environmental acceptability of fluorocarbon alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons.  

PubMed Central

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are currently used in systems for preservation of perishable foods and medical supplies, increasing worker productivity and consumer comfort, conserving energy and increasing product reliability. As use of CFCs is phased out due to concerns of ozone depletion, a variety of new chemicals and technologies will be needed to serve these needs. In choosing alternatives, industry must balance concerns over safety and environmental acceptability and still meet the preformance characteristics of the current technology, the only viable alternatives meeting the safety, performance, and environmental requirements for the remaining 40% of demand are fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs and HFCs possess many of the desirable properties of the CFCs, but because of the, hydrogen, they results in shorter atmospheric lifetimes compared to CFCs and reduces their potential to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or global warming; HFCs do not contain chlorine and have no potential to destroy ozone. This paper provides an overview of challenges faced by industry, regulators, and society in general in continuing to meet societal needs and consumer demands while reducing risk to the enviroment without compromising consumer or worker safety. PMID:11607257

McFarland, M

1992-01-01

338

Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program  

SciTech Connect

An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

Lee Nelson

2013-11-01

339

Augmentative & Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your

Murphy, Patti

2007-01-01

340

Environment and Alternative Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and

Kothari, Rajni

341

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

342

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

343

Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Public Education Campaign: Billboards According to the U.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane  

E-print Network

.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane (LPG) in North Carolina at least $1,000 in yearly fuel costs by driving on natural gas or propane. · According to the U

344

Dead or alive? Autofluorescence distinguishes heat-fixed from viable cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose A proof-of-concept study to evaluate a new autofluorescence method to differentiate necrotic thermally fixed cells from viable tissue following thermal ablation. Methods A conductive interstitial thermal therapy (CITT) device was used to ablate swine mammary tissue and rabbit VX-2 carcinomas in vivo. The ablated regions and 10-mm margins were resected 24 h following treatment, embedded in HistOmer and sectioned at 3 mm. The fresh sections were evaluated for gross viability with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, 1 h post-resection. Representative non-viable and viable areas were then processed and embedded into paraffin, and sectioned at 5 ?m. Standard H&E staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were compared against autofluorescence intensity, at 488-nm wavelength, for cellular viability. Results Heat-fixed cells in non-viable regions exhibit increased autofluorescence intensity compared to viable tissue (area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve =0.96; Mann-Whitney P <0.0001). An autofluorescence intensity-based classification rule achieved 92% sensitivity with 100% specificity for distinguishing non-viable from viable samples. In contrast, PCNA staining did not reliably distinguish heat-fixed, dead cells from viable cells. Conclusions Examination of H&E-stained sections using autofluorescence intensity-based classification is a reliable and readily available method to accurately identify heat-fixed cells in ablated surgical margins. PMID:19533483

HENNINGS, LEAH; KAUFMANN, YIHONG; GRIFFIN, ROBERT; SIEGEL, ERIC; NOVAK, PETR; CORRY, PETER; MOROS, EDUARDO G.; SHAFIRSTEIN, GAL

2010-01-01

345

Enumeration of viable E. coli in rivers and wastewaters by fluorescent in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of direct viable count (DVC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures was used to enumerate viable Escherichia coli in river waters and wastewaters. A probe specific for the 16S rRNA of E. coli labeled with the CY3 dye was used; enumeration of hybridized cells was performed by epifluorescence microscopy. Data showed that the method was able to

Tamara Garcia-Armisen; Pierre Servais

2004-01-01

346

Breaking Through the Bottleneck Transportation to Make Stewart a Viable New York Airport  

E-print Network

makes SWF a more viable air travel choice to passengers and airlines alike. Keywords - airportBreaking Through the Bottleneck Transportation to Make Stewart a Viable New York Airport Amar.edu Abstract­The city of New York is served by the largest and busiest airport complex in the world. The three

347

Cybernetics and Resilience Engineering: Can Cybernetics and the Viable System Model Advance Resilience Engineering?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybernetics as the science of control in the animal and machine provides a para- digm for inquiry into organisational behaviour. Management cybernetics supplies comple- mentary perspectives on managing complexity and organisational performance. Using the Viable System Model (VSM) a qualitative diagnosis can be made of the communication structures in the viable organization. Viability is the ability to maintain the organisational

Arthur Dijkstra

348

Legal prison tattooing centers: viable health policy initiative?  

PubMed

Tattooing exemplifies several important links between criminal justice systems, public health, custodial management, and the social organization and behavior of prisoners. This commentary examines the efficiency of setting up legal, prison-financed tattooing centers as a way of discouraging illicit tattooing and minimizing bloodborne disease transmission risks in prison settings. The author posits that the impact of legal prison tattooing centers is unlikely to be significant since less than 5 percent of bloodborne infectious diseases have been reliably attributable to tattooing, either in prison or in community settings. Behavioral studies indicate that prisoners at the highest risk of contracting bloodborne infections would probably not utilize legal prison tattooing services. Furthermore, such a service is likely to be very expensive relative to potential health benefits. Strategies focussed on reducing injecting drug use among prisoners will yield greater benefits for reducing bloodborne disease transmission per dollar spent compared with setting up legal prison tattooing parlors. Social marketing of temporary tattooing alternatives (eg, henna tattoos) to traditional illicit tattooing techniques in prison settings is potentially valuable, as temporary tattoos pose no infection risk and may also facilitate reduction in occupational and social stigma associated with many illicit prison tattoos. PMID:20357610

Awofeso, Niyi

2010-01-01

349

Culturing with trehalose produces viable endothelial cells after cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Dimethylsulfoxide, the most commonly employed cryoprotectant for cells, has well documented cytotoxic effects in patients. Among the compounds available that may provide protection to cells and tissues during preservation with less cytotoxicity is trehalose. Some animals, such as brine shrimp and tardigrades, accumulate trehalose during periods of extreme environmental stress. In this study, experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of culturing a bovine endothelial cell line (ATCC #CCL-209) in the presence of trehalose prior to preservation by freezing. A number of factors were shown to contribute to cell retention of metabolic activity and proliferative potential including cell culture time with trehalose and the solution conditions during cryopreservation. Using an optimized protocol consisting of 24 h of cell culture with 0.2 M trehalose followed by cryopreservation with 0.2-0.4 M trehalose in sodium bicarbonate buffered Eagles minimum essential medium at pH 7.4 resulted in 874% post-preservation cell metabolic activity expressed as relative fluorescence based upon reduction of resazurin to resorufin. This new method provides an alternative preservation strategy to the more classical preservation methods employing dimethylsulfoxide available for cells and tissues. PMID:22366172

Campbell, Lia H; Brockbank, Kelvin G M

2012-06-01

350

Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice. PMID:1869358

Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

1991-04-01

351

Protein 4.1R-deficient mice are viable but have erythroid membrane skeleton abnormalities  

PubMed Central

A diverse family of protein 4.1R isoforms is encoded by a complex gene on human chromosome 1. Although the prototypical 80-kDa 4.1R in mature erythrocytes is a key component of the erythroid membrane skeleton that regulates erythrocyte morphology and mechanical stability, little is known about 4.1R function in nucleated cells. Using gene knockout technology, we have generated mice with complete deficiency of all 4.1R protein isoforms. These 4.1R-null mice were viable, with moderate hemolytic anemia but no gross abnormalities. Erythrocytes from these mice exhibited abnormal morphology, lowered membrane stability, and reduced expression of other skeletal proteins including spectrin and ankyrin, suggesting that loss of 4.1R compromises membrane skeleton assembly in erythroid progenitors. Platelet morphology and function were essentially normal, indicating that 4.1R deficiency may have less impact on other hematopoietic lineages. Nonerythroid 4.1R expression patterns, viewed using histochemical staining for lacZ reporter activity incorporated into the targeted gene, revealed focal expression in specific neurons in the brain and in select cells of other major organs, challenging the view that 4.1R expression is widespread among nonerythroid cells. The 4.1R knockout mice represent a valuable animal model for exploring 4.1R function in nonerythroid cells and for determining pathophysiological sequelae to 4.1R deficiency. PMID:9927493

Shi, Zheng-Tao; Afzal, Veena; Coller, Barry; Patel, Dipti; Chasis, Joel A.; Parra, Marilyn; Lee, Gloria; Paszty, Chris; Stevens, Mary; Walensky, Loren; Peters, Luanne L.; Mohandas, Narla; Rubin, Edward; Conboy, John G.

1999-01-01

352

Industrial viable process of making nanoparticles of various shapes and interior structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years, we attempted to develop industrial viable processes which were of significance in manufacturing the nanoparticles in good quality and large volume. Our effort relied on the self-assembly concepts of block macromolecules in solutions to prepare particles with a hard core made of crosslinked plastics and a soft shell made of low Tg elastomer. Depending on the type and microstructure of the copolymers, the solvent concentration and other process parameters chosen, a variety of shell-core nano-particles of different shapes (spheres, hollow spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, linear and branched strings, disks and etc.) and sizes (5-100 nm diameter) were reproducibly synthesized. Scale-up studies led to an optimization of the manufacturing process and the production of nanoparticles in large quantities for various product application efforts. The unique performance of those nanoparticles as performance tuning additives and novel rubber reinforcing elements was explored in rubber compounds. This review describes the synthesis methods used to produce the polymer nanoparticles, the technology to modify the particles through functionalization, the means to optimize their performance for specific applications, and the methods to use those particles in rubber compounds. Collaborators: Victor J. Foltz, Kurasch Jessica, Chenchy J. Lin, Jeff Magestrelli, Sandra Warren, Alberto Scuratti, James E. Hall, Jim Krom, Mindaugas Rackaitis, Michael W. Hayes, Pat Sadhukhan, Georg G. A. Bohm

Wang, Xiaorong

2008-03-01

353

Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) Pathogenic Bacteria.  

PubMed

Under stress conditions, many species of bacteria enter into starvation mode of metabolism or a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Several human pathogenic bacteria have been reported to enter into the VBNC state under these conditions. The pathogenic VBNC bacteria cannot be grown using conventional culture media, although they continue to retain their viability and express their virulence. Though there have been debates on the VBNC concept in the past, several molecular studies have shown that not only can the VBNC state be induced under in vitro conditions but also that resuscitation from this state is possible under appropriate conditions. The most notable advance in resuscitating VBNC bacteria is the discovery of resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf), which is a bacterial cytokines found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. VBNC state is a survival strategy adopted by the bacteria, which has important implication in several fields, including environmental monitoring, food technology, and infectious disease management; and hence it is important to investigate the association of bacterial pathogens under VBNC state and the water/foodborne outbreaks. In this review, we describe various aspects of VBNC bacteria, which include their proteomic and genetic profiles under the VBNC state, conditions of resuscitation, methods of detection, antibiotic resistance, and observations on Rpf. PMID:25133139

Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Ghosh, Amit; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Shinoda, Sumio

2014-01-01

354

Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Under stress conditions, many species of bacteria enter into starvation mode of metabolism or a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Several human pathogenic bacteria have been reported to enter into the VBNC state under these conditions. The pathogenic VBNC bacteria cannot be grown using conventional culture media, although they continue to retain their viability and express their virulence. Though there have been debates on the VBNC concept in the past, several molecular studies have shown that not only can the VBNC state be induced under in vitro conditions but also that resuscitation from this state is possible under appropriate conditions. The most notable advance in resuscitating VBNC bacteria is the discovery of resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf), which is a bacterial cytokines found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. VBNC state is a survival strategy adopted by the bacteria, which has important implication in several fields, including environmental monitoring, food technology, and infectious disease management; and hence it is important to investigate the association of bacterial pathogens under VBNC state and the water/foodborne outbreaks. In this review, we describe various aspects of VBNC bacteria, which include their proteomic and genetic profiles under the VBNC state, conditions of resuscitation, methods of detection, antibiotic resistance, and observations on Rpf. PMID:25133139

Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Ghosh, Amit; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio

2014-01-01

355

Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

2002-01-01

356

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments for glaucoma. Use of alternative medicine continues to increase, although ... positive impact on your overall health and other glaucoma risk factors including high blood pressure. Always talk ...

357

Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01

358

Soil washing technology evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

Suer, A.

1995-04-01

359

Pressfit technology for 3-D molded interconnect devices (MID) - A lead-free alternative to solder joints - challenges and solutions concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous trend in electronics production towards new substrate materials, the development of the third dimension by molded interconnect devices (3-D MID) and the constantly rising integration of functions and miniaturization of electronic products leads to new challenges for interconnection technology. Compared to interconnections established by solder materials the pressfit technology offers many advantages. Most important is that no temperature

M. Eisenbarth; K. Feldmann

2002-01-01

360

Barriers and Facilitators to the Use of High-Technology Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There has been a rapid growth in recent years of available technologies for individuals with communication difficulties. Research in the area is currently underdeveloped with practitioners having a limited body of work on which to draw to guide the process of intervention. Concerns have been raised that this newly developed technology

Baxter, Susan; Enderby, Pam; Evans, Philippa; Judge, Simon

2012-01-01

361

Innovative Technologies and a Technology Selection Roadmap for Optimization of Pipeline Inspection and Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past five years, a multitude of new inspection technologies have emerged as viable sources of pipeline condition data. Furthermore, many of these new technologies provide quantitative (versus qualitative) data that can significantly improve diagnostic and predictive capab...

362

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

2008-09-09

363

Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This Federal Technology Alert on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), is intended for fleet managers in government agencies and other government officials who need to use more alternative fuels and AFVs in their fleets of cars and trucks. This publication describes the government's plans and progress in meeting goals for the use of AFVs, which are stated in the Energy Policy Act and various Executive Orders. It describes the types of AFVs available, lists actual and potential federal uses, makes some general recommendations, and presents field experiences to date.

Not Available

2003-09-01

364

Evaluating Importance Ratings as an Alternative to Mental Models in Predicting Driving Crashes and Moving Violations  

E-print Network

The present study investigated the extent to which importance ratings (i.e., a measure of perceived importance for driving-related concepts) are a viable alternative to traditional mental model assessment methods in predicting driving performance...

McDonald, Jennifer Nicole

2012-07-16

365

Vaccination with hatched but non-activated, non-viable oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

The usefulness of hatched but non-activated oncospheres as a candidate vaccine was evaluated using a Taenia taeniaeformis/rat system, since preparation of these oncospheres in vitro is known to be very simple. The findings were: (1) rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres became completely resistant to challenge infection; (2) intra-venous injection was the most effective to induce complete resistance; (3) a single oncosphere was sufficient to induce complete resistance in infected rats, whereas approximately 50 and 500 non-viable oncospheres were required to evoke strong and complete resistance, respectively, in vaccinated rats. The usefulness of non-viable oncospheres without adjuvant is discussed. PMID:8354864

Ito, A; Hashimoto, A

1993-06-01

366

Framework for Validation and Implementation of In Vitro Toxicity Tests: Report of the Validation and Technology Transfer Committee of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. However, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coordinate, or evaluate these activities. A framework capable of fostering the validation of new methods is essential for

Michael S. Dickens; Oliver Flint; Stephen D. Gettings; Richard N. Hill; Robert L. Lipnick; Kevin J. Renskers; June A. Bradlaw; Robert A. Scala; Bellina Veronesi; Sidney Green; Neil Wilcox; Rodger Curren

1993-01-01

367

Warm Humid Climate: Methodology to Study Air Temperature Distribution: Mobile Phones Base Stations as Viable Alternative for Fixed Points  

E-print Network

Engineering, Architecture and Urban Planning UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil e-mail: angelina@fec.unicamp.br; e-mail: lucila@fec.unicamp.br (3) Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte - Department of Architecture and Urban Planning Caixa Postal 6021 Cep... 13083 970 Campinas/ SP Brazil - Tel. 55 19 37882384 ABSTRACT This paper presents partial results of a research about urban space in a warm-humid climate at the Northeast region of Brazil. The objective is to verify the air temperature...

Araujo, V.; Costa, A.; Labaki, L.

2006-01-01

368

ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS AS VIABLE ALTERNATIVES TO CHROMATE CONVERSION COATING PRETREATMENTS FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND TESTING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAVAIR-WD has successfully synthesized a new electroactive (EAP) polymer (2,5-bis(N-methyl-N- hexylamino)phenylene vinylene), BAM-PPV in high yield and purity. Several EAPs (doped and undoped) have been shown to inhibit and retard the corrosion of steel and aluminum alloys in various environments. BAM-PPV has also been characterized using advanced spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques (NMR, FT-IR, TMA, DSC and TGA) to determine

P. Zarras; N. Anderson; A. Guenthner; N. Prokopuk; R. L. Quintana; S. A. Hawkins; C. Webber; L. Baldwin; J. D. Stenger-Smith; J. He; D. E. Tallman

369

Valuing non-market goods: Does subjective well-being offer a viable alternative to contingent valuation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two ways of generating monetary valuations for non-market goods: the contingent valuation (CV) method, which asks people directly for their change in income that would exactly offset a change in the non-market good, and the subjective well-being (SWB) approach, which shows the relationship between income and the non-market good that leaves SWB unchanged. The methods are based

Paul Dolan; Tessa Peasgood

370

The Human Interface Technology Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains information about the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HITL), which was established by the Washington Technology Center at the University of Washington to transform virtual world concepts and research into practical, economically viable technology products. The booklet is divided into seven sections: (1) a brief

Washington Univ., Seattle. Washington Technology Center.

371

Field technologies for the measurement of PCBs  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative effort between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Energy (DOE), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents a viable team to administer, plan, execute, and report on demonstrations of commercially available field characterization and monitoring technologies. This effort is part of the EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. One of the overriding goals of this effort is to develop regulatory-accepted and cost effective alternatives to conventional fixed laboratory analyses through the identification and evaluation of innovative, field technologies. A technology demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques will occur during July 22 through 30, 1997. The demonstration will be conducted at a DOE site (ORNL) where there is a substantial repository of PCB-contaminated materials from multiple DOE sites. Technology developers with PCB monitoring instrumentation will be evaluated. These instruments will include field portable gas chromatographs with surface acoustic wave and electron capture detectors, and field analysis kits, such as immunoassay and ion specific electrode kits. These instruments are suitable for the quantification of PCBs in a variety of matrices. Soil and surface samples will be evaluated during the demonstration. The demonstration will focus on the current DOE-Oak Ridge analytical needs to support Toxic Substance and Control Act (TSCA) decisions, while allowing developers to showcase the features of their technologies.

Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carden, D.M. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Operations Office; Billets, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). National Exposure Research Lab.

1997-08-01

372

An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of the magnetic bearing and its use in exotic applications has been conceptualized for many years, over a century, in fact. Patented, passive systems using permanent magnets date back over 150 years. More recently, scientists of the 1930s began investigating active systems using electromagnets for high-speed ultracentrifuges. However, passive magnetic bearings are physically unstable and active systems only provide proper stiffness and damping through sophisticated controllers and algorithms. This is precisely why, until the last decade, magnetic bearings did not become a practical alternative to rolling element bearings. Today, magnetic bearing technology has become viable because of advances in micro-processing controllers that allow for confident and robust active control. Further advances in the following areas: rotor and stator materials and designs which maximize flux, minimize energy losses, and minimize stress limitations; wire materials and coatings for high temperature operation; high-speed micro processing for advanced controller designs and extremely robust capabilities; back-up bearing technology for providing a viable touchdown surface; and precision sensor technology; have put magnetic bearings on the forefront of advanced, lubrication free support systems. This paper will discuss a specific joint program for the advancement of gas turbine engines and how it implies the vitality of magnetic bearings, a brief comparison between magnetic bearings and other bearing technologies in both their advantages and limitations, and an examination of foreseeable solutions to historically perceived limitations to magnetic bearing.

Clark, Daniel J.; Jansen, Mark J.; Montague, Gerald T.

2004-01-01

373

Harvesting strategies for conserving minimum viable populations based on World Conservation  

E-print Network

that is too high. Keywords: threshold harvesting; minimum viable population size; stochasticity; Ursus arctos is the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos) population, which was persecuted for several centuries mainly due to its

Tufto, Jarle

374

Solar System Constraints on a Cosmologically Viable $f(R)$ Theory  

E-print Network

Recently, a model $f(R)$ theory is proposed \\cite{recent} which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

Yousef Bisabr

2009-07-22

375

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio cholerae  

E-print Network

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio that this process involves biofilm formation that is dependent on quorum sens- ing, a regulatory response and biofilm formation displayed altered CVEC formation in environmental waterfollowingintestinalinfections

Mekalanos, John

376

Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

2012-12-03

377

Immunological resistance to L1210 leukemia induced by viable L1210\\/DTIC cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent, drug-induced antigenic alterations, not detectable in parental cells and transmissible after the withdrawal of treatment with the drug, have been obtained in mouse lymphoma. Viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, because they are rejected by syngeneic animals and carry L1210-associated TAA, can elicit host resistance to a subsequent inoculum of parental L1210. Mice challenged with viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, following rejection, were more

A. Nicolin; F. Veronese; O. Marelli; A. Goldin

1980-01-01

378

Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

Not Available

1993-10-01

379

Some considerations in the evaluation of concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW (low-level radioactive waste) disposal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop information needed to evaluate the long-term performance of concrete and reinforced concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal methods. The capability to carry out such an evaluation is required for licensing a site which employs one of these alternative methods. The basis for achieving the study objective was the review and analysis of the literature on concrete and its properties, particularly its durability. In carrying out this program characteristics of concrete useful in evaluating its performance and factors that can affect its performance were identified. The factors are both intrinsic, i.e., associated with composition of the concrete (and thus controllable), and extrinsic, i.e., due to external environmental forces such as climatic conditions and aggressive chemicals in the soil. The testing of concrete, using both accelerated tests and long-term non-accelerated tests, is discussed with special reference to its application to modeling of long-term performance prediction. On the basis of the study's results, conditions for acceptance are recommended as an aid in the licensing of disposal sites which make use of alternative methods.

MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

1987-01-01

380

ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

381

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

382

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...180.1076 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2013-07-01

383

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...180.1076 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2012-07-01

384

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...180.1076 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2010-07-01

385

Approximating pollution abatement costs via alternative specifications of a multi-output production technology: A case of the US electric utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a panel of observations from the US electric utility industry, we analyze the output set frontiers that are produced by modeling the technology with different functional forms. Our specifications rely on a series of mapping regimes, based on the paths in which the outputs are scaled toward the frontier, and their outcomes are assessed against the general axiomatic framework

Michael Vardanyan; Dong-Woon Noh

2006-01-01

386

Arctic gypsum endoliths: a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme environmental conditions such as those found in the polar regions on Earth are thought to test the limits of life. Microorganisms living in these environments often seek protection from environmental stresses such as high UV exposure, desiccation and rapid temperature fluctuations, with one protective habitat found within rocks. Such endolithic microbial communities, which often consist of bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens, are small-scale ecosystems comprised of both producers and consumers. However, the harsh environmental conditions experienced by polar endolithic communities are thought to limit microbial diversity and therefore the rate at which they cycle carbon. In this study, we characterized the microbial community diversity, turnover rate and microbe-mineral interactions of a gypsum-based endolithic community in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic. 16S/18S/23S rRNA pyrotag sequencing demonstrated the presence of a diverse community of phototrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae and fungi. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the viable microbial membranes, as phospholipid fatty acids and glycolipid fatty acids, confirmed the diversity observed by molecular techniques and indicated that present-day atmospheric carbon is assimilated into the microbial community biomass. Uptake of radiocarbon from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s into microbial lipids was used as a pulse label to determine that the microbial community turns over carbon on the order of 10 yr, equivalent to 4.4 g C m-2 yr-1 gross primary productivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs indicated that mechanical weathering of gypsum by freeze-thaw cycles leads to increased porosity, which ultimately increases the habitability of the rock. In addition, while bacteria were adhered to these mineral surfaces, chemical analysis by micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) spectroscopy suggests little evidence for microbial alteration of minerals, which contrasts with other endolithic habitats. While it is possible that these communities turn over carbon quickly and leave little evidence of microbe-mineral interaction, an alternative hypothesis is that the soluble and friable nature of gypsum and harsh conditions lead to elevated erosion rates, limiting microbial residence times in this habitat. Regardless, this endolithic community represents a microbial system that does not rely on a nutrient pool from the host gypsum cap rock, instead receiving these elements from allochthonous debris to maintain a more diverse and active community than might have been predicted in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic.

Ziolkowski, L. A.; Mykytczuk, N. C. S.; Omelon, C. R.; Johnson, H.; Whyte, L. G.; Slater, G. F.

2013-11-01

387

Arctic Gypsum Endoliths: a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme environmental conditions such as those found in the polar regions on Earth are thought to test the limits of life. Microorganisms living in these environments often seek protection from environmental stresses such as high UV exposure, desiccation and rapid temperature fluctuations, with one protective habitat found within rocks. Such endolithic microbial communities, which often consist of bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens, are small-scale ecosystems comprised of both producers and consumers. However, the harsh environmental conditions experienced by polar endolithic communities are thought to limit microbial diversity and the rate at which they cycle carbon. In this study, we characterized the microbial community diversity, turnover, and microbe-mineral interactions of a gypsum-based endolithic community in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic. 16S/18S rRNA pyrotag sequencing demonstrated the presence of a diverse community of phototrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, algae and fungi. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the viable microbial membranes, as phospholipid fatty acids and glycolipid fatty acids, confirmed the diversity observed by molecular techniques and indicated that atmospheric carbon is assimilated into the microbial community biomass. Uptake of radiocarbon from atmospheric radioweapons testing during the 1960s into microbial lipids was used as a pulse label to determine that the microbial community turns over carbon on the order of 10 yr, equivalent to 4.4 g C m-2 yr-1 gross primary productivity. SEM micrographs indicated that mechanical weathering of gypsum by freeze-thaw cycles leads to increased porosity, which ultimately increases the habitability of the rock. In addition, while bacteria were adhered to these mineral surfaces there was little evidence for microbial alteration of minerals, which contrasts with other gypsum endolithic habitats. While it is possible that these communities turn over carbon quickly and leave little evidence of microbial-mineral interaction, an alternative hypothesis is that the soluble and friable nature of the gypsum and harsh conditions lead to elevated erosion rates, limiting microbial residence times in this habitat. Regardless, this endolithic community represents a microbial system that does not rely on a nutrient pool from the host gypsum cap rock, instead receiving these elements from allochthonous debris to maintain a more diverse and active community than might have been predicted in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic.

Ziolkowski, L. A.; Mykytczuk, N. C. S.; Omelon, C. R.; Johnson, H.; Whyte, L. G.; Slater, G. F.

2013-02-01

388

Buprenorphine Outpatient Outcomes Project: can Suboxone be a viable outpatient option for heroin addiction?  

PubMed Central

Background Opioid dependence treatment traditionally involves methadone clinics, for which dispensing schedules can be cumbersome. Buprenorphine, a partial agonist of the mu receptor and antagonist of the kappa receptor, is a potential outpatient alternative to methadone. Funded by a grant from the State of Maryland's Community Health Resources Commission (CHRC), the Buprenorphine Outpatient Outcomes Project (BOOP) evaluates the outcome of Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone) treatment on abstinence from heroin use, rates of emergency room visits and hospitalizations, legal issues, and quality of life. Methods Active heroin users were recruited between June 2007 and June 2010 and induction therapy with Suboxone was instituted during hospitalization. Once discharged, patients were followed as outpatients for maintenance treatment and counseling. Data were collected from electronic medical records, Maryland state legal records, and SF-36 Health Surveys regarding several parameters and patients were categorized according to duration of treatment with Suboxone into one of three groups: <1 month, 13 months, and >3 months. Results A total of 220 participants were included in the study. The age range of participants was 1867 years with most being African American males. Eighty-three (38%) remained in the study for at least 1 month, with 37 of the 83 (45%) remaining in treatment for >3 months. Ten of the 37 (27%) never relapsed after their longest period of abstinence from heroin. During the first year after initiating treatment with Suboxone, hospitalization and emergency room visit rates for all 220 participants decreased by 45 and 23%, respectively, as compared to the year prior to starting treatment. The number of legal charges for drug possession decreased from 70 to 62. Anecdotally, the quality of life seemed to improve in those who were treated with Suboxone for longer periods of time and received regular counseling. Conclusion Overall, Suboxone is an effective treatment method for heroin addiction and is a viable outpatient therapy option. Individualized treatment plans and counseling must be implemented for maximum benefits to be seen. Retention of patients for a long duration of therapy was difficult, but for those who did remain, benefits were seen in overall health, abstinence from heroin use, cognition, and quality of life. PMID:24765257

Sittambalam, Charmian D.; Vij, Radhika; Ferguson, Robert P.

2014-01-01

389

["Non-solvent shock agglomeration"--the technology of a new alternative method for determination of ibuprofen. 6. Stability of s(+)-ibuprofen].  

PubMed

Due to its low melting range approx. 53 degrees C optically pure ibuprofen can be regarded as problematic in a pharmaceutic-technological sense. With regard to the non-solvent shock agglomeration method this means that the process and product temperatures must strictly be kept in the range of 10 K above the melting point of the substance. Higher temperatures can induce degradation of S(+)ibuprofen. During storage under stress conditions (31 degrees C for a period of 18 months) ibuprofen shows extreme stability independent of its optical activity. Racemic ibuprofen is inert to the influence of light; in individual cases optically pure substance containing an increased level of impurities can show slight degradation tendencies. The thermal and photo stability of ibuprofen is independent of the preparation technology. For comparison, conventional, fluid bed granulated, briquetted and from organic solvents especially recrystallised and optically active substances were investigated besides the shock agglomerated substances. PMID:10907254

Mller, T; Korsatko, W

2000-06-01

390

Alternative energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

Todd, R. W.

1982-04-01

391

3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood  

PubMed Central

Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings. PMID:20978853

Lin, Henry K.; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J.; Tai, Yu-Chong

2013-01-01

392

Pretreatment Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect

This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

Barker, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-03-01

393

Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities  

SciTech Connect

A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

1980-12-01

394

Integrated hydrogen/oxygen technology applied to auxiliary propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Integrated Hydrogen/Oxygen Technology (IHOT) study was to determine if the vehicle/mission needs and technology of the 1990's support development of an all cryogenic H2/O2 system. In order to accomplish this, IHOT adopted the approach of designing Integrated Auxiliary Propulsion Systems (IAPS) for a representative manned vehicle; the advanced manned launch system. The primary objectives were to develop IAPS concepts which appeared to offer viable alternatives to state-of-the-art (i.e., hypergolic, or earth-storable) APS approaches. The IHOT study resulted in the definition of three APS concepts; two cryogenic IAPS, and a third concept utilizing hypergolic propellants.

Gerhardt, David L.

1990-01-01

395

The effect of different characteristics of the diluent on the viable count of certain psychrophilic bacteria  

E-print Network

OF CUI TURE P 10 1. The effect of length of contact ( ~ 15, ~ 30, a 60 min) between culture P-10 and various diluents (SMB Standard Methods buffer, DW Distilled water, PII Peptone water) on the viable count at 32oC. 18 100 25 C SKIM'MILK 7 C z 0... OF CULTURE F-11 FIGIIILE 2. The effect of length of contact ( ~ 15, ~ 30, a60 min) between culture F-11 and various diluents (SMB Standard Methods buffer, DW Distilled water, PW Peptone water) on the viable count at 3loC. 19 Z 0 O ILI m ct IJI Eh...

Patel, Sudhir Desaibhai

2012-06-07

396

Viable capture and release of cancer cells in human whole blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present viable cancer cell isolation devices utilizing the physical properties of cells. The tapered slit structure is proposed to isolate cancer cells from blood cells and collect them by reversed flow. From the experimental study using the spiked cancer cells in human whole blood, we verified the capability of the present cancer cell isolation chip in terms of capture efficiency, viability, and release rate. The viable cancer cells obtained from the present chip can be used for the further applications of cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and new target drug development for cancer stem cells.

Doh, Il; Yoo, Hwan-il; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Jinseon; Kwan Kim, Hong; Kim, Jhingook

2012-07-01

397

A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy  

E-print Network

not stained. Non-viable cells are stained selectively The root cap, consisting of columella and lateral root cap, gation zone of the root (Figure 2) [6]. Cells at the end of the lateral root cap die, thus exposing the root epidermis [6]. The enhancer-trap line... Figure 2 SYTOX orange staining of non-viable lateral root cap cells. (A) to (D) Enhancer-trap line Q0171 expressing GFP (green) in the columella (c) and lateral root cap (lrc). (A), (C) Overlay projection image of Q0171 stained with propidium iodide...

Truernit, Elisabeth; Haseloff, Jim

2008-06-23

398

Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity?s access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today?s restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these challenges and propose an economically, politically, and legally viable ADR option. Much like waste management on Earth, cleaning up space junk will likely lie somewhere between a public good and a private sector service. An international, cooperative, public-private partnership concept can address many of these issues and be economically sustainable, while also driving the creation of a proper set of regulations, standards and best practices.

Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

2014-11-01

399

Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

Not Available

2005-07-01

400

Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed. PMID:24555722

Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C

2014-07-01

401

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

402

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

403

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

404

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-06-30

405

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-04-01

406

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

407

Technology and Economics, Inc. Technology Application Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology + Economics, Inc. (T+E), under contract to the NASA Headquarters Technology Transfer Division, operates a Technology Applications Team (TATeam) to assist in the transfer of NASA-developed aerospace technology. T+E's specific areas of interest are selected urban needs at the local, county, and state levels. T+E contacts users and user agencies at the local, state, and county levels to assist in identifying significant urban needs amenable to potential applications of aerospace technology. Once viable urban needs have been identified in this manner, or through independent research, T+E searches the NASA technology database for technology and/or expertise applicable to the problem. Activities currently under way concerning potential aerospace applications are discussed.

Ballard, T.; Macfadyen, D. J.

1981-01-01

408

A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grmsvtn volcanic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water before and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from a nearby

Eric Gaidos; Brian Lanoil; Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson; Andrew Graham; Mark Skidmore; Suk-Kyun Han; Terri Rust; Brian Popp

2004-01-01

409

Research Paper A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grmsvtn vol- canic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water be- fore and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from

ERIC GAIDOS; BRIAN LANOIL; THORSTEINN THORSTEINSSON; ANDREW GRAHAM; MARK SKIDMORE; SUK-KYUN HAN; TERRI RUST; BRIAN POPP

410

ESTIMATION OF DOWNWIND VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES FROM A WET COOLING TOWER - INCLUDING SETTLING  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years, reuse of municipal waste water as the coolant in drift-producing cooling towers at electrical generating plants has become increasingly common. A hueristic model is presented that can be used to estimate the concentrations of viable airborne microbes in the drift...

411

The use of object based event driven simulation modelling to assess viable contractor support options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the use of an innovative object based support simulation modelling approach, that utilises an ODBC link to combine data generated for a logistic support analysis record (LSAR) with a flexible simulation software product, we are able to easily assess the complexity and content of viable support approaches early in the acquisition phase of the life cycle. Support concept modelling

I. Triplow; S. Crosby

2003-01-01

412

Waterbird-mediated passive dispersal is a viable process for crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)  

E-print Network

Waterbird-mediated passive dispersal is a viable process for crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) Pedro M and active dispersal of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) con- tribute to its rapid spread and should be considered when managing its invasions. Keywords Crayfish � Procambarus clarkii � Passive

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

413

Conversion of viable but nonculturable enteric bacteria to culturable by co-culture with eukaryotic cells.  

PubMed

Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139, V. parahaemolyticus, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, and Salmonella enterica were converted to the culturable state by co-culture with selected eukaryotic cells, e.g., HT-29, Caco-2, T84, HeLa, Intestine 407, and CHO cells. PMID:22537150

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Colwell, Rita R; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

2012-05-01

414

Evaluating most probable number method to count and isolate viable methylotrophs  

PubMed Central

Nine different receptacles were tested with the MPN method to determine which receptacle was most reliable and economical for MPN counts. Results showed that 96 well PCR plate were the best vessels for this type of analysis and facilitated the isolation of viable Methylotrophs. PMID:24031603

Kashyap, S.

2011-01-01

415

Minimum viable population and reserve sizes for naturally regulated grizzly bears in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating minimum viable population and reserve size is a fundamental cornerstone of conservation biologybut these estimates require representative demographic parameters. For example, Benchmark Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) Management Units in British Columbia (BC) are defined as unhunted and naturally regulated populations that can serve as population sources to surrounding hunted areas and provide information on natural population processes. Such benchmarks

Robert B. Wielgus

2002-01-01

416

Finding viable seed URLs for web corpora: a scouting approach and comparative study of available sources  

E-print Network

Finding viable seed URLs for web corpora: a scouting approach and comparative study of available rely heavily on URLs ob- tained from search engines. Recently, the corresponding querying process are needed. My scouting approach using open-source software leads to a URL di- rectory enriched with metadata

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.110(4)-2.610(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706

Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

2013-07-01

418

To investigate service-learning as a viable method to cultivate deeper understandings  

E-print Network

To investigate service-learning as a viable method to cultivate deeper understandings of course.00 4.50 5.00 Series1 Series2 Series3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Series1 Series2 Series3 Service-learning is a course chose the Service-learning option (SL) 17 students chose the traditional field experience (NSL

Hutcheon, James M.

419

Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia JR32 by Acanthamoeba castellanii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella pneumophila is an aquatic bacterium and is responsible for Legionnaires' disease in humans. Free-living amoebae are parasitized by legionellae and provide the intracellular environment required for the replication of this bacterium. In low-nutrient environments, however, L. pneumophila is able to enter a non- replicative viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. In this study, L. pneumophila Philadelphia I JR 32 was

MICHAEL STEINERT; LEVENTE EMODY; RUDOLF AMANN; JORG HACKER

1997-01-01

420

Automation of agricultural harvesting equipment in the near term appears both economically viable and techni-  

E-print Network

viable and techni- cally feasible. This paper describes the Demeter system for automated harvesting. Demeter is a computer-con- trolled speedrowing machine, equipped with a pair of video cameras and a global positioning sensor for naviga- tion. Demeter is capable of planning harvesting opera- tions for an entire

Stentz, Tony

421

Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt  

E-print Network

Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt Swedish:23 ISSN 1100-3154 ISRN:SICS-T­2003/23-SE Abstract The TCP/IP protocol suite, which has proven itself to enable the use of TCP/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared context

422

Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt  

E-print Network

Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt Swedish Institute of Computer Science {adam,alonso,thiemo}@sics.se Abstract-- The TCP/IP protocol suite, which has that are intended to enable the use of TCP/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared

Voigt, Thiemo

423

An isothermal absorptiometric assay for viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid isothermal absorptiometric assay for detection of viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) was studied. The absorbance of DCPIP decreased at 600 nm because of a redox reaction occurring between DCPIP and the surface membrane of viable microbes and was inversely proportional to the viable cell density. The redox reaction was found not only with bacteria, but also with yeast and a mixture of bacteria and yeast. In this assay, the influence of light scattering and absorption caused by microbial cells and coexisting substances in the sample was excluded by a time difference method. The assay required only 10 min for one incubation mixture, and highly repeatable results from three consecutive measurements were obtained by isothermal incubation for specific times at 30 C using a thermostable three-cuvette-stir system. Thus, the cell density of microbial cell suspensions or growth medium was successfully determined, and a practical lower detection limit for food inspection was obtained at 10?-10? cfu/ml. Single-cell effects on DCPIP reduction were evaluated and compared between species. Consequently, this assay is expected to be a useful tool for the rapid measurement of viable microbes as a preliminary assay for the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point program. PMID:23871996

Nakamura, Hideaki; Hattori, Daisuke; Tokunaga, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yusuke

2013-10-15

424

Controlled viable release of selectively captured label-free cells in microchannels  

E-print Network

methods have been demonstrated in microfluidic systems, the release of captured cells remains%), and release efficiency (59% ? 4%). We have further validated our system by specifically capturingControlled viable release of selectively captured label-free cells in microchannels Umut Atakan

Demirci, Utkan

425

Diet-induced hypermethylation at agouti viable yellow is not inherited transgenerationally through the female  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nonmutagenic environ- mental exposures can sometimes be transmitted for several generations, suggesting transgenerational inher- itance of induced epigenetic variation. Methyl donor supplementation of female mice during pregnancy induces CpG hypermethylation at the agouti viable yellow (Avy) allele in Avy\\/a offspring. Epigenetic inheri- tance occurs at Avy; when passed through the female germ line, Avy epigenotype is not

Robert A. Waterland; Michael Travisano; Kajal G. Tahiliani

2007-01-01

426

Microfinance Strategies: Strategies for developing viable microfinance institutions and sustainable microfinancial services in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most Asian countries including Vietnam, inadequate access of small farmers and microentepreneurs including women and the poor to effective financial services presents a major challenge. Such services must include facilities to deposit microsavings, access to microcredit for production, consumption and emergencies, and the provision of some basic insurance. Only viable financial institutions with sound practices will be able to

Hans Dieter Seibel

1996-01-01

427

A Comparison of the Management Systems of Traditional and Alternative Public High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the managerial systems and organizational climate of alternative and traditional public high schools. Three of the four administrative variables used in this comparison show a distinct difference between the two types of schools and suggest that alternative schools possess the organizational ability to create a viable managerial model that deserves serious consideration and further research.

John Nirenberg

1977-01-01

428

Regionalization of laboratory care: a viable option for the 21st century.  

PubMed

The conversion of the hospital laboratory to a cost center under pressure of prospective payment and fixed reimbursement is increasingly forcing hospitals to consider alternative modes for delivery of laboratory care. Changes in the health care environment, amended statutes and regulations, and, particularly, dramatic developments in laboratory equipment, methodologies, and data processing technology make it advisable and feasible to contemplate the creation of regional laboratory consortia. A fundamental step in this direction is the "commercialization" of the hospital laboratory through a change in focus from being an in-house support program to becoming a regional resource. By the same token, the hospital laboratory can become an effective competitor of independent laboratories and be reconverted to a profit center. Creation of hospital laboratory consortia in a splintered, competitive environment requires a committed entrepreneurial effort and convincing evidence of potential benefits. The sequence of steps needed to achieve regional laboratory integration include concerting the goals and objectives of the interested parties, creating an appropriate committee structure, conducting a feasibility assessment, identifying alternative organizational and operational options, selecting a favorite option viewed by all parties as a win/win proposition, developing a business plan, and determining an implementation action plan. The major disadvantages of regionalization of laboratories are employee displacement, potential leveling of quality standards, and reduced hospital control. The major advantages include elimination of duplicate capital, personnel, and service costs, improved efficiency through test batching, reduced unit costs, increased technical capability through staff, instrument, and systems sharing, disengagement from hospital-imposed limitations, strengthened ability to penetrate the marketplace, freeing of hospital space for more direct patient care activities, and achieving a means for bonding physicians to the institutions. PMID:10110924

Steiner, J W; Root, J M

1990-06-01

429

Approximating pollution abatement costs via alternative specifications of a multi-output production technology: a case of the US electric utility industry.  

PubMed

Using a panel of observations from the US electric utility industry, we analyze the output set frontiers that are produced by modeling the technology with different functional forms. Our specifications rely on a series of mapping regimes, based on the paths in which the outputs are scaled toward the frontier, and their outcomes are assessed against the general axiomatic framework of the production model. We demonstrate that different parameterization methodologies produce different empirical analogues of the output set and, as a consequence, can generate rather different estimates of the shadow prices of socially undesirable outputs, or 'bads,' as well. We benchmark our results by assessing the shadow price estimates, often interpreted as the opportunity cost of pollution reduction, against the market prices of pollution permits. The outcomes of our analysis suggest that the estimate of the output set boundary varies with the choice of a parameterization technique, which provides a possible explanation for the sizeable differences between the shadow prices of bads reported in the literature. We also demonstrate that among a variety of existing parametric methodologies no single technique is superior to all others. PMID:16377071

Vardanyan, Michael; Noh, Dong-Woon

2006-07-01

430

Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

Kevin L Kenney

2011-09-01

431

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

432

Study of the production of alkaline keratinases in submerged cultures as an alternative for solid waste treatment generated in leather technology.  

PubMed

Six nonpathogenic fungal strains isolated from alkaline soils of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus sidowii, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Neurospora tetrasperma, Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), and Westerdikella dispersa) were tested for their ability to produce keratinolytic enzymes. Strains were grown on feather meal agar as well as in solid-state and submerged cultures, using a basal mineral medium and "hair waste" as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. All the tested fungi grew on feather meal agar, but only three of them were capable of hydrolyzing keratin, producing clear zones. Among these strains, P. lilacinum produced the highest proteolytic and keratinolytic activities, both in solid-state and submerged fermentations. The medium composition and culture conditions for the keratinases production by P. lilacinum were optimized. Addition of glucose (5 g/l) and yeast extract (2.23 g/l) to the basal hair medium increased keratinases production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for the enzyme production were 28? and 6.0, respectively. A beneficial effect was observed when the original concentration of four metal ions, present in the basal mineral medium, was reduced up to 1:10. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 15.96 Uc/ml in the optimal hair medium; this value was about 6.5-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. These results suggest that keratinases from P. lilacinum can be useful for biotechnological purposes such as biodegradation (or bioconversion) of hair waste, leading to a reduction of the environmental pollution caused by leather technology with the concomitant production of proteolytic enzymes and protein hydrolyzates. PMID:23711525

Cavello, Ivana A; Chesini, Mariana; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastin F

2013-01-01

433

Materials research for advanced inertial instrumentation. Task 3: Rare earth magnetic material technology as related to gyro torquers and motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of SmCo5 magnets can now be considered a viable alternative to sinter technology. Qualities of magnets are usually better. Even in as HIPed condition the magnetic properties compare favorably with commercial sintered magnets. Thermal optimization following the HIP procedure further improves the properties. Unique in these magnets, as opposed to sintered magnets, are the consistently high H subscript ci values obtained over the entire composition range of 35.5 to 37.0 weight percent m. It was interesting to note that the higher Sm compositions showed very little degradation of coercivity on slow cooling from aging temperature.

Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Wettstein, E.

1980-12-01

434

Looking for an Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

Kennedy, Jack

1999-01-01

435

CAGE--COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

CAGE provides information on low-emitting alternative coating technologies to coatings users and technical assistance program representatives. The Coatings GuideTM, a pollution prevention tool for paints and coatings users, contains several tools to help users identify low-volati...

436

Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

Not Available

2009-04-01

437

Alternative energy sources. Part B  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future

Manassah

1981-01-01

438

Alternative energy sources. Part A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings of the 'Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences' held in February 1980, are presented. Papers discuss enhanced oil recovery, tar sands technology,synthetic fuels from coal, production of synthetic fuels from biomass, ethanol from biomass, prospects for photovoltic conversion of solar energy, and the wind energy programme in

Manassah

1981-01-01

439

Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. PMID:24157855

Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B.; Philipp, Mario T.

2013-01-01

440

Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes.  

PubMed

In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. PMID:24157855

Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B; Philipp, Mario T

2013-11-27

441

Viable Fertile Mice Generated from Fully Pluripotent iPS Cells Derived from Adult Somatic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could produce viable mice through tetraploid complementation,\\u000a which was thought to be the most stringent test for pluripotency. However, these highly pluripotent iPS cells were previously\\u000a reported to be generated from fibroblasts of embryonic origin. Achieving fully pluripotent iPS cells from multiple cell types,\\u000a especially easily accessible adult tissues, will lead

Xiao-yang Zhao; Wei Li; Zhuo Lv; Lei Liu; Man Tong; Tang Hai; Jie Hao; Xiang Wang; Liu Wang; Fanyi Zeng; Qi Zhou

2010-01-01

442

Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Herv

2013-01-01

443

New Targeted Fluorescent-Imaging Compound Allows Researchers to Detect Viable Cancer Cells in Mice  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have developed a new type of imaging compound that allows them to visualize viable breast cancer cells that have spread to the lungs in mice. The compound binds to a protein called HER2, which is found on the surface of some breast cancer cells, and it glows, or fluoresces, only when taken inside living cells. This method of targeting and activation allowed researchers to detect specific types of live cancer cells in a mouse model of breast cancer.

444

Characterization of Viable Bacteria from Siberian Permafrost by 16S rDNA Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable bacteria were found in permafrost core samples from the Kolyma-Indigirka lowland of northeast Siberia. The samples\\u000a were obtained at different depths; the deepest was about 3 million years old. The average temperature of the permafrost is\\u000a ?10C. Twenty-nine bacterial isolates were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology,\\u000a Gram staining, endospore formation, and growth at 30C.

T. Shi; R. H. Reeves; D. A. Gilichinsky; E. I. Friedmann

1997-01-01

445

Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to resuscitate. The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the resuscitation of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Herve

2013-01-01

446

Isolation and identification of viable bacteria within acrylic resin denture bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study aimed to isolate and identify the microbial species within acrylic resin denture bases. Bacteria were detected\\u000a from within acrylic resin denture bases. Lactobacillus species, Actinomyces, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium species were predominantly identified. The present study revealed that viable bacteria existed within acrylic resin denture\\u000a bases suggesting that the bacteria and their metabolites may be related to the deterioration

Yasuhisa Takeuchi; Kazuko Nakajo; Takuichi Sato; Yoko Sakuma; Keiichi Sasaki; Nobuhiro Takahashi

447

Real-time in vivo monitoring of viable stem cells implanted on biocompatible scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThree-dimensional fibrous scaffolds provide an environment that enhances transplanted stem cell survival in vivo and facilitates\\u000a imaging their localization, viability, and growth in vivo. To assess transplanted stem cell viability on biocompatible polymer\\u000a scaffolds in vivo, we developed in vivo imaging systems for evaluation of implanted viable neural stem cells (NSC) and mesenchymal\\u000a stem cells (MSC) on scaffolds using luciferase

Do Won Hwang; Sung June Jang; Yun Hui Kim; Hyun Joo Kim; In Kyong Shim; Jae Min Jeong; June-Key Chung; Myung Chul Lee; Seung Jin Lee; Seung U. Kim; Soonhag Kim; Dong Soo Lee

2008-01-01

448

Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries.  

PubMed

Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for the isolation of DNA and RNA from plaque biofilms formed in vivo to analyse the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and the Streptococcus mutans population via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and specific primers; the same samples were also analysed by counting colony-forming units (CFU). In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from the same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via reverse transcription-qPCR. The viable populations of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P??0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P?=?0.0022, r?=?0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (> 7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analysed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. PMID:22958384

Klein, M I; Scott-Anne, K M; Gregoire, S; Rosalen, P L; Koo, H

2012-10-01

449

Birth of viable female dogs produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the only viable cloned offspring born in dogs was a male, the purpose of the present study was to produce female puppies by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Adult ear fibroblasts from a 2-month-old female Afghan hound were isolated and used as donor cells. In vivo-matured canine oocytes surgically collected (approximately 72h after ovulation) from the oviducts of 23

G. Jang; M. K. Kim; H. J. Oh; M. S. Hossein; Y. H. Fibrianto; S. G. Hong; J. E. Park; J. J. Kim; H. J. Kim; S. K. Kang; D. Y. Kim; B. C. Lee

2007-01-01

450

Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

2011-11-01

451

Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research  

PubMed Central

Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures. PMID:24216981

Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Wilson, John; Jeffree, Rosalind L.; Jamieson, Paul R.; Ensbey, Kathleen S.; Bruce, Zara C.; Inglis, Po; Allan, Suzanne; Winter, Craig; Tollesson, Gert; Campbell, Scott; Lucas, Peter; Findlay, Wendy; Kadrian, David; Johnson, David; Robertson, Thomas; Johns, Terrance G.; Bartlett, Perry F.; Osborne, Geoffrey W.; Boyd, Andrew W.

2013-01-01

452

Mice carrying a complete deletion of the talin2 coding sequence are viable and fertile  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking talin2 are viable and fertile with only a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Talin2 null fibroblasts show no major defects in proliferation, adhesion or migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a colony of talin2 null mice is difficult indicating an underlying defect. -- Abstract: Mice homozygous for several Tln2 gene targeted alleles are viable and fertile. Here we show that although the expression of talin2 protein is drastically reduced in muscle from these mice, other tissues continue to express talin2 albeit at reduced levels. We therefore generated a Tln2 allele lacking the entire coding sequence (Tln2{sup cd}). Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice were viable and fertile, and the genotypes of Tln2{sup cd/+} intercrosses were at the expected Mendelian ratio. Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice showed no major difference in body mass or the weight of the major organs compared to wild-type, although they displayed a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Moreover, Tln2{sup cd/cd} mouse embryo fibroblasts showed no obvious defects in cell adhesion, migration or proliferation. However, the number of Tln2{sup cd/cd} pups surviving to adulthood was variable suggesting that such mice have an underlying defect.

Debrand, Emmanuel; Conti, Francesco J.; Bate, Neil; Spence, Lorraine; Mazzeo, Daniela; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Monkley, Susan J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Critchley, David R., E-mail: drc@le.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

2012-09-21

453

Viable quantitative PCR for assessing the response of Candida albicans to antifungal treatment.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) treatment has been used before nucleic acid detection methods, such as PCR, to distinguish between live and dead cells using membrane integrity as viability criterion. The performance of these DNA intercalating dyes was compared in many studies utilizing different microorganisms. These studies demonstrated that EMA and PMA differ in their abilities to identify nonviable cells from mixed cell populations, depending on the microorganism and the nature of the sample. Due to this heterogeneity, both dyes were used in the present study to specifically distinguish dead from live Candida albicans cells using viable quantitative PCR (qPCR). The viable qPCR was optimized, and the best results were obtained when pre-treating the cells for 10min in the dark with 25?M EMA followed by continuous photoactivation for 15min. The suitability of this technique to distinguish clotrimazole- and fluconazole-treated C. albicans cells from untreated cells was then assessed. Furthermore, the antifungal properties of two commercial essential oils (Thymus vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla) were evaluated. The viable qPCR method was determined to be a feasible technique for assessing the viability of C. albicans after drug treatment and may help to provide a rapid diagnostic and susceptibility testing method for fungal infections, especially for patients treated with antifungal therapies. PMID:23132341

Agust, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morat, Jordi; Codony, Francesc

2013-01-01

454

Assessment of viable bacteria and bacterial DNA in blood and bloodstain specimens stored under various conditions.  

PubMed

Microbial forensic specimens that are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes include blood, tissue, cloths containing biological fluids, swabs, water, soil, and aerosols. It is preferable that pathogens in such specimens are alive and kept in a steady state. Specimens may be stored for a prolonged period before analysis; therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the storage conditions on the pathogens contained within the specimens. In this study, we prepared blood and bloodstain specimens containing Gram-negative or -positive bacteria, stored the samples for 482 days under various conditions, and measured viable bacterial counts and total bacterial contents in the samples. Viable bacteria were preserved well in the samples stored at-30 and-80C, but were diminished or undetectable in the samples stored at 4C and room temperature. The total bacterial content was maintained in the blood samples stored at-30 and-80C and in the bloodstain samples stored under all temperature conditions, but decreased in the blood samples stored at 4C and room temperature. This study showed that the storage conditions affected viable bacteria and bacterial DNA and that freezing and drying were significant for their long-term storage. We provide important information for the storage of microbial forensic specimens. PMID:24237815

Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

2013-11-01

455

Glioma surgical aspirate: a viable source of tumor tissue for experimental research.  

PubMed

Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures. PMID:24216981

Day, Bryan W; Stringer, Brett W; Wilson, John; Jeffree, Rosalind L; Jamieson, Paul R; Ensbey, Kathleen S; Bruce, Zara C; Inglis, Po; Allan, Suzanne; Winter, Craig; Tollesson, Gert; Campbell, Scott; Lucas, Peter; Findlay, Wendy; Kadrian, David; Johnson, David; Robertson, Thomas; Johns, Terrance G; Bartlett, Perry F; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Boyd, Andrew W

2013-01-01

456

The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed. PMID:24917854

Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D; Faucher, Sebastien P

2014-01-01

457

Technology Theme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of technology. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Material is divided into four sections.

Garrahy, Dennis J.

458

Rapid and Sensitive Enumeration of Viable Diluted Cells of Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae in Freshwater and Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality assessment involves the specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of bacterial indicators and pathogens in water samples, including viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. This work evaluates the specificity and sensitivity of a new method which combines a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach with a physiological assay (direct viable count (DVC)) for the direct enumeration, at the single-cell level,

Julia Baudart; Josee Coallier; Patrick Laurent; Michele Prevost

2002-01-01

459

Buried, viable seeds in two California bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete description of a plant community must include the buried viable seeds in the soil. The plants occurring in this form are a part of the flora, which helps to determine the community, even though they are not readily evident. The importance of defining an ecosystem's flora is reviewed. When the soil's buried viable seed population is used to

Jack Major; William T. Pyott

1966-01-01

460

Improved performance alternator with fully integrated Switched-Mode Rectifier  

E-print Network

The use of Power Electronic circuits has helped to advance the technology of automotive alternators. The use of a Switched-Mode Rectifier (SMR) allows the alternator to run at a load-matched condition, optimizing power and ...

Mesa, Armando

2008-01-01