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1

Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

Demers, Denise

1989-01-01

2

Fracture Mapping Has Become a Viable Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia Laboratories has continued the development of massive hydraulic fracture mapping techniques and has participated in several experiments where all the existing technology was applied. The development of the surface electrical potential system has be...

C. L. Schuster

1979-01-01

3

Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO technology, its capabilities and its limitations. The paper will investigate how FSO technology has evolved to its current stage for deployment in MANs, LANs, wireless backhaul and metropolitan network extensions - applications that fall within the category of last mile. The paper will address the market, drivers and the adoption of FSO, plus provide a projection of future FSO technology, based on today's product roadmaps. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations.

Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

2001-10-01

4

Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?  

SciTech Connect

As clusters are widely accepted as cost-effective infrastructures for many scientific and commercial applications, improving the deliverable performance and reducing the energy consumption of such systems has become a pressing issue. In this paper, we exploit the feasibility of achieving these objectives through efficiently scheduling the communicating processes of parallel applications. In this context, we conduct an in-depth evaluation of a broad spectrum of scheduling alternatives for clusters. These include the widely used batch scheduling, local scheduling, gang scheduling, all prior communication-driven coscheduling algorithms, and a newly proposed HYBRID coscheduling algorithm. In order to provide ease of implementation and portability across many cluster platforms, we propose a generic framework for deploying any coscheduling algorithm. We have implemented four prior coscheduling algorithms (Dynamic Coscheduling (DCS), Spin Block (SB), Periodic Boost (PB), and Co-ordinated Coscheduling (CC)) and the HYBRID coscheduling using this framework on a 16-node, Myrinet connected Linux cluster that uses GM as the communication layer. In addition, we use PBS as the batch scheduler and a previously proposed gang scheduler (SCore) to analyze all classes of scheduling techniques. Performance and energy measurements using several NAS and LLNL benchmarks on the Linux cluster provide several interesting conclusions. First, although batch scheduling is currently used in most clusters, all blocking-based coscheduling techniques such as SB, CC and HYBRID and the gang scheduling can provide much better performance even in a dedicated cluster platform. Under high system load, these coscheduling schemes can provide orders of magnitude reduction in average response time and much better performance-energy behavior compared to the PBS scheme. Second, in contrast to some of the prior studies, we observe that blocking-based schemes like SB and HYBRID can provide better performance than spin-based techniques like PB on a Linux platform. Third, the proposed HYBRID scheduling provides the best performance-energy behavior and can be implemented on any cluster with little effort. All these results suggest that blocking-based coscheduling techniques are viable candidates to be used instead of batching scheme for significant performance-energy benefits.

Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

2003-11-10

5

A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

Hester, Jesse Stuart

6

Niobium Technological Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process-product matrix of Niobium is presented, through which the technological alternatives for Niobium are identified. It is shown that the three axes of Niobium application, steels, superalloys and metallic Niobium have a tendency to be economical ...

A. F. Sartori C. A. Baldan C. R. Dainesi D. G. Pinatti W. P. Longo

1981-01-01

7

Alternative energy technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

Dresselhaus, M. S.; Thomas, I. L.

2001-11-01

8

Alternative energy technologies.  

PubMed

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising. PMID:11713539

Dresselhaus, M S; Thomas, I L

2001-11-15

9

Alternative energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

M. S. Dresselhaus; I. L. Thomas

2001-01-01

10

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

11

Centre for Alternative Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

2007-06-28

12

Alternative Energy Technologies in Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities for developing alternative energy technologies in Brazil are many and varied. Some of them are peculiar to the country; others are applicable elsewhere. This report outlines many possibilities, such as solar energy, water power, and bio-...

J. M. F. Miccolis

1977-01-01

13

Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.  

PubMed

Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples. PMID:22612929

Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

2012-06-01

14

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

15

The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts Harvested Using a Novel Technical Approach  

PubMed Central

A multitude of vascular conduits are available to the Cardiac Surgeon performing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operations. The Internal Mammary Artery, Radial Artery (RA), and the Long Saphenous Vein (LSV) have proven to be excellent conduits, especially in the current era of statin usage. However, previous stripping or varicosities of the LSV and calcification of the RA, coupled with the need for multiple vessel grafting, requires an alternative candidate. We describe a novel harvesting technique for bilateral simultaneous Short Saphenous Vein harvest and propose this, often forgotten vein, as a viable alternative conduit.

Sarwar, Umran; Chetty, Govind; Sarkar, Pradip

2012-01-01

16

Technology alternatives for the SPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerging technologies may offer advantages over those selected for the reference design adopted for the SPS. While it is not possible to list all the technological innovations that may affect the SPS, it is feasible to develop a systematic methodology for assessing technical alternatives. This may be of value in evaluating proposed technologies and identifying high priority areas for research. Such a methodology includes involves (1) variation of guidelines; (2) analysis of system functions; (3) analysis of system sensitivity; (4) analysis of technology status and risk; and (5) external costs, problem areas, and criticisms of the SPS concept. The methodology is a first step towards the creation of a formal decision analytic framework which can support design choices and program decisions as development proceeds.

Glaser, P.; Chapman, P. K.

1980-01-01

17

Rural Energy Centres based on renewables: Case study on an effective and viable alternative  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Rural Energy Centers based on renewable sources of energy are considered to be a viable option for meeting the energy needs of remote rural areas. The concept being pursued here is based on an appropriate combination of solar wind and bioconversion systems. The concept also aims at meeting all energy needs of all the inhabitants rather than making only electricity available to those who can afford it. The Khandia experiment is an exercise to prove the relevance and economic viability of the concept and the results so far have been very encouraging.

Jain, B.C.

1987-09-01

18

Rural energy centres based on renewables - Case study on an effective and viable alternative  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Rural Energy Centres based on renewable sources of energy are considered to be a viable option for meeting the energy needs of remote rural areas. The concept being pursued here is based on an appropriate combination of solar, wind and bioconversion systems. The concept also aims at meeting all energy needs of all the inhabitants rather than making only electricity available to those who can afford it. The Khandia experiment is an exercise to prove the relevance and economic viability of the concept and the results so far have been very encouraging.

Jain, B.C.

1986-01-01

19

A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

2011-10-01

20

Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing, including…

Plank, Gary A.

2001-01-01

21

Is a Finance-led growth regime a viable alternative to Fordism? A preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability and desirability of a finance-led growth regime is first assessed against the historical evidence about the many alternative regimes that have been proposed as successors to Fordism. A purely hypothetical model is then built by assembling various hypotheses derived from the observation of current American trends. The imposition of financial norms, such as shareholder value, requires a new

Robert Boyer

2000-01-01

22

Viable alternative to N719 for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A new synthetically facile heteroleptic ruthenium(II) sensitizer (NBu(4))[Ru(4,7-dpp)(dcbpyH)(NCS)(2)], coded as YS5, where NBu(4) is tetrabutylammonium, 4,7-dpp is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, and dcbpyH is the singly deprotonated surface anchoring derivative of 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine (dcbpyH(2)), was designed, synthesized, and incorporated into regenerative mesoscopic titania-based dye-sensitized solar cells. The sensitizer has characteristic broad, high extinction coefficient MLCT bands spanning the visible spectrum. The compound was fully characterized by 1D and 2D (1)H NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS, UV-vis, photoluminescence, Raman, IR, and electrochemistry. YS5 exhibits strong visible absorption properties with a molar extinction coefficient of 1.71 x 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) at its 522 nm maximum. In operational liquid junction-based DSSCs under simulated AM 1.5G one-sun excitation (100 mW/cm(2)), the photovoltaic performance of YS5 compares almost equally against the current benchmark sensitizer N719 in side-by-side comparisons, producing a power conversion efficiency of 6.05% with a maximum IPCE of 65% at 540 nm. The data presented in this manuscript strongly suggest that YS5 is indeed a viable sensitizer for nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based DSSCs, seemingly poised for widespread adaptation. PMID:20565060

Sun, Yali; Onicha, Anthony C; Myahkostupov, Mykhaylo; Castellano, Felix N

2010-07-01

23

On-site sanitation: a viable alternative to modern wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Rapid population growth and urbanization are exerting excessive pressure on soil and water resources. To address these problems this paper proposes a cheap and sustainable alternative sanitation system, which accelerates nutrient recycling ("closing the loop"): ecological sanitation (ecosan) is a potential alternative to conventional sanitation systems that replenishes the organic matter and nutrients of the soil that are taken off as the crop harvest. A comparison is made of the environmental and the operation and maintenance costs between a modern wastewater treatment plant and on-site sanitation. An elevated double box urine diverting toilet ("ecotoilet") is proposed and its advantages and disadvantages over a system with a centrally controlled modern WWTP are discussed. Bagmati Area Sewerage Project in Kathmandu is taken as an example of modern WWTP and ecosan being practiced in a village in Nepal is taken as an example of ecotoilet for the comparison. PMID:17305168

Lamichhane, K M

2007-01-01

24

Does concern-driven risk management provide a viable alternative to QRA?  

PubMed

This article discusses a concept of concern-driven risk management, in which qualitative expert judgments about whether concerns warrant specified risk management interventions are used in preference to quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to guide risk management decisions. Where QRA emphasizes formal quantitative assessment of the probable consequences caused by the recommended actions, and comparison to the probable consequences of alternatives, including the status quo, concern-driven risk management instead emphasizes perceived urgency or severity of the situation motivating recommended interventions. In many instances, especially those involving applications of the precautionary principle, no formal quantification or comparison of probable consequences for alternative decisions is seen as being necessary (or, perhaps, possible or desirable) prior to implementation of risk management measures. Such concern-driven risk management has been recommended by critics of QRA in several areas of applied risk management. Based on case studies and psychological literature on the empirical performance of judgment-based approaches to decision making under risk and uncertainty, we conclude that, although concern-driven risk management has several important potential political and psychological advantages over QRA, it is not clear that it performs better than (or as well as) QRA in identifying risk management interventions that successfully protect human health or achieve other desired consequences. Therefore, those who advocate replacing QRA with concern-driven alternatives, such as expert judgment and consensus decision processes, should assess whether their recommended alternatives truly outperform QRA, by the criterion of producing preferred consequences, before rejecting the QRA paradigm for practical applications. PMID:17362398

Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

2007-02-01

25

Absorbable fixation in forefoot surgery: a viable alternative to metallic hardware.  

PubMed

After 4 to 8 weeks of normal primary bone healing, rigid internal fixation is no longer required. Newer generation absorbable implants have become reliable and cost-effective alternatives to metallic hardware. Modern implants are formulated to have increased strength and smoother resorption over the course of 18 to 24 months, which decreases the possibility of local inflammation. Historically, bioresorbable screws can be time consuming to insert, but newer devices are being developed that help ease their insertion. A case of a bunionectomy is presented with double osteotomy on a 40-year-old nurse fixated with polyglycolic acid and poly-l-lactic acid copolymer screws. PMID:23827487

Nielson, David L; Young, Nathan J; Zelen, Charles M

2013-07-01

26

High Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA); a Viable Alternative to Agarose Gel Electrophoresis for Mouse Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Most mouse genetics laboratories maintain mouse strains that require genotyping in order to identify the genetically modified animals. The plethora of mutagenesis strategies and publicly available mouse alleles means that any one laboratory may maintain alleles with random or targeted insertions of orthologous or unrelated sequences as well as random or targeted deletions and point mutants. Many experiments require that different strains be cross bred conferring the need to genotype progeny at more than one locus. In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products. This requires a large amount of researcher time. Additionally it is susceptible to contamination of future genotyping experiments because it requires that tubes containing PCR products be opened for analysis. Progress has been made with the genotyping of mouse point mutants because a range of new high-throughput techniques have been developed for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. Some of these techniques are suitable for genotyping point mutants but do not detect insertion or deletion alleles. Ideally, mouse genetics laboratories would use a single, high-throughput platform that enables closed-tube analysis to genotype the entire range of possible insertion and deletion alleles and point mutants. Here we show that High Resolution Melt Analysis meets these criteria, it is suitable for closed-tube genotyping of all allele types and current genotyping assays can be converted to this technology with little or no effort.

Thomsen, Nicole; Ali, Radiya G.; Ahmed, Jehangir N.; Arkell, Ruth M.

2012-01-01

27

Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?  

PubMed

In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to ?g/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants. PMID:24053940

Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

2013-10-15

28

Botulinum toxin A with fissurectomy is a viable alternative to lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure.  

PubMed

Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is the gold standard surgical treatment for anal fissure. However, it carries potential complications, including fecal incontinence. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the outcome of botulinum toxin A injection coupled with fissurectomy ([BTX + FIS) versus LIS. There were 59 patients who underwent BTX + FIS or LIS over a 5-year period. LIS was performed in the standard fashion without fissurectomy. BTX + FIS entailed internal sphincter injection with 80 units of botulinum toxin A coupled with fissurectomy. Forty patients underwent LIS and 19 had BTX + FIS. The choice of operation was based on the patient's preference. Primary healing rate was 90 and 74 per cent in the LIS and BTX + FIS groups, respectively (P = 0.13). The complication rate was 10 per cent in the LIS vs 0 per cent in the BTX + FIS groups (P = 0.29). Complications of LIS included anal sepsis in one patient and flatal and/or fecal incontinence in three patients. During a mean follow up of 19 months; recurrence rate was 0 and 5 per cent in the LIS and BTX+FIS groups, respectively (P = 0.32). The results of this study demonstrate that BTX + FIS is a viable alternative to LIS for patients with chronic anal fissure and should be considered as an alternative first-line surgical therapy. PMID:19886136

Aivaz, Ohara; Rayhanabad, Jessica; Nguyen, Vincent; Haigh, Philip I; Abbas, Maher

2009-10-01

29

Alternative Energy Technologies: Fuel Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Allan J. Jacobson of the University of Houston provides an introduction to fuel cell technology. The history of fuel cells, the potential future applications of the technology, technical challenges involved and the specifics of hydrogen production are all outlined. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

Jacobson, Allan J.

2012-02-28

30

Alternative energy technologies in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is imperative that Brazil consider alternative energy production and conservation techniques in order to cope with the energy crisis. Brazil imports about 650,000 bbl.\\/day of petroleum, which accounts for more than 78 percent of total consumption. Oil amounts to 50 percent of the total energy utilized in Brazil. After a brief review of the energy resources in Brazil (water

Miccolis

1977-01-01

31

Closed-loop operation with alternative dewatering technology  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of dewatering devices for closed-loop drilling-fluid circulating systems and reserve pits is derived from technology that has been used in the industrial- and sanitary-waste treatment industries for years. This paper describes an overview of the need for closed-loop systems and provides the optimum design layout, including the fit of a dewatering device, for a drilling location. The introduction of a nonconventional dewatering device, called a screw press/thickener, is reviewed. A case history describing use of this technology in a southern Louisiana inland-marsh-area well is analyzed for the technical and economic viability of operating in a closed-loop mode. Results from this effort include a viable alternative to hauling off waste fluids from drilling sites and the realization that use of this technology can be justified economically.

Halliday, W.S.; Bray, R.P.; Youens, J.W.

1993-03-01

32

Technological Feasibility of Alternative Energy Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US energy shortage is discussed. The technology of coal gasification or liquefication, shale oil from oil shale, and geothermal energy recovery is presented in sufficient detail to show feasibility of these as energy source alternatives to petroleum c...

M. L. Zweigle

1974-01-01

33

Study of alternative probe technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

1977-01-01

34

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2011-07-01

35

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2012-07-01

36

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2010-07-01

37

Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

Shedrow, C.B.

1999-11-29

38

Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming  

SciTech Connect

Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

39

The Application of the Viable Systems Model to Information Technology Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology governance has become a key issue for organizations as IT decision-making authority and responsibility is devolved away from a central IT function to local IT units and increasingly out of the remit of IT specialists altogether. Research to date has either been conceptual treatises on the issue, or recounts the structures and mechanisms that are currently in place

Joe Peppard

2005-01-01

40

From R&D to the mouth--a viable roadmap for the technology era.  

PubMed

This article serves as an overview of the status of dental technology as the profession approaches a new century. Its purpose is to define various ways in which dental manufacturers and marketers can better understand the thinking of the dental professional, those factors that influence their thought processes and how to use this information to develop more effective and predictive marketing strategies. With the advent of more complex and expensive dental technologies, e.g., video imaging, digitized radiology, electronic data transmission, etc., the dentist is faced with a variety of decisions relating to purchasing, implementation and costs/benefits analysis that go beyond the normal daily concerns of delivering competent dental care. It is no longer enough for a manufacturer to make a good product; successful marketing strategies must also include a means for guiding the dentist in the successful integration of these technologies into their offices. In order for dental marketers to meet the competitive demands of this advanced technology era, there must be a commitment to the development of strategic information through the use of third party, customized marketing research. Too much of the input currently used to develop marketing strategies is anecdotal, inherently biased and often not representative of the target market as a whole. It is hoped that this article will effectively challenge the reader to look at the development of dental products and services from a somewhat different, less traditional perspective and that it will provide the impetus and direction for creating better targeted and more rewarding marketing strategies. PMID:8931238

Simon, M

1996-09-01

41

A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

2001-02-01

42

A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

43

Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-07-01

44

Video-taped coding of working model of the child interviews: a viable and useful alternative to verbatim transcripts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined inter-rater reliability in scoring a semi-structured representational interview, the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), using coders who scored either verbatim transcripts or video. Results indicated high levels of inter-rater agreement across methods. Direct coding of attachment-based interviews is an economical alternative to transcripts.

Katherine L. Rosenblum; Charles Zeanah; Susan McDonough; Maria Muzik

2004-01-01

45

The Mucilage of Opuntia Ficus Indica: A Natural, Sustainable, and Viable Water Treatment Technology for Use in Rural Mexico for Reducing Turbidity and Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of natural environmentally benign agents in the treatment of drinking water is rapidly gaining interest due to their inherently renewable character and low toxicity. We show that the common Mexican cactus produces a gum-like substance, cactus mucilage, which shows excellent flocculating abilities and is an economically viable alternative for low-income communities. Cactus mucilage is a neutral mixture of

Kevin Andrew Young

2006-01-01

46

Alternative Landfill Cover. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of an engineered cover is to isolate the underlying waste. A key element to isolating the wastes from the environment, engineered covers should minimize or prevent water from infiltrating into the landfill and coming into contact with the waste, thereby minimizing leachate generation. The U.S. EPA construction guidelines for soil hydraulic barriers specify that the soil moisture content and compactive effort may be increased to ensure that the barrier achieves a specified permeability of 1 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. However, constructing a soil barrier with high moisture content makes the soil more difficult to work and increases the required compactive effort to achieve the specified density, ultimately increasing the construction cost of the barrier. Alternative landfill cover designs rely on soil physical properties, hydraulic characteristics, and vegetation requirements to lower the flux rate of water through the cover. They can achieve greater reliability than the prescriptive RCRA Subtitle C design, especially under arid or semi-arid environmental conditions. With an alternative cover design, compacted soil barriers can be constructed with a soil moisture content that makes placement and compaction of the soil easier and less expensive. Under these conditions, the soil barrier has more capacity to absorb and control moisture within it, thereby enhancing the reliability of the barrier. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance, data.

NONE

2000-12-01

47

Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative  

PubMed Central

The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication.

DeFazio, Michael Vincent; Han, Kevin Dong

2014-01-01

48

Alternative Technology, Self-Sufficiency and the Future of Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report studies ways to improve peoples' social welfare while using fewer resources. The report addresses technological choice and research design; work, self-exploitation, and economic growth; alternative work and alternative production; practical di...

P. Read

1980-01-01

49

A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

50

Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL).  

PubMed

Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45 ?m has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-?s pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1 ?m, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73 ?m were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications. PMID:22278348

Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco

2012-11-01

51

Digital Technology: The Potential for Alternative Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates digital communication media in terms of two basic antagonisms of communications: vertical v horizontal and dominated v alternative communication. Analyzes four categories of digital communications in light of these antagonisms and suggests a strategy for alternatives dealing with issues of access, localism, and political and legal…

Hogrebe, Edmund F. M.

1981-01-01

52

Alternatives for Technology Transfer to the Enterprise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a general description of deep ocean mining (DOM) technology, sources for DOM technology, and identifies approaches and requirements for acquisition by the Enterprise, the organ of the authority that will carry out ocean mining activiti...

P. B. Grote W. A. Coleman G. M. Guard

1980-01-01

53

Promotional issues on alternative energy technologies in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative energy technologies are being disseminated in many countries with an objective to reduce the uses of traditional and commercial energy sources. These technologies convert local resources to usable energy forms. Since the scale of these technologies is small, their implementation is targeted mainly to individual households or small communities. However, due to various constraints, these implementation programmes have not

Shaligram Pokharel

2003-01-01

54

Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

1981-04-01

55

Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

1981-01-01

56

Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

1981-04-01

57

Empirical Comparison of Alternative Video Teletraining Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of the project was to explore technologically cost-effective ways to train personnel who are geographically remote from training resources. An empirical study was conducted to compare (1) training effectiveness and (2) user acceptanc...

H. Simpson H. L. Pugh S. W. Parchman

1991-01-01

58

Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

Amutha Rani, D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Deegan, D. [Tetronics Ltd., South Marston Business Park, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, C.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk

2008-11-15

59

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

60

Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 1, summary of central-station technologies  

SciTech Connect

A major element of the SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program is the characterization and comparative analysis of future terrestrial-based alternatives to SPS. A significant portion of this effort is the selection and characterization of six terrestrial central station electric generation systems that may be viable alternatives to SPS in the year 2000 and beyond. The objective of this report is to complete and document the physical and cost characterizations of six electric generation technologies of designated capacity. The technologies selected for the detailed characterization were: (1) solar technology: (a) terrestrial photovoltaic (200 MWe); (2) coal technologies: (a) conventional high sulfur coal combustion with advanced flue gas desulfurization (1250 MWe), and (b) open cycle gas turbine combined cycle plant with low Btu gasifier (1250 MWe); and (3) nuclear technologies: (a) conventional light water reactor (1250 MWe), (b) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (1250 MWe), and (c) magnetic fusion reactor (1320 MWe). A brief technical summary of each power plant design is given. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-08-01

61

Alternative Neutron Detection Technology for Homeland Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron detection is an essential aspect of interdiction of radiological threats for homeland security purposes since plutonium is a significant source of fission neutrons. Radiation portal monitoring (RPM) systems, of which there are thousands deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation purposes, currently use ^3He gas-filled proportional counters for detecting neutrons. Due to the large increase in use of ^3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. Consequently, a replacement technology for neutron detection is required in the very near future. In addition to alarming on the presence of actual neutron sources, homeland security applications also have a strict requirement for limiting neutron false alarms produced by a detector. This constrains any possible replacement neutron detection technology not to generate false neutron counts in the presence of a large gamma ray-only source. Of the currently available neutron detection technologies, BF3-filled proportional detectors, boron-lined proportional detectors, ^6Li-loaded scintillating glass fiber, or non-scintillating coated plastic fiber detectors are the possible replacements for ^3He detector technology---if they are proven to have appropriate capabilities.

Kouzes, Richard; Siciliano, Edward

2009-10-01

62

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines E Appendix E to Subpart...Part 35—Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines 1. Purpose. These...considered to be part of alternative technology systems for the purpose of this...

2011-07-01

63

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines E Appendix E to Subpart...Part 35—Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines 1. Purpose. These...considered to be part of alternative technology systems for the purpose of this...

2012-07-01

64

Technology alternatives to CFC/HCFC vapor compression  

SciTech Connect

Phaseouts of CFCs and HCFCs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer have caused many developments in replacement or alternative technologies for heat pumping. Some of this effort has been of an ``evolutionary`` nature where the designs of conventional vapor compression systems were adapted to use chlorine-free refrigerants. Other alternatives are more radical departures from conventional practice such as operating above the critical point of an alternative refrigerant. Revolutionary changes in technology based on cycles sor principles not commonly associated with refrigeration have also attracted interest. Many of these technologies are being touted because they are ``ozone-safe`` or because they do not use greenhouse gases as refrigerants. Basic principles and some advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed in this paper.

Fischer, S.

1996-08-01

65

Investigation of the technology development status of alternate fuel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of the introduction of alternate fuel vehicles is to contribute to the reduction of pollution, the alternate energy for petroleum, and the energy savings. This report describes the development status of methanol, natural gas, and electric vehicles, which have high potential as alternate fuel vehicles. Characteristics of alternate fuel vehicles are compared by using the same factors on the basis of technological data. Outlines of individual alternate fuel vehicles are illustrated. Then, practicabilities of the alternate fuel vehicles are compared with each other, as for the output and energy densities, maximum output and torque of motors, power performance, specific consumption of energy, driving distance, initial cost, running cost and life cycle cost, convenience of fuel and energy supply, low pollution, and health effects.

1993-03-01

66

Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification\\/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for

T. Wolsko; R. Whitfield; M. Samsa; L. S. Habegger; E. Levine; E. Tanzman

1981-01-01

67

Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

Fischer, S.

1998-07-01

68

Alternative Licensure Models for Technology Education. CTTE Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The licensure requirements for technology teachers vary widely from state to state. The goals of the alternative teacher licensure movement have been to allow more individuals to become certified as teachers more quickly and to attract more people with life experiences into teaching without the necessary completion of traditional undergraduate…

Litowitz, Len S.; Sanders, Mark

69

76 FR 539 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...101129594-0594-02] Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National...Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) published...Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS),...

2011-01-05

70

Outside the Box: Will Information Technology Be a Viable Intervention to Improve the Quality of Cancer Care?  

PubMed Central

The use of health information technology (IT) to resolve the crisis in communication inherent within the fragmented service environment of medical care in the United States is a strategic priority for the Department of Health and Human Services. Yet the deployment of health IT alone is not sufficient to improve quality in health service delivery; what is needed is a human factors approach designed to optimize the balance between health-care users, health-care providers, policies, procedures, and technologies. An evaluation of interface issues between primary and specialist care related to cancer reveals opportunities for human factors improvement along the cancer care continuum. Applications that emphasize cognitive support for prevention recommendations and that encourage patient engagement can help create a coordinated health-care environment conducive to cancer prevention and early detection. An emphasis on reliability, transparency, and accountability can help improve the coordination of activities among multiple service providers during diagnosis and treatment. A switch in emphasis from a transaction-based approach to one emphasizing long-term support for healing relationships should help improve patient outcomes during cancer survivorship and end-of-life care. Across the entire continuum of care, an emphasis on “meaningful use” of health IT—rather than on IT as an endpoint—should help put cancer on a path toward substantive continuous quality improvement. The accompanying research questions will focus on reducing the variance between the social and technical subsystems as IT is used to improve patient outcomes across the interfaces of care.

Hanna, Christopher; Massett, Holly A.

2010-01-01

71

Force-controlled spatial manipulation of viable mammalian cells and micro-organisms by means of FluidFM technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FluidFM technology uses microchanneled atomic force microscope cantilevers that are fixed to a drilled atomic force microscope cantilevers probeholder. A continuous fluidic circuit is thereby achieved extending from an external liquid reservoir, through the probeholder and the hollow cantilever to the tip aperture. In this way, both overpressure and an underpressure can be applied to the liquid reservoir and hence to the built-in fluidic circuit. We describe in this letter how standard atomic force microscopy in combination with regulated pressure differences inside the microchanneled cantilevers can be used to displace living organisms with micrometric precision in a nondestructive way. The protocol is applicable to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells (e.g., mammalian cells, yeasts, and bacteria) in physiological buffer. By means of this procedure, cells can also be transferred from one glass slide to another one or onto an agar medium.

Dörig, Pablo; Stiefel, Philipp; Behr, Pascal; Sarajlic, Edin; Bijl, Daniel; Gabi, Michael; Vörös, János; Vorholt, Julia A.; Zambelli, Tomaso

2010-07-01

72

Energy and Cost Saving Results for Advanced Technology Systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in...

G. D. Sagerman G. J. Barna R. K. Burns

1979-01-01

73

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Analytical approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of various advanced energy conversion systems were compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. The ground rules established by NASA and assumptions made by the General Electric Company in performing this cogeneration technology alternatives study are presented. The analytical methodology employed is described in detail and is illustrated with numerical examples together with a description of the computer program used in calculating over 7000 energy conversion system-industrial process applications. For Vol. 1, see 80N24797.

Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

74

Hot dry rock: A versatile alternative energy technology  

SciTech Connect

Hot dry rock (HDR) is the most abundant geothermal resource, and is found almost everywhere at depth. The technology to extract energy from HDR for practical use has been under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than twenty years. During the 1970`s, the possibility of mining the heat from HDR by circulating water through an engineered geothermal reservoir was first demonstrated on a small scale. Between 1980 and 1986 a larger, deeper, and hotter HDR reservoir was constructed. This large reservoir was subsequently mated to a permanent surface plant. A number of flow tests of this large HDR reservoir were conducted between 1991 and 1995. The results of these tests have indicated that it should be practical to operate an HDR heat mining facility to produce power on a sustained basis. An industry-led, government cost-shared project to produce and market energy generated from HDR is currently being put in place. That project should help demonstrate that HDR reservoirs can be operated to provide energy for long periods of time at rates sufficient to be commercially viable. In the longer run, additional applications of HDR technology such as water and waste treatment, and steam generation for oil field flooding may come into widespread use.

Duchane, D.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

1995-01-01

75

Cognitive Theory within the Framework of an Information Processing Model and Learning Hierarchy: Viable Alternative to the Bloom-Mager System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the current status of the human information processing model presents the Stahl Perceptual Information Processing and Operations Model (SPInPrOM) as a model of how thinking, memory, and the processing of information take place within the individual learner. A related system, the Domain of Cognition, is presented as an alternative to…

Stahl, Robert J.

76

Training courses on ''alternative energy technologies'' for middle level workers  

SciTech Connect

The Government of India has given priority to energy in the Sixth Plan. The Department of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy under Government of India and State Units connected with Alternative Energy Sources are taking all possible steps to promote the cause and use of Alternative Energy Sources like Solar, Wind, Biogas etc.. Besides several private Engineering concerns like Central Electronics Ltd., Shahibabad; Solaren Technologz Pvt. Ltd., Bombay; Avanti Fastners Ltd., New Delhi; Jyoti Ltd., Baroda; Voltas Ltd., Bombay; Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology, Allahabad; ORP Ltd., Gazipur etc. are either manufacturing or marketing alternative energy sources products like Solar Cookers, Solar heating systems, Windmills, Windturbines etc.. Kahdi and Village Industries Commission is already involved in a big way in installing Biogas Plants throughout the Country. As the use of Alternative Energy Sources is on the increase, the needfor qualified technical personnel to undertake maintenance and repairs is necessary. There are hundreds of Polytechnic offering Diploma Courses in traditional disciplines like Electrical, Mechanical, Civil etc.. Also Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) offer Certificate Courses in branches like Fitter, Welder, Draftsman etc..

Jagadeesh, A.

1983-12-01

77

Transgenic animal technology: alternatives in genotyping and phenotyping.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, breakthrough technologies in transgenic animal technology and functional genomics have played a central role in the explosive growth of rodent modeling and in scientific innovation. Various noninvasive alternatives to routine surgical biopsy have been described for genotypic and phenotypic analyses of laboratory animals. A number of options are available to refine or replace potentially painful and invasive procedures ranging from tissue biopsies (including tail biopsies and toe docking) to several blood sampling techniques. Unfortunately, adoption of many non- or minimally invasive alternatives has proven difficult on a number of fronts ranging from historical reservations to procedural expectations and actual experimental productivity. Similarly, a variety of phenotyping considerations have addressed throughput efficiencies and the health and well being of research animals. From an animal welfare perspective, marked increases in laboratory animal populations have accompanied rapid advancements spanning the life sciences. As described for rodent modeling, but with applications across many laboratory animal species, diverse procedural refinements are available that will readily aid in the analysis of whole animal models. Ultimately, non-invasive technologies and complementary refinements have bearing on the quality and reproducibility of data that are reported, as well as of critical importance to the well being and ethical management of animals at all developmental stages: from fetal existence, to the neonatal period, and on through adulthood. PMID:12784846

Pinkert, Carl A

2003-04-01

78

Determination of the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro: MGIT 960 as a viable alternative for BACTEC 460.  

PubMed

BACTEC 460 has now been phased out, so the search for an alternative is imperative. We have determined the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro, by using BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be 0.2, 0.8, 8.0, and 5.0 ?g/mL, respectively, by both methods. These results show a significant (p<0.001) concordance between minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained by these two different methods. MGIT 960 system uses a robust florescence quenching-based oxygen sensor, requires no radioisotope, is safe, and relatively easy to operate. Apparently, this is the first report wherein MGIT 960 has been validated for anti-tubercular susceptibility testing against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our preliminary data thus clearly demonstrate that the MGIT 960 method can be considered as a promising alternative to BACTEC 460 method. PMID:24709416

Jhamb, Sarbjit Singh; Goyal, Amit; Singh, Prati Pal

2014-01-01

79

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence.  

PubMed

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:21811389

Fuller, Philip; Roth, Sanford

2011-01-01

80

Alternative New Energy Options for Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief survey is presented on the technology state of development and economics of the new alternative energy sources which might in the future become viable energy options for Brazil. (Atomindex citation 10:463789)

J. A. Lane

1978-01-01

81

The Viable System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Viable System Model (VSM) is a conceptual model which is built from the axioms, principles, and laws of viable organisation.\\u000a It is concerned with the dynamic structure that determines the adaptive connectivity of the parts of the organisation or organism;\\u000a what it is that enables it to adapt and survive in a changing environment. It can be used as

Patrick Hoverstadt

2010-01-01

82

Technology Development on Alternate Source Term Analysis and Application  

SciTech Connect

Source term presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 has been used to estimate radiation dose from design basis accidents. However, a more realistic and physically-based source term, alternate source term, has been developed and presented in NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183. In addition, the concept and criteria of radiological dose estimation has been changed through the serial publications of ICRP-9, 26, and 60. In ICRP-60, ICRP introduced effective dose concept in stead of dose concept based on critical organ and whole body since the publication of ICRP-9. Korean regulatory authority is planning to issue the new regulation to adopt the alternate source term and the effective dose concept to radiation dose analysis for design basis accidents. As a measure for the issuance of the new regulation, the application methodology of alternate source term and effective dose for design basis accidents was established and merged to the computer program called DBADOSE. This program was verified in accordance with the verification procedure. The result of calculation by DBADOSE showed small difference of less than 5% in comparison with the result of STARDOSE which was developed by Polestar Applied Technology, Inc. Kori Units 3,4 was selected as a pilot plant to apply the alternate source term and the effective dose. The margins to licensing criteria were reanalyzed for design basis accidents. As a result of this application, it was assured that current design of Kori Units 3,4 has enough margins and design simplification were proposed. (authors)

Yu Jong Lee; Chan Young Chung [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. (KOPEC), 360-9 Mabuk-ri, Guseong-eup, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 449-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

83

Structural design of a national youth and sports information system using the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Stafford Beer's viable system model (VSM) offers a powerful and alternative model for both economic and social organizations to structure themselves, especially for those operating in highly turbulent environments. Recent advancements in information technology make feasible the implementation of real-time information systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the author's involvement in designing an information system

Fouzi M. Ben-Ali

2011-01-01

84

77 FR 47375 - Applications for New Awards; Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...purchase the specialized technologies needed to live independently...This priority is: Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program...prudence, discretion, and intelligence would exercise in the management...for immediate and potential technology needs, including...

2012-08-08

85

Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processes—an electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

1996-07-01

86

Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation. A Report to the Council on Library and Information Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is as yet no viable long-term strategy to ensure that digital information will be readable in the future. Digital documents are vulnerable to loss via the decay and obsolescence of the media on which they are stored, and they become inaccessible and unreadable when the software needed to interpret them, or the hardware on which that software…

Rothenberg, Jeff

87

Assistive technology as an alternative to physical restraints in psychogeriatric nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Assistive technology is proposed as an alternative to physical restraints in nursing home care for people with dementia. The number of nursing homes implementing assistive technology is steadily rising. However, research on usability is lacking. Objectives: This mixed methods study explored the usability of assistive technology as an alternative to traditional restraint use in nursing home care for people

S. Zwijsen; S. te Boekhorst; C. Hertogh; A. Francke

2010-01-01

88

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated COâ emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC`s

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

89

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated COâ emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

90

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated COâ emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

91

77 FR 51518 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...120706223-2223-01] Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National...Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS). NIST will...Year 1987, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) approved a...

2012-08-24

92

77 FR 48128 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...120706222-2222-01] Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National...Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) published...Year 1987, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) approved a...

2012-08-13

93

Aggression Replacement Training: A Viable Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools have widely used suspension and related punitive practices, in spite of their proven ineffectiveness. This article discusses the role of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of a schoolwide positive behavior support initiative. Grounded in theory and research, ART focuses on the proactive teaching of acceptable behaviors to…

McGinnis, Ellen

2003-01-01

94

Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program Erie County  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings�¢����quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center, Daemen will continue to host a range of events on campus for the general public. The College does not charge fees for speakers or most other events. This has been a long-standing tradition of the College.

Robert C. Beiswanger, Jr.

2010-05-20

95

Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

1979-01-01

96

Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The successful results of this work have led to the filing of a US patent disclosing the method for producing ATP yarns with high yarn twist efficiency using a high convergence angle at the self ply point together with applying ply torque.

Elkhamy, Donia Said

97

Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface PreparationlDepainting Technologies for Structural Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For this project, particulates and solvents used during the depainting process of steel structures were the identified hazardous material (HazMat) targeted for elimination or reduction. This Potential Alternatives Report (PAR) provides technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and center participant recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered fifteen (15) alternatives. In late 2004, stakeholders down-selected the list and identified specific processes as potential alternatives to the current depainting methods. The selected alternatives were: 1. Plastic Blast Media 2. Hard Abrasive Media 3. Sponge Blast Media 4. Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment 5. Liquid Nitrogen 6. Laser Coating Removal Available information about these processes was used to analyze the technical merits and the potential environmental, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) impacts of these methods. A preliminary cost benefit analysis will be performed to determine if implementation of alternative technologies is economically justified. NASA AP2

Lewis, Pattie

2006-01-01

98

The Viable System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Viable System Model (VSM) is a conceptual model which is built from the axioms, principles, and laws of viable organisation. It is concerned with the dynamic structure that determines the adaptive connectivity of the parts of the organisation or organism; what it is that enables it to adapt and survive in a changing environment. It can be used as a comparison against an actual organisation in order to identify weaknesses, mismatches or missing elements in diagnosing a problem and then as a framework for organisation design to resolve a diagnosed problem. Also it can be used for purposes of design from a clean-sheet. At the foundation of the model is the concept of variety, the number of possible activities of the parts and the necessity to limit these to those required for survival. The breakthrough in developing the model was the understanding that this could only be achieved with a fractal (recursive) layered structure. Furthermore at each level the pattern of the regulation of the variety of possible activities must be fractal. The chapter takes the reader through the development of the model and shows how the VSM supports autonomy and adaptablility.

Hoverstadt, Patrick

99

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar  

Microsoft Academic Search

No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For

E. L. Etnier; A. P. Watson

1981-01-01

100

Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

1992-01-01

101

Online Kiosks: The Alternative to Mobile Technologies for Mobile Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and use of online kiosks in contexts where users are away from fixed technologies. Uses a case study of a United Kingdom airport terminal to illustrate different types of kiosk applications; makes comparisons with mobile phone technologies; and considers their role in self-managed, self-service delivery of information and…

Slack, Frances; Rowley, Jennifer

2002-01-01

102

Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as part of CDEP. The technologies and the scenarios are described. The cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies provide the basis of the macroeconomic analyses.

Whitfield, R. G.; Habegger, L. J.; Levine, E. P.; Tanzman, E.

1981-04-01

103

APPLYING ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO CAFOS: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US EPA National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit program has regulated open lot livestock production systems since the 1970's, historically requiring collection, storage, and land application of runoff. Under the new Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) regulations, the effluent limitation guidelines (ELG) offer the option of Voluntary Alternative Performance Standards for beef and dairy. This potentially allows runoff management

Richard Koelsch; Carol Balvanz; John George; Dan Meyer; John Nienaber; Gene Tinker

104

Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide outlines who may benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches, such as individuals with speech handicaps, visual impairments, physical disabilities, and cognitive impairments. The guide distinguishes between "low tech" approaches such as signal systems and communication boards and "high tech" approaches which…

Mineo, Beth

105

Economic Evaluation of Alternative Tobacco Insect Control Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four tobacco insect control technologies: predator (stilt bug) releases and selective insecticide use, selective insecticide use only, broad spectrum insecticide use, and current controls were economically evaluated. The results indicate that if predators...

P. S. Liapis

1983-01-01

106

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES NEEDING FURTHER DEVELOPMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL SOURCE REPLACEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air awarded a contract to support evaluate innovative uses of x-ray technology that has potential to replace devices currently using gamma and beta radiation in the plastics, pulp, and paper industries....

107

SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

108

Traditional Technologies in Panama: Classification and Description and Alternative Energy Sources Projects - English Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This exposition of traditional technologies and alternate energy sources in Panama can be used as a basis upon which to build, adapt, or evaluate improved production and management that could help fill primary needs such as food, housing, energy, health, ...

S. Bern G. de Bern

1982-01-01

109

CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

Norris, Rober [ORNL] [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL] [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company] [The Dow Chemical Company

2013-10-01

110

Telecommunications outside plant power infrastructure: Past performance and technological alternatives for improved resilience to hurricanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses technological alternatives to achieve a more resilient power supply of telecommunications outside plant network elements during natural disasters. Outside plant powering alternatives are explored based on a description of past performance during 2005 Hurricane Katrina, and 2008 hurricanes Dolly, Gustav and Ike, and restoration options after those storms. Network planning implications are also considered. Power options including

Alexis Kwasinski

2009-01-01

111

Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as

R. G. Whitfield; L. J. Habegger; E. P. Levine; E. A. Tanzman

1981-01-01

112

Fuel Cell Technology: An Alternative Energy System For the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom unit will help students learn the basic concepts related to fuel cell technology. It may be suitable for grades 6-12, depending on which portions of the material you choose to implement in your classroom. Students will define a fuel cell and its purpose, label the parts of a fuel cell, describe the process of how a fuel cell operates, define fuel cell technology and chemical processes and list and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fuel cells. Student worksheets are included in the materials. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-07-26

113

Alternative energy sources session ocean thermal energy conversion: Technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four ocean-energy technologies with significant promise are explored: ocean thermal energy conversion; wave power; ocean currents; and salinity gradients. The major funding emphasis has been in OTEC. Technical developments, accomplishments and major findings, remaining problems, and proposed plans for the future are discussed.

Richards, W. E.; Vadus, J. R.

1980-03-01

114

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

A cooperative demonstration project was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enable the Village of Cayuga, N.Y. to install and demonstrate water filtration technology that may be appropriate for small water systems that use surface water sources. A prefabri...

115

Alternate Approaches to Teaching Medical Technology: The Simulated Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of a non-traditional, self-contained Medical Laboratory Technology (MLT) program at Hudson Valley Community College is presented. This community based associate degree program has used simulated laboratories for 26 years and is seeking initial accreditation through a national accrediting agency. Until recently allied health programs…

Bauer, Sally McLaughlin; Newman, Dianna L.

116

Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities…

Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

2011-01-01

117

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: ELECTRO-PURE ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid W...

118

Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

2010-01-01

119

Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

Samsa, M.

1980-04-01

120

Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

Samsa, M.

1980-01-01

121

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 1: Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications were compared to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler. Also included in the comparisons and evaluations are results extrapolated to the national level.

Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.; Sagerman, G. D.

1980-01-01

122

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and “out-gassing” and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released pollutants from furnishings, building materials, and indoor combustion.

Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

1981-09-01

123

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 1: Summary report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial congeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period was studied. Six current and thirty-one advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance-of-plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on-site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Overall, fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal-derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on-site gasification systems.

1980-01-01

124

Information Transmission in Viable Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the process of information transmission in adaptive, viable organizational systems. Beer's viable system model is used to explain a system's information requirement at each time of the adaptation process, the source of this information, and the effect of information transmission on a system's cohesion. Four hypotheses are stated and…

de Raadt, J. D. R.

1990-01-01

125

An alternative access technology for next generation networks based on full-optical wireless communication links  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide telecommunications services in the envisaged next generation network (NGN), a packet based network utilizing multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which the service related functions are independent of the underlying transport related functions is required. Optical wireless communication (OWC) systems will play an important role as alternative broadband access technology in the emerging NGNs. We

Mitsuji Matsumoto; Kamugisha Kazaura; Pham Dat; A. Shah; K. Omae; T. Suzuki; K. Wakamori; T. Higashino; K. Tsukamoto; S. Komaki

2008-01-01

126

Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

1979-01-01

127

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

1980-01-01

128

Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

1980-01-01

129

Technology alternatives for tapping the pruning residue resource.  

PubMed

Four commercial harvesters were compared with respect to recovery of pruning residues for energy conversion. These harvesters were tested side-by-side on 17 test fields, totaling 15 ha. The test fields consisted of vineyards and apple and pear orchards. The residue yield was between 0.7 and 9 green tonne per hectare, at a moisture content from 37% to 48%. Yield was highest for the orchards, and lowest for vineyards. Harvesters collected the residues and moved them to the roadside at a cost of between 11 and 60€ per green tonne, depending on field conditions and technology choice. Single-pass harvesting was the cheapest, especially if applied through a dedicated tractor and a towed unit with a large integral container. Two-pass harvesting was the most flexible, but also the most expensive: it should be favored only when space, weather or other management constraints limit the application of the other systems. PMID:23246703

Magagnotti, Natascia; Pari, Luigi; Picchi, Gianni; Spinelli, Raffaele

2013-01-01

130

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

1980-01-01

131

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 5: Cogeneration systems results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of various advanced energy conversion systems is examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. The methodology and results of matching the cogeneration energy conversion systems to approximately 50 industrial processes are described. Results include fuel energy saved, levelized annual energy cost saved, return on investment, and operational factors relative to the noncogeneration base cases.

Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

1980-01-01

132

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

1980-04-01

133

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 5: Cogeneration systems results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of various advanced energy conversion systems is examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. The methodology and results of matching the cogeneration energy conversion systems to approximately 50 industrial processes are described. Results include fuel energy saved, levelized annual energy cost saved, return on investment, and operational factors relative to the noncogeneration base cases.

Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

1980-05-01

134

Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies SPS comparative assessment. Volume 2: Central-station technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives are described. The alternatives are: conventional coal-fired powerplants; conventional light water reactors; combined cycle powerplants with low-Btu gasifiers; liquid metal fast breeder reactors; photovoltaic systems without storage; and fusion reactors.

1980-08-01

135

Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

1997-04-01

136

A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

1990-01-01

137

Alternative technologies for refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Final report, October 1991-December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and commercial refrigeration. A fundamental criterion for the selection of the alternative refrigeration technologies to be assessed was that they be environmentally safe. The study was conducted in three phases: a survey of U.S. patents, system modeling, and a technology assessment. Each refrigeration application was defined by a set of thermal source and sink temperatures. The U.S. patent survey was conducted from 1918 to the present. A method was developed for classifying refrigeration technologies found during the survey.

Gauger, D.C.; Shapiro, H.N.; Pate, M.B.

1995-05-01

138

Alternative materials for RF MEMS switches in III–V technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we develop surface-micromachined RF MEMS switches in III-V technology making use of materials which can be alternative to the ones commonly used. In this way, some technological constraints concerning RF MEMS reliability can be overcome. Specifically, we evaluate the potential of tantalum nitride (TaN) and tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) to be used for the switches actuation pads and

Anna Persano; Fabio Quaranta; Adriano Cola; Maria Concetta Martucci; Pasquale Cretì; Antonietta Taurino; Pietro Siciliano; Romolo Marcelli; Giorgio De Angelis; Andrea Lucibello

2010-01-01

139

Scrap tires: a resource and technology evaluation of tire pyrolysis and other selected alternate technologies  

SciTech Connect

The results of a technical and economic evaluation of scrap tire pyrolysis are presented and some other alternative uses for scrap tires are discussed. A scrap tire, by definition in this report, is one for which there is no economic end use. Information is presented on the scrap tire resource, pyrolysis processes, pyrolysis products (char, oil, and gas), markets for these products, and the economics of tire pyrolysis. A discussion is presented on alternative ideas for using scrap tires as an energy resource.

Dodds, J.; Domenico, W.F.; Evans, D.R.; Fish, L.W.; Lassahn, P.L.; Toth, W.J.

1983-11-01

140

Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies  

SciTech Connect

The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

Not Available

1980-08-01

141

Chemical Technology and Economics in Environmental Perspectives. Task II. Investigation of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons in Selected Aerosol Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several aerosol propellant applications of chlorofluorocarbons were examined to identify existing and technologically feasible alternatives. Associated cost factors were also considered. Interested parties brought these chlorofluorocarbon applications to ...

T. W. Lapp H. Gadberry G. L. Lelso R. O. Welch F. Hoffmeister

1978-01-01

142

Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the comparative assessment is to provide an initial, traceable and consistent comparison of the SPS and selected current, near-term, and advanced energy technologies. Terrestrial alternatives were selected, and their cost, performance, and environmental and societal attributes were specified for use in the comparison with the SPS in the post-2000 era. The framework for comparisons was established. The SPS was compared with alternative systems in terms of key issues such as life-cycle cost and environmental impacts. The results of the assessments were assembled and integrated into a consistent comparative assessment. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated, which were subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations were based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, which were developed as part of CDEP by supporting studies. The technologies and the scenarios are described. An additional major issue area concerned the cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies: results in this area provided part of the basis of the macroeconomic analyses. 159 references.

Whitfield, R.G.; Habegger, L.J.; Levine, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.

1981-04-01

143

Cognitive Influences of Students' Alternative Conceptions within a Hands-On Gene Technology Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a German out-of-school laboratory, 293 medium-achieving 10th-grade students participated in a lesson unit about gene technology. They were divided into two groups (I-1, I-2), both of which followed the same hands-on lesson procedure. Students within I-2 were additionally confronted with alternative conceptions to central issues of the specific…

Franke, Gaitano; Bogner, Franz X.

2011-01-01

144

Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC

D. Amutha Rani; A. R. Boccaccini; D. Deegan; C. R. Cheeseman

2008-01-01

145

Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. A description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding

T. Wolsko; W. Buehring; R. Cirillo; J. Gasper; L. Habegger; K. Hub; D. Newsom; M. Samsa; E. Stenehjem; R. Whitfield

1980-01-01

146

Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

Ko, G.; Simmons, III, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C. A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M. D.

2008-01-01

147

Scrap Tires: A Resource and Technology Evaluation of Tire Pyrolysis and Other Selected Alternate Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a technical and economic evaluation of scrap tire pyrolysis are presented and some other alternative uses for scrap tires are discussed. A scrap tire, by definition in this report, is one for which there is no economic end use. Information ...

J. Dodds W. F. Domenico D. R. Evans L. W. Fish P. L. Lassahn

1983-01-01

148

Scrap tires: a resource and technology evaluation of tire pyrolysis and other selected alternate technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a technical and economic evaluation of scrap tire pyrolysis are presented and some other alternative uses for scrap tires are discussed. A scrap tire, by definition in this report, is one for which there is no economic end use. Information is presented on the scrap tire resource, pyrolysis processes, pyrolysis products (char, oil, and gas), markets for

J. Dodds; W. F. Domenico; D. R. Evans; L. W. Fish; P. L. Lassahn; W. J. Toth

1983-01-01

149

Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies.  

PubMed

Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatmenttechnology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. PMID:19192808

Ko, Gwangpyo; Simmons, Otto D; Likirdopulos, Christina A; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, Mike; Sobsey, Mark D

2008-12-01

150

Technological Development with Reference to Hydro-Power, Nuclear, and Alternative Energy Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines a theoretical framework for describing and analyzing the introduction of new technologies and the development of socio-technical systems associated with such innovations. While the report is largely theoretical in nature, it refers to...

T. R. Burns T. Baumgartner

1985-01-01

151

Methodology for the Analysis of Investment Alternatives to Stimulate Development and Technology Transfer for Energy Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology is presented for the analysis of incentives that could be offered by the Government to encourage the development and commercialization of selected energy technologies. A decision-oriented approach has been adopted in characterizing a typical...

1978-01-01

152

On determining specifications and selections of alternative technologies for airport checked-baggage security screening.  

PubMed

Federal law mandates that every checked bag at all commercial airports be screened by explosive detection systems (EDS), explosive trace detection systems (ETD), or alternative technologies. These technologies serve as critical components of airport security systems that strive to reduce security risks at both national and global levels. To improve the operational efficiency and airport security, emerging image-based technologies have been developed, such as dual-energy X-ray (DX), backscatter X-ray (BX), and multiview tomography (MVT). These technologies differ widely in purchasing cost, maintenance cost, operating cost, processing rate, and accuracy. Based on a mathematical framework that takes into account all these factors, this article investigates two critical issues for operating screening devices: setting specifications for continuous security responses by different technologies; and selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. For continuous security responses, specifications or thresholds are used for classifying threat items from nonthreat items. By investigating the setting of specifications on system security responses, this article assesses the risk and cost effectiveness of various technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. The findings provide the best selection of image-based technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. Our study suggests that two-device systems outperform single-device systems in terms of both cost effectiveness and accuracy. The model can be readily extended to evaluate risk and cost effectiveness of multiple-device systems for airport checked-baggage security screening. PMID:18076497

Feng, Qianmei

2007-10-01

153

An assessment of technology alternatives for telecommunications and information management for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President Bush set forth ambitious goals for expanding human presence in the solar system. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) addresses these goals beginning with Space Station Freedom, followed by a permanent return to the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars. A well designed, adaptive Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) infrastructure is vital to the success of these missions. Utilizing initial projections of user requirements, a team under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Operations developed overall architectures and point designs to implement the TNIM functions for the Lunar and Mars mission scenarios. Based on these designs, an assessment of technology alternatives for the telecommunications and information management functions was performed. This technology assessment identifies technology developments necessary to meet the telecommunications and information management system requirements for SEI. Technology requirements, technology needs and alternatives, the present level of technology readiness in each area, and a schedule for development are presented.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.

1991-01-01

154

Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.  

PubMed

The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively. PMID:24654768

Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

2014-04-15

155

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16

156

Are offshore power plants realistic. [Alternative to nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore fossil-fueled electric power plants offer a positive alternative to nuclear proliferation, a viable technology for providing electricity to coastal cities. Such plants combine new technology from the offshore oil industry with efficient power generation techniques, are cheaper than nuclear plants, and could burn coal or solid waste or a mixture of both. Offshore power plants could utilize ocean water

Adler

1976-01-01

157

Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration  

PubMed Central

A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

2012-01-01

158

Probabilistic comparison of alternative characterization technologies at the Fernald Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of four alternative characterization technologies proposed for use in characterization of surficial uranium contamination in soil at the Incinerator and Drum Baling Areas at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in southwestern Ohio has been evaluated using a probabilistic, risk-based decision-analysis methodology. The basis of comparison is to minimize a computed total cost for environmental cleanup. This total-cost-based approach

C. A. Rautman; M. A. McGraw; J. D. Istok; J. M. Sigda; P. G. Kaplan

1993-01-01

159

Nonpoint source pollution control: an economic analysis of input taxes and alternative production technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-point source pollutants, such as nitrate-nitrogen leached from croplands, cannot be controlled with residuals charges or standards since emissions of individual polluters cannot be measured. Using theoretical and empirical techniques, this study examines the economic properties of two methods that reduce pollution-generating input use: (1) input taxes (2) alternative production technologies. Allocation rules from a model of a Pareto optimum

1982-01-01

160

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn

1997-01-01

161

Is nuclear energy economically viable  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made to estimate the cost of electric energy generated both from coal- and nuclear-fired capacity in 1990. Regression equations are used to estimate capital costs for coal and nuclear capacity from 1980 to 1990. Estimated costs in 1990 of energy from the nuclear and coal plants under alternative SO2 control scenarios and at alternative capacity factors are

L. J. Perl

1976-01-01

162

The role of the Technology Application Center in the technology transfer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for and use of an active technology dissemination program by the Environmental Protection Agency is elaborated. The complexities associated with arriving at an acceptable solution to an environmental problem are addressed, and the mechanisms and associated products used by the technology transfer program to transfer the latest viable technological alternatives to the potential user are explained.

Shinnick, W. A.; Grogan, N. M.

1974-01-01

163

Viable skin efficiently absorbs and metabolizes bisphenol A.  

PubMed

Skin contact has been hypothesized to contribute to human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). We examined the diffusion and metabolism of BPA using viable skin models: human skin explants and short-term cultures of pig ear skin, an alternative model for the study of the fate of xenobiotics following contact exposure. 14C-BPA [50-800 nmol] was applied on the surface of skin models. Radioactivity distribution was measured in all skin compartments and in the diffusion cells of static cells diffusion systems. BPA and metabolites were further quantified by radio-HPLC. BPA was efficiently absorbed in short-term cultures, with no major difference between the models used in the study [viable pig ear skin: 65%; viable human explants: 46%; non-viable (previously frozen) pig skin: 58%]. BPA was extensively metabolized in viable systems only. Major BPA metabolites produced by the skin were BPA mono-glucuronide and BPA mono-sulfate, accounting together for 73% and 27% of the dose, in pig and human, respectively. In conclusion, experiments with viable skin models unequivocally demonstrate that BPA is readily absorbed and metabolized by the skin. The trans-dermal route is expected to contribute substantially to BPA exposure in human, when direct contact with BPA (free monomer) occurs. PMID:21030062

Zalko, Daniel; Jacques, Carine; Duplan, Hélène; Bruel, Sandrine; Perdu, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

164

High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

165

Six Case Studies on Alternative Construction Methods: One-Step 'Turnkey' Facility Acquisition and Architectural Fabric Structure Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building technologies and practices have emerged in recent years as alternatives to traditional design and construction in meeting cost, time, and quality goals of owners and builders. Some of these methods are used frequently in commercial construction m...

A. Rivas R. G. Kapolnek T. D. Holcomb T. P. Napier

1988-01-01

166

Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

1980-01-01

167

Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks  

SciTech Connect

A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-02-01

168

a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

169

Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface PreparationlDepainting Technologies for Structural Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For this project, particulates and solvents used during the depainting process of steel structures were the identified hazardous material (HazMat) targeted for elimination or reduction. This Potential Alternatives Report (PAR) provides technical analyses ...

P. Lewis

2006-01-01

170

Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

2010-01-01

171

Alternative general-aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

Tomazic, W. A.

1976-01-01

172

High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

173

Alternative technology for fabrication of nano- or microstructured mould inserts used for optical components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For mass production of multiscale-optical components, micro- and nanostructured moulding tools are needed. Metal tools are used for hot embossing or injection moulding of microcomponents in plastics. Tools are typically produced by classical forming processes such as mechanical manufacturing e.g. turning or milling, laser manufacturing or electrical discharge machining (EDM). Microstructures with extremely tight specifications, e.g. low side wall roughness and high aspect ratios are generally made by lithographic procedures such as LIGA or DPW technology. However, these processes are unsuitable for low-cost mass production. They are limited by the exposure area and structure design. In cooperation with international partners alternative manufacturing methods of moulding tools have been developed at the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT). In a new replication procedure, mould inserts are fabricated using micro- and nanoscale optics. The multiscale structured prototypes, either in plastics, glass, metal or material combinations are used as sacrificial parts. Using joining technology, electroforming and EDM technology, a negative copy of a prototype is transferred into metal to be used as a moulding tool. The benefits of this replication technique are rapid and economical production of moulding tools with extremely precise micro- and nanostructures, large structured area and long tool life. Low-cost mass replication is possible with these moulding tools. In this paper, an established manufacturing chain will be presented. Multiscale and multimaterial optical prototypes e.g. out-of-plane coupler or microinterferometer were made by DPW or laser technology. The mould insert fabrication of each individual manufacturing step will be shown. The process reliability and suitability for mass production was tested by hot embossing.

Wissmann, M.; Guttmann, M.; Hartmann, M.

2010-02-01

174

Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. PMID:22366515

Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

2012-01-01

175

Alternative security  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

Weston, B.H. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States))

1990-01-01

176

Probabilistic comparison of alternative characterization technologies at the Fernald Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The performance of four alternative characterization technologies proposed for use in characterization of surficial uranium contamination in soil at the Incinerator and Drum Baling Areas at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in southwestern Ohio has been evaluated using a probabilistic, risk-based decision-analysis methodology. The basis of comparison is to minimize a computed total cost for environmental cleanup. This total-cost-based approach provides a framework for evaluating the trade-offs among remedial investigation, the remedial design, and the risk of regulatory penalties. The approach explicitly recognizes the value of information provided by remedial investigation; additional measurements are only valuable to the extent that the information they provide reduces total cost.

Rautman, C.A.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.; Kaplan, P.G.

1993-12-31

177

The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2008-01-01

178

A Viable Alternative: Rural Volunteer Emergency Medical Coordinators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot project to assess the usefulness of rural volunteer Emergency Medical Coordinators (EMC's) was initiated in 36 rural Georgian towns of less than 2,000 population. An EMC program was established in those 36 rural towns that had no physician or ambulance service, to provide a rapid response to accidental injuries in order to maintain life…

Kishbaugh, Darlene; And Others

179

Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review  

PubMed Central

The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

2012-01-01

180

Efficacy of ultraviolet radiation as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines.  

PubMed

Since sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) is associated with health risks, the wine industry endeavours to reduce SO(2) levels in wines with new innovative techniques. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-C (254 nm) as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines. A pilot-scale UV-C technology (SurePure, South Africa) consisting of an UV-C germicidal lamp (100 W output; 30 W UV-C output) was used to apply UV-C dosages ranging from 0 to 3672 J l(-1), at a constant flow rate of 4000 l h(-1) (Re > 7500). Yeasts, lactic and acetic acid bacteria were singly and co-inoculated into 20 l batches of Chenin blanc juice, Shiraz juice, Chardonnay wine and Pinotage wine, respectively. A dosage of 3672 J l(-1), resulted in an average log(10) microbial reduction of 4.97 and 4.89 in Chardonnay and Pinotage, respectively. In Chenin blanc and Shiraz juice, an average log(10) reduction of 4.48 and 4.25 was obtained, respectively. UV-C efficacy may be influenced by liquid properties such as colour and turbidity. These results had clearly indicated significant (p < 0.05) germicidal effect against wine-specific microorganisms; hence, UV-C radiation may stabilize grape juice and wine microbiologically in conjunction with reduced SO(2) levels. PMID:21356459

Fredericks, Ilse N; du Toit, Maret; Krügel, Maricel

2011-05-01

181

A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES  

SciTech Connect

Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used to measure the inferential variables, which can then be applied (through the data correlations) to convert existing flow meters (ultrasonic, orifice, turbine, rotary, Coriolis, diaphragm, etc.) for on-line energy measurement. The practical issues for field development were evaluated using two transducers extracted from a $100 ultrasonic domestic gas meter, and a $400 infrared sensor.

Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

1999-01-01

182

Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

1995-12-01

183

Symbiosis and the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest symbiosis could be a metaphor for finding ways to help countries that are challenged to become economically and socially viable. Beer's viable system model (VSM), which also has biological roots could be applied to look for gaps in the conditions for viability and to seek to fill them through collaborative

Allenna Leonard

2007-01-01

184

Peri-viable birth: legal considerations.  

PubMed

Peri-viable birth raises an array of complex moral and legal concerns. This article discusses the problem with defining viability, touches on its relationship to abortion jurisprudence, and analyzes a few interesting normative implications of current medical practice at the time of peri-viable birth. PMID:24468570

Sayeed, Sadath A

2014-02-01

185

Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Headquarters National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of the AP2 Office are to: (1) Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials (HazMats) or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. (2) A void duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate HazMats through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. This project will identify, evaluate and approve alternative surface preparation technologies for use at NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) installations. Materials and processes will be evaluated with the goal of selecting those processes that will improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated. This Joint Test Protocol (JTP) contains the critical requirements and tests necessary to qualify alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel Applications. These tests were derived from engineering, performance, and operational impact (supportability) requirements defined by a consensus of NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) participants. The Field Test Plan (FTP), entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, prepared by ITB, defines the field evaluation and testing requirements for validating alternative surface preparation/depainting technologies and supplements the JTP.

Lewis, Pattie

2005-01-01

186

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated COâ emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

187

PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

2011-01-01

188

On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

2012-04-12

189

2D arrays device for calcaneus bone transmission: an alternative technological solution using crossed beam forming.  

PubMed

In the context of manned space flight with the European Space Agency, a quantitative ultrasound device for transmission imaging through the calcaneus bone has been developed. It includes two matrix transducers of 576 elements each in order to electronically perform the scanning and the focusing of the 500 kHz ultrasonic beam. This device called the BEAM scanner, provides two parametric images of attenuation (BUA, broadband ultrasonic attenuation) and velocity (SOS, speed of sound) of the investigated skeletal site. The cost and complexity of such a device has motivated the study of an alternative solution, less demanding in terms of technology, based on a crossed beam former [H. Ermert et al., A new concept for a real-time ultrasound transmission camera, in: IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 2000, pp. 1611-1614]. It consists in forming two perpendicular cylindrically focused planes, one in emission, one in reception, instead of two spherically focused apertures. The crossing line of the two planes replaces the focused beam. The 2D beam forming technological challenge is moved to a 1D simpler and cheaper architecture. In this work the two solutions have been compared for in vivo measurements. Data sets have been acquired using all spatial combinations of emission and reception single elements of the matrix. Then signals have been processed using either the cylindrical or the spherical focussing mode. For cylindrical focussing, the increased level of the side lobes caused severe artefacts. Several apodization techniques have been implemented to reduce these artefacts, resulting in encouraging results. After a brief description of this new ultrasonic method for bone quantitative assessment, several reconstructed images using both processing schemes are presented. Corresponding statistical results obtained in 29 subjects are also provided. PMID:15047377

Defontaine, M; Bonneau, S; Padilla, F; Gomez, M A; Nasser Eddin, M; Laugier, P; Patat, F

2004-04-01

190

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options  

SciTech Connect

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

Wang, M.Q.

1997-05-20

191

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...evaluating innovative and alternative waste water treatment processes and techniques...and techniques. Alternative waste water treatment processes and techniques...of water, productively recycle waste water constituents or otherwise...

2010-07-01

192

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...evaluating innovative and alternative waste water treatment processes and techniques...and techniques. Alternative waste water treatment processes and techniques...of water, productively recycle waste water constituents or otherwise...

2009-07-01

193

The Effect of Using Alternative Assessment Activities on Students' Success and Attitudes in Science and Technology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design with control group was used in this study, in which the impact of alternative assessment activities on students' academic achievement levels and attitudes were explored by employing these activities in the unit "Electricity in Our Lives" of the Science and Technology Course. The research was…

Kirikkaya, Esma Bulus; Vurkaya, Gurbet

2011-01-01

194

Technology assessment of alternative fuels by CO 2 fixation use in passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative fuel vehicles were investigated as a possible mitigation measure to reduce CO2 emissions. Fuel economies of several alternative cars were compared, and integrated CO2 emissions from fuel mining to consumption in Japan were calculated. The alternative fuel vehicles we investigated were methanol, compressed natural gas, electric, hydrogen, hybrid (internal combustion engine and motor), and fuel cell vehicles.Our calculations showed

Yukio Yanagisawa

1997-01-01

195

Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment. Volume 1: Summary of central station technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technologies selected for the detailed characterization were: solar technology; terrestrial photovoltaic (200 MWe); coal technologies; conventional high sulfur coal combustion with advanced fine gas desulfurization (1250 MWe), and open cycle gas turbine combined cycle plant with low Btu gasifier (1250 MWe); and nuclear technologies: conventional light water reactor (1250 MWe), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (1250 MWe), and magnetic fusion reactor (1320 MWe). A brief technical summary of each power plant design is given.

1980-08-01

196

A viable systems perspective to knowledge management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide the knowledge structure for an effective knowledge-based organization which integrates knowledge into organizational goals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The structure, function, and process of a viable organization were discussed which provided a basis to construct a knowledge management (KM) framework and demonstrate knowledge structure in a knowledge-based organization. Based on systems view and viable systems model (VSM), a

Chyan Yang; Hsueh-Chuan Yen

2007-01-01

197

Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Headquarters National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) chartered the NASA Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of the AP2 Office are to: (1) Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. (2) Avoid duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate hazardous materials through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. The objective of this project was to qualify candidate alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel applications at NASA facilities. This project compares the surface preparation/depainting performance of the proposed alternatives to existing surface preparation/depainting systems or standards. This Joint Test Report (JTR) contains the results of testing as per the outlines of the Joint Test Protocol (JTP), Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Test Plan (FTP), Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, for critical requirements and tests necessary to qualify alternatives for coating removal systems. These tests were derived from engineering, performance, and operational impact (supportability) requirements defined by a consensus of government and industry participants. This JTR documents the results of the testing as well as any test modifications made during the execution of the project. This JTR is made available as a reference for future pollution prevention endeavors by other NASA Centers, the Department of Defense and commercial users to minimize duplication of effort. The current coating removal processes identified herein are for polyurethane, epoxy and other paint systems applied by conventional wet-spray processes. A table summarizes the target hazardous materials, processes and materials, applications, affected programs, and candidate substrates.

Lewis, Pattie

2007-01-01

198

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-01-01

199

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-12-31

200

Alternatives for NASTRAN maintenance, modification and dissemination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various alternatives to direct NASA support of the program are considered ranging from no support at one end of the spectrum to subsidizing a non profit user's group at the other. Of all the alternatives that are developed, the user group appears to be most viable. NASA's past and future roles in the development of computerized technology are also considered. The need for an institute for computational analysis is identified and NASA's possible involvement is described. The goals of the proposed institute and research funds to support an activity that has the potential of a much larger impact on the technical community are identified.

Schaeffer, H. G.

1977-01-01

201

High Frequency Alternator, Power Frequency Conversion (HFA-PFC) technology for Lightweight Tactical Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes Variable Speed High Frequency Alternators for diesel engine gen-sets with variable speeds in the range of from 600 RPM to 3, 600 RPM and High Frequency Alternators for gas turbine gen-sets with variable speeds in the range of from ...

P. Shapiro S. Shapiro

1995-01-01

202

Mobile Technology Education Laboratory: An Alternative for Elementary Technology Education in a Restructuring School District in Central California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore what options exist for a school district that has chosen to implement or reinforce an elementary technology education program. The option selected was a mobile technology education laboratory. A mobile laboratory can offer the advantages of financial flexibility, currentness, ability to serve a large…

Britton, Steven M.

203

Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies has been conducted. The alternative technologies are coal-gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Fusion was not included in this preliminary work but will be a part of the final evaluation based on available research, to identify a suitable assessment methodology, and to identify data deficiencies. The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts at comparative or single-technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research. (WHK)

Newsom, D.E.; Wolsko, T.D.

1980-04-01

204

Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

1993-06-01

205

Batteries for stationary standby and for stationary cycling applications part 6: alternative electricity storage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the need for stored electrical energy has grown, the lead-acid battery has been the primary storage component until very recently. Although improvements in lead-acid technology have been made over the years, short life expectancy and poor component reliability have driven energy storage customers in search of longer life and higher reliability storage technologies. New technology batteries have been developed

G. P. Corey; Garth P

2003-01-01

206

A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs.

Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

1994-06-30

207

Theoretical Analysis of Alternative Supermarket Refrigeration Technologies. The GreenChill Advanced Refrigeration Partnership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA is developing a voluntary partnership with the supermarket industry to facilitate the transition from ozone-depleting substances to ozone-friendly alternatives. Known as the GreenChill Advanced Refrigeration Partnership, the overall goal of this progr...

G. Kazachki

2008-01-01

208

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Back Pain II. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 194.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Back and neck pain are important health problems with serious societal and economic implications. Conventional treatments have been shown to have limited benefit in improving patient outcomes. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies offer a...

A. Furlan A. Gross A. Tsertsvadze F. Yazdi M. Van Tulder

2010-01-01

209

Biomass to dimethyl ether by gasification\\/synthesis technology—an alternative biofuel production route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic analysis was done for the biomass to dimethyl ether (DME) technology to promote the gasification\\/synthesis\\u000a route for biofuel production and its application as a fossil fuel substitute. The technology of biomass gasification\\/synthesis\\u000a has obvious advantages, including production flexibility, environmental friendliness, economic feasibility, and application\\u000a versatility. Biomass gasification\\/synthesis technology integrates bio-DME synthesis, fertilizer production, electricity generation,\\u000a and waste

Tiejun Wang; Yuping Li; Longlong Ma; Chuangzhi Wu

2011-01-01

210

Five experiences with the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper is a call and an invitation to more application research on the viable system model (VSM). It aims to share five empirical findings from the practical application of the VSM in a mainly economic environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An experiential report from the practice of more than 100 VSM consulting and schooling projects that the author together

Martin Pfiffner

2010-01-01

211

The soul of the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functionalist interpretation of how to employ the Viable System Model (VSM), which sees it being used to identify systems in the world, clarify their objectives, and rearrange their subunits according to some idealized structure, cannot be justified from a reading of Beer's works and is sensibly rejected by sophisticated users of the model. Taking that as given, what this

Michael C. Jackson

1992-01-01

212

Mediation and Counseling Services: A Viable Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mediation has become common in many areas of society, including marital dissolution, community disputes, governmental agencies, and business and industry. Though higher education has been slower than society to adopt mediation services, campus mediation is becoming increasingly more common. This article explains why mediation is a viable

Hodges, Shannon

2009-01-01

213

Using digital technologies to address Aboriginal adolescents' education : An alternative school intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies were introduced. The questions focused on: how can critical multiliteracies be used to

Fatima Pirbhai-Illich; K. C. Nat Turner; Theresa Y. Austin

2009-01-01

214

Technological Minimalism: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Course Design and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of minimum levels of technology, or technological minimalism, for Web-based multimedia course content. Highlights include cost effectiveness; problems with video streaming, the use of XML for Web pages, and Flash and Java applets; listservs instead of proprietary software; and proper faculty training. (LRW)

Lorenzo, George

2001-01-01

215

Technology-based Learning: Using Water Studies as the Basis for an Alternative Teaching Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Technology-Based Learning in School Science (tBLISS) project which investigates the feasibility of technology-based science curriculum implementation and examines the science process skills of students. Water is the major theme of the curriculum. (YDS)

Colley, Kabba E.

2001-01-01

216

Alternative-fuel-production facility for City of Huntsville, Alabama. Volume III. Technology development summary  

SciTech Connect

The available technologies that reclaim thermal energy and/or materials from Muncipal Solid Waste (MSW) are surveyed. The following technologies for recovery of energy and materials are investigated: spreader stoker or suspension fired units for refuse derived fuel (RDF), mass burning incineration (refractory lined or waterwall units), modular incinerators, pyrolysis, and methane recovery.

Not Available

1982-10-01

217

Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies

Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

2009-01-01

218

Evaluation of alternative battery technologies for a solar assist plug-in hybrid electric tractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the various battery technologies available for use in solar assist plug-in hybrid electric tractors In this context, solar assist plug-in hybrid electric tractors are those that may be used in light-duty agricultural operations. To determine the most suitable battery, four common technologies are analyzed looking at the environmental life-cycle effects and costs.

Hossein Mousazadeh; Alireza Keyhani; Arzhang Javadi; Hossein Mobli; Karen Abrinia; Ahmad Sharifi

2010-01-01

219

Impact of technology in health care and health administration: hospitals and alternative care delivery systems.  

PubMed

Applications as outlined above and many more that have not yet even been identified--but that will be invented and developed--will have an enormous impact on the health care industry. Clearly, capital requirements to purchase this technology will go up and thus exert further pressure for the reduction of personnel. Computers and robots will replace a significant percentage of health care personnel; overall health care costs as a percent of gross national product will nevertheless probably continue to rise in spite of improvements in productivity. Added costs will be offset in part by the use of technology in areas that will impact efficiency. Because of these accelerating uses of sophisticated technology, future administrators will have a greater appreciation for what technology can offer. Practical uses of robotics, expert systems, and artificial intelligence will require administrators to be technologically proficient. PMID:10103712

Kerr, J K; Jelinek, R

1990-01-01

220

Cost comparison of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and six alternative technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to compare the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability is described. The following energy sources are briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid metal fast breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS.

Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

1981-04-01

221

Cost comparison of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and six alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to compare the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability is described. The following energy sources are briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification\\/combined cycle, liquid metal fast breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS.

T. Wolsko; M. Samsa

1981-01-01

222

Alternative Technologies for Large Scale Science Assessment: Instrument of Education Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational reform in the United States has been stymied, in part, by the mismatch between curricular reform (with its emphasis on problem solving and process) and traditional accountability systems (with multiple?choice tests, largely of factual recall). If teachers teach to the test, and they do, curricular reform is blunted. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate alternative

Richard J. Shavelson; Gail P. Baxter; Jerome Pine; Jennifer Yuré; Susan R. Goldman; Bill Smith

1991-01-01

223

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

none,

1992-10-01

224

The alternative route: hanging out the unmentionables for better decision making in health information technology.  

PubMed

Expert panels and policy analysts have often ignored potential contributions to health information technology (IT) from the Internet and Web-based applications. Perhaps they are among the "unmentionables" of health IT. Ignoring those unmentionables and relying on established industry experts has left us with a standards process that is complex and burdened by diverse goals, easy for entrenched interests to dominate, and reluctant to deal with potentially disruptive technologies. We need a health IT planning process that is more dynamic in its technological forecasting and inclusive of IT experts from outside the industry. PMID:18713826

Kibbe, David C; McLaughlin, Curtis P

2008-01-01

225

Engineering Issue: Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils and Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue papers are a series of documents that summarize the available information on specific contaminates, selected treatment and site remediation technologies, and related issues. This Engineering Issue paper is intended...

226

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies  

SciTech Connect

This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

none,

1992-10-01

227

Alternatives to grid extension for rural electrification: Decentralized renewable energy technologies in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic viability of stand-alone, household-sized renewable energy technologies, namely wind generator and solar PV for application in remote and rural areas of Vietnam. Three reference technologies are chosen. These are two solar PV systems of 130 and 100Wp for solar conditions in the North and the South, respectively, and one 150W wind turbine. It is found

Khanh Q. Nguyen

2007-01-01

228

Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

Gejji, Raghvendra R.

1993-01-01

229

The transfer of viable microorganisms between planets.  

PubMed

There is increasing acceptance that catastrophic cosmic impacts have played an important role in shaping the history of terrestrial life. Large asteroid and cometary impacts are also capable of displacing substantial quantities of planetary surface material into space. The discovery of Martian rocks on Earth suggests that viable microorganisms within such ejecta could be exchanged between planets. If this conjecture is correct, it will have profound implications for the origin and evolution of life in the solar system. PMID:9243022

Davies, P C

1996-01-01

230

Government patent policy: An analysis of the effects of three alternative patent policies on technology of goverment inventions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of present and proposed Government patent policies on the process of technology transfer and the commercialization of inventions resulting from Government sponsored research are addressed. The function of the patent system in Government research and the value of patents resulting from government sponsored research are examined. Three alternative patent policies, title in the contractor, title in the Government, and the waiver policy, are examined in terms of their effect on the commercialization of inventions, industrial competitions, disclosure of inventions, participation of research contractors and administrative costs. Efforts to reform the present Government patent policy are also described.

Matousek, M.

1979-01-01

231

Alternative treaty monitoring approaches using ultra-low background measurement technology  

SciTech Connect

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty includes a network of stations and laboratories for collection and analysis of radioactive aerosols. Alternative approaches to IMS operations are considered as a method of enhancing treaty verification. Ultra-low background (ULB) detection promises the possibility of improvements to IMS minimum detectable activities (MDAs) well below the current approach, requiring MDAp30 mBq/m3 of air for 140Ba, or about 106 fissions per daily sample.

Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Fast, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Seifert, Allen

2009-05-01

232

Environmental life-cycle assessment of transit buses with alternative fuel technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a life-cycle assessment of costs and greenhouse gas emissions for transit buses deploying a hybrid input–output model to compare ultra-low sulfur diesel to hybrid diesel-electric, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen fuel-cell. We estimate the costs of emissions reductions from alternative fuel vehicles over the life cycle and examine the sensitivity of the results to changes in fuel

Elaine Croft McKenzie; Pablo L. Durango-Cohen

2012-01-01

233

Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification\\/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis

T. Wolsko; M. Samsa

2009-01-01

234

Microfluidics in silicon\\/polymer technology as a cost-efficient alternative to silicon\\/glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate TMMF photopolymer as a cost-efficient alternative to glass for the leak-tight sealing of high-density silicon microchannels. TMMF enables low temperature sealing and access to structures underneath via lamination and standard UV-lithography instead of costly glass machining and anodic bonding. TMMF is highly transparent and has a low autofluorescence for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. As the photopolymer is

K. Kalkandjiev; L. Riegger; D. Kosse; M. Welsche; L. Gutzweiler; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

2011-01-01

235

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. III. Fossil energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews both innovative fossil energy sources (tar sands, oil shale, and unconventional natural gas), and more established technologies that are being considered as suppliers of gaseous and liquid fuels (that is, coal gasification and liquefaction). Potential health and safety issues related to the technologies are discussed, although the absence of commercial-scale facilities in the United States restricts the discussion to health effects information derived from related processes. The available epidemiological and carcinogenic studies give cause for concern. The study of the health and environmental impacts of the emerging fossil fuel technologies will be important for quantification of adverse effects and rectification of problems before commitment to large-scale commercialization occurs.

Walsh, P. J.; Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

1981-11-01

236

Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

237

Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1991-12-31

238

The Story of Crownpoint Institute of Technology and Its Alternative Livestock Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To foster economic growth in the Navajo communities served by Crownpoint Institute of Technology, an initiative developed networks among educational, industrial, and nonprofit organizations. By promoting the sharing of knowledge between Navajo medicine men and veterinarians, Crownpoint has developed high quality training, employment, and small…

VanAlstine, Matthew; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami; Sanchez, Timothy

2002-01-01

239

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

E. J Anthony

1995-01-01

240

Technological Alternatives to Paper-Based Components of Team-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have been using components of team-based learning (TBL) in two undergraduate courses at the University of Texas for several years: an educational psychology survey course--Cognition, Human Learning and Motivation--and Introduction to Statistics. In this chapter, they describe how they used technology in classes of fifty to seventy…

Robinson, Daniel H.; Walker, Joshua D.

2008-01-01

241

STATUS OF POROUS BIOMASS SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT: AN INNOVATIVE/ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to assess the emerging wastewater treatment technology of porous biomass support systems (PBSS). These systems use large numbers of small, open-cell or reticulated polyurethane foam pads to support high concentrations of biomass in an aeration basin. Visits ...

242

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

1980-01-01

243

Storytelling Supported by Technology: An Alternative for EFL Children with Learning Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research aims to investigate how technology improves the conditions of storytelling to help enhance the learning attitude and motivation of EFL children with learning difficulty using power point designs and an online recording system--VoiceThread (http://voicethread.com/). The use of power point designs is to assure children of clear…

Lee, Sy-ying

2012-01-01

244

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS OF CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT) SOILS AND DEBRIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted a research and regulatory development program for establishing the best demonstrated and available technology (DBAT) for RCRA and Superfund wastes in response to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazard...

245

ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

246

Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas  

SciTech Connect

Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

Ultanir, M.O.

1983-12-01

247

Alternative management and funding options for aeronautics programs, Task 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and technology will be at lower program levels with basic military research for aviation decreasing as fewer aircraft programs are initiated and the present new aircraft programs move into the prototype and production status. The key question is can industry take on the management and financing role and meet the criteria and characteristics considered essential for a viable research and technology program. The criteria for evaluating alternative approaches include an examination of the nature of the product to be provided, responsiveness to changing needs, efficiency in terms of costs, ability to provide leadership, and to provide impartial and independent evaluation of approaches, and to provide technological inputs for regulating functions.

1975-01-01

248

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

2000-01-01

249

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space.  

PubMed

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency. PMID:11543506

Mileikowsky, C; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Gladman, B; Horneck, G; Lindegren, L; Melosh, J; Rickman, H; Valtonen, M; Zheng, J Q

2000-06-01

250

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Comparison and evaluation of results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CTAS compared and evaluated various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications. The principal aim of the study was to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development (R&D) funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for a wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment (ROI) as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler.

1984-01-01

251

Climate and energy: A comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate are assessed. The energy technologies examined are coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focuses on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emission of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO2 which may, by about 2050 increase world temperature 2to 3 C, with pronounced effects on world climate; and that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of a satellite power system may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences.

Kellermeyer, D. A.

1980-01-01

252

Alternative Learning Arenas - Pedagogical Challenges to Mobile Learning Technology in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

ICT-implementation in education has mostly been aimed at enhancing learning informal arenas-the classroom. However, accepting that learning does not only forego in the formal learning arenas, it is proposed that mobile technology can be used as a bridge between the formal and informal learning arenas. The question is whether the bridge between school and other arenas open or closed-is there

Louise Mifsud

2002-01-01

253

Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

1988-12-01

254

An analysis of alternative technologies for the removal of ethylene from the CELSS biomass production chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of technologies were analyzed for their potential to remove ethylene from the CELSS Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). During crop production (e.g., lettuce, wheat, soybean, potato) in the BPC ethylene can accumulate in the airspace and subsequently affect plant viability. The chief source of ethylene is the plants themselves which reside in plastic trays containing nutrient solution. The main sink for ethylene is chamber leakage. The removal technology can be employed when deleterious levels (e.g., 50 ppb for potato) of ethylene are exceeded in the BPC and perhaps to optimize the plant growth process once a better understanding is developed of the relationship between exogenous ethylene concentration and plant growth. The technologies examined were catalytic oxidation, molecular sieve, cryotrapping, permanganate absorption, and UV degradation. Upon analysis, permanganate was chosen as the most suitable method. Experimental data for ethylene removal by permanganate during potato production was analyzed in order to design a system for installation in the BPC air duct. In addition, an analysis of the impact on ethylene concentration in the BPC of integrating the Breadboard Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (BSAB) with the BPC was performed. The result indicates that this unit has no significant effect on the ethylene material balance as a source or sink.

Rakow, Allen L.

1995-01-01

255

Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

Batzias, Dimitris F.

2012-12-01

256

Postoptimality analysis in the selection of technology portfolios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach for qualifying optimal technology portfolios obtained with a multi-attribute decision support system. The goal is twofold: to gauge the degree of confidence in the optimal solution and to provide the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy non-technical constraints.

Adumitroaie, Virgil; Shelton, Kacie; Elfes, Alberto; Weisbin, Charles R.

2006-01-01

257

Technology-Based Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing need to implement an alternative and viable solution in U.S. K-12 schools that will address the ever-growing gap that the rapidly growing English language learner (ELL) population presents. This article examines various technology-based solutions, and their potential impact. The systematic implementation of these…

White, Erin L.; Gillard, Sharlett

2011-01-01

258

Computer-Generated Holography as a Generic Display Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-generated holography is a powerful technology suitable for a wide range of display types, including 2D, stereoscopic, autostereoscopic, volumetric, and true 3D imaging. Although CGH-based display systems are currently too expensive for many applications, they will become a viable alternative in the near future.

Chris Slinger; Colin Cameron; Maurice Stanley

2005-01-01

259

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS) Volume 5: Analytical approach and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985 to 2000 time period are provided. Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasification systems.

1980-01-01

260

Climate and energy: a comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate were assessed. The energy technologies examined were coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focused on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emissions of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long-range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100-fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that primary particulate emissions from coal combustion constitute a small percentage of total atmospheric particulates; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO/sub 2/, which may, by about 2050, increase world temperature 2 to 3/sup 0/C, with pronounced effects on world climate; that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of an SPS may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences; and that much research in climatology is needed before potential effects can be quantitatively predicted with any confidence. Although climatic impact is an appropriate concern in formulating long-term energy policy, the level of uncertainty about it suggests that it is not currently useful as a decision criterion. 88 references.

Kellermeyer, D.A.

1980-01-01

261

Microfluidics in silicon/polymer technology as a cost-efficient alternative to silicon/glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate TMMF photopolymer as a cost-efficient alternative to glass for the leak-tight sealing of high-density silicon microchannels. TMMF enables low temperature sealing and access to structures underneath via lamination and standard UV-lithography instead of costly glass machining and anodic bonding. TMMF is highly transparent and has a low autofluorescence for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. As the photopolymer is too thin for implementing bulky world-to-chip interfaces, we propose adhesive bonding of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) modules. All materials were tested according ISO 10993-5 and showed no cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of L929 cells. To quantify the cost efficiency of the proposed techniques, we used an established silicon/Pyrex nanoliter dispenser as a reference and replaced structured Pyrex wafers by TMMF laminates and COC modules. Thus, consumable costs, manpower and machine time related to sealing of the microchannels and implementing the world-to-chip interface could be significantly reduced. Leak tightness was proved by applying a pressure of 0.2 MPa for 5 h without delamination or crosstalk between neighboring microchannels located only 100 µm apart. In contrast to anodic bonding, the proposed techniques are tolerant to surface inhomogeneities. They enable manufacturing of silicon/polymer microfluidics at lower costs and without compromising the performance compared to corresponding silicon/glass devices.

Kalkandjiev, K.; Riegger, L.; Kosse, D.; Welsche, M.; Gutzweiler, L.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

2011-02-01

262

Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the sample can be plated. Using a photoaffinity label would remove this step from the current assay as the label readily penetrates both live and dead bacterial cells. Secondly, the photoaffinity label can only penetrate dead bacterial spores, leaving behind the viable spore population. This would allow for rapid bacterial spore detection in a matter of hours compared to the several days that it takes for the NASA standard assay.

Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

2013-01-01

263

Modeling and fabrication of micro 3K-2-type planetary gear reducer utilizing SU-8 photoresist as alternative LIGA technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LIGA type process, utilizing SU-8 photoresist as alternative LIGA technology, can fabricate high aspect ratio microstructures without employing synchrotron light and suitable X-ray mask. Based on LIGA type process in this paper, detailed investigations of the modeling and fabrication of micro 3K-2 type planetary gear reducer, such as the modeling and design of micro reducer, CAD of micro gear mask, SU-8 UV photolithography, micro electroforming, micro molding, have been performed. And 400 um thickness sun gear, 400 um thickness planet gear, 200 um thickness fixed inner gear, and 200 um thickness rotary inner gear, whose teeth are 15,11,36,39 respectively, have been obtained. Utilizing these gears, the micro reducer whose modulus, outer diameter and velocity ratio are 0.03, 2mm, 44.2:1, has been assembled and applied in (phi) 2mm micro electro magnetic motor successfully.

Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Chen, Di; Chen, Xiaomei; Wu, Xiaosheng; Xu, Zhengfu

2001-10-01

264

Gravitational Waves in Viable Modified Gravity Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our recent work [1] on gravitational waves in viable f(R) models. We concentrate on the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. We show that in both cases, the mass of the scalar mode is order of 10-33eV when it propagates in vacuum. In the presence of matter density, such as galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. In particular, it becomes almost infinity so that the scalar mode of gravitational wave for the exponential model disappears like the ACDM, whereas it can be as low as 10-24eV in the Starobinsky model, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10-9 Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes in space.

Geng, C. Q.

2012-09-01

265

Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

1992-01-01

266

[PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

Snow, Ted

1998-01-01

267

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01

268

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids. PMID:23165716

Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

2012-12-01

269

Design for viable organizations : The diagnostic power of the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper attempts to underpin the theoretical claim of the viable system model to specify the necessary and sufficient preconditions of organizations for viability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A number of case studies are explored. Findings – The evidence documented in the paper both corroborates the model's claim and provides evidence of its enormous diagnostic power. Originality\\/value – The cases

Markus Schwaninger

2006-01-01

270

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

271

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and maintenance. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas occurs near all geothermal sites and wherever organic matter decomposes anaerobically. Respiratory damage has occurred to laborers in geothermal fields, while farm workers have been fatally overcome when employed near agitating liquid manure systems. However, the most frequent and severe of reported injuries to geothermal workers is dermal exposure to caustic sludges produced by H2S abatement systems. Principal health and safety considerations of biomass pathways are directly related to the diffuse nature of solar energy fixation by photosynthesis and subsequent transfer to animal food chains. Since the potential fuel is in an unconcentrated form, cultivation, harvest, and transport are necessarily laborintensive. Thus, a significant potential for occupational injuries and fatalities exists. Of all biomass systems evaluated, direct burning of solid fuels presents the greatest public health risk. Data are presented to characterize the population at risk and the frequency and severity of injuries.

Watson, A. P.; Etnier, E. L.

1981-07-01

272

The Pattern of the Viable System and its Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Viable System Model tries to capture the essential pattern of living systems: both natural organisms and human organizations. A Viable system is one that can survive in its environment. Survival in a dynamic environment requires adaptation. The Viable System Model specifies a supervisory-adaptive-control or \\

Charles Herring

273

Digial Technology Qualification Task 2 - Suitability of Digital Alternatives to Analog Sensors and Actuators  

SciTech Connect

The next generation reactors in the U.S. are an opportunity for vendors to build new reactor technology with advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems (control rooms, DCS, etc.). The advances made in the development of many current generation operating reactors in other parts of the world are being used in the design and construction of new plants. These new plants are expected to have fully integrated digital control rooms, computerized procedures, integrated surveillance testing with on-line monitoring and a major effort toward improving the O&M and fault survivability of the overall systems. In addition the designs are also incorporating major improvements in the man-machine interface based on lessons learned in nuclear and other industries. The above relates primarily to the scope of supply in instrumentation and control systems addressed by Chapter 7 of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) NUREG-0800 (Reference 9.5), and the associated Balance of Plant (BOP) I&C systems. This does not relate directly to the actuator and motor, breaker, initiation circuitry, valve position, etc. which is the subject of this report and normally outside of the traditional Distributed Control System (DCS), for both safety and non-safety systems. The recommendations presented in this report will be used as input to I&C research programming for the implementation of lessons learned during the early phases of new build both for large light water reactors (LWR) and also small modular reactors (SMR). This report is intended to support current research plans and provide user (vendor, owner-operator) input to the optimization of these research plans.

Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck

2012-09-01

274

Models of Governance - A Viable Systems Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a framework for examining governance issues spanning the corporate, public and nonprofit sectors that draws on existing frames-in-use, and that reflects the systemic communality apparent within varied attempts to describe and effect change in governance. The paper surveys alternative conceptualisations of governance that have surfaced in the academic and practitioner literature and draws attention to the cybernetic

John Davies

2002-01-01

275

Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice  

SciTech Connect

Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

2007-07-15

276

Energia para el Desarrollo Rural: Recursos Renovables y Alternativas Tecnologicas para Paises en Vias de Desarrollo (Energy for Rural Development: Renewable Resources and Alternative Technologies for Developing Countries).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary of the state of the art of alternative technologies frequently suggested as solutions to rural or individual family energy needs. Moreover, it informs both the technologist and the planner where to go for more detailed infor...

1976-01-01

277

Evaluation of the Technological Characteristics and Bread-Making Quality of Alternative Wheat Cereals in Comparison with Common and Durum Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing sensibility toward those foods that are characterized by natural and healthy features has raised the interest toward alternative wheat cereals. This research was carried out to compare the technological characteristics and the bread-making quality of Khorasan wheat, type Kamut and spelt (cv. Forenza), to those of common (cv. Rio) and durum wheat (cv. Norba). The results obtained show

A. Pasqualone; A. R. Piergiovanni; F. Caponio; V. M. Paradiso; C. Summo; R. Simeone

2011-01-01

278

'Emerging technologies for the changing global market' - Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

1993-01-01

279

Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian

Subhash Mallah; N. K. Bansal

2010-01-01

280

Residential Total Energy System Installation at the Canadian Centre for Housing Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed cogeneration in single households may provide a viable alternative to the construction of new central power plants in the coming years. A key issue in residential cogeneration is how to size and integrate the required technologies to satisfy the total energy needs of the household, consisting of electricity, domestic hot water, space heating and space cooling. An interesting pathway

John Gusdorf; Mark A. Douglas; Frank Szadkowski; Libing Yang; Edouard Limouse; Marianne Manning; Michael Swinton

2008-01-01

281

The Role of Instrumentation and Controls Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

2010-01-01

282

The Role of Instrumentation and Control Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

2011-01-01

283

Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT)

Je-Lueng Shie; Ching-Yuan Chang; Ci-Syuan Chen; Dai-Gee Shaw; Yi-Hung Chen; Wen-Hui Kuan; Hsiao-Kan Ma

2011-01-01

284

Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

1989-01-01

285

GBFEL-TIE (Ground-Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) sample survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Three locations on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are under consideration as alternatives for the proposed Ground-Based Free-Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE). The study conducted jointly by Prewitt and Associates, Inc., and the Office of Contract Archeology, was designed to provide input into the GBFEL-TIE Draft Environmental Impact Statement concerning the potential impact of the proposed project on cultural resources in each of the alternatives. The input consists of a series of predictions based on data gathered from two sources: (1) a cultural resource sample survey (15%) of two alternatives conducted as part of this study, and (2) from a previous survey of the third alternative. A predictive model was devleoped and applied using these data that estimated the potential impact of the GBFEL-TIE facility on the cultural resources within each alternative. The predictions indicate that the NASA alternatives, by far, the least favorable location for the facility followed by the Orogrande and Stallion Alternatives.

Seaman, T.J.; Doleman, W.H.

1988-09-30

286

Emerging technologies for the changing global market  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi-quantative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

1993-01-01

287

Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

1995-01-01

288

Method to Obtain Intact, Viable Protoplasts from Pollen Grains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to and has among its objects the provision of a novel method to obtain intact, viable plant protoplasts from within the cell walls of mature pollen grains. Intact, viable protoplasts are obtained readily and in good quantity ...

M. L. Weaver

1987-01-01

289

Rapid Method for Enumeration of Viable Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp. in Water  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific method has been developed to enumerate viable L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water by epifluorescence microscopy in a short period of time (a few hours). This method allows the quantification of L. pneumophila or other Legionella spp. as well as the discrimination between viable and nonviable Legionella. It simultaneously combines the specific detection of Legionella cells using antibodies and a bacterial viability marker (ChemChrome V6), the enumeration being achieved by epifluorescence microscopy. The performance of this immunological double-staining (IDS) method was investigated in 38 natural filterable water samples from different aquatic sources, and the viable Legionella counts were compared with those obtained by the standard culture method. The recovery rate of the IDS method is similar to, or higher than, that of the conventional culture method. Under our experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the IDS method was <176 Legionella cells per liter. The examination of several samples in duplicates for the presence of L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. indicated that the IDS method exhibits an excellent intralaboratory reproducibility, better than that of the standard culture method. This immunological approach allows rapid measurements in emergency situations, such as monitoring the efficacy of disinfection shock treatments. Although its field of application is as yet limited to filterable waters, the double-staining method may be an interesting alternative (not equivalent) to the conventional standard culture methods for enumerating viable Legionella when rapid detection is required.

Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Simonart, Tristan; Parent, Virginie; Marchand, Gregory; Dobbelaere, Marie; Pierlot, Eric; Pierzo, Veronique; Menard-Szczebara, Florence; Gaudard-Ferveur, Elisabeth; Delabre, Karine; Delattre, Jean Marie

2005-01-01

290

Technology choice and development in Brazil: An assessment of Brazil's alternative fuel program and the agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and service sectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology choice profoundly affects a country's development process because capital-intensive and labor-intensive technologies have different socioeconomic linkages within the economy. This research examines the impacts of technology choice through the use of a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework. SAM-based modeling determines the direct and indirect effects of technology choice on development, particularly poverty alleviation in Brazil. Brazil's alternative fuel program was analyzed as a special example of technology choice. Two ethanol production technologies and the gasoline sector were compared; to make the study more robust, labor and capital intensive technologies were evaluated in the production of agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and services. Growth in these economic sectors was examined to assess the effects on employment, factor and household income, energy intensity, and carbon dioxide costs. Poverty alleviation was a focus, so income to unskilled agriculture labor, unskilled non-agriculture labor, and income to rural and urban households in poverty was also analyzed. The major research finding is that overall, labor-intensive technologies generate more employment, factor and household income, environmental and energy benefits to Brazil's economy than capital-intensive technologies. In addition, labor-intensive technologies make a particular contribution to poverty alleviation. The results suggest that policies to encourage the adoption of these technologies, especially in the agriculture and renewable energy sectors, are important because of their intersectoral linkages within the economy. Many studies have shown that Brazil's fuel ethanol program has helped to realize multiple macroeconomic objectives. However, this is the first empirical study to quantify its household income effects. The ethanol industry generated the most household income of the energy sectors. The research confirms a key finding of the appropriate technology literature, namely that government policies are important to the implementation of labor-intensive technologies. Finally, this research makes two important contributions to the SAM methodology. It is one of the first SAM modeling exercises to quantify the costs of carbon dioxide emissions and the impact of alternative fuels on regional and human development. The addition of an environmental sector enables the planner to determine carbon dioxide effects resulting from growth in different socioeconomic sectors. This will have implications for greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

Nolan, Lucy A.

291

Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multiparametric flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor, as fragile dinoflagellates, such as Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae), survived electronic cell sorting to yield viable cells. The rate of successful isolation of large-scale (> 4 litres) cultures was higher for manual picking than for electronic cell sorting (2% vs 0.5%, respectively). However, manual picking of cells is more labor intensive and time consuming. Most manually isolated cells required repicking, as the cultures were determined not to be unialgal after a single round of isolation; whereas, no cultures obtained in this study from electronic single-cell sorting required resorting. A broad flow cytometric gating logic was employed to enhance species diversity. The percentages of unique genotypes produced by manual picking or electronic cell sorting were similar (57% vs 54%, respectively), and each approach produced a variety of dinoflagellate or raphidophyte genera. Alternatively, a highly restrictive gating logic was successfully used to target K. brevis from a natural bloom sample. Direct electronic single-cell sorting was more successful than utilizing a pre-enrichment sort followed by electronic single-cell sorting. The appropriate recovery medium may enhance the rate of successful isolations. Seventy percent of isolated cells were recovered in a new medium (RE) reported here, which was optimized for axenic dinoflagellate cultures. The greatest limiting factor to the throughput of electronic cell sorting is the need for manual postsort culture maintenance and assessment of the large number of isolated cells. However, when combined with newly developed automated methods for growth screening, electronic single-cell sorting has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new algal strains.

Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Winshell, Jamie; Guerrero, Maria A.; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W.; Eaton, Richard W.; Brand, Larry; Rein, Kathleen S.

2009-01-01

292

Scientific Basis for Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents - DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration Implementation Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation (MNA\\/EPR) Technology Alternative Project is narrowly focused, providing the scientific and policy support to facilitate implementing appropriate passive cleanup and cost effective monitoring strategies leading to responsible completion of active remediation activities at high risk DOE waste sites. MNA\\/EPR describe natural processes that mitigate exposure and risk and that are self-sustaining

Vangelas

2003-01-01

293

Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identifying and selecting alternative materials and technologies that have the potential to reduce the identified HazMats and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), while incorporating sound corrosion prevention and control technologies, is a complicated task due to the fast pace at which new technologies emerge and rules change. The alternatives are identified through literature searches, electronic database and Internet searches, surveys, and/or personal and professional contacts. Available test data was then compiled on the proposed alternatives to determine if the materials meet the test objectives or if further)laboratory or field-testing will be required. After reviewing technical information documented in the PAR, government representatives, technical representatives from the affected facilities, and other stakeholders involved in the process will select the list of viable alternative coatings for consideration and testing under the project's Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes and Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both prepared by ITB. Test results will be reported in a Joint Test Report upon completion oftesting. The selection rationale and conclusions are documented in this PAR. A cost benefit analysis will be prepared to quantify the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coating processes, however, some initial cost data has been included in this PAR. For this coatings project, isocyanates, as found in aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes, were identified as the target HazMat to be eliminated. Table 1-1 lists the target HazMats, the related process and application, current specifications, and affected programs.

Lewis, pattie

2011-01-01

294

HF RFID versus UHF RFID--Technology for Library Service Transformation at City University of Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since libraries first used RFID systems in the late 1990s, more and more libraries have identified the advantages of the technology. With advances in HF and UHF RFID, both alternatives are now viable in library applications. While some librarians are still skeptical towards UHF RFID as unproven in the library arena, the City University of Hong…

Ching, Steve H.; Tai, Alice

2009-01-01

295

An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

Hong, Sunggye

2012-01-01

296

Technology disrupted  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, the author presented a report on power generation technologies which in summary said 'no technology available today has the potential of becoming transformational or disruptive in the next five to ten years'. In 2006 the company completed another strategic view research report covering the electric power, oil, gas and unconventional energy industries and manufacturing industry. This article summarises the strategic view findings and then revisits some of the scenarios presented in 2003. The cost per megawatt-hour of the alternatives is given for plants ordered in 2005 and then in 2025. The issue of greenhouse gas regulation is dealt with through carbon sequestration and carbon allowances or an equivalent carbon tax. Results reveal substantial variability through nuclear power, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass remain competitive through every scenario. Greenhouse gas scenario analysis shows coal still be viable, albeit less competitive against nuclear and renewable technologies. A carbon tax or allowance at $24 per metric ton has the same effect on IGCC cost as a sequestration mandate. However, the latter would hurt gas plants much more than a tax or allowance. Sequestering CO{sub 2} from a gas plant is almost as costly per megawatt-hour as for coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Papatheodorou, Y. [CH2M Hill (United States)

2007-02-15

297

Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

NONE

1995-06-01

298

Integrating Alternative Assessment in a Project-Based Learning Course for Pre-Service Science and Technology Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with a required methods course, based on the national curriculum of science and technology for junior high schools. The course participants are pre-service teachers who study towards a B.Sc. degree in education in science and technology parallel to their studies in one of the faculties of sciences or engineering. Working in small…

Frank, Moti; Barzilai, Abigail

2004-01-01

299

ImpACT: An Alternative to Technology Readiness Levels for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) as a tool in assessing acquisition and development program risk has steadily increased over the past several years. There is considerable evidence to support the utility of using TRLs as part of a risk assessment, but there are some difficulties in using TRLs with software, especially Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software technology and products. These

James D. Smith II; Wilson Boulevard

2004-01-01

300

Development of an alternative light source to lasers for photodynamic therapy: 1. Comparative in vitro dose response characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative performances of a prototype lamp, a pulsed laser and a continous wave laser, were compared for photodynamic therapy\\u000a (PDT). Recent advances in short are technology and lamp miniaturization coupled with improvements in the effciency, of optical\\u000a filter coatings have led to the design and construction of a table-top light source prototype; the first viable and cost-effective\\u000a alternative to

C. Whitehurst; K. Byrne; J. V. Moore

1993-01-01

301

Teaching and Technology Transfer as Alternative Revenue Streams: A Primer on the Potential Legal Implications for UK Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the UK pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to…

Van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James

2005-01-01

302

Study on Using the Water Alternating Gas Injection Technologic to Improve the Ultra Low Permeability Reservoir Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

To rationally develop low permeability reservoir, enhanced oil recovery, Changqing Oilfield launched a special low permeability oil field development studies. Based Changqing oilfield Yanhewan block this typical ultra-low permeability reservoir, use the numerical simulation method simulate the instability of water injection and gas injection alternating different effects of the development. The simulation results show that injection cycle in the early

Zhang Yi; Zhang Ning-sheng; Li Jun-gang; Shi Hai-xia; Tong Xiao-hua

2010-01-01

303

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

304

Technological Alternatives for the Conservation of Strategic and Critical Minerals - Colbalt, Chromium, Manganese, and Platinum-Group Metals: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines review focuses on the extent to which technologically and economically feasible programs in substitution, improved processing practices, including recycling, and design can achieve conservation of cobalt, chromium, manganese, and plati...

R. J. Foster

1985-01-01

305

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (Ctas). Volume 6: Computer Data. Part 1: Coal-Fired Nocogeneration Process Boiler, Section a.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from th...

W. F. Knightly

1980-01-01

306

Long-term implications of alternative light-duty vehicle technologies for global greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses global light-duty vehicle (LDV) transport in the upcoming century, and the implications of vehicle technology advancement and fuel-switching on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands. Five different vehicle technology scenarios are analyzed with and without a CO2 emissions mitigation policy using the GCAM integrated assessment model: a reference internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, an advanced internal

Page Kyle; Son H. Kim

2011-01-01

307

Alternative food preservation techniques, new technology in food preparation and appropriateness of food supply for the permanently manned space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

Whelan, R. H.

1985-01-01

308

Annual Session of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers (34th), December 16-19, 1981. Preprints of Papers, Volume 3. Thermodynamics - Simulation, Control and Optimisation - Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Operations - Energy Conservation and Alternative Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The papers presented at the 34th Annual Session covered under Vol. III deal with Thermodynamics, Simulation control and Optimization Environmental engineering and Mechanical operations and Energy conservation and alternated technologies. Among topics cove...

1981-01-01

309

Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

2000-01-01

310

Magnetostrictive Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

311

Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the Permafrost Darkness  

SciTech Connect

This review represents an overview of the existence, distribution and abundance of the photoautotrophic microorganisms in the deep subsurface permafrost of the Northeast Russia and McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The morphology, growth rate, spectral properties, phylogenetic position of the viable permafrost green algae and cyanobacteria have been studied. Viable photoautotrophs were represented by unicellular green algae and filamentous cyanobacteria with low growth rate. Spectral studies of ancient cyanobacteria and green algae did not reveal any significant differences between them and their contemporary relatives. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that permafrost photoautotrophs were closely related to strains and more often to uncultured environmental clones from cold regions.

Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL

2009-01-01

312

The Detection of a Dyson-Harrop Satellite: A Technologically Feasible Astroengineering Project and Alternative to the Traditional Dyson Sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dyson sphere was numerically analyzed and found technically infeasible. A Dyson-Harrop satellite is proposed as a Dyson-sphere variant, one which could be discovered in space. Modeling suggests that a DHS could be built using modern technology.

Harrop, B. L.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

2010-04-01

313

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS (SUMMARY OF PHASE I AND PHASE II)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted in two phases. n the first phase, a synthetic soil matrix was prepared as a theoretical composite of Superfund soils nationwide. n the second phase, soils from actual Superfund sites were treated. hree treatment technologies were evaluated in both phases:...

314

Alternative employment arrangements contribute to organizational citizenship and innovative work, or not: information technology professional's psychological contract will tell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of information technology (IT) human capital is more dynamic and diverse today as organizations use a variety and mixture of employment arrangements to gain IT core competency, cost, and productivity improvements, yet it is not well known how the employment arrangements affect the IT professional. Applying the psychological contract framework and social information processing theory in the investigation into

Sandra K. Newton; Stephen C. Wingreen; J. Ellis Blanton

2005-01-01

315

Relationship of Total Viable and Culturable Cells in Epiphytic Populations of 'Pseudomonas syringae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The direct viable count method, used to detect viable but nonculturable bacteria in aquatic systems, was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. Viable-population sizes determined from the number of cells that elongated when inc...

M. Wilson S. E. Lindow

1992-01-01

316

Induction and Resuscitation of Viable Nonculturable Arcobacter butzleri Cells?  

PubMed Central

Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4°C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition.

Fera, M. T.; Maugeri, T. L.; Gugliandolo, C.; La Camera, E.; Lentini, V.; Favaloro, A.; Bonanno, D.; Carbone, M.

2008-01-01

317

Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

318

A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

319

Estimation of viable airborne microbes downwind from a point source.  

PubMed Central

Modification of the Pasquill atmospheric diffusion equations for estimating viable microbial airborne cell concentrations downwind form a continuous point source is presented. A graphical method is given to estimate the ground level cell concentration given (i) microbial death rate, (ii) mean wind speed, (iii) atmospheric stability class, (iv) downwind sample distance from the source, and (v) source height.

Lighthart, B; Frisch, A S

1976-01-01

320

An explication of the viable system model for project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how to model proejct management using the Viable System Model. It gives a general overview of the model and explains in detail how to model System 4, Systems 3-2-1, the interactions between System 3 and System 4, and the interactions between management at different levels of recursion.

G. A. Britton; J. Parker

1993-01-01

321

Design Rules for Intranets According to the Viable System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Viable System Model, VSM, by Stafford Beer is a model used for diagnosing and designing organizational structure and communication to facilitate necessary and sufficient conditions for viability. The model has been used for diagnosing different kinds of organizations at different levels where its use highlights existing or missing communication patterns and information flows in different communication channels and relates

Christina Amcoff Nyström

2006-01-01

322

A METHODOLOGY FOR USING BEER'S VIABLE SYSTEM MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper first briefly describes interactive planning, which consists of five interacting phases, which can be performed in any order: mess formulation, ends planning, means planning, resource planning, and implementation. The paper shows how interactive planning and the viable system model (VSM) can be combined to give a powerful methodology for studying and redesigning organizations. The essential skills to use

G. A. Britton

1989-01-01

323

Organizations as systems: the viable systems model (VSM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at some key features of the viable systems model (VSM) and its application, which has been extensively applied to the diagnosis and design of organizations for management purposes. Uses highlighted boxes explaining: cybernetics; VSM; and application. Spotlights a Figure of the VSM model as identified by cybernetics expert Stafford Beer.

B Gould

1999-01-01

324

The viable system model and the Viplan software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software Viplan learning system is an aid to learn about Beer’s viable system model (VSM) and its application. This is done with the support of the Viplan method. The five activities of this method are explained with examples. First, it offers an approach to understand and discuss organisational identity through analysis of stakeholders. Second, it describes structural modelling of

Raul Espejo; Diane Bowling; Patrick Hoverstadt

1999-01-01

325

Selective detection of viable bacteria using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a selective detection technique of viable bacteria based on dielectrophoresis and electrical impedance measurements. The authors have previously proposed a detection technique of biological particles called dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method using positive dielectrophoretic force to capture biological cells in suspension onto an interdigitated microelectrode array. By combining antigen-antibody reaction with the DEPIM, selective detection of a

Junya Suehiro; Ryo Hamada; Daisuke Noutomi; Masanori Shutou; Masanori Hara

2003-01-01

326

Are E-Readers Viable Instructional Delivery Systems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of e-readers, or electronic book readers, that investigated strategies adult users applied to reading in the new medium, kinds of texts users read, and text characteristics for e-reading. Discusses the process of reading, purposes of reading, and whether e-readers are viable instructional delivery systems. (Contains 63…

Schcolnik, Miriam

2002-01-01

327

Ecotourism: A Viable Alternative for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the history and current status of ecotourism and its role in economic development and natural resource management. It focuses on the role of private, commercial-sector organizations. Several specific examples of ecotourism are discuss...

1992-01-01

328

Flexible denture base material: A viable alternative to conventional acrylic denture base material  

PubMed Central

Although clinician's skills and experience play a major role in designing and fabrication of the optimum prosthodontic restorations, the selection of denture resins is equally important, especially when the patient has been using the prostheses since long. Eighteen cases who were not satisfied with their conventional acrylic dentures were selected. They were provided flexible dentures along with a questionnaire to precisely evaluate the advantages of new material. Prosthodontic planning & observations regarding this material are discussed on various parameters.

Singh, J. P.; Dhiman, R. K.; Bedi, R. P. S.; Girish, S. H.

2011-01-01

329

The local lymph node assay: A viable alternative to currently accepted skin sensitization tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospective identification of skin sensitizing chemicals is a vital prerequisite for their proper risk management. Traditionally this has been achieved largely by the conduct of guinea pig assays such as the maximization and Buehler tests. These methods are recommended by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and are required by the European Union (EU) for the evaluation

D. A. Basketter; G. F. Gerberick; I. Kimber; S. E. Loveless

1996-01-01

330

Novel curing agents: Thermal radical initiators as viable alternatives to peroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable 1-pack coating systems are gaining importance at the expense of short-potlife 2-pack formulations. Two processes can initiate the cure mechanism: the action of heat and the action of UV-light. The use of heat has traditionally been the more popular process, as UV-curing still requires some investment and process modification on the part of customers willing to enter this market.

Katia Studer; Peter Nesvadba; Tunja Jung; Johannes Benkhoff; Karin Powell; Caroline Lordelot

2008-01-01

331

Is Antioxidant Therapy a Viable Alternative for Mild Cognitive Impairment? Examination of the Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic interventions for the prodromal stages of dementia are currently being sought with a view to delaying if not preventing disease onset. Uncertainty as to whether cognitive disorder in a given individual will progress towards dementia and adverse drug side effects has led to hesitancy on the part of drug regulators to instigate preventive pharmacotherapies. In this context, antioxidant therapies

Marie-Laure Ancelin; Yves Christen; Karen Ritchie

2007-01-01

332

The Search for "Viable Alternatives": Planning Theory and Community College Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This nine-part literature review examines ways in which community college administrators are dealing with the rapidly changing social, political, and educational environment. Part I examines some of the external pressures placed on community colleges to change both policy and programs, and argues against reactive responses to these changes. Part…

McIntyre, Janice

333

Quantum-dye labeled proteins for glycobiology: a viable nonradioactive alternative tracer.  

PubMed

Quantum dye (QD), a macrocyclic europium-chelate, developed as a cytological marker, has never been used for quantitative applications. It would be ideal, however, if the same tracer can be used for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. We have labeled some lectins and neoglycoproteins with QD for the purpose of quantitative analyses in glycobiology, and tested its suitability in three different areas in glycobiology: (1) glycosyltransferase, (2) an animal lectin - mannose-binding protein, and (3) the Gal/GalNAc receptor of rat liver membrane. Usefulness of QD-labeled lectins was amply demonstrated by the quantification of galactosyltransferase activity using QD-soybean agglutinin and QD-RCA120 ( Ricinus communis agglutinin). We also showed that QD-labeled neoglycoproteins, QD-Man-BSA and QD-Gal-BSA, can replace radioiodinated counterparts in the binding assays of animal lectins (serum mannose binding protein and hepatic Gal/GalNAc receptor.) The advantage of QD and other europium labels is that it does not decay as radioiodides do. The long shelf-life results in more consistent results from repeated experiments. PMID:9675217

Lee, Y C; Kawasaki, N; Lee, R T; Suzuki, N

1998-09-01

334

Distance Learning as a Viable Staff Development Alternative for Behavioral Healthcare Direct Support Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quasi-experiment utilized three groups of direct service staff to explore the effectiveness of three methods of training and an optional survey was offered after the study. The researcher used a counterbalance design. Three courses developed by an independent distance learning company were utilized to provide the learning experience. Each…

Gill, James G., Jr.

2011-01-01

335

Ventricular Assist Devices: Is Destination Therapy a Viable Alternative in the Non-Transplant Candidate?  

PubMed Central

The topic of this article, stated a more familiar way, is whether left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are ready for ‘Primetime’ as a therapeutic option in and of themselves. In order to provide an update and insight on this question, we briefly review from where the field has come, and in more detail describe its current state and where we are heading. We believe the short answer to this question is ‘Yes’, but like many things, a short answer is not adequate. Here we attempt to deliver a more comprehensive answer, providing some historical context, outlining the great achievements that have been made, as well as the many challenges that still remain before LVADs become a truly mainstream therapy.

Hrobowski, Tara; Lanfear, David E.

2012-01-01

336

KNUDSEN CELL REACTOR FOR CATALYST RESEARCH RELATED TO HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrogen has been identified as a viable sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Hydrogen as an energy source is ecologically feasible, socially desirable, and with continued research and development promises to become economically viable. The faculty advisors listed...

337

Rapid detection of total viable count of chilled pork using hyperspectral scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid nondestructive measurement method for determining the total viable count of chilled pork was studied. Chilled pork samples were purchased from supermarket and then stored in refrigerator at 4°C. Every 24 hours, hyperspectral images were collected from the chilled pork samples in 400-1100nm region, in parallel total viable counts were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods. The 3-parameter modified lorentzian distribution function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of all samples and the fitting results were satisfactorily high in region 470-943 nm. Then the parameters extracted were used to establish PLSR models. The prediction results for the parameter a, b, c, b×c are 0.945, 0.918, 0.919, 0.935 respectively. The study show that the hyperspectral technology can accurately tracks the increase of total viable count of chilled pork during 2-14 days storage at 4°C, and so indicate it a valid tool for assessing the quality and safety properties of chilled pork rapidly and nondestructively in the future.

Peng, Yankun; Tao, Feifei; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingjing; Wu, Jianhu; Dhakal, Sagar

2010-04-01

338

Viable Biomass Sensor integration in the MELiSSA CI and CIII compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the biomass quantity and quality in complex substrate reactor (e.g. activated sludge, high density, fixed bed,..) is determined off-line in laboratories. Within this study, the VIAMASS Sensor System, which uses Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, has been tested for MELiSSA compartment CI and C III, the liquefying and the nitrifying compartment respectively. This sensor is able to measure viable cells on basis of an impedance spectroscopy measurement. The fact that viable biomass can be detected, distinguishes the sensor from classical biomass sensors used in wastewater treatment plants. Detection of viable biomass and composition of the biomass can be very useful for calibration and validation of biological models. The sensor can be used to detect toxicity in system leading to die-off of organisms. The technology developed initially for space applications has been adapted and will be also able to give overall information on the population distribution of cells, distinguishing what type of biomass is dominant (for example, bacteria or protozoa).

Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Peiro, Enrique; Bragos, Ramon

339

Lean systems approaches to health technology assessment: a patient-focused alternative to cost-effectiveness analysis.  

PubMed

Many countries now use health technology assessment (HTA) to review new and emerging technologies, especially with regard to reimbursement, pricing and/or clinical guidelines. One of the common, but not universal, features of these systems is the use of economic evaluation, normally cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), to confirm that new technologies offer value for money. Many have criticised these systems as primarily being concerned with cost containment, rather than advancing the interests of patients or innovators. This paper calls into question the underlying principles of CEA by arguing that value in the healthcare system may in fact be unconstrained. It is suggested that 'lean management principles' can be used not only to trim waste from the health system, but as a method of creating real incentives for innovation and value creation. Following the lean paradigm, this value must be defined purely from the patients' perspective, and the entire health system needs to work towards the creation of such value. This paper offers as a practical example a lean approach to HTA, arguing that such an approach would lead to better incentives for innovation in health, as well as more patient-friendly outcomes in the long run. PMID:23389493

Bridges, John F P

2006-12-01

340

Preliminary design of an alternate high-temperature turbine. A topical report for Phase II of the High-Temperature-Turbine Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of designing a convectively air-cooled turbine to operate in the environment of a 3000/sup 0/F combustor exit temperature with maximum turbine airfoil metal temperatures held to 1500/sup 0/F was established. The United Technologies-Kraftwerk Union V84.3 gas turbine design was used as the basic configuration for the design of the 3000/sup 0/F turbine. Turbine cooling requirements were determined based on the use of the modified V84.3 type silo combustor with a pattern factor of 0.1. The convective air-cooling technology levels in terms of cooling effectiveness required to satisfy the airfoil cooling requirements were identified. Cooling schemes and fabrication technologies required are discussed. Turbine airfoil cooling technology levels required for the 3000/sup 0/F engine were selected. The performance of the 3000/sup 0/F convectively air-cooled gas turbine in simple and combined cycle was calculated. The 3000/sup 0/F gas turbine combined-cycle system provides an increase in power of 61% and a decrease in heat rate of 10% compared to a similar system with a combustor exit temperature of 2210/sup 0/F and the same airflow. The development of a successful 3000/sup 0/F convectively air-cooled turbine can be accomplished with a reasonable design and fabrication development effort on the cooled turbine airfoils. Use of the convectively air-cooled turbine provides the transfer of technology from extensive aircraft engines developed programs and operating experience to industrial gas turbines. It eliminates the requirement for large investments in alternate cooling techniques tailored specifically for industrial engines which offer no additional benefits.

Strough, R.I.

1981-08-01

341

Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry: background, strategies, trends, impact, and alternative responses  

SciTech Connect

Growth of foreign direct investment in the US, exceeding 1000% since 1970, has raised important issues regarding US policies toward foreign trade and domestic economic management. Japan, with its significant direct investment in America's high-technology industry, is often perceived as the most threatening of the foreign investors. This study was undertaken to determine the background, extent, and impact of Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry. Examination of patterns of foreign direct investment in the US since 1950 shows that Japan's participation has been governed largely by US monetary policies (e.g., revaluation of currency) and the proposed or actual imposition of protectionist measures (e.g., import quotas). Additional factors include US economic-growth potential, lenient tax laws, stable political structure, and many incentives at the state level, all of which provide an attractive environment for foreign investors. Results suggest that the problems associated with foreign direct investment in the US are far outweighed by its benefits of capital inflow and creation of new jobs. An optimum trade policy, in conjunction with the opening of Japan's trade and investment markets, would eliminate trade barriers and support a stabilization of currency.

Kavner, A.G.

1986-01-01

342

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies  

SciTech Connect

The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

none,

1992-10-01

343

Alternative flue gas treatment technologies for integrated SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control  

SciTech Connect

Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue gas cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

Markussen, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Livengood, D.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-06-01

344

Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of technology in the hospitality industry is increasing at a rapid rate. Technology has had an effect on the efficiency of many facets of the hospitality industry. Despite the growing number of meetings, conventions, and conferences, there has not been a published needs assessment study of training needs-especially technology needs-of hospitality sales managers. This paper presents the results

Gail Sammons

2000-01-01

345

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier

Atin Adhikari; Moon M. Sen; Swati Gupta-Bhattacharya; Sunirmal Chanda

2004-01-01

346

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors.  

PubMed

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

2011-04-23

347

A computational and experimental study of alternative energy technologies: Constructing photochemical electron-transfer cascades and the development of computational methods for understanding fuel cell electrocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Producing viable, vertically-integrated alternative energy systems requires solving chemical and engineering problems at many levels. This work presents experimental results seeking to make visible light driven water splitting more feasible, computational efforts aiding in the combinatorial screening of fuel cell catalysts, and a physically-realistic model of the electrochemistry at porous electrode surfaces to understand and improve the porous electrodes used in fuel cells. Combinatorial chemistry is a valuable technique for developing and screening large quantities of candidate catalysts. Data obtained from such experiments can be difficult to analyze and communicate. We implement a system to identify catalytically-active clusters within data sets and to compactly visualize four and five-metal catalytic compositions graphically as tetrahedra or animations. Combinatorially-determined catalysts are often deposited on porous electrodes providing high surface area supports for many reactions, but the influences of electrode preparation conditions on electrocatalysts are not always well understood. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide extensive information about an electrode, but idealized models describing spectra limit the ability to draw useful conclusions. We describe a new model based on an array of parallel, non-uniform transmission lines for predicting the response of porous electrodes. The model incorporates physically realistic elements, such as discrete particles of variable size and adjustable multi-layer stacking geometries. Resistance parameters were derived from experimental data for Pt4Ru4Ir coated Ti0.9Nb0.1O 2 and Ebonex electrodes prepared under varying degrees of oxidative conditioning. The results, which indicate a high degree of impedance at the support-solution interface and consequently low catalyst utilization, suggest several strategies for improved electrode design. Fuel cells' popularity, however, is limited by the cost of their fuels. Visible light photolysis of water could supply hydrogen abundantly, but each of the possible solutions to this challenge possess major drawbacks. When using inexpensive, sensitized, self-assembled inorganic systems, efficiency suffers from short charge-separated states and frequent recombinations. This work seeks to prolong charge-separated state lifetimes by constructing inorganic staircases of decreasing conduction band potentials down which photoelectrons may descend. A series of short, energetically favorable hops should prolong lifetimes. After developing a novel high-surface area support, lifetime enhancements of up to 15% were observed.

Waraksa, Chad C.

348

The Viable System Model and Its Application to Complex Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stafford Beer’s Viable System Model is the best known of the many cybernetic models he constructed over a career spanning\\u000a more than 50 years. He explored the necessary conditions for viability in any complex system whether an organism, an organization\\u000a or a country. Although the model was first applied in his work in the steel industry, many further applications were made

Allenna Leonard

2009-01-01

349

Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review.  

PubMed

This review describes the current status of waste treatment using thermal plasma technology. A comprehensive analysis of the available scientific and technical literature on waste plasma treatment is presented, including the treatment of a variety of hazardous wastes, such as residues from municipal solid waste incineration, slag and dust from steel production, asbestos-containing wastes, health care wastes and organic liquid wastes. The principles of thermal plasma generation and the technologies available are outlined, together with potential applications for plasma vitrified products. There have been continued advances in the application of plasma technology for waste treatment, and this is now a viable alternative to other potential treatment/disposal options. Regulatory, economic and socio-political drivers are promoting adoption of advanced thermal conversion techniques such as thermal plasma technology and these are expected to become increasingly commercially viable in the future. PMID:18499345

Gomez, E; Rani, D Amutha; Cheeseman, C R; Deegan, D; Wise, M; Boccaccini, A R

2009-01-30

350

Formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

351

Scientific Basis for Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents - DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The overall Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation (MNA/EPR) Technology Alternative Project is narrowly focused, providing the scientific and policy support to facilitate implementing appropriate passive cleanup and cost effective monitoring strategies leading to responsible completion of active remediation activities at high risk DOE waste sites. MNA/EPR describe natural processes that mitigate exposure and risk and that are self-sustaining once implemented or require minimal adjustments to maintain functionality. The overall MNA/EPR project effort will be performed as a collaboration between DOE science and operations organizations at the target sites along with regulatory agencies, stakeholders, industry, and universities, as identified in the approved Alternative Project Plan. This plan describes the project initiation activities, individual roles and responsibilities, milestones, and budget for the project. A primary product of this project will be a collaboratively developed MNA/EPR protocol that will facilitate widespread use and acceptance. This technical protocol will be developed in collaboration with regulator agencies as input for regulation updates and guidance documents, as appropriate. This plan describes the project initiation activities, individual roles and responsibilities, milestones, and budget for the project.

Vangelas, K.

2003-04-15

352

Alternative Energy Sources Guidebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is offered as an informational guide - a 'primer' - for Marylanders interested in obtaining a basic understanding of Alternative Energy Generation Technologies which are potentially available in the state. An attempt has been made to asses...

W. D. Baxter

1987-01-01

353

SOLVENT WASTE REDUCTION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication contains edited versions of presentations on this subject made at five Technology Transfer seminars in 1988. Chapters are included on land disposal regulations and requirements; waste solvent disposal alternatives from various industries such as process equipment...

354

Alternative SO sub 2 and NO sub x emission reduction technologies for stationary sources: A comparative analysis  

SciTech Connect

Emission control of acid rain precursors is currently the subject of intense debate on Capitol Hill. Numerous bills have been introduced which call for substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from operating utility and industrial boilers. The primary focus of the debates is on the cost, applicability and potential market impacts of emissions control options available to achieve the desired reductions. These topics are also the focus of a report in preparation for the 1990 Assessment of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). This paper summarizes some of the abatement technology information for utility boilers contained in the NAPAP report. First the major provisions in the proposed acid rain legislation are summarized and the emission reduction options potentially applicable to the utility boiler population discussed. This is followed by discussion of the retrofit issues for utility boilers and a synopsis of the applicability and cost of retrofit emission control options. Since the focus of the current proposed legislation is on near-term reduction requirements for utility boilers, this paper emphasizes retrofit control options. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Emmel, T.E. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-01-01

355

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

Knightly, W. F.

1980-05-01

356

HVOF thermal spraying: An alternative to hard chrome plating  

SciTech Connect

In recent years pressure to find alternatives to chromium electroplating has accelerated dramatically. While it is not likely that the process will be banned completely, the trend points to severe limitations. Industries must now look closely at their applications, and actively consider alternatives to hard chrome plaint. One of the most viable alternatives in thermal spraying. Recent advances in high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technology offer an environmentally safer, cleaner and less-expensive alternative to chromium plating. It has been shown here that HVOF coatings can be used as chromium plating alternatives for many different applications. The HVOF process offers several advantages over chromium plaint including thicker coating capability, no part size restrictions and no hazardous waste products. A number of HVOF coatings have had excellent results in laboratory and field testing, and can be considered as effective replacements for hard chrome. The choice for a suitable replacement can only be made after careful assessment of the conditions associated with the application in question.

Bolles, D.C. [Sulzer Metco, Westbury, NY (United States)

1995-10-01

357

Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

358

Viable mononuclear cell stability study for implementation in a proficiency testing program: impact of shipment conditions.  

PubMed

The impact of shipping temperatures and preservation media used during transport of either peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or Jurkat cells was assessed, in view of implementing of a proficiency testing scheme on mononuclear cell viability. Samples were analyzed before and after shipment at different temperatures (ambient temperature, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen) and in different preservation media (serum with cryoprotectant, commercial cryopreservation solution, and room temperature transport medium). Sample quality was assessed by viability assays (Trypan Blue dye exclusion, flow cytometry, Cell Analysis System cell counting (CASY)), and by ELISpot functional assay. The liquid nitrogen storage and shipment were found to be the most stable conditions to preserve cell viability and functionality. However, we show that alternative high quality shipment conditions for viable cells are dry ice shipment and commercial cryopreservation solution. These were also cost-efficient shipment conditions, satisfying the requirements of a proficiency testing scheme for viable mononuclear cells. Room temperature transport medium dramatically and adversely affected the integrity of mononuclear cells. PMID:24955735

Kofanova, Olga A; Davis, Kristine; Glazer, Barbara; De Souza, Yvonne; Kessler, Joseph; Betsou, Fotini

2014-06-01

359

Energy alternative  

SciTech Connect

A review of the world's peat resources and the technologies for peat harvesting, dewatering, and utilization demonstrates that depending on the location of the peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation, and cost of other energy sources, peat can be an economical energy alternative for either direct combustion or production of synthetic fuels. The ease with which peat can be harvested and its generally low sulfur and ash contents make it a good fuel for direct combustion, whereas its high hydrogen content gives it a high tendency to form hydrocarbon gases during thermal conversion. Hydrogasification tests with peat yielded 3 1/2 times the amount of hydrocarbon gases produced by the conversion of lignite and subbituminous coal under similar conditions.

Schora, F.C.; Punwani, D.V.

1980-01-01

360

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones  

PubMed Central

Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), progesterone (P4) and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A)) essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20) was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013), as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant). Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071), but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure remains unknown.

2011-01-01

361

Television and Our Children. A Report of the Activities of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two major objectives of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project were to determine the extent of the influence of violence in children's television and to determine if children's interest in prosocial programming makes it a viable alternative t...

D. Mainse

1976-01-01

362

HVOF thermal spraying: An alternative to hard chrome plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years pressure to find alternatives to chromium electroplating has accelerated dramatically. While it is not likely that the process will be banned completely, the trend points to severe limitations. Industries must now look closely at their applications, and actively consider alternatives to hard chrome plaint. One of the most viable alternatives in thermal spraying. Recent advances in high-velocity

Bolles

1995-01-01

363

Sodium chloride affects propidium monoazide action to distinguish viable cells.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a DNA-intercalating agent used to selectively detect DNA from viable cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, we report that high concentrations (>5%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) prevents PMA from inhibiting DNA amplification from dead cells. Moreover, Halobacterium salinarum was unable to maintain cell integrity in solutions containing less than 15% NaCl, indicating that extreme halophilic microorganisms may not resist the concentration range in which PMA fully acts. We conclude that NaCl, but not pH, directly affects the efficiency of PMA treatment, limiting its use for cell viability assessment of halophiles and in hypersaline samples. PMID:22728959

Barth, Valdir C; Cattani, Fernanda; Ferreira, Carlos A S; de Oliveira, Sílvia D

2012-09-15

364

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

365

Models with radiative neutrino masses and viable dark matter candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a list of particle physics models at the TeV-scale that are compatible with neutrino masses and dark matter. In these models, the Standard Model particle content is extended with a small number (? 4) of scalar and fermion fields transforming as singlets, doublets or triplets under SU(2), and neutrino masses are generated radiatively via 1-loop diagrams. The dark matter candidates are stabilized by a Z 2 symmetry and are in general mixtures of the neutral components of such new multiplets. We describe the particle content of each of these models and determine the conditions under which they are consistent with current data. We find a total of 35 viable models, most of which have not been previously studied in the literature. There is a great potential to test these models at the LHC not only due to the TeV-scale masses of the new fields but also because about half of the viable models contain particles with exotic electric charges, which give rise to background-free signals. Our results should serve as a first step for detailed analysis of models that can simultaneously account for dark matter and neutrino masses.

Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Oscar; Yaguna, Carlos E.

2013-11-01

366

From formamide to purine: an energetically viable mechanistic reaction pathway.  

PubMed

A step-by-step mechanistic pathway following the transformation of formamide to purine through a five-membered ring intermediate has been explored by density functional theory computations. The highlight of the mechanistic route detailed here is that the proposed pathway represents the simplest reaction pathway. All necessary reactants are generated from a single starting compound, formamide, through energetically viable reactions. Several important reaction steps are involved in this mechanistic route: formylation-dehydration, Leuckart reduction, five- and six-membered ring-closure, and deamination. On the basis of the study of noncatalytic pathways, catalytic water has been found to provide energetically viable step-by-step mechanistic pathways. Among these reaction steps, five-member ring-closure is the rate-determining step. The energy barrier (ca. 42 kcal/mol) of this rate-control step is somewhat lower than the rate-determining step (ca. 44 kcal/mol) for a pyrimidine-based pathway reported previously. The mechanistic pathway reported herein is less energetically demanding than for previously proposed routes to adenine. PMID:23347082

Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Springsteen, Greg; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2013-02-28

367

Specific and rapid enumeration of viable but nonculturable and viable-culturable gram-negative bacteria by using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

An issue of critical concern in microbiology is the ability to detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and viable-culturable (VC) cells by methods other than existing approaches. Culture methods are selective and underestimate the real population, and other options (direct viable count and the double-staining method using epifluorescence microscopy and inhibitory substance-influenced molecular methods) are also biased and time-consuming. A rapid approach that reduces selectivity, decreases bias from sample storage and incubation, and reduces assay time is needed. Flow cytometry is a sensitive analytical technique that can rapidly monitor physiological states of bacteria. This report outlines a method to optimize staining protocols and the flow cytometer (FCM) instrument settings for the enumeration of VBNC and VC bacterial cells within 70 min. Experiments were performed using the FCM to quantify VBNC and VC Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells after staining with different fluorescent probes: SYTO 9, SYTO 13, SYTO 17, SYTO 40, and propidium iodide (PI). The FCM data were compared with those for specific standard nutrient agar to enumerate the number of cells in different states. By comparing results from cultures at late log phase, 1 to 64% of cells were nonculturable, 40 to 98% were culturable, and 0.7 to 4.5% had damaged cell membranes and were therefore theoretically dead. Data obtained using four different gram-negative bacteria exposed to heat and stained with PI also illustrate the usefulness of the approach for the rapid and unbiased detection of dead versus live organisms. PMID:20543046

Khan, Mohiuddin M Taimur; Pyle, Barry H; Camper, Anne K

2010-08-01

368

Specific and Rapid Enumeration of Viable but Nonculturable and Viable-Culturable Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Flow Cytometry ? †  

PubMed Central

An issue of critical concern in microbiology is the ability to detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and viable-culturable (VC) cells by methods other than existing approaches. Culture methods are selective and underestimate the real population, and other options (direct viable count and the double-staining method using epifluorescence microscopy and inhibitory substance-influenced molecular methods) are also biased and time-consuming. A rapid approach that reduces selectivity, decreases bias from sample storage and incubation, and reduces assay time is needed. Flow cytometry is a sensitive analytical technique that can rapidly monitor physiological states of bacteria. This report outlines a method to optimize staining protocols and the flow cytometer (FCM) instrument settings for the enumeration of VBNC and VC bacterial cells within 70 min. Experiments were performed using the FCM to quantify VBNC and VC Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells after staining with different fluorescent probes: SYTO 9, SYTO 13, SYTO 17, SYTO 40, and propidium iodide (PI). The FCM data were compared with those for specific standard nutrient agar to enumerate the number of cells in different states. By comparing results from cultures at late log phase, 1 to 64% of cells were nonculturable, 40 to 98% were culturable, and 0.7 to 4.5% had damaged cell membranes and were therefore theoretically dead. Data obtained using four different Gram-negative bacteria exposed to heat and stained with PI also illustrate the usefulness of the approach for the rapid and unbiased detection of dead versus live organisms.

Khan, Mohiuddin M. Taimur; Pyle, Barry H.; Camper, Anne K.

2010-01-01

369

Decision models for conducting an economic analysis of alternative fuels for the ice engine. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis is made of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), alcohol, and electric vehicles (EV's) as possible replacements for gasoline-powered vehicles. Advantages and disadvantages of vehicles powered by the various fuels are discussed and determinations of their suitability are made based on vehicle performance characteristics and fuel availability. CNG and EV's are determined to be viable alternatives based on current state-of-the-art technology. Alcohol is not retained as a viable alternative because of limited fuel availability. Models are presented for determining the total life cycle cost for gasoline, CNG, and EV's. A fleet of seventy-two vehicles at the Naval Postgraduate School is used as an example to compare the cost of each alternative. A linear program is used to determine the mix of gasoline, CNG, and electric vehicles that satisfy mission requirements for the least total fleet life cycle cost and to perform sensitivity analysis on the cost determinants. A generalized formulation is also presented to allow a vehicle fleet manager to use the methodology of this thesis as an aid to evaluating the potential of alternatively-fueled vehicles in different situations.

Garrison, C.F. Jr.

1983-03-01

370

Economic viability of biogas technology  

SciTech Connect

Biogas has emerged as a suitable technology for providing alternative and additional sources of energy, especially for rural areas of developing countries. Although the experience gained in China and India established its technological success, social scientists are still involved in the controversial issue of its economic viability. The available literature presents very contradictory situations, ranging between the two extreme poles of high economic viability and nonviability. Such contradictory conclusions are derived since economic benefits from the technology are influenced by a number of factors. A review of the literature reveals that various factors are either not considered, or that the economics have been worked out assuming a very ideal situation, while biogas plants are operating under very different conditions. Using the coal replacement method even as coal is seldom used by villages is only a single example of this approach. In most of the developing countries, rural populations depend mainly on non-commercial fuels like firewood, dungcakes, agricultural wastes and leaves for cooking and heating purposes. Under the present technological limitations, biogas can most commonly be used for cooking and lighting. For testing the economic viability of biogas systems, a number of authors have considered the benefits in terms of savings in traditional fuels. But considering the actual thermal efficiency of different non-commercial fuel items, as well as biogas, it has still be be decided at what point of the market prices of fuel items that the biogas system becomes economically viable and remains viable. The present paper thus reviews different approaches adopted and suggested for working out the economics or the cost-benefit ratio of the biogas technology at the first stage, and then spells out the factors influencing the economic benefits of the technology under various situations, with the help of empirical

Agrawal, S.C.; Agrawal, S.; Khare, O.P.

1983-12-01

371

Alternative Media Technologies for the Open University. A Research Report on Costed Alternatives to the Direct Transmission of Audio-Visual Materials. Final Report. I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting No. 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines alternatives to direct transmission of television and radio programs for courses with low student enrollment at the Open University. Examined are cut-off points in terms of student numbers at which alternative means of distributing audio or audio-visual materials become more economical than direct television or radio…

Bates, Tony; Kern, Larry

372

New perspectives on viable microbial communities in low-biomass cleanroom environments  

PubMed Central

The advent of phylogenetic DNA microarrays and high-throughput pyrosequencing technologies has dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of detection of distinct microbial lineages in mixed microbial assemblages. Despite an expanding array of approaches for detecting microbes in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of these cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. In this study, pre-PCR propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was coupled with downstream pyrosequencing and PhyloChip DNA microarray analyses to better understand the frequency, diversity and distribution of viable bacteria in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms. Sample fractions not treated with PMA, which were indicative of the presence of both live and dead cells, yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial pyrosequences. In contrast, only 1% to 10% of all of the pyrosequencing reads, arising from a few robust bacterial lineages, originated from sample fractions that had been pre-treated with PMA. The results of PhyloChip analyses of PMA-treated and -untreated sample fractions were in agreement with those of pyrosequencing. The viable bacterial population detected in cleanrooms devoid of spacecraft hardware was far more diverse than that observed in cleanrooms that housed mission-critical spacecraft hardware. The latter was dominated by hardy, robust organisms previously reported to survive in oligotrophic cleanroom environments. Presented here are the findings of the first ever comprehensive effort to assess the viability of cells in low-biomass environmental samples, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation.

Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; La Duc, Myron T; Bargoma, Emilee; Benardini, James N; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2013-01-01

373

New perspectives on viable microbial communities in low-biomass cleanroom environments.  

PubMed

The advent of phylogenetic DNA microarrays and high-throughput pyrosequencing technologies has dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of detection of distinct microbial lineages in mixed microbial assemblages. Despite an expanding array of approaches for detecting microbes in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of these cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. In this study, pre-PCR propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was coupled with downstream pyrosequencing and PhyloChip DNA microarray analyses to better understand the frequency, diversity and distribution of viable bacteria in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms. Sample fractions not treated with PMA, which were indicative of the presence of both live and dead cells, yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial pyrosequences. In contrast, only 1% to 10% of all of the pyrosequencing reads, arising from a few robust bacterial lineages, originated from sample fractions that had been pre-treated with PMA. The results of PhyloChip analyses of PMA-treated and -untreated sample fractions were in agreement with those of pyrosequencing. The viable bacterial population detected in cleanrooms devoid of spacecraft hardware was far more diverse than that observed in cleanrooms that housed mission-critical spacecraft hardware. The latter was dominated by hardy, robust organisms previously reported to survive in oligotrophic cleanroom environments. Presented here are the findings of the first ever comprehensive effort to assess the viability of cells in low-biomass environmental samples, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation. PMID:23051695

Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; La Duc, Myron T; Bargoma, Emilee; Benardini, James N; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2013-02-01

374

GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

1991-11-01

375

Monitoring and assessment of airborne fungi in Kolkata, India, by viable and non-viable air sampling methods.  

PubMed

The composition and variability of airborne fungal spores were studied using two complementary sampling methods in an outdoor environment in Kolkata suburb for 2 years, from November 2002 to October 2004. For monitoring the total fungal spore burden in the air, Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler was used, whereas Andersen two-sage viable sampler was used for isolating the cultivable airborne fungi. Among the 37 fungal spore types identified in the air samples, the predominant ones were Cladosporium, unidentified ascospores, unidentified basidiospores, Aspergilli/Penicilli, Nigrospora, Periconia, Chaetomium, Drechslera, Alternaria, Coprinus, Ganoderma, Pithomyces, and rust spores. Only six fungal spore types (Alternaria, Aspergilli/Penicilli, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, and Nigrospora) were recovered in common by the two samplers. For Aspergilli/Penicilli, Drechslera, and Nigrospora, the spore concentration was underestimated in the non-viable sampling method (Burkard sampler). In general, higher spore count was recorded in winter. The highest fungal species variability was observed in early monsoon (June). Relative humidity could significantly predict the seasonal periodicity of the maximum number of airborne spores. The total airborne fungi concentration recorded in the study (15-16?×?10(3) spores m(-3) of air) was lower than the proposed threshold limit value for clinical significance, suggesting apparently no or less airborne-fungi-exposure-related health risk in the sampling area. Cladosporium cladosporioides was recorded beyond the proposed threshold limit value in January 2003 and March 2004; Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans in winter that might have posed considerable health risk to sensitized individuals. PMID:21915605

Das, Shaonli; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati

2012-08-01

376

Summary Document of Workshops for Hanford, Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site as part of the Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents - DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the result of a series of meetings with regulators, stakeholders, tribal representatives, and end users. The meetings focused on providing information from the Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents, DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration and eliciting feedback on the direction of the project, its usefulness, and its applicability to issues faced by

Vangelas

2004-01-01

377

Summary Document of Workshops for Hanford, Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site as part of the Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents - DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the result of a series of meetings with regulators,stakeholders, tribal representatives, and end users. The meetings focused on providing information from the Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents, DOE Alternative Project for Technology Acceleration and eliciting feedback on the direction of the project, its usefulness, and its applicability to issues faced by the

Vangelas

2004-01-01

378

Alternative Reproductive Technologies: Implications for Children and Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (May 21, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hearing was held for the purpose of receiving testimony about alternative reproductive technologies and their implications for children, families, and society. Testimony provided: (1) a comparison of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer, and trends in in vitro fertilization; (2) a summary of definitions, statistics, and the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

379

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2013-07-01

380

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...Bacteriology, Eighth Edition. (2) Spore preparations of Bacillus...

2009-07-01

381

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...Bacteriology, Eighth Edition. (2) Spore preparations of Bacillus...

2010-07-01

382

Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli)?·?g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity. PMID:24257838

Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

2014-02-01

383

Evaluations of lunar samples for the presence of viable organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samples from the six successful Apollo lunar exploration missions were examined for the presence of biological formed elements and were used to inoculate a variety of culture media designed to promote growth of a broad spectrum of microorganisms. No evidence of viable organisms was obtained from any of these analyses. Following incubation of the lunar material-culture medium complexes, microbial growth dynamics studies were conducted with known test species to evaluate the possible presence of toxic factors. Only extracts of culture media which had been in contact with a mixture of lunar material from both Apollo 11 core tubes proved to be toxic to all species tested. Attempts to reproduce this toxic effect with individual Apollo 11 core samples obtained at other parts of the core and analyzed under somewhat different conditions were unsuccessful. In all, 48 different lunar samples were examined. These samples were collected at the lunar surface, in trenches, and in core samples to a depth of 297 cm.

Taylor, G. R.; Wooley, B. C.

1973-01-01

384

Intestinal stem cells remain viable after prolonged tissue storage.  

PubMed

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are responsible for renewal of the epithelium both during normal homeostasis and following injury. As such, they have significant therapeutic potential. However, whether ISCs can survive tissue storage is unknown. We hypothesize that, although the majority of epithelial cells might die, ISCs would remain viable for at least 24 h at 4 °C. To explore this hypothesis, jejuna of C57Bl6/J or Lgr5-LacZ mice were removed and either processed immediately or placed in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 °C. Delayed isolation of epithelium was performed after 24, 30, or 48 h storage. At the light microscope level, despite extensive apoptosis of villus epithelial cells, small intestinal crypts remained morphologically intact for 30 h and ISCs were identifiable via Lgr5-LacZ positivity. Electron microscopy showed that ISCs retained high integrity for 24 h. When assessed by flow cytometry, ISCs were more resistant to degeneration than the rest of the epithelium, including neighboring Paneth cells, with higher viability across all time points. Cultured isolated crypts showed no loss of capacity to form complex enteroids after 24 h tissue storage, with efficiencies after 7 days of culture remaining above 80 %. By 30 h storage, efficiencies declined but budding capability was retained. We conclude that, with delay in isolation, ISCs remain viable and retain their proliferative capacity. In contrast, the remainder of the epithelium, including the Paneth cells, exhibits degeneration and programmed cell death. If these findings are recapitulated in human tissue, storage at 4 °C might offer a valuable temporal window for the harvesting of crypts or ISCs for therapeutic application. PMID:23820734

Fuller, Megan K; Faulk, Denver M; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Mahe, Maxime M; Stout, Kara M; von Furstenberg, Richard J; Smith, Brian J; McNaughton, Kirk K; Shroyer, Noah F; Helmrath, Michael A; Henning, Susan J

2013-11-01

385

Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

1994-01-01

386

A CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING USE OF BEER'S CYBERNETIC MODEL OF VIABLE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of Beer's cybernetic model of viable systems for the diagnosis of organizational deficiencies in the trade training network in New Zealand is described. Application of the model shows that none of the levels of recursion are viable: the highest level being the least viable. The model enables the authors to determine the factors preventing viability and to propose

G. A. BRITTON; H. McCALLION

1985-01-01

387

A Novel Viable Allele of Arabidopsis CULLIN1 Identified in a Screen for Superroot2 Suppressors by Next Generation Sequencing-Assisted Mapping  

PubMed Central

Map-based cloning (MBC) is the conventional approach for linking phenotypes to genotypes, and has been successfully used to identify causal mutations in diverse organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer unprecedented possibilities to sequence the entire genomes of organisms, thereby in principle enabling direct identification of causal mutations without mapping. However, although mapping-by-sequencing has proven to be a cost effective alternative to classical MBC in particular situations, methods based solely on NGS still have limitations and need to be refined. Aiming to identify the causal mutations in suppressors of Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 phenotype, generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment, we combined NGS and classical mapping, to rapidly identify the point mutations and restrict the number of testable candidates by defining the chromosomal intervals containing the causal mutations, respectively. The NGS-assisted mapping approach we describe here facilitates unbiased identification of virtually any causal EMS-generated mutation by overlapping the identification (deep sequencing) and validation (mapping) steps. To exemplify the useful marriage of the two approaches we discuss the strategy used to identify a new viable recessive allele of the Arabidopsis CULLIN1 gene in the non-reference Wassilewskija (Ws-4) accession.

Pacurar, Daniel I.; Pacurar, Monica L.; Pacurar, Andrea M.; Gutierrez, Laurent; Bellini, Catherine

2014-01-01

388

A Novel Viable Allele of Arabidopsis CULLIN1 Identified in a Screen for Superroot2 Suppressors by Next Generation Sequencing-Assisted Mapping.  

PubMed

Map-based cloning (MBC) is the conventional approach for linking phenotypes to genotypes, and has been successfully used to identify causal mutations in diverse organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer unprecedented possibilities to sequence the entire genomes of organisms, thereby in principle enabling direct identification of causal mutations without mapping. However, although mapping-by-sequencing has proven to be a cost effective alternative to classical MBC in particular situations, methods based solely on NGS still have limitations and need to be refined. Aiming to identify the causal mutations in suppressors of Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 phenotype, generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment, we combined NGS and classical mapping, to rapidly identify the point mutations and restrict the number of testable candidates by defining the chromosomal intervals containing the causal mutations, respectively. The NGS-assisted mapping approach we describe here facilitates unbiased identification of virtually any causal EMS-generated mutation by overlapping the identification (deep sequencing) and validation (mapping) steps. To exemplify the useful marriage of the two approaches we discuss the strategy used to identify a new viable recessive allele of the Arabidopsis CULLIN1 gene in the non-reference Wassilewskija (Ws-4) accession. PMID:24955772

Pacurar, Daniel I; Pacurar, Monica L; Pacurar, Andrea M; Gutierrez, Laurent; Bellini, Catherine

2014-01-01

389

Alternative Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction: Transportation Market Evolution; Tactical Mobility Fuel. Single Fuel in the Battlefield: What is the Single Fuel. Certification/Qualification Pipeline; DARPA Alternative Jet Fuels Program. Coordinating the Overall Alternative Fuel Qualificat...

P. Muzzell

2009-01-01

390

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

391

Rapid Isolation of Viable Circulating Tumor Cells from Patient Blood Samples  

PubMed Central

Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are cells that disseminate from a primary tumor throughout the circulatory system and that can ultimately form secondary tumors at distant sites. CTC count can be used to follow disease progression based on the correlation between CTC concentration in blood and disease severity1. As a treatment tool, CTC could be studied in the laboratory to develop personalized therapies. To this end, CTC isolation must cause no cellular damage, and contamination by other cell types, particularly leukocytes, must be avoided as much as possible2. Many of the current techniques, including the sole FDA-approved device for CTC enumeration, destroy CTC as part of the isolation process (for more information see Ref. 2). A microfluidic device to capture viable CTC is described, consisting of a surface functionalized with E-selectin glycoprotein in addition to antibodies against epithelial markers3. To enhance device performance a nanoparticle coating was applied consisting of halloysite nanotubes, an aluminosilicate nanoparticle harvested from clay4. The E-selectin molecules provide a means to capture fast moving CTC that are pumped through the device, lending an advantage over alternative microfluidic devices wherein longer processing times are necessary to provide target cells with sufficient time to interact with a surface. The antibodies to epithelial targets provide CTC-specificity to the device, as well as provide a readily adjustable parameter to tune isolation. Finally, the halloysite nanotube coating allows significantly enhanced isolation compared to other techniques by helping to capture fast moving cells, providing increased surface area for protein adsorption, and repelling contaminating leukocytes3,4. This device is produced by a straightforward technique using off-the-shelf materials, and has been successfully used to capture cancer cells from the blood of metastatic cancer patients. Captured cells are maintained for up to 15 days in culture following isolation, and these samples typically consist of >50% viable primary cancer cells from each patient. This device has been used to capture viable CTC from both diluted whole blood and buffy coat samples. Ultimately, we present a technique with functionality in a clinical setting to develop personalized cancer therapies.

Hughes, Andrew D.; Mattison, Jeff; Powderly, John D.; Greene, Bryan T.; King, Michael R.

2012-01-01

392

Alternative Energy Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from Misty Scevola serves as an assessment of student knowledge of alternative energy technologies. This document would be useful for instructors looking to expand their students' knowledge of alternative energy and sustainability. The document is intended to be used twice: once before learning about the concepts outlined, and once after the class has been completed. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Scevola, Misty

2012-04-18

393

Is viability still viable after the STICH trial?  

PubMed

Stunning and hibernation represent two different forms of tissue viability identifiable in acute coronary syndromes and chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy, respectively. Functional recovery occurs spontaneously with myocardial stunning, while it generally follows revascularization in case of hibernating myocardium. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is an accurate modality for identifying myocardial stunning and provides important information on ventricular remodelling after both systemic thrombolysis and primary angioplasty. In patients with conservatively treated infarction, the prognostic significance of viability by dobutamine stress echocardiography correlates with residual pump function. Substantial contractile reserve is predictive of favourable outcome in patients with poor but not in those with preserved or slightly reduced left ventricular function. Non-invasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery allows to distinguish between necrotic and stunned myocardium and predicts ventricular remodelling following primary angioplasty. Resting echocardiographic examination can provide information on hibernating myocardium. In particular, systolic thickening <7 mm, restrictive filling pattern, and high end-systolic volume are predictive of no viability. Compared with nuclear imaging, dobutamine stress echocardiography is more specific for predicting functional recovery, less expensive, more generally available and radiation-free. A large body of evidence collected over the years demonstrates the favourable prognostic impact of revascularizing extensive myocardial territories which are found viable at dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The prognostic implications of viability-guided revascularization have been clearly established in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, the prognostic value of myocardial viability has been questioned by the results of the STICH trial that did not demonstrate any advantage of survival in the patients with a large extent of myocardial viability undergoing revascularization. Is the end of a paradigm that deeply influenced clinical practice so far or just a neutral result that can be ignored due to the several limitations of study design? In the present review, we will address the main advantages and limitations of ultrasounds for the evaluation of myocardial viability and try to demonstrate that viability is still viable. PMID:22080451

Cortigiani, Lauro; Bigi, Riccardo; Sicari, Rosa

2012-03-01

394

American Counseling Association Branch Journals: Viable, Scholarly Means for Publishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the efficacy of publishing research, theoretically based articles, and in-the-field articles in refereed, professional branch journals of American Counseling Association (ACA). Addresses means and ways of writing successfully for publication. Presents ACA branch journals as alternative means for publishing and to encourage professional…

McGowan, A. Scott

1994-01-01

395

Viable Options: Intensive Supervision Programs for Juvenile Delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wayne County Juvenile Court in Detroit, Michigan, recently developed and evaluated three in-home, intensive supervision programs as alternatives to commitment for adjudicated delinquents. More than 500 youths were randomly assigned to either intensive supervision or a control group that was committed to the state for placement. The evaluation found the in-home programs to be as effective as commitment for

William H. Barton; Jeffrey A. Butts

1990-01-01

396

Basic Research and Prosperity: Sampling and Selection of Technological Possibilities and of Scientific Hypotheses as an Alternative Engine of Endogenous Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In endogenous growth theory technological progress is generated by accumulation of knowledge. This causes a number of problems, most importantly the scale dependence of technological progress. This paper develops a growth model where technological progress is based on sampling and selection from a Pareto distribution of technological possibilities. If sampling is purely random, slow growth is possible provided population increases,

C. A. Bochove

2012-01-01

397

Alternative strategies: a better alternative.  

PubMed

Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations. PMID:20446422

Doody, Dennis

2010-05-01

398

A Microscopic Multiphase Diffusion Model of Viable Epidermis Permeability  

PubMed Central

A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-?m layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯epi, and partition coefficient, K¯epi/w, for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes—water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone—covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes.

Nitsche, Johannes M.; Kasting, Gerald B.

2013-01-01

399

Megabase deletions of gene deserts result in viable mice.  

PubMed

The functional importance of the roughly 98% of mammalian genomes not corresponding to protein coding sequences remains largely undetermined. Here we show that some large-scale deletions of the non-coding DNA referred to as gene deserts can be well tolerated by an organism. We deleted two large non-coding intervals, 1,511 kilobases and 845 kilobases in length, from the mouse genome. Viable mice homozygous for the deletions were generated and were indistinguishable from wild-type littermates with regard to morphology, reproductive fitness, growth, longevity and a variety of parameters assaying general homeostasis. Further detailed analysis of the expression of multiple genes bracketing the deletions revealed only minor expression differences in homozygous deletion and wild-type mice. Together, the two deleted segments harbour 1,243 non-coding sequences conserved between humans and rodents (more than 100 base pairs, 70% identity). Some of the deleted sequences might encode for functions unidentified in our screen; nonetheless, these studies further support the existence of potentially 'disposable DNA' in the genomes of mammals. PMID:15496924

Nóbrega, Marcelo A; Zhu, Yiwen; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M

2004-10-21

400

Megabase deletions of gene deserts result in viable mice  

SciTech Connect

The functional importance of the approximately 98 percent of mammalian genomes not corresponding to protein coding sequences remain largely un-scrutinized 1. To test experimentally whether some extensive regions of non-coding DNA, referred to as gene deserts 2-4, contain critical functions essential for the viability of the organism, we deleted two large non-coding intervals, 1,511 kb and 845 kb in length, from the mouse genome. Viable mice homozygous for the deletions were generated and were indistinguishable from wild-type litter mates with regards to morphology, reproductive fitness, growth, longevity and a variety of parameters assaying general homeostasis. Further in-depth analysis of the expression of genes bracketing the deletions revealed similar expression characteristics in homozygous deletion and wild-type mice. Together, the two deleted segments harbour 1,243 non-coding sequences conserved between humans and rodents (>100bp, 70 percent identity). These studies demonstrate that some large-scale deletions of non-coding DNA can be well tolerated by an organism, bringing into question the role of many human-mouse conserved sequences 5,6, and further supports the existence of potentially ''disposable DNAi'' in the genomes of mammals.

Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Zhu, Yiwen; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Afzal,Veena; Rubin, Edward M.

2004-05-01

401

Oral vitamin D, still a viable treatment option for psoriasis.  

PubMed

Vitamin D as a topical treatment has become one of the mainstays for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Oral vitamin D on the other hand has for the most part become a forgotten option. But a review of the literature on oral vitamin D as a treatment for psoriasis reveals that this treatment is efficacious. The main side effect of this therapy is hypercalcemia, which appears to be easily monitored and avoidable with proper dosing and monitoring. The literature also suggests a correlation between low levels of serum vitamin D in this patient population associated with increased severity of disease involvement. In addition, oral vitamin D improves psoriatic arthropathy. Moreover, vitamin D has been proven to have many health benefits such as prevention of cancer, improved cardiovascular health among many others. Psoriatic patients as a population are at increased risk of developing adverse health complications such as cardiovascular disease, and oral vitamin D may prove to be of benefit in this population. Oral vitamin D is inexpensive and easily available. It is still a viable option and should not be forgotten as a possible treatment for psoriasis. PMID:22103655

Kamangar, Faranak; Koo, John; Heller, Misha; Lee, Eric; Bhutani, Tina

2013-08-01

402

The Heating of the ICM: Energy Crisis and Viable Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray observations indicate that non-gravitational processes play a key role in the thermodynamics of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM). The effect of non-gravitational processes is imprinted in the ICM as an entropy minimum, whose effects are visible in the Luminosity-Temperature relation and in the Entropy-Temperature relation. However, the X-ray emission alone cannot discriminate between different mechanisms and sources of heating. There are no answers at present to the following questions: how much non-gravitational energy per baryons is present in the ICM? When was this energy injected? Which are the sources of heating? The embarrassment in front of these questions is amplified by the fact that the most viable sources of heating, SNae and stellar winds, seem to be inefficient in bringing the ICM to the observed entropy level. We may call it the energy crisis. Here we review the main aspects of this crisis, listing possible solutions, including other sources, like AGNs and Radio Galaxies, or other mechanisms, like large scale shocks and selective cooling.

Tozzi, P.

403

A viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the NMSSM by adding vector-like matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the FCNC and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the non-thermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the BBN era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z_3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vector-like quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-12-14

404

Sialoendoscopy: a viable treatment for I(131) induced sialoadenitis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the viability, efficacy, and safety of sialoendoscopy for the diagnosis and management of radioiodine I(131-) related sialoadenitis, we retrospectively reviewed 30 patients referred between September 2007 and July 2013 from the Thyroid Surgery Unit to the Maxillofacial Unit of the Second University of Naples Hospital with persistent sialoadenitis after treatment with I(131). After the affected gland had been isolated, the endoscope was introduced into the duct under local anaesthesia with 2% lignocaine and continuous lavage with isotonic saline, and was advanced until it reached the ductal system. We studied 24 women and 6 men, mean (SD) age 52 (??) years. In 25 patients I(131) was given for papillary (83%), in 3 for medullary (10%), and in 2 for follicular thyroid carcinoma (7%). Stenosis alone was found in 30 glands (40%), mucous plugs alone in 35 (47%), and mucous plugs, stenosis, and kinks in 10 (13%). Of the 75 glands, dilatation of the ducts was successful in 70, and we completely removed all mucous plugs and kinks. We achieved symptomatic improvement in 23 patients (77%) during a follow-up ranging from 2 weeks to 84 months. Sialoendoscopy is a viable technique for the diagnosis of obstructive salivary disease, and is a safe and effective way to treat sialoadenitis, the most common complication of treatment with I(131). PMID:24894709

De Luca, R; Vicidomini, A; Trodella, M; Tartaro, G; Colella, G

2014-09-01

405

Potential virulence of viable but nonculturable Shigella dysenteriae type 1.  

PubMed Central

We examined a virulent strain of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 after induction into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state for its ability to (i) maintain the Shiga toxin (stx) gene; (ii) maintain biologically active Shiga toxin (ShT); and (iii) adhere to intestinal epithelial cells (Henle 407 cell line). PCR was used to amplify the stx gene from VBNC cells of S. dysenteriae type 1, thereby establishing its presence even when cells are in the VBNC state. VBNC S. dysenteriae type 1 ShT was monitored by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with mouse monoclonal antibodies against the B subunit of ShT and affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against ShT. We used the Henle 407 cell line to study the adhesive property of VBNC S. dysenteriae type 1 cells in a series of tissue culture experiments. Results showed that VBNC S. dysenteriae type 1 not only maintained the stx gene and biologically active ShT but also remained capable of adhering to Henle 407 cells. However, S. dysenteriae type 1 cells lost the ability to invade Henle 407 cells after entering the VBNC state. From results of the study, we conclude that VBNC cells of S. dysenteriae type 1 retain several virulence factors and remain potentially virulent, posing a public health problem.

Rahman, I; Shahamat, M; Chowdhury, M A; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

406

Resuscitation of Vibrio vulnificus from the Viable but Nonculturable State  

PubMed Central

Like many other gram-negative bacteria, the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is induced into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state by incubation at low temperatures. The ability of any bacterium to resuscitate from this dormant state would appear to be essential if the VBNC state is truly a survival strategy. The question as to whether the culturable cells which appear following removal of the inducing stress are a result of true resuscitation or of regrowth of a few residual culturable cells has long been debated. V. vulnificus was examined for its ability to resuscitate from this state following a temperature upshift. Several lines of investigation, including dilution studies, determination of the time necessary for appearance of a culturable population, and the effects of nutrient on recovery, all indicated that, at least for V. vulnificus, true resuscitation does occur. Our studies further suggest that nutrient is in some way inhibitory to the resuscitation of cells in the VBNC state and that studies which add nutrient in an attempt to detect resuscitation are able to detect only residual culturable cells which might be present and which were not inhibited by the added nutrient.

Whitesides, M. D.; Oliver, J. D.

1997-01-01

407

A microscopic multiphase diffusion model of viable epidermis permeability.  

PubMed

A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-?m layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯(epi), and partition coefficient, K¯(epi/w), for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes-water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone-covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes. PMID:23708370

Nitsche, Johannes M; Kasting, Gerald B

2013-05-21

408

Recent progress of hybrid CMOS visible focal plane array technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-based hybrid CMOS visible focal plane array technology is emerging as a viable high performance alternative to scientific CCDs. The progress is attributed to the rapid advances in CMOS technology, mature precision flip-chip hybridization of large size and fine pixel arrays, and detector array performance improvements. Its technology readiness level (TRL) for space applications is being enhanced by relevant environmental tests and in-depth characterization of sensor performance. In this paper, we present recent results of Rockwell Scientific's hybrid CMOS silicon focal plane array technology, including large format arrays up to 2048x2048, broadband QE, sensor noise improvement, high radiation hardness, and the higher degree of system integration through on-chip ADCs and companion ASICs.

Bai, Y.; Farris, M. C.; Joshi, A.; Hosack, J. R.; Bajaj, J.; Montroy, J. T.

2005-08-01

409

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; Baysinger, M. F.; Maples, C. D.; Capizzo, P. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Hornsby, L. S.; Percy, T. K.; Thomas, S. D.

2012-01-01

410

Is clamp and sew still viable for thoracic aortic resection?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors reviewed the morbidity and mortality of surgical resection of the descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta using the clamp-and-sew technique. BACKGROUND: Paraplegia remains a devastating complication after thoracoabdominal aortic resection, despite many strategies for spinal cord protection. Because of its simplicity, clamp and sew has been the preferred technique at the University of Virginia for the thoracoabdominal aortic resection when proximal control is possible. METHODS: Between 1987 and 1994, the authors reviewed 91 consecutive patients who underwent thoracic aortic resection using clamp-and-sew techniques without any additional adjuncts for spinal cord protection. RESULTS: The average age of patients was 60.8 years; 57.1% were male. No intraoperative deaths occurred. In-hospital mortality was 13% (12/91), with an overall incidence of postoperative spinal cord injury manifested as paraparesis or paraplegia of 9.9% (9/91). Eighty-nine percent (81/91) of all repairs were completed with aortic clamp times of 40 minutes or less, and nearly six out of ten were completed in 30 minutes or less (53/91). Cross-clamp times were not significantly different between those patients who sustained neurologic injury and those who had no deficits. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that clamp and sew is still a viable technique for thoracoabdominal aortic resection. Nearly all resections can be completed within 40 minutes of aortic occlusion. However, the "safe" duration of thoracic aortic occlusion remains unknown, and spinal cord injury can occur even with short clamp times. Reproducible, safe, and technically simple means of spinal cord protection must be developed.

Mauney, M C; Tribble, C G; Cope, J T; Tribble, R W; Luctong, A; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

1996-01-01

411

Lysis of Viable Rumen Bacteria in Bovine Rumen Fluid  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus bovis and Butyrivibrio sp. were labeled with thymidine-methyl-3H, washed, and resuspended in rumen fluid or rumen fluid fractions obtained from Holstein and Jersey cows fed alfalfa hay once daily. Factors affecting the lytic activity found in untreated rumen fluid were examined. Day to day variation and differences before and after feeding were observed for the same cow. There were also differences between cows on the same day. For a given rumen fluid, the rate of release of label was roughly proportional to the number of labeled cells present over a 100-fold range in concentration. Removal of protozoa largely abolished the lytic action of fresh rumen fluid for S. bovis, but some soluble lytic activity remained. Mixed rumen protozoa added to media containing labeled S. bovis caused label to appear in solution. In a sample of rumen fluid containing 4.3 × 104 protozoa/ml 5.2% of the S. bovis population were destroyed by protozoa per hr. The mean rate of destruction for 12 runs on whole rumen fluid was 8.7% per hr with a standard deviation of 6.05. Parallel experiments with Butyrivibrio indicated that soluble lytic factors were more important for this organism. They could be destroyed by autoclaving and were generated when viable rumen bacteria were resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The lysis of S. bovis and Butyrivibrio, at equal cell densities, by mixed rumen protozoa was compared in 30% rumen fluid media, and Butyrivibrio appeared to be more readily lysed than S. bovis.

Jarvis, B. D. W.

1968-01-01

412

Inflation with stable anisotropic hair: is it cosmologically viable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently an inflationary model with a vector field coupled to the inflaton was proposed and the phenomenology studied for the Bianchi type I spacetime. It was found that the model demonstrates a counter-example to the cosmic no-hair theorem since there exists a stable anisotropically inflationary fix-point. One of the great triumphs of inflation, however, is that it explains the observed flatness and isotropy of the universe today without requiring special initial conditions. Any acceptable model for inflation should thus explain these observations in a satisfactory way. To check whether the model meets this requirement, we introduce curvature to the background geometry and consider axisymmetric spacetimes of Bianchi type II,III and the Kantowski-Sachs metric. We show that the anisotropic Bianchi type I fix-point is an attractor for the entire family of such spacetimes. The model is predictive in the sense that the universe gets close to this fix-point after a few e-folds for a wide range of initial conditions. If inflation lasts for N e-folds, the curvature at the end of inflation is typically of order ~ e -2N . The anisotropy in the expansion rate at the end of inflation, on the other hand, while being small on the one-percent level, is highly significant. We show that after the end of inflation there will be a period of isotropization lasting for ˜ 2/3N e-folds. After that the shear scales as the curvature and becomes dominant around N e-folds after the end of inflation. For plausible bounds on the reheat temperature the minimum number of e-folds during inflation, required for consistency with the isotropy of the supernova Ia data, lays in the interval (21, 48). Thus the results obtained for our restricted class of spacetimes indicates that inflation with anisotropic hair is cosmologically viable.

Hervik, Sigbjørn; Mota, David F.; Thorsrud, Mikjel

2011-11-01

413

Alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

Not Available

1991-07-01

414

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

415

Environment and Alternative Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

Kothari, Rajni

416

Alternative waste systems: bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annotated bibliography identifies useful, introductory-level publications (books, pamphlets, periodicals, commercial technical publication, and plans). The 32 items deal with composting, sewage disposal, standards, waste water disposal, septic tank practices, appropriate technology, and environmental aspects. Alternate toilet designs are emphasized. (MCW)

R. Billau-Adams; J. OBrien

1978-01-01

417

All-printed smart structures: a viable option?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

2014-03-01

418

Solar energy education - a viable pathway for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing consumption of limited reserves of fossil fuels and their impact to the environment have raised global interest in harnessing solar energy. Proper knowledge of solar energy is lacking in many levels of society. Recently, the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) have conducted a survey on the availability of solar energy

S. M. Hasnain; S. H. Alawaji; U. A. Elani

1998-01-01

419

The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional…

Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

2011-01-01

420

Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles.

Green, Michael A.

1989-02-01

421

A Viable and Simple Self-Sampling Method for Human Papillomavirus Detection among South African Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Self-sampling for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing may offer improved patient acceptability, decreased cost, and greater practicality than clinician collection of specimens. HPV testing among adolescents is necessary to conduct vaccine surveillance and may play a role in cervical cancer screening among some populations. Methods A cross-sectional prevalence study was conducted to compare the results of self-collected and clinician-collected specimens for Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing among South African adolescent females. All participants provided self-sampled vaginal swabs and underwent clinician-collection of cervical swabs for HPV DNA analysis. The level of agreement between HPV DNA results from the two specimen collection methods was measured. Results The level of agreement between HPV DNA results from self-collected and clinician-collected specimens was high (?=86.7; p<0.001). A high prevalence of HPV overall was found by both specimen collection methods (57%; 95% CI 0.37–0.75). Low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were found slightly more frequently in self-collected specimens. Conclusion There is a high level of agreement between the HPV DNA results from self-collected and clinician-collected specimens. Self-collection of specimens for HPV testing is a viable alternative among adolescents.

Adler, David H; Laher, Fatima; Lazarus, Erica; Grzesik, Katherine; Gray, Glenda E; Allan, Bruce; Williamson, Anna-Lise

2013-01-01

422

Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole  

SciTech Connect

At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Green, M.A.

1989-02-01

423

Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?  

SciTech Connect

In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter {gamma}, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|{>=}2.3x10{sup 4}. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k{yields}{infinity}. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p{sub 0}=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p{sub 1}=-(1/2){epsilon} in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

Eingorn, Maxim [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil)

2011-02-15

424

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the

Johan Enslin; Ronald Hamaoui; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Ghaith Haddad; Khalid Rustom; Rick Stuby; Mohammad Kuran; Evlyn Mark; Ruba Amarin; Hussam Alatrash; Ward Isaac Bower; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

2012-01-01

425

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

426

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Alternative Energy- New Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers new directions for alternative energy such as thermoacoustics, thermoelectrics, magnetocalorics, sun heat thermochemical storage, liquid metal batteris and fusion. Each technology is described in depth and useful graphics are included to illustrate the material. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-07-23

427

Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

Hendricks, Robert C.

2007-01-01

428

Alternative Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an alternative method of assessment, students create portfolios by submitting monthly entries that demonstrate and expand their understanding of science concepts. Teachers can also use the portfolios to assess the success of their teaching practices an

Valdez, Penelope S.

2001-11-01

429

Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

2002-01-01

430

Barriers and Facilitators to the Use of High-Technology Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There has been a rapid growth in recent years of available technologies for individuals with communication difficulties. Research in the area is currently underdeveloped with practitioners having a limited body of work on which to draw to guide the process of intervention. Concerns have been raised that this newly developed technology

Baxter, Susan; Enderby, Pam; Evans, Philippa; Judge, Simon

2012-01-01

431

Decision Risk Analysis of the Impact on the Heavy Lift Helicopter Advanced Technology Component (ATC) Program of Alternative Methods of Powering the ATC Dynamic System Test Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this Advanced Technology Component (ATC) Program are to: (1) Demonstrate component technology to reduce development risk applicable to a 22.5 ton HLH at the lowest total HLH system cost; (2) Secure a cost data base adequate to assure tha...

1972-01-01

432

Cybernetically sound organizational structures II : Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory are introduced and analyzed in order to show how they relate. Findings

J. M. I. M. Achterbergh; Dirk Vriens

2011-01-01

433

Cybernetics and Resilience Engineering: Can Cybernetics and the Viable System Model Advance Resilience Engineering?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybernetics as the science of control in the animal and machine provides a para- digm for inquiry into organisational behaviour. Management cybernetics supplies comple- mentary perspectives on managing complexity and organisational performance. Using the Viable System Model (VSM) a qualitative diagnosis can be made of the communication structures in the viable organization. Viability is the ability to maintain the organisational

Arthur Dijkstra

434

Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

Goerz, D. A.

1987-12-01

435

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

2008-09-09

436

Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This Federal Technology Alert on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), is intended for fleet managers in government agencies and other government officials who need to use more alternative fuels and AFVs in their fleets of cars and trucks. This publication describes the government's plans and progress in meeting goals for the use of AFVs, which are stated in the Energy Policy Act and various Executive Orders. It describes the types of AFVs available, lists actual and potential federal uses, makes some general recommendations, and presents field experiences to date.

Not Available

2003-09-01

437

Framework for Validation and Implementation of In Vitro Toxicity Tests: Report of the Validation and Technology Transfer Committee of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. However, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coordinate, or evaluate these activities. A framework capable of fostering the validation of new methods is essential for

Michael S. Dickens; Oliver Flint; Stephen D. Gettings; Richard N. Hill; Robert L. Lipnick; Kevin J. Renskers; June A. Bradlaw; Robert A. Scala; Bellina Veronesi; Sidney Green; Neil Wilcox; Rodger Curren

1993-01-01

438

Framework for Validation and Implementation of In vitro Toxicity Tests: Report of the Validation and Technology Transfer Committee of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and application of in vitro alternatives designed to reduce or replace the use of animals, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend in toxicology. The proliferation of new methods is sti...

A. M. Goldberg J. M. Frazier D. Brusick S. T. Gettings R. N. Hill

1993-01-01

439

FRAMEWORK FOR VALIDATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IN VITRO TOXICITY TESTS: REPORT OF THE VALIDATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER COMMITTEE OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. owever, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coo...

440

Maine's Personalized Alternate Assessment Portfolio (PAAP) Rubrics, 2004-05 Rubric Levels 1-4 for English Language Arts (Reading and Writing), Mathematics, and Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PAAP Rubrics are designed for planning and implementation of the State's alternate assessment to the MEA, the PAAP. The PAAP has been designed to allow participation in the MEA for those students who require accommodations so significant that they would compromise the validity of the assessment (i.e., student would need accommodations that are…

Maine Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

441

Industrial viable process of making nanoparticles of various shapes and interior structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years, we attempted to develop industrial viable processes which were of significance in manufacturing the nanoparticles in good quality and large volume. Our effort relied on the self-assembly concepts of block macromolecules in solutions to prepare particles with a hard core made of crosslinked plastics and a soft shell made of low Tg elastomer. Depending on the type and microstructure of the copolymers, the solvent concentration and other process parameters chosen, a variety of shell-core nano-particles of different shapes (spheres, hollow spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, linear and branched strings, disks and etc.) and sizes (5-100 nm diameter) were reproducibly synthesized. Scale-up studies led to an optimization of the manufacturing process and the production of nanoparticles in large quantities for various product application efforts. The unique performance of those nanoparticles as performance tuning additives and novel rubber reinforcing elements was explored in rubber compounds. This review describes the synthesis methods used to produce the polymer nanoparticles, the technology to modify the particles through functionalization, the means to optimize their performance for specific applications, and the methods to use those particles in rubber compounds. Collaborators: Victor J. Foltz, Kurasch Jessica, Chenchy J. Lin, Jeff Magestrelli, Sandra Warren, Alberto Scuratti, James E. Hall, Jim Krom, Mindaugas Rackaitis, Michael W. Hayes, Pat Sadhukhan, Georg G. A. Bohm

Wang, Xiaorong

2008-03-01

442

Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A Viable Functional Lung Imaging Modality?  

PubMed Central

The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output.

Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

2008-01-01

443

An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of the magnetic bearing and its use in exotic applications has been conceptualized for many years, over a century, in fact. Patented, passive systems using permanent magnets date back over 150 years. More recently, scientists of the 1930s began investigating active systems using electromagnets for high-speed ultracentrifuges. However, passive magnetic bearings are physically unstable and active systems only provide proper stiffness and damping through sophisticated controllers and algorithms. This is precisely why, until the last decade, magnetic bearings did not become a practical alternative to rolling element bearings. Today, magnetic bearing technology has become viable because of advances in micro-processing controllers that allow for confident and robust active control. Further advances in the following areas: rotor and stator materials and designs which maximize flux, minimize energy losses, and minimize stress limitations; wire materials and coatings for high temperature operation; high-speed micro processing for advanced controller designs and extremely robust capabilities; back-up bearing technology for providing a viable touchdown surface; and precision sensor technology; have put magnetic bearings on the forefront of advanced, lubrication free support systems. This paper will discuss a specific joint program for the advancement of gas turbine engines and how it implies the vitality of magnetic bearings, a brief comparison between magnetic bearings and other bearing technologies in both their advantages and limitations, and an examination of foreseeable solutions to historically perceived limitations to magnetic bearing.

Clark, Daniel J.; Jansen, Mark J.; Montague, Gerald T.

2004-01-01

444

Inhibitory Effect of Biocides on the Viable Masses and Matrices of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria and matrix are essential for the development of biofilms, and assays should therefore target both components. The current European guidelines for biocidal efficacy testing are not adequate for sessile microorganisms; hence, alternative discriminatory test protocols should be used. The activities of a broad range of biocides on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were evaluated using such in vitro assays. Nearly all selected biocides showed a significant decrease in S. aureus biofilm viability, with sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid as the most active biocides. Only hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite showed some inhibitory effect on the matrix. Treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilms was roughly comparable to that of S. aureus biofilms. Peracetic acid was the most active on viable mass within 1 min of contact. Isopropanol ensured a greater than 99.999% reduction of P. aeruginosa viability after at least 30 min of contact. Comparable to results with S. aureus, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide markedly reduced the P. aeruginosa matrix. This study clearly demonstrated that despite their aspecific mechanisms of action, most biocides were active only against biofilm bacteria, leaving the matrix undisturbed. Only hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite were active on both the biofilm matrix and the viable mass, making them the better antibiofilm agents. In addition, this study emphasizes the need for updated and standardized guidelines for biofilm susceptibility testing of biocides.

Tote, K.; Horemans, T.; Berghe, D. Vanden; Maes, L.; Cos, P.

2010-01-01

445

Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

2012-12-03

446

Alternative calcination development status report  

SciTech Connect

The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

Boardman, R.D.

1997-12-01

447

Alternative treatment.  

PubMed

Alternatives to endometrial ablation include re-education of the 20% or more women complaining of menorrhagia whose blood loss is normal, less than 35 ml, and the use of an increasing variety of drugs to find an effective regime with minimal side effects. Endometrial resection is an effective treatment, particularly in the short term. Laparoscopic and vaginal hysterectomy have advantages over endometrial resection in the long term, avoiding failure and retreatment for menorrhagia. Hysteroscopic, laparoscopic and open myomectomy are more suitable in treating fibroids of significant size, although these techniques may be used with endometrial resection to avoid hysterectomy. Myoma reduction may become a less morbid alternative to myomectomy. PMID:7554619

Wood, C

1995-06-01

448

Controlled release of protein from viable Lactococcus lactis cells.  

PubMed

Overexpression of the lactococcal CsiA protein affects the cell wall integrity of growing cells and leads to leakage of intracellular material. This property was optimized and exploited for the targeted release of biologically active compounds into the extracellular environment, thereby providing a new delivery system for bacterial proteins and peptides. The effects of different levels of CsiA expression on the leakage of endogenous lactate dehydrogenase and nucleic acids were measured and related to the impact of CsiA expression on Lactococcus lactis cell viability and growth. A leakage phenotype was obtained from cells expressing both recombinant and nonrecombinant forms of CsiA. As proof of principle, we demonstrated that CsiA promotes the efficient release of the heterologous Listeria bacteriophage endolysin LM4 in its active form. Under optimized conditions, native and heterologous active-molecule release is possible without affecting cell viability. The ability of CsiA to release intracellular material by controlled lysis without the requirement for an external lytic agent provides a technology for the control of both the extent of lysis and its timing. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of this novel approach for applications including product recovery in industrial fermentations, food processing, and medical therapy. PMID:20228099

Stentz, Régis; Bongaerts, Roy J; Gunning, A Patrick; Gasson, Mike; Shearman, Claire

2010-05-01

449

Banking of non-viable skin allografts using high concentrations of glycerol or propylene glycol.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the kinetics of the current glycerol banking method for the preservation of non-viable skin allografts; to improve it with respect to efficiency and microbial safety; and to investigate the possibility of using propylene glycol in place of glycerol to provide a more rapid process. Skin grafts were preserved in 98% v/v glycerol (GLY) according to the method used in the Sheffield Skin Bank. During the addition and removal processes, the amounts of GLY and water in the skin were determined using the Karl Fischer method and HPLC respectively. Propylene glycol (PG) was investigated as an alternative to glycerol with the object of shortening the process. To avoid the need for prolonged storage in glycerol to disinfect the tissue, and to improve the effectiveness of disinfection, exposure to peracetic acid (PAA) was included and its influence on the kinetics of the preservation process was evaluated. The histological and ultrastructural appearances of skin that had been banked by these methods was also investigated. It was found that the permeation of GLY in skin probably involves two processes: diffusion and binding; the rate of transport was attenuated as the GLY concentration in the skin increased. The current incubation time could be shortened, but an inconveniently prolonged washout process was required. The substitution of PG for GLY accelerated the whole process, particularly the removal process, making the method more convenient for the emergency use of skin grafts in the clinic. The penetration of PG also involved diffusion and binding, but there was no attenuation of transport as the concentration increased. The addition of PAA sterilisation did not alter the transport of GLY or PG. Structural integrity was also maintained with the new banking treatments. An improved banking method can now be proposed; it can be completed in only one working day and the risk of disease transmission is reduced. PMID:15256836

Huang, Qizhi; Pegg, David E; Kearney, John N

2004-01-01

450

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

451

Alternative Energy Sources for Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies...

1988-01-01

452

Perspectives on Alternative Assessment Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines classroom assessment reform from four perspectives: technological, cultural, political, and postmodern. Each perspective highlights different issues and problems in the phenomenon of classroom assessment. The technological perspective focuses on issues of organization, structure, strategy, and skill in developing new assessment techniques. The cultural perspective examines how alternative assessments are interpreted and integrated into the social and cultural

Andy Hargreaves; Lorna Earl; Michele Schmidt

2002-01-01

453

Relationship of total viable and culturable cells in epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed Central

The direct viable count method, used to detect viable but nonculturable bacteria in aquatic systems, was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. Viable-population sizes determined from the number of cells that elongated when incubated with yeast extract and nalidixic acid were compared with those determined by the conventional plate count method. The plate count method accurately determined the number of viable cells in epiphytic P. syringae populations in a state of active growth under conditions of high relative humidity. The plate count method also accurately determined the number of viable cells in P. syringae inoculum, or a growing P. syringae population, subject to desiccation stress under conditions of low relative humidity. In epiphytic populations of P. syringae older than 80 h, however, the plate count underestimated the viable-population size by about two- to fourfold, suggesting that up to 75% of the P. syringae population was nonculturable. These nonculturable cells may have entered a starvation-survival state, induced by low nutrient availability in the phyllosphere environment. Epiphytic P. syringae populations undergoing rapid size changes due to growth and death under fluctuating environmental conditions in the field should be accurately enumerated by the plate count method. However, the possible underestimation of viable-population size under some circumstances should be considered in epidemiological studies of phytopathogenic bacteria and when genetically engineered microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems are monitored.

Wilson, M; Lindow, S E

1992-01-01

454

Alternatives to ECMO.  

PubMed Central

The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversity of pathophysiology these unique patients present.

Donn, S M

1994-01-01

455

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

456

Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS) study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek®) was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml) was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone,