Sample records for viable alternative technology

  1. Viable Alternative to the Standard Model

    E-print Network

    Paul H. Frampton; Thomas W. Kephart

    2014-08-27

    As an alternative to the standard model, we couple two scalar doublets such that, in the third family, one (${\\cal H}$) couples only to the top quark, the other ($H$), that is identified as the 126 GeV state already observed, to the bottom quark and the tau lepton. Three explicit predictions of the model are that the partial decay rate $\\Gamma(H \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma)$ is 28.1\\% higher than predicted by the standard model, and the two partial decay widths $\\Gamma(H \\rightarrow \\bar{b}b)$ and $\\Gamma(H \\rightarrow \\bar{\\tau}\\tau)$ are both predicted to be greater than, or equal to, their standard model values.

  2. Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica,

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    1 Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB 1.1 Introduction The goal of the Sage project (http://www.sagemath.org) is to create a viable free open source explain some of the motivation for starting the Sage project, in Section 1.3 we describe the basic

  3. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

  4. ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev

    E-print Network

    Giles, C. Lee

    ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev Submitted May 16th not require dark matter but rather relies on classical Newtonian dynamics and an overlooked effect of quantum: dark matter ­ galaxies: spiral ­ galaxies: kinematics and dynamics 1. INTRODUCTION Directly applied

  5. Alternative energy technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Dresselhaus; I. L. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

  6. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  7. A review on the viable technology for construction waste recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian W. Y. Tam; C. M. Tam

    2006-01-01

    Environmental problems have been considered as a serious situation in the construction. Waste management is pressing harder with the alarming signal warning the industry. Reuse, recycling and reduce the wastes consider as the only methods to recover those waste generated; however, the implementations still have much room for improvement. This paper reviews the technology on construction waste recycling and their

  8. Centre for Alternative Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

  9. Could Message Ferrying be a Viable Technology for Small Cell Backhaul?

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Could Message Ferrying be a Viable Technology for Small Cell Backhaul? Mahbub Hassan Chun Tung Chou of New South Wales Sydney 2052, Australia #12;Abstract Small cell is seen as key to combat the looming when it comes to connecting outdoor small cells to the core network. We anal- yse the viability

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  11. Gestational carriers: A viable alternative for women with medical contraindications to pregnancy*

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Katharine F.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compare the efficacy of surrogate or gestational carrier (GC) cycles to that of autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI) in patients with gynecologic or medical co-morbidities contraindicative to pregnancy. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Infertility patients from a single university hospital-based program from 1998-2009. Intervention(s) 128 GC cycles from 80 intended parents were identified and compared with 15,311 IVF or ICSI cycles. Main Outcome Measure(s) The peak estradiol (E2), number of oocytes retrieved, cycle cancellation, ongoing pregnancy, and live-birth were compared between GCs and autologous IVF carriers. Indications for GC use were also identified. Multiple cycles contributed by the same patient were accounted for using multivariable generalized estimating equations and two-sided Wald p-values. Results Uterine factors (67%) was the most common indication for using a GC, followed by non-gynecologic medical conditions including coagulopathies (13%), end stage renal disease (10%), cardiovascular disease (5%) and cancer (5%). Adjusting for age, ovulation induction in GC cycles had similar peak E2 levels and number of oocytes retrieved relative to IVF cycles (p = 0.23 and 0.43, respectively). Clinical pregnancy (49% vs. 42%, p = 0.28) and live-birth rates (31% vs. 32%, p = 0.74) were also comparable. A sub-analysis of GC cycles in those women with uterine factor indications, demonstrated significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.2 - 3.5) with 60% greater odds of live-birth relative to IVF/ICSI cycles, however this odds was not statistically significant for differences in live-birth (CI = 0.9 - 2.9). Conclusions: GCs are a viable alternative to start families for patients with medical co-morbidities precluding pregnancy. PMID:25664218

  12. Warm Humid Climate: Methodology to Study Air Temperature Distribution: Mobile Phones Base Stations as Viable Alternative for Fixed Points

    E-print Network

    Araujo, V.; Costa, A.; Labaki, L.

    2006-01-01

    WARM-HUMID CLIMATE: METHODOLOGY TO STUDY AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION: MOBILE PHONES BASE STATIONS AS VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR FIXED POINTS Angelina Dias Leão Costa (1); Lucila Labaki (2); Virgínia Araújo (3) (1) and (2) School of Civil..., in February 2006, are presented. The fixed points were defined using 20 mobile phone base stations in the city of Natal/RN, distributed along the four administrative zones. Measurements were carried out for seven days, registering air temperature...

  13. NC TEACH and NC TEACH OnLine: Viable Alternative Routes to Teaching in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sara Coble; Mebane, Dorothy J.

    2005-01-01

    Since 2000, North Carolina has offered an alternative route to licensure for adults who desire to move into teaching from other careers. NC TEACH is a statewide alternative teacher preparation program aimed at recruiting, supporting, and retaining highly skilled mid-career professionals who seek to enter the teaching profession through the lateral…

  14. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  15. Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing, including…

  16. CD-ROM--A Viable Alternative to Online Searching for Academic Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubbeld, Catherine E.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of CD-ROM as an alternative to online searching for academic libraries focuses on a comparison between online and CD-ROM costs at the University of Natal (South Africa) library. Other factors examined include funding methods; user fees; staff involvement; user training; user access, including search intermediaries and networking; and…

  17. Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Chung-Ling Chien; Noam Lior

    2011-01-01

    Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it

  18. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  19. Alternative Energy Technologies: Fuel Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacobson, Allan J.

    This presentation from Allan J. Jacobson of the University of Houston provides an introduction to fuel cell technology. The history of fuel cells, the potential future applications of the technology, technical challenges involved and the specifics of hydrogen production are all outlined. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

  20. New Technology and Energy Alternatives 

    E-print Network

    Lamphere, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses cogeneration, peak shaving, interruptible power and "on-site" generation as alternatives to purchasing traditional electrical power. Equipment used and case histories, including economics of the industrial installations...

  1. Closed-loop operation with alternative dewatering technology

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, W.S.; Bray, R.P.; Youens, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    The introduction of dewatering devices for closed-loop drilling-fluid circulating systems and reserve pits is derived from technology that has been used in the industrial- and sanitary-waste treatment industries for years. This paper describes an overview of the need for closed-loop systems and provides the optimum design layout, including the fit of a dewatering device, for a drilling location. The introduction of a nonconventional dewatering device, called a screw press/thickener, is reviewed. A case history describing use of this technology in a southern Louisiana inland-marsh-area well is analyzed for the technical and economic viability of operating in a closed-loop mode. Results from this effort include a viable alternative to hauling off waste fluids from drilling sites and the realization that use of this technology can be justified economically.

  2. An evaluation framework for viable business models for m-commerce in the information technology sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sulabh Sharma; Jairo Alberto Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the characteristics of viable business models in the field of Mobile Commerce (m-commerce).\\u000a Mobility has given new dimensions to the way commerce works. All over the world various stakeholder organisations are consistently\\u000a probing into the areas where m-commerce can be exploited and can generate revenue or value for them, even though some of those

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  4. Capacitive Deionization Technology™: An alternative desalination solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Welgemoed; C. F. Schutte

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted on Capacitive Deionization Technology (CDT) as an alternative to the more conventional membrane desalination technologies like reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The main objective of the research was to develop an industrial type module and to evaluate the performance of the module for brackish water desalination. The term “industrially re-producible” refers to the fact that

  5. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico))

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  6. Storage and qualification of viable intact human amniotic graft and technology transfer to a tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Romain; Nallet, Aurélie; Obert, Laurent; Nicod, Laurence; Gindraux, Florelle

    2014-06-01

    Human amniotic membrane (hAM) is known to have good potential to help the regeneration of tissue. It has been used for over 100 years in many medical disciplines because of its properties, namely a scaffold containing stem cells and growth factors, with low immunogenicity and anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and analgesic properties. In order to use this "boosted membrane" as an advanced therapeutic medicinal product for bone repair, we aimed to observe the influence of tissue culture and/or cryopreservation on cell viability and tissue structure, and secondly, to adapt to a tissue bank, identify easy processes to store hAM containing viable cells and to verify the quality of the graft before its release for use. To this end, we tested different published culture or cryopreservation storage conditions and cell viability assays. Tissue structure was evaluated by Giemsa staining and was compared to histological analysis. Preliminary results show no dramatic decrease in cell viability in cultured hAM as compared to cryopreserved hAM, but tissue structure alterations were observed with both storage conditions. Histological and immunohistochemical data highlight that tissue damage was associated with significantly modified protein expression, which could lead to a possible loss of differentiation potential. Finally, we report that trypan blue and Giemsa staining could constitute controls that are "materially and easily transferable" to a tissue bank. PMID:24633398

  7. Land treatment is viable technology for reducing petroleum-waste toxicity and migration potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Loehr; J. R. Ryan; J. E. Rucker

    1987-01-01

    Land treatment is a managed technology that involves controlled application of petroleum industry wastes into the upper layers of soil. The authors explain its application and how it fits with government environmental regulations.

  8. 40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

  9. 40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

  10. 40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

  11. 40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

  12. Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1996-05-01

    This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

  13. Coir Dust, A Viable Alternative to Peat Moss http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/Environmental/Media_Nutrition/COIR%20p... 1 of 6 2/8/2007 11:05 AM

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    Coir Dust, A Viable Alternative to Peat Moss http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/Environmental/Media_Nutrition/COIR%20p... 1 of 6 2/8/2007 11:05 AM Coir Dust, A Viable Alternative to Peat Moss Alan W. Meerow Associate dust could function remarkably well as a substitute for various peat products in soilless container

  14. Reading and Technology: Viable Partners for Multiple Educational Settings: Telecommunications and Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Connie L.

    The predominant telecommunications technologies, video and computer-based telecommunications, have multiple applications for reading education. The telecomputers of tomorrow will process, store, create and transmit images which can be distributed via fiber optics networks in a manner similar to the voice communications of today. Thus, the…

  15. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  16. A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

    2001-02-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

  17. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology Analysis Group

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  18. Impact of ancient cereals, pseudocereals and legumes on starch hydrolysis and antiradical activity of technologically viable blended breads.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino

    2014-11-26

    Wheat flour replacement from 22.5% up to 45% by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours provided technologically viable and acceptable sensory rated multigrain breads with superior nutritional value compared to the 100% wheat flour (WT) counterparts. Blended breads exhibited superior nutritional composition, larger amounts of bioaccessible polyphenols, higher anti-radical activity, and lower and slower starch digestibility. Simultaneous lower rapidly digestible starch (57.1%) and higher slowly digestible starch (12.9%) and resistant starch (2.8%) contents (g per 100g fresh bread), considered suitable nutritional trends for dietary starch fractions, were met by the blend formulated 7.5% T, 15% GP, 15% BK. The associated mixture that replaced 37.5% WT, showed a rather lower extent and slower rate of starch hydrolysis with medium-low values for C?, and H90, and lowest k, and intermediate expected Glycaemic Index (86). All multigrain breads can be labelled as source of dietary fibre (? 3 g dietary fibre/100g bread). PMID:25256469

  19. The Mucilage of Opuntia Ficus Indica: A Natural, Sustainable, and Viable Water Treatment Technology for Use in Rural Mexico for Reducing Turbidity and Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Andrew Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of natural environmentally benign agents in the treatment of drinking water is rapidly gaining interest due to their inherently renewable character and low toxicity. We show that the common Mexican cactus produces a gum-like substance, cactus mucilage, which shows excellent flocculating abilities and is an economically viable alternative for low-income communities. Cactus mucilage is a neutral mixture of

  20. 78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program AGENCY...applicants developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program...use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a text telephone...

  1. Bosch - An alternate CO2 reduction technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    The Bosch process is the most promising CO2 reduction concept for future prolonged space missions. The paper presents the design of a three-person-capacity preprototype B-CRS (Bosch-based CO2 Reduction Subsystem). It is sized to reduce 3.0 kg/d CO2 generated by the crew and to supply the product water to an O2 generation subsystem to obtain O2. The design supports future development of the B-CRS as an alternative CO2 reduction subsystem to the Sabatier-based process presently under test at NASA. The discussion covers the Bosch CO2 reduction concept, process and hardware description, performance parameters, design specifications, subsystem schematic and operation, mechanical subsystem summary, control/monitor instrumentation, and subsystem packaging. A B-CRS with a proven technological base is an attractive CO2 reduction subsystem that eliminates overboard venting.

  2. Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL).

    PubMed

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco

    2012-11-01

    Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45 ?m has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-?s pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1 ?m, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73 ?m were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications. PMID:22278348

  3. California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology

    E-print Network

    California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory by the Energy Commission. Under the Program, the following shall be eligible for funding: 3 · Alternative, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter

  4. Promising Secure Element Alternatives for NFC Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Reveilhac; Marc Pasquet

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Near Field Communication (NFC) forum was formed to promote and supervise the use of the NFC technology. Nowadays, 150 members are taking part init and a growing number of stakeholders are fully involved in the development of this emerging technology. Consequently, many pilots have been launched worldwide in order to test and improve it. Issues related to

  5. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ALTERNATIVE METAL FINISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method applied to eliminate or significantly reduce the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant released to the environment. The emphasis of cleaner technologies is on process changes that can prevent poll...

  6. California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology

    E-print Network

    California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter "Program") to be administered by the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission).1 AB 118 authorizes

  7. SMALL BATTERY — FUEL CELL ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahlon S. Wilson; Erik B. Brown; Christine Zawodzinski

    A compelling market segment for the introduction of fuel cells is in small battery types of applications. While in other applications (e.g. transportation), fuel cells need to compete with relatively effective and low-cost technologies, batteries are easier to compete with because they are expensive and have low energy densities. Even with modest hydrogen storage densities such as metal hydrides, fuel

  8. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)…

  9. Promotional issues on alternative energy technologies in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaligram Pokharel

    2003-01-01

    Alternative energy technologies are being disseminated in many countries with an objective to reduce the uses of traditional and commercial energy sources. These technologies convert local resources to usable energy forms. Since the scale of these technologies is small, their implementation is targeted mainly to individual households or small communities. However, due to various constraints, these implementation programmes have not

  10. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  11. Roadmap: Engineering Technology Green and Alternative Energy Bachelor of Science

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Engineering Technology ­ Green and Alternative Energy ­ Bachelor of Science [RE 26636 Project Management for Administrative Professionals 1 Green and Alternative Energy Elective 3 and Material Science 3 Green and Alternative Energy Elective 3 See note 2 on page 2 Kent Core Requirement 3

  12. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Amutha Rani, D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Deegan, D. [Tetronics Ltd., South Marston Business Park, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, C.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  13. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    The Pennsylvania State Univeristy: Serguei Lvov, Mike Chung, Mark Fedkin, Victor Balashov, Elena, Chalkova, Nikolay Akinfiev; University of South Carolina: Carol Stork, Thomas Davis, Francis Gadala-Maria, Thomas Stanford, John Weidner; Tulane University: Victor Law, John Prindle; Lewis, ANL: Michele

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world�s hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements - around 530 oC and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and reactions going to completion without side reactions, and lower demands on materials of construction. Three university research groups from PSU, USC, and TU as well as a group from ANL have been collaborating on the development of enabling technologies for the Cu-Cl cycle, including experimental work on the Cu-Cl cycle reactions, modeling and simulation, and particularly electrochemical reaction for hydrogen production using a CuCl electrolyzer. The Consortium research was distributed over the participants and organized in the following tasks: (1) Development of CuCl electrolyzer (PSU), (2) Thermodynamic modeling of anolyte solution (PSU), (3) Proton conductive membranes for CuCl electrolysis (PSU), (4) Development of an analytical method for online analysis of copper compounds in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (USC), (5) Electrodialysis as a means for separation and purification of the streams exiting the electrolyzer in the Cu-Cl cycle (USC), (6) Development of nanostructured electrocatalysts for the Cu-Cl electrolysis (USC), (7) Cu-Cl electrolyzer modeling (USC), (8) Aspen Plus modeling of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (TU), (9) International coordination of research on the development of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (ANL). The results obtained in the project clearly demonstrate that the Cu-Cl alternative thermochemical cycle is a promising and viable technology to produce hydrogen efficiently.

  14. Abstract: We report the use of bicarbonate salts as viable alter-natives to more expensive bases for the in situ generation of

    E-print Network

    Lectka, Thomas

    the deprotonation of the acyl ammonium salt. Scheme 1. Mechanism of -Lactam Formation with Sodium Bicarbonate O Cl R1 LETTER Abstract: We report the use of bicarbonate salts as viable alter- natives to more applied this to the catalytic, asymmetric synthesis of -lactams. Key words: -lactam, bicarbonate salts

  15. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

  16. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  17. Alternative food safety intervention technologies: flash pasteurization of finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  18. Alternative food-preservation technologies: efficacy and mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice H. Lado; Ahmed E. Yousef

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulsed electric field and ultraviolet radiation are emerging preservation technologies designed to produce safe food, while maintaining its nutritional and sensory qualities. A sigmoid inactivation pattern is observed in most kinetic studies. Damage to cell membranes, enzymes or DNA is the most commonly cited cause of death of microorganisms by alternative preservation technologies.

  19. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    SciTech Connect

    House, P W; Coleman, J A; Shull, R D; Matheny, R W; Hock, J C

    1981-02-01

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity.

  20. Technology alternatives to CFC/HCFC vapor compression

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.

    1996-08-01

    Phaseouts of CFCs and HCFCs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer have caused many developments in replacement or alternative technologies for heat pumping. Some of this effort has been of an ``evolutionary`` nature where the designs of conventional vapor compression systems were adapted to use chlorine-free refrigerants. Other alternatives are more radical departures from conventional practice such as operating above the critical point of an alternative refrigerant. Revolutionary changes in technology based on cycles sor principles not commonly associated with refrigeration have also attracted interest. Many of these technologies are being touted because they are ``ozone-safe`` or because they do not use greenhouse gases as refrigerants. Basic principles and some advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed in this paper.

  1. Outside the Box: Will Information Technology Be a Viable Intervention to Improve the Quality of Cancer Care?

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Christopher; Massett, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of health information technology (IT) to resolve the crisis in communication inherent within the fragmented service environment of medical care in the United States is a strategic priority for the Department of Health and Human Services. Yet the deployment of health IT alone is not sufficient to improve quality in health service delivery; what is needed is a human factors approach designed to optimize the balance between health-care users, health-care providers, policies, procedures, and technologies. An evaluation of interface issues between primary and specialist care related to cancer reveals opportunities for human factors improvement along the cancer care continuum. Applications that emphasize cognitive support for prevention recommendations and that encourage patient engagement can help create a coordinated health-care environment conducive to cancer prevention and early detection. An emphasis on reliability, transparency, and accountability can help improve the coordination of activities among multiple service providers during diagnosis and treatment. A switch in emphasis from a transaction-based approach to one emphasizing long-term support for healing relationships should help improve patient outcomes during cancer survivorship and end-of-life care. Across the entire continuum of care, an emphasis on “meaningful use” of health IT—rather than on IT as an endpoint—should help put cancer on a path toward substantive continuous quality improvement. The accompanying research questions will focus on reducing the variance between the social and technical subsystems as IT is used to improve patient outcomes across the interfaces of care. PMID:20386056

  2. Sialite technology—sustainable alternative to portland cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henghu Sun; Ravi Jain; Kennedy Nguyen; John Zuckerman

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the current state of the cement industry, its sustainability, and how it compares\\u000a to alternative cement technologies—specifically Sialite technology. The process for creating the most widely used cement,\\u000a portland cement, is an energy intensive process, which consumes considerable natural resources, such as limestone. In addition,\\u000a portland cement production releases harmful air pollutants,

  3. Innovative- and alternative-technology projects: 1986 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Contents include: (1) innovative-technology project descriptions (overland flow, sequencing batch reactors, intrachannel clarification, hydrograph-controlled-release lagoons, vacuum-assisted sludge-dewatering beds, ultraviolet disinfection, countercurrent aeration systems), and (2) alternative-technology case studies (Cedar Rocks, West Virginia, vacuum-collection system; Cannon Beach, Oregon, wetlands/marsh system; Clayton County, Georgia, spray irrigation and wastewater recycling system; Kenbridge, Virginia, overland flow system; East Richland County, South Carolina, sludge composting system; and Charlotte, Michigan, methane-recovery system).

  4. Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

  5. Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies S. K. Fischer P. J. Hughes P .............................................. 1.3 1.3 Global Warming Potential Index ................................... 1.6 1.4 Methodology .......................................... 2.9 3. APPLICATION-DEPENDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS 3.1 Introduction

  6. HLA-mismatched unrelated donors are a viable alternate graft source for allogeneic transplantation following alemtuzumab-based reduced-intensity conditioning.

    PubMed

    Mead, Adam J; Thomson, Kirsty J; Morris, Emma C; Mohamedbhai, Sajir; Denovan, Shari; Orti, Guillermo; Fielding, Adele K; Kottaridis, Panagiotis D; Hough, Rachael; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Linch, David C; Mackinnon, Stephen; Peggs, Karl S

    2010-06-24

    The impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RIT) using unrelated donors (UD) is unclear, and may be modulated by T-cell depletion. We therefore examined outcomes of 157 consecutive patients undergoing RIT after uniform conditioning with fludarabine, melphalan, and alemtuzumab (FMC). Donors were 10/10 HLA-matched (MUDs, n = 107) and 6 to 9/10 HLA-matched (MMUDs, n = 50), with no significant differences in baseline characteristics other than increased cytomegalovirus seropositivity in MMUDs. Rates of durable engraftment were high. Graft failure rates (persistent cytopenias with donor chimerism) were similar (8% vs 3%, P = .21), though rejection (recipient chimerism) was more frequent in MMUDs (8% vs 0%, P < .01). There were no significant differences between donors in the incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; 20% vs 22% grade 2-4, respectively, P = .83), chronic extensive GVHD (3-year cumulative incidence [CI] 23% vs 24%, P = .56), or treatment-related mortality (1-year CI 27% vs 27%, P = .96). Furthermore, there was no difference in 3-year overall survival (OS; 53% vs 49%, P = .44). Mismatch occurred at the antigenic level in 40 cases. The outcome in these cases did not differ significantly from the rest of the cohort. We conclude that RIT using HLA-mismatched grafts is a viable option using FMC conditioning. PMID:20371745

  7. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 2007, in press Is anti-oxidant therapy a viable alternative for mild cognitive impairment? Examination of the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Words: Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Vitamins; Ginkgo biloba; Mild Cognitive Impairment; Alzheimer in a given individual will progress towards dementia and adverse drug side-effects has led to hesitancy-oxidant therapies may provide a low-risk alternative, targeting very early biological changes. While a growing body

  8. Alternative treatment technology information center computer database system

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) computer database system was developed pursuant to the 1986 Superfund law amendments. It provides up-to-date information on innovative treatment technologies to clean up hazardous waste sites. ATTIC v2.0 provides access to several independent databases as well as a mechanism for retrieving full-text documents of key literature. It can be accessed with a personal computer and modem 24 hours a day, and there are no user fees. ATTIC provides {open_quotes}one-stop shopping{close_quotes} for information on alternative treatment options by accessing several databases: (1) treatment technology database; this contains abstracts from the literature on all types of treatment technologies, including biological, chemical, physical, and thermal methods. The best literature as viewed by experts is highlighted. (2) treatability study database; this provides performance information on technologies to remove contaminants from wastewaters and soils. It is derived from treatability studies. This database is available through ATTIC or separately as a disk that can be mailed to you. (3) underground storage tank database; this presents information on underground storage tank corrective actions, surface spills, emergency response, and remedial actions. (4) oil/chemical spill database; this provides abstracts on treatment and disposal of spilled oil and chemicals. In addition to these separate databases, ATTIC allows immediate access to other disk-based systems such as the Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment Technologies (VISITT) and the Bioremediation in the Field Search System (BFSS). The user may download these programs to their own PC via a high-speed modem. Also via modem, users are able to download entire documents through the ATTIC system. Currently, about fifty publications are available, including Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program documents.

  9. Regenerative thermal oxidation and alternative technologies for VOC control

    SciTech Connect

    Biedell, E.L. [REECQ, Somerville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal oxidation technologies have been used successfully to control VOC`s for many years but the recent 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have spurred improvements in the established processes and development of economic alternatives. The combination of the regulatory maze and confusion in the selection of the best technology for a particular application has created a potential nightmare for those companies facing a need to reduce their VOC EMISSIONS. The relative advantages and disadvantages of regenerative, recuperative and catalytic oxidizers will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the economic justification for regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO). Control efficiencies of more than 99% have been demonstrated for RTO`s on a multitude of industrial process exhaust streams. Lowest evaluated cost over a fifteen to twenty year effective equipment life is a key selection criteria. This paper describes the underlying principles of thermal oxidation, and discusses the applicability of these and other emerging technologies for VOC control.

  10. A single-centre case series assessing the Ambu® aScope™ 2 for percutaneous tracheostomies: A viable alternative to fibreoptic bronchoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Steven; Zurba, Jason; Duggan, Laura

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchoscope-assisted bedside percutaneous tracheostomy is increasingly common in the intensive care unit (ICU). Fiberoptic bronchoscopes (FOBs) are expensive, fragile and may be damaged in the busy ICU environment. The Ambu® aScope™ 2 is a disposable video bronchoscope with no suction port that may be an alternative. METHODS: The present analysis was a single-centre, prospective, quality improvement series substitution of Ambu® aScope™ 2 for FOB during percutaneous bedside tracheostomy with a FOB readily available. Physicians could elect not to use the Ambu® aScope™ 2. RESULTS: The Ambu® aScope™ 2 was used in 22 of 30 percutaneous bedside tracheostomies between September 9, 2012 and January 3, 2013. One conversion to an FOB occurred during the 22 procedures due to bleeding, resulting in a convfersion rate of approximately 5%. The rate of completion of the postprocedure questionnaire was 73% (16 of 22), with a mean ‘ease of use’ score of 8.19/10 (range 6/10 to 10/10) and a mean ‘visualization’ score of 6.1/10 (range 2/10 to 10/10). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Ambu® aScope™ 2 was a reasonable alternative to FOB in a selected group of patients for bedside ICU PDT. Use of this new disposable scope will depend on local factors, processing delays and cost.

  11. Technology Development on Alternate Source Term Analysis and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jong Lee; Chan Young Chung [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. (KOPEC), 360-9 Mabuk-ri, Guseong-eup, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 449-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Source term presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 has been used to estimate radiation dose from design basis accidents. However, a more realistic and physically-based source term, alternate source term, has been developed and presented in NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183. In addition, the concept and criteria of radiological dose estimation has been changed through the serial publications of ICRP-9, 26, and 60. In ICRP-60, ICRP introduced effective dose concept in stead of dose concept based on critical organ and whole body since the publication of ICRP-9. Korean regulatory authority is planning to issue the new regulation to adopt the alternate source term and the effective dose concept to radiation dose analysis for design basis accidents. As a measure for the issuance of the new regulation, the application methodology of alternate source term and effective dose for design basis accidents was established and merged to the computer program called DBADOSE. This program was verified in accordance with the verification procedure. The result of calculation by DBADOSE showed small difference of less than 5% in comparison with the result of STARDOSE which was developed by Polestar Applied Technology, Inc. Kori Units 3,4 was selected as a pilot plant to apply the alternate source term and the effective dose. The margins to licensing criteria were reanalyzed for design basis accidents. As a result of this application, it was assured that current design of Kori Units 3,4 has enough margins and design simplification were proposed. (authors)

  12. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program Erie County

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Beiswanger, Jr.

    2010-05-20

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings�¢����quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center, Daemen will continue to host a range of events on campus for the general public. The College does not charge fees for speakers or most other events. This has been a long-standing tradition of the College.

  13. Alternative models framing UK independent hoteliers' adoption of technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai Mun Lim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – While there is a plethora of literature examining the antecedents affecting technology adoption decision, there have been limited investigations into the various stages of technologies adoption by hoteliers. This paper aims to examine two established theoretical paradigms jointly, facilitating an understanding of not only the antecedents affecting technology adoption but also the hoteliers' intensity of technology adoption. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

  14. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  15. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    E-print Network

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  16. An Alternative Model to Implementing Technology Integration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, James B.; Morrell, Patricia D.; Eifler, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    Federal educational technology grant coordinators from seven small liberal arts colleges were interviewed to determine the ways in which technology had been infused in teacher education programs over the life of the grant. Substantive integration of technology had occurred in each of the schools. Traditional change models were unable to explain…

  17. Future subsonic transport engine technology improvements and resultant propulsion alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Neitzel

    1977-01-01

    The major contenders for engines to power future subsonic transports include the conventional high bypass turbofan, the geared turbofan of somewhat higher bypass ratio, and the high disk loading turboprop. Typical designs involving projected advancements in technology are described and compared to a current turbofan. The key technology features for each of the advanced engines are identified and their relative

  18. Phytoestrogens: a viable option?

    PubMed

    Russell, Lori; Hicks, G Swink; Low, Annette K; Shepherd, Jinna M; Brown, C Andrew

    2002-10-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in the United States by traditional medical professionals. Over the past decade, the market for complementary/ alternative therapies for hormone replacement has dramatically increased. Women are seeking more "natural" alternatives to treat menopausal symptoms. Well-designed randomized clinical trials are often lacking, as is the information on efficacy and safety. This article will review several popular herbal therapies for menopausal symptoms including phytoestrogens, black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), chast tree (Vitex agnus-castus), and wild Mexican yam. Their use, mechanism of action, and adverse effects are outlined. PMID:12385490

  19. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES NEEDING FURTHER DEVELOPMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL SOURCE REPLACEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air awarded a contract to support evaluate innovative uses of x-ray technology that has potential to replace devices currently using gamma and beta radiation in the plastics, pulp, and paper industries....

  20. CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATION FOR ALTERNATIVES TO RADIOLOGICAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air awarded a contract to demonstrate that non-nuclear measurement using optical and magnetic technology can replace radioactive devices used to measure the thickness and density of various paper, film, and plastic sheets....

  1. Alternative Treatment Technologies ? Working With the Pathogen Equivalency Committee

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under current Federal regulations (40 CFR 503), municipal sludge must be treated prior to land application. The regulations identify two classes of treatment with respect to pathogen reduction: Class B (three alternatives) which provides a minimum acceptable level of treatment;...

  2. Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

  3. Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1

    E-print Network

    Wing, Ian Sue

    of carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and hydroelectric generation all lead to upward shifts in the longDecomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1 Karen;1 Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth ABSTRACT What

  4. Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative

    E-print Network

    Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Eric A. Zielke February 15, 2006 #12;Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use bacteria to generate electricity from organic

  5. System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for Nordic H2

    E-print Network

    System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for Nordic H2 Energy Foresight Tiina Jørgensen Title: System Analysis and Assessment of Technological Alternatives for the Nordic H2 Energy energy systems model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis

  6. Alternative technologies for refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Final report, October 1991December 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Gauger; H. N. Shapiro; M. B. Pate

    1995-01-01

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and commercial refrigeration. A fundamental criterion for the selection of the alternative refrigeration technologies to be assessed was that they be environmentally safe. The study was

  7. Fuel Cell Technology: An Alternative Energy System For the Future

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This classroom unit will help students learn the basic concepts related to fuel cell technology. It may be suitable for grades 6-12, depending on which portions of the material you choose to implement in your classroom. Students will define a fuel cell and its purpose, label the parts of a fuel cell, describe the process of how a fuel cell operates, define fuel cell technology and chemical processes and list and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fuel cells. Student worksheets are included in the materials. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  8. Battery management tackles alternative battery technologies in advanced portable systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Freeman

    1994-01-01

    Portable systems are driving the development of new battery technologies for increased run-time and portability. Future improvements to older battery chemistries are becoming very limited. Users of portable systems desire longer run times, quicker recharges, and always lower cost. Although operating time can always be increased by adding more cells, this approach does not appeal to users who must carry

  9. Water jetting technology: an alternative in incremental sheet metal forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bostjan Jurisevic; Karl Kuzman; Mihael Junkar

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory paper aims to introduce a high-speed Water Jet (WJ) as a tool for die-less Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISMF). First experiments indicate that in the case of Water Jet Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (WJISMF) the forming time, energy efficiency and forming accuracy are rather poor compared to ISMF with a rigid tool. However, the proposed technology brings higher

  10. Alternate Approaches to Teaching Medical Technology: The Simulated Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sally McLaughlin; Newman, Dianna L.

    An evaluation of a non-traditional, self-contained Medical Laboratory Technology (MLT) program at Hudson Valley Community College is presented. This community based associate degree program has used simulated laboratories for 26 years and is seeking initial accreditation through a national accrediting agency. Until recently allied health programs…

  11. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cooperative demonstration project was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enable the Village of Cayuga, N.Y. to install and demonstrate water filtration technology that may be appropriate for small water systems that use surface water sources. A prefabri...

  12. Alternative technologies of manufacture and decoration of wood balusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauinsh, D.; Zhukova, N.; Volkova, M.; Kukhta, A.

    2014-10-01

    Despite the fact that balusters made of stone, metal, gypsum can be found in modern interior, wood is the most popular material for balusters still. The aim of research is to research new forms of designer balusters and technologies of their production. Segmentation allows plane and curved surfaces to be produced independent from each other, and increases the artistic (aesthetic) expressiveness of products.

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: ELECTRO-PURE ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid W...

  14. Curriculum and Technology in Schools: Expanding Alternatives in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margitta, Ivan, Ed.

    The 14 articles in this collection demonstrate the range of uses of technology for the improvement of participation and retention of students in years 11 and 12 in the rural post-primary schools of Victoria, Australia. An agreement negotiated with the Commonwealth Government, which is known as Resource Agreement 3 (RA3), operated during 1987-88…

  15. Technological Singularity and Transcendental Monism: Co-producers of Sustainable Alternative Futures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan H. Naude

    The need for a fusion between technological singularity and transcendental monism is posited as the best compromise for sustainable alternative futures. Four possible futures could emanate from a combination of two types of technological progress and metaphysical monism: (a) Technological singularity and material monism could lead to the end of humanity as we know it and usher in the era

  16. Alternative fuel vehicles turning the corner?: A product lifecycle model with heterogeneous technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen Struben

    The automotive industry may be on the verge of a technological disruption as different alternative fuel vehicles are expected to enter the market. Industry evolution theories are not unified in suggesting the conditions under which different types of entrant technologies can be successful. In particular, the competitive dynamics among a variety of technologies with varying potential for spillovers are not

  17. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-print Network

    Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low on the costs of a range of `alternative' energy sources for electricity generation and transport markets;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections

  18. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

    1981-09-01

    No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and “out-gassing” and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released pollutants from furnishings, building materials, and indoor combustion.

  19. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  20. Technology alternatives for tapping the pruning residue resource.

    PubMed

    Magagnotti, Natascia; Pari, Luigi; Picchi, Gianni; Spinelli, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Four commercial harvesters were compared with respect to recovery of pruning residues for energy conversion. These harvesters were tested side-by-side on 17 test fields, totaling 15 ha. The test fields consisted of vineyards and apple and pear orchards. The residue yield was between 0.7 and 9 green tonne per hectare, at a moisture content from 37% to 48%. Yield was highest for the orchards, and lowest for vineyards. Harvesters collected the residues and moved them to the roadside at a cost of between 11 and 60€ per green tonne, depending on field conditions and technology choice. Single-pass harvesting was the cheapest, especially if applied through a dedicated tractor and a towed unit with a large integral container. Two-pass harvesting was the most flexible, but also the most expensive: it should be favored only when space, weather or other management constraints limit the application of the other systems. PMID:23246703

  1. IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez. Urban consolidation and logistics sharing. III. Multi-stakeholder mutli-criteria methodology. A seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban consolidation centres, but it is still

  2. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  3. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-04-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  4. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 5: Cogeneration systems results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

    1980-05-01

    The use of various advanced energy conversion systems is examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. The methodology and results of matching the cogeneration energy conversion systems to approximately 50 industrial processes are described. Results include fuel energy saved, levelized annual energy cost saved, return on investment, and operational factors relative to the noncogeneration base cases.

  5. Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities

    E-print Network

    Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

  6. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  7. Analysis of alternate-fueled passenger vehicles: a sample technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Thayer, G.R.

    1981-10-01

    Ten passenger vehicles powered by the following were characterized on a common engineering and economic basis: gasoline internal combustion, diesel internal combustion, liquid-hydrogen internal combustion, liquid-hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen internal combustion, hydrogen fuel cell, methanol internal combustion, methanol fuel cell, Ni/Zn battery, and Pb/Acid battery. Levelized life cycle costs were computed for each vehicle. The market penetration of the nongasoline vehicles was studied over a 50-yr. period using a generalized equilibrium energy economic model. Results indicate that only the methanol internal-combustion vehicle using methanol produced from coal is a viable alternative to the gasoline internal-combustion vehicle. The market penetration of alternate vehicles was enhanced more by reduction in acquisition costs than by comparable improvements in engineering parameters.

  8. Technical aspects of a commercially viable in-space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenard, Roger X.; Brinkley, Anthony

    1996-03-01

    An in-depth study and evaluation of a commercially-viable in-space transportation system was conducted between the Sandia National Laboratories and the INTRASPACE Corporation. Historical mission profiles were evaluated and a series of missions potentially profitable for a first-generation space tug were identified. The subset of missions from the available manifest was 60%. A survey of available space tug technologies was performed with several requirements: 1) Technology aggregates must be demonstrated; 2) Systems must be represented by a substantial industrial base; 3) The integrated system concept must be of tractable risk for a commercial venture; and 4) The consequential system must be commercially profitable. A definite mission manifest and technical solution emerged which represented a commercially profitable system. Alternative technologies were evaluated including conventional propulsion technologies, solar electric and solar thermal technologies. None of the alternatives were profitable based on the given requirements and system assumptions.

  9. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  10. Toward a Concept of Facilitative Theorizing: An Alternative to Prescriptive and Descriptive Theory in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanchar, Stephen C.; Faulconer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept of facilitative theorizing as an alternative to prescriptive and descriptive theory in educational technology. The authors contend that these traditional forms of theory do not offer sufficient assistance to practitioners as they go about everyday design work. Facilitative theorizing, as an alternative, is…

  11. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  12. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  13. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Stout, Tyson E.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This article identifies and describes five alternative cooling technologies (magnetic, thermionic, thermoacoustic, thermoelectric, and thermotunnel) and qualitatively assesses the prospects of each technology relative to vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. Assessment of the alternatives was based on the theoretical maximum % of Carnot efficiency, the current state of development, the best % of Carnot efficiency currently achieved, developmental barriers, and the extent of development activity. The prospect for each alternative was assigned an overall qualitative rating based on the subjective, composite view of the five characteristics.

  14. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies SPS comparative assessment. Volume 2: Central-station technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives are described. The alternatives are: conventional coal-fired powerplants; conventional light water reactors; combined cycle powerplants with low-Btu gasifiers; liquid metal fast breeder reactors; photovoltaic systems without storage; and fusion reactors.

  15. Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are…

  16. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  17. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond M. Erbeznik; Maurice A. White; L. B. Penswick; Ronald E. Neely; Darren C. Ritter; David A. Wallace

    1992-01-01

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology

  18. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D., III; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  19. Dispersion Modeling to Compare Alternative Technologies for Odor Remediation at Swine Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan S. Schiffman; Brevick G. Graham; C. Mike Williams; Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Juha Siikamaki; Viney Aneja; S. Arya; D.-S. Kim; Ian Rumsey; H. L. Arkinson; H. Semunegus; K. S. Bajwa; D. A. Dickey; L. A. Stefanski; L. Todd; K. Mottus; W. P. Robarge; Carsten Skjøth; Thomas Ellermann; Ole Hertel; Steen Gyldenkærne; Mette Mikkelsen; Chris Henry; Peter Watts; Peter Nicholas; Yael Laor; Jacek Koziel; Lingshuang Cai; Uzi Ravid; Stephen Goetz; Yang Zhang; Chris Occhipinti; William Showers; Dev Niyogi; Linda Geiser; Anne Ingersoll; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Scott Copeland; Stefania Korontzi; Jessica McCarty; Christopher Justice; Semra Tuncel; Nur Oztas; M. Erduran

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of 18 alternative technologies for reducing odor dispersion at and beyond the boundary of swine facilities was assessed in conjunction with an initiative sponsored through agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. The trajectory and spatial distribution of odor emitted at each facility were modeled at 200 and

  20. Changing business models for Europe's mobile telecommunications industry: The impact of alternative wireless technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Ballon

    2007-01-01

    The exploitation of third-generation mobile networks in Europe may be challenged by the deployment of so-called Alternative Wireless Technologies (AWTs). This article presents an overview of the availability and usage of AWTs in the 25 EU member states. It identifies the main drivers and bottlenecks for AWTs and analyses to which extent established mobile operators are active in this market.

  1. Cognitive Influences of Students' Alternative Conceptions within a Hands-On Gene Technology Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Gaitano; Bogner, Franz X.

    2011-01-01

    In a German out-of-school laboratory, 293 medium-achieving 10th-grade students participated in a lesson unit about gene technology. They were divided into two groups (I-1, I-2), both of which followed the same hands-on lesson procedure. Students within I-2 were additionally confronted with alternative conceptions to central issues of the specific…

  2. A preliminary technology assessment of alternative uses for offshore petroleum platforms

    E-print Network

    Lawlor, Frank James

    1975-01-01

    research stations, mariculture, training facilities, geothermal energy plants, electrical energy generation from wind and waves, marine sanctuaries, recreation and tourism facilities, reuse on other locations for petroleum operations, and liquid waste...- ing plant, scientific research station, mariculture, training 7 Alternative uses that would probably not be technologically feasible within 5 years were excluded from consideration. facility, geothermal energy plant, electrical energy generation...

  3. Alternative Assessment Methods Based on Categorizations, Supporting Technologies, and a Model for Betterment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.; Ben-Jacob, Tyler E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores alternative assessment methods from the perspective of categorizations. It addresses the technologies that support assessment. It discusses initial, formative, and summative assessment, as well as objective and subjective assessment, and formal and informal assessment. It approaches each category of assessment from the…

  4. Reduction of Ammonia Emissions from Swine Lagoons Using Alternative Wastewater Treatment Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Szögi; M. B. Vanotti

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia (NH ) emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. T 3 o meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on NH3 emission rates using alternative wastewater treatments. This determination was done

  5. Uncertainty and alternatives in technology assessment studies: tritium emissions from proposed fusion power reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin B. Kalinowski

    1994-01-01

    Technology assessment studies have to arrive at clear statements. This is especially difficult if the original research shows a broad range of alternatives as well as large uncertainties. How this problem is dealt with is shown for the case of estimating tritium emissions from proposed fusion power reactors and the radiological impact of normal operational losses as well as accidental

  6. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  7. An assessment of technology alternatives for telecommunications and information management for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.

    1991-01-01

    On the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President Bush set forth ambitious goals for expanding human presence in the solar system. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) addresses these goals beginning with Space Station Freedom, followed by a permanent return to the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars. A well designed, adaptive Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) infrastructure is vital to the success of these missions. Utilizing initial projections of user requirements, a team under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Operations developed overall architectures and point designs to implement the TNIM functions for the Lunar and Mars mission scenarios. Based on these designs, an assessment of technology alternatives for the telecommunications and information management functions was performed. This technology assessment identifies technology developments necessary to meet the telecommunications and information management system requirements for SEI. Technology requirements, technology needs and alternatives, the present level of technology readiness in each area, and a schedule for development are presented.

  8. Regional on-road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies.

    PubMed

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhai, Haibo; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2009-11-01

    This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or compression engines, hybrids, fuel cell, and electric. Road link-based emission models are developed using modal fuel use and emission rates applied to facility- and speed-specific driving cycles. For an urban case study, passenger cars were found to be the largest sources of HC, CO, and CO(2) emissions, whereas trucks contributed the largest share of NO(x) emissions. When alternative fuel and propulsion technologies were introduced in the fleet at a modest market penetration level of 27%, their emission reductions were found to be 3-14%. Emissions for all pollutants generally decreased with an increase in the market share of alternative vehicle technologies. Turnover of the light duty fleet to newer Tier 2 vehicles reduced emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) substantially. However, modest improvements in fuel economy may be offset by VMT growth and reductions in overall average speed. PMID:19924983

  9. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, K?rlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  10. Peracetic acid as an alternative disinfection technology for wet weather flows.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Elizabeth E; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Brion, Gail M

    2014-08-01

    Rain-induced wet weather flows (WWFs) consist of combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, and stormwater, all of which introduce pathogens to surface waters when discharged. When people come into contact with the contaminated surface water, these pathogens can be transmitted resulting in severe health problems. As such, WWFs should be disinfected. Traditional disinfection technologies are typically cost-prohibitive, can yield toxic byproducts, and space for facilities is often limited, if available. More cost-effective alternative technologies, requiring less space and producing less harmful byproducts are currently being explored. Peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated as one such alternative and this research has confirmed the feasibility and applicability of using PAA as a disinfectant for WWFs. Peracetic acid doses ranging from 5 mg/L to 15 mg/L over contact times of 2 to 10 minutes were shown to be effective and directly applicable to WWF disinfection. PMID:25306784

  11. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  12. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

  13. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  14. Is Certification a Viable Option?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elspeth Wales

    2002-01-01

    Not so long ago the implementation of security technology was viewed by outsiders as a black art, characterized by mumbo jumbo which only those few in the know understood. But times are changing, businesses are increasingly using the Internet to access, store and transfer valuable information but in doing so they are exposing themselves to the risks of security breaches.

  15. Alternative technology for fabrication of nano- or microstructured mould inserts used for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, M.; Guttmann, M.; Hartmann, M.

    2010-02-01

    For mass production of multiscale-optical components, micro- and nanostructured moulding tools are needed. Metal tools are used for hot embossing or injection moulding of microcomponents in plastics. Tools are typically produced by classical forming processes such as mechanical manufacturing e.g. turning or milling, laser manufacturing or electrical discharge machining (EDM). Microstructures with extremely tight specifications, e.g. low side wall roughness and high aspect ratios are generally made by lithographic procedures such as LIGA or DPW technology. However, these processes are unsuitable for low-cost mass production. They are limited by the exposure area and structure design. In cooperation with international partners alternative manufacturing methods of moulding tools have been developed at the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT). In a new replication procedure, mould inserts are fabricated using micro- and nanoscale optics. The multiscale structured prototypes, either in plastics, glass, metal or material combinations are used as sacrificial parts. Using joining technology, electroforming and EDM technology, a negative copy of a prototype is transferred into metal to be used as a moulding tool. The benefits of this replication technique are rapid and economical production of moulding tools with extremely precise micro- and nanostructures, large structured area and long tool life. Low-cost mass replication is possible with these moulding tools. In this paper, an established manufacturing chain will be presented. Multiscale and multimaterial optical prototypes e.g. out-of-plane coupler or microinterferometer were made by DPW or laser technology. The mould insert fabrication of each individual manufacturing step will be shown. The process reliability and suitability for mass production was tested by hot embossing.

  16. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  17. Peri-viable birth: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2014-02-01

    Peri-viable birth raises an array of complex moral and legal concerns. This article discusses the problem with defining viability, touches on its relationship to abortion jurisprudence, and analyzes a few interesting normative implications of current medical practice at the time of peri-viable birth. PMID:24468570

  18. Conservation targets for viable species assemblages?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariaan Solomon; Albert S. Van Jaarsveld; Harry C. Biggs; Michael H. Knight

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of minimum areas required for effective biodiversity conservation differ substantially. Scientific reserve design and placement procedures indicate that between 30 and 75% of any region may be required to sample biodiversity features. These estimates do not routinely incorporate measures for sampling viable populations of species or explore the area requirements of sampling viable populations of species assemblages. To determine

  19. A computational and experimental study of alternative energy technologies: Constructing photochemical electron-transfer cascades and the development of computational methods for understanding fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad C. Waraksa

    2002-01-01

    Producing viable, vertically-integrated alternative energy systems requires solving chemical and engineering problems at many levels. This work presents experimental results seeking to make visible light driven water splitting more feasible, computational efforts aiding in the combinatorial screening of fuel cell catalysts, and a physically-realistic model of the electrochemistry at porous electrode surfaces to understand and improve the porous electrodes used

  20. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  1. The Role of Technology and Computer-Based Instruction in a Disadvantaged Alternative School's Culture of Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunnie Lee Watson; William R. Watson

    2011-01-01

    New approaches to instruction are increasingly being advocated to meet the needs of diverse learners. Educational researchers have identified the further development and application of computer-based instruction technologies for managing differentiated learning for all students as essential for shifting to a learner-centered paradigm of instruction in future schools. This study examines how a disadvantaged alternative high school implemented technology use

  2. The Science and Technology Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Levels and Opinions about Alternative Assessment and Evaluation Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasmaz Oren, Fatma; Ormanci, Ummuhan; Evrekli, Ertug

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the science and technology pre-service teachers' self-efficacy levels and their opinions about alternative assessment and evaluation approaches. The study was carried out with the participation of 53 science and technology pre-service teachers studying in the Faculty of Education at Celal Bayar University. As…

  3. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  4. Individual Characteristics and Stated Preferences for Alternative Energy Sources and Propulsion Technologies in Vehicles: A Discrete Choice Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Ziegler

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric

  5. Microalgae harvesting and cell disruption: a preliminary evaluation of the technology electroflotation by alternating current.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Neto, Riamburgo Gomes; do Nascimento, José Gilmar da Silva; Costa, Mayara Carantino; Lopes, Alexandre Colzi; Abdala Neto, Eliezer Fares; Filho, César Rossas Mota; Dos Santos, André Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    Some species of microalgae have high productivity and lipid content, which makes them good candidates for biodiesel production. Biomass separation and cell disruption are important steps in biodiesel production from microalgae. In this work, we explored the fundamentals of electroflotation by alternating current (EFAC) with non-consumable electrodes to simultaneously harvest microalgae and disrupt cells from mixed microalgae obtained from waste stabilization ponds. The harvesting efficiency was evaluated using chlorophyll-a and turbidity, which reached removals of 99% and 95%, respectively, during a batch time of 140 min. Cell disruption was evaluated using lipid extraction, and the best results were achieved with a batch time of 140 min, which resulted in a 14% yield. Therefore, EFAC was shown to be an attractive potential technology for simultaneous microalgal harvesting and cell disruption. PMID:25051479

  6. A fluorescent ligand-binding alternative using Tag-lite® technology.

    PubMed

    Zwier, Jurriaan M; Roux, Thomas; Cottet, Martin; Durroux, Thierry; Douzon, Stephanie; Bdioui, Sara; Gregor, Nathalie; Bourrier, Emmanuel; Oueslati, Nadia; Nicolas, Ludovic; Tinel, Norbert; Boisseau, Chloe; Yverneau, Paul; Charrier-Savournin, Fabienne; Fink, Michel; Trinquet, Eric

    2010-12-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are crucial cell surface receptors that transmit signals from a wide range of extracellular ligands. Indeed, 40% to 50% of all marketed drugs are thought to modulate GPCR activity, making them the major class of targets in the drug discovery process. Binding assays are widely used to identify high-affinity, selective, and potent GPCR drugs. In this field, the use of radiolabeled ligands has remained so far the gold-standard method. Here the authors report a less hazardous alternative for high-throughput screening (HTS) applications by the setup of a nonradioactive fluorescence-based technology named Tag-lite(®). Selective binding of various fluorescent ligands, either peptidic or not, covering a large panel of GPCRs from different classes is illustrated, particularly for chemokine (CXCR4), opioid (?, µ, and ?), and cholecystokinin (CCK1 and CCK2) receptors. Affinity constants of well-known pharmacological agents of numerous GPCRs are in line with values published in the literature. The authors clearly demonstrate that the Tag-lite binding assay format can be successfully and reproducibly applied by using different cellular materials such as transient or stable recombinant cells lines expressing SNAP-tagged GPCR. Such fluorescent-based binding assays can be performed with adherent cells or cells in suspension, in 96- or 384-well plates. Altogether, this new technology offers great advantages in terms of flexibility, rapidity, and user-friendliness; allows easy miniaturization; and makes it completely suitable for HTS applications. PMID:20974902

  7. Effect of Thickness of HA-Coating on Microporous Silk Scaffolds Using Alternate Soaking Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Xue, Yingsen; Hao, Zhangying; Xie, Zhenghong; Fan, Xiangli; Fan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated on various materials surface and has the function of osteogenicity. Microporous silk scaffold has excellent biocompatibility. In this study, alternate soaking technology was used to coat HA on microporous silk scaffolds. However, the cell proliferation was found to decrease with the increasing thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating. This study aims to determine the best thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds. The SEM observation showed that group with one cycle of alternate soaking (1C-HA) has the most optimal porosity like non-HA-modified microporous silk scaffolds. The proliferation of osteoblasts has no significant difference between noncoated HA (N-HA) and 1C-HA groups, which are both significantly higher than those in two cycles of soaking (2C-HA) and three cycles of soaking (3C-HA) groups. The transcription levels of specific genes (runx2 and osteonectin) in osteoblasts of 1C-HA group were significantly higher than those of N-HA group. Moreover, the levels showed no significant difference among 1C-HA, 2C-HA, and 3C-HA groups. In conclusion, microporous silk scaffold with 1 cycle of HA-coating can combine the biocompatibility of silk and osteogenicity of HA. PMID:25093176

  8. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  9. Approaches to Technology in Biology and Chemistry Classes: An Alternative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Charles K.

    This paper argues for extending the definition of "technology" in education to include much more than just computers, and for recognizing the dangers of using technology for its entertainment purposes. Two conceptions of the proper use of technology in science classrooms are offered: (1) technology as tool; and (2) technology as topic. Specific…

  10. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  11. Viable textures for the fermion sector

    E-print Network

    Hernández, A E Cárcamo

    2014-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Fukuyama-Nishiura texture and compare it to the precision quark flavour data, finding that it fits the data very well. We then propose different viable textures for quarks, where only the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down sector, and extend to the charged leptons while constructing a complementary neutrino structure that leads to viable lepton masses and mixing.

  12. Viable textures for the fermion sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; de Medeiros Varzielas, I.

    2015-06-01

    We consider a modification of the Fukuyama–Nishiura texture and compare it to the precision quark flavour data, finding that it fits the data very well but at the cost of accidental cancelations between parameters. We then propose different viable textures for quarks, where only the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down sector, and extend to the charged leptons while constructing a complementary neutrino structure that leads to viable lepton masses and mixing.

  13. Phage amplification and immunomagnetic separation combined with targeted mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of viable bacteria in complex food matrices.

    PubMed

    Martelet, Armelle; L'Hostis, Guillaume; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Volland, Hervé; Junot, Christophe; Becher, François; Muller, Bruno H

    2015-06-01

    We have developed and describe here for the first time a highly sensitive method for the fast and unambiguous detection of viable Escherichia coli in food matrices. The new approach is based on using label-free phages (T4), obligate parasites of bacteria, which are attractive for pathogen detection because of their inherent natural specificity and ease of use. A specific immunomagnetic separation was used to capture the progeny phages produced. Subsequently, T4 phage markers were detected by liquid chromatography coupled to targeted mass spectrometry. Combining the specificity of these three methodologies is of great interest in developing an alternative to conventional time-consuming culture-based technologies for the detection of viable bacteria for industrial applications. First, optimization experiments with phage T4 spiked in complex matrices (without a phage amplification event) were performed and demonstrated specific, sensitive, and reproducible phage capture and detection in complex matrices including Luria-Bertani broth, orange juice, and skimmed milk. The method developed was then applied to the detection of E. coli spiked in foodstuffs (with a phage amplification event). After having evaluated the impact of infection duration on assay sensitivity, we showed that our assay specifically detects viable E. coli in milk at an initial count of ?1 colony-forming unit (cfu)/mL after an 8-h infection. This excellent detection limit makes our new approach an alternative to PCR-based assays for rapid bacterial detection. PMID:25932746

  14. Modeling learning when alternative technologies are learning & resource constrained : cases In semiconductor & advanced automotive manufacturing

    E-print Network

    Rand-Nash, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    When making technology choice decisions, firms must consider technology costs over time. In many industries, technology costs have been shown to decrease over time due to (a) improvements in production efficiency and the ...

  15. A Policy Analysis of the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Wallace

    2003-01-01

    This article highlights the need for and impact of loan financing programs for the acquisition of assistive technology. It provides a historical presentation of the origins of credit financing for people with disabilities, with particular attention to assistive technology. A policy review of assistive technology loan financing is offered, culminating in the Title III funding of the Assistive Technology Acts.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  17. Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    Headquarters National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of the AP2 Office are to: (1) Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials (HazMats) or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. (2) A void duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate HazMats through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. This project will identify, evaluate and approve alternative surface preparation technologies for use at NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) installations. Materials and processes will be evaluated with the goal of selecting those processes that will improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated. This Joint Test Protocol (JTP) contains the critical requirements and tests necessary to qualify alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel Applications. These tests were derived from engineering, performance, and operational impact (supportability) requirements defined by a consensus of NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) participants. The Field Test Plan (FTP), entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, prepared by ITB, defines the field evaluation and testing requirements for validating alternative surface preparation/depainting technologies and supplements the JTP.

  18. Comparative recoveries of airborne fungus spores by viable and non-viable modes of volumetric collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet P. Burge; J. R. Boise; J. A. Rutherford; W. R. Solomon

    1977-01-01

    The suitability of viable and non-viable volumetric collectors as prevalence indicators for potentially allergenic airborne fungi was studied during 124 paired exposures of the Burkard (Hirst) spore trap and a modified, wind-oriented Andersen sampler. Overall, viable recoveries of several Cladosporium form species varied directly with microscopic spore counts (p=0.0001). However, as spore levels rose, culture plate data progressively underestimated prevailing

  19. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Koegler; K. H. Oma; J. M. Jr. Perez

    1988-01-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options

  20. New Literacy Studies: An Alternative Frame for Preparing Teachers to Use Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naraian, Srikala; Surabian, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Even as research continues to suggest the potential of assistive technology for improving student outcomes, it remains under-utilized in schools. Among numerous challenges to the effective utilization of assistive technology, research has suggested that educators are inadequately prepared to consider and implement the use of such technologies. In…

  1. Assistive technology as a predictor of general or alternate assessment among elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Thompson, Samuel; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

    2014-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 specifically mandates that all students participate in the general assessment process or some form of alternate assessment as a measure of school accountability for student academic progress. Although levels of communication difficulties, intellectual impairment, and specific diagnoses such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are correlated with increased probability of participating in alternate assessment methods, very little empirical research has focused on identifying predictors for students' assessment modality. Archival data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS; 2005) were used to examine variables that predict whether elementary school students with ASD participated in the general or alternate assessment. Results indicated that receptive and expressive communication abilities appear to influence participation in the general vs. alternate assessment in tandem with access to assistive technology. Students with ASDs were approximately 2.71 times more likely to participate in the general assessment when they had access to assistive technology. Next, we performed a second, follow-up analysis for only ASD students with communication problems. The odds ratio value increased to 14.9 indicating that ASD students with communication problems that had access to assistive technology were almost 15 times more likely to participate in the general assessment than students with communication problems without access to assistive technology. PMID:25112052

  2. Inkjet printing of viable mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xu; Joyce Jin; Cassie Gregory; James J. Hickman; Thomas Boland

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a commercial thermal printer to deposit Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and embryonic motoneuron cells into pre-defined patterns. These experiments were undertaken to verify the biocompatibility of thermal inkjet printing of mammalian cells and the ability to assemble them into viable constructs. Using a modified Hewlett Packard (HP) 550C computer

  3. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  4. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  5. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-12-31

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  6. ATRS: An Alternative Roadmap for Semiconductors, Technology Evolution and Impacts on System Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-pierre Schoellkopf

    2006-01-01

    Summary form only given. The recent evolution of semiconductor technology, in the last decades, brought tremendous improvements in performance increase at decreasing prices, perfectly following the famous Moore's law. Lithography is still improving and allows 0.7times linear shrink per technology node. However, many products are hitting the \\

  7. Lecturers' Attitudes Towards the use of Technology: Alternative Strategies for Faculty Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacifazlioglu, Ozge; Sacli, Oser Asim; Yengin, Ilker

    2007-01-01

    For the last two decades of this age of globalization we are living, technological advancement remarked every aspect of our lives significantly and especially the developments in the information technologies has revolutionized the teaching and learning centered activities as well as the research related activities in higher education. Apart from…

  8. Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies

  9. Technological Minimalism: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Course Design and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of minimum levels of technology, or technological minimalism, for Web-based multimedia course content. Highlights include cost effectiveness; problems with video streaming, the use of XML for Web pages, and Flash and Java applets; listservs instead of proprietary software; and proper faculty training. (LRW)

  10. Innovative and Alternative Technologies. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles A.

    Innovative and alternative methods of wastewater treatment can improve the efficiency and lower the cost of waste treatment procedures. Described in this instructor's guide is a one-hour learning session for citizens interested in improving water quality planning and decision making. Among the topics covered are the need for alternative wastewater…

  11. Virtualness and Knowledge in Teams: Managing the Love Triangle in Organizations, Individuals, and Information Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri L. Griffith; John E. Sawyer; Margaret A. Neale

    2003-01-01

    Information technology can facilitate the dissemination of knowledge across the organization— even to the point of making virtual teams a viable alternative to face-to-face work. However, unless managed, the combination of information technology and virtual work may serve to change the distribution of different types of knowledge across individuals, teams, and the organization. Implications include the possibility that information technology

  12. Impact of technology in health care and health administration: hospitals and alternative care delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kerr, J K; Jelinek, R

    1990-01-01

    Applications as outlined above and many more that have not yet even been identified--but that will be invented and developed--will have an enormous impact on the health care industry. Clearly, capital requirements to purchase this technology will go up and thus exert further pressure for the reduction of personnel. Computers and robots will replace a significant percentage of health care personnel; overall health care costs as a percent of gross national product will nevertheless probably continue to rise in spite of improvements in productivity. Added costs will be offset in part by the use of technology in areas that will impact efficiency. Because of these accelerating uses of sophisticated technology, future administrators will have a greater appreciation for what technology can offer. Practical uses of robotics, expert systems, and artificial intelligence will require administrators to be technologically proficient. PMID:10103712

  13. Electric vehicles - an alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventionally fuelled vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well. This report discusses electric powered vehicles as an alternative fuels vehicle.

  14. Engineering Issue: Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue papers are a series of documents that summarize the available information on specific contaminates, selected treatment and site remediation technologies, and related issues. This Engineering Issue paper is intended...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...because the potential benefits are great in comparison to the risks, or if operation under differing conditions of climatic, geology, etc., is desirable to demonstrate the technology. e. The Regional Administrator will use the following criteria...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...because the potential benefits are great in comparison to the risks, or if operation under differing conditions of climatic, geology, etc., is desirable to demonstrate the technology. e. The Regional Administrator will use the following criteria...

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  18. Alternatives for NASTRAN maintenance, modification and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    Various alternatives to direct NASA support of the program are considered ranging from no support at one end of the spectrum to subsidizing a non profit user's group at the other. Of all the alternatives that are developed, the user group appears to be most viable. NASA's past and future roles in the development of computerized technology are also considered. The need for an institute for computational analysis is identified and NASA's possible involvement is described. The goals of the proposed institute and research funds to support an activity that has the potential of a much larger impact on the technical community are identified.

  19. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  20. Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra R.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

  1. Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

  2. A review on sonoelectrochemical technology as an upcoming alternative for pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Thokchom, Binota; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Qiu, Pengpeng; Park, Beomguk; Choi, Jongbok; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2015-11-01

    Sonoelectrochemical process has emerged as a novel integrated technology for various applications starting from sonoelectroplating till the remediation of a wide range of contaminants. Although a promising new technology, the application of sonoelectrochemical technology for pollutant degradation are mostly on a laboratory scale, utilizing the conventional reactor configuration of the electrolytic vessel and ultrasonic horns dipped in it. This type of configuration has been believed to be responsible for its sluggish evolution with lower reproducibility, scale-up and design aspects. To achieve a major turn with an enhanced synergy, refinements in the form of optimizing the co-ordination of the governing parameters of both the technologies (e.g., power, frequency, liquid height, electrode material, electrode size, electrode gap, applied voltage, current density etc.) have been validated. Besides, in order to supplement knowledge in the already existing pool, rigorous research on the past and present status has been done. Challenges were also identified and to overcome them, critical discussions covering an overview of the progressive developments on combining the two technologies and its major applications on pollutant degradation were conducted. PMID:26186839

  3. Evaluation of alternative drilling technologies and subsurface confinement barriers for single shell tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Acheson, W.P.; Towers, T.A.; Wentzel, K.W.; Johnson, H.R. [K and M Engineering and Consulting Corp., Washington, DC (United States); Overbey, W.K. [BDM Federal, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This study investigated the application of conventional and innovative drilling techniques to the problems of soil characterization, monitoring, and barrier installation beneath the Hanford C tank farm. An evaluation and ranking of twenty four types of drilling technologies included horizontal and directional drilling techniques. The drilling technologies were evaluated for their ability to drill in unconsolidated soils, provide good horizontal and vertical position control, facilitate subsurface characterization and monitoring, and permit installation of subsurface barriers beneath individual tanks or beneath a tank farm. The barrier concepts--existing, commercially available technologies--had to be suitable for the variety of soil conditions found beneath the Hanford tank farms. The barriers were also investigated for their ability to withstand chemical attack and seismic deformations, and for their ability to have the barrier integrity verified remotely.

  4. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  5. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  6. REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING ALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. To meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on ...

  7. The Story of Crownpoint Institute of Technology and Its Alternative Livestock Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanAlstine, Matthew; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami; Sanchez, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    To foster economic growth in the Navajo communities served by Crownpoint Institute of Technology, an initiative developed networks among educational, industrial, and nonprofit organizations. By promoting the sharing of knowledge between Navajo medicine men and veterinarians, Crownpoint has developed high quality training, employment, and small…

  8. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  9. ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

  10. ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS OF CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT) SOILS AND DEBRIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted a research and regulatory development program for establishing the best demonstrated and available technology (DBAT) for RCRA and Superfund wastes in response to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazard...

  11. ENGINEERING ISSUE: TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF SOIL AND SEDIMENT CONTAMINATED WITH PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Bulletins are a series of documents that summarize the available information on selected treatment and site remediation technologies and related issues. They provide summaries of and references to the latest information t...

  12. Windows of Opportunity: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Technology-Based Alternatives to Field Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Atkins

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' perceptions of the impact of non-field experiences in shaping their vision of mathematics teaching. Preservice teachers were engaged in a number of technology-based activities. These activities included the use of calculators and other manipulatives in teaching mathematics, the viewing of videotaped examples of effective practice, and investigations into LOGO and the World Wide Web. The

  13. Alternative Teaching Aids, or Why We Can Do Without the New Technology in Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeveld, Willem

    Social studies educators should refrain from using computer-assisted instruction as much as possible; instead, they should create a program that reveals the hard facts of a computerized society and its dangers to civil liberties and human dignity. Past examples of the standardizing effects of technology reach as far back as the printing press.…

  14. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  15. Alternative Technologies for Large Scale Science Assessment: Instrument of Education Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Shavelson; Gail P. Baxter; Jerome Pine; Jennifer Yuré; Susan R. Goldman; Bill Smith

    1991-01-01

    Educational reform in the United States has been stymied, in part, by the mismatch between curricular reform (with its emphasis on problem solving and process) and traditional accountability systems (with multiple?choice tests, largely of factual recall). If teachers teach to the test, and they do, curricular reform is blunted. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate alternative

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  17. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  18. Natural transfer of viable microbes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

  19. The iPad and mobile technology revolution: benefits and challenges for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2013-06-01

    The iPad and other mobile technologies provide powerful new tools to potentially enhance communication for individuals with developmental disabilities, acquired neurogenic disorders, and degenerative neurological conditions. These mobile technologies offer a number of potential benefits, including: (a) increased awareness and social acceptance of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), (b) greater consumer empowerment in accessing AAC solutions, (c) increased adoption of AAC technologies, (d) greater functionality and interconnectivity, and (e) greater diffusion of AAC research and development. However, there remain a number of significant challenges that must be addressed if these benefits are to be fully realized: (a) to ensure the focus is on communication, not just technology, (b) to develop innovative models of AAC service delivery to ensure successful outcomes, (c) to ensure ease of access for all individuals who require AAC, and, (d) to maximize AAC solutions to support a wide variety of communication functions. There is an urgent need for effective collaboration among key stakeholders to support research and development activities, and to ensure the successful implementation of mobile technologies to enhance communication outcomes for individuals who require AAC and their families. PMID:23705813

  20. More viable parameter space for leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn

    2014-09-01

    Lepton flavor asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrino masses are substantially below 109 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the beginning of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass scale.

  1. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Comparison and evaluation of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CTAS compared and evaluated various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications. The principal aim of the study was to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development (R&D) funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for a wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment (ROI) as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler.

  2. The use of alternative technologies to develop malolactic fermentation in wine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Maicas

    2001-01-01

    The development of the malolactic fermentation, bioconversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid, is a difficult and time-consuming process that does not always proceed favorably under the natural conditions of wine. Traditional fermentations are used worldwide to produce high-quality wines, although delay or failure is not an unusual outcome. During recent years several technologies have been proposed to induce biological

  3. An Alternative to Technology Readiness Levels for Non-Developmental Item (NDI) Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Smith

    Within the Department of Defense, Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are increasingly used as a tool in assessing program risk. While there is considerable evidence to support the utility of using TRLs as part of an overall risk assessment, some characteristics of TRLs limit their applicability to software products, especially Non-Developmental Item (NDI) software including Commercial-Off-The-Shelf, Government-Off-The-Shelf, and Open Source Software.

  4. An Alternative to Technology Readiness Levels for Non-Developmental Item (NDI) Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Smith II

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Within the Department of Defense, Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are increasingly used as a ,tool inassessing,program ,risk. While there is considerable evidence to support the utility of using TRLs as part of an overall risk assessment, some characteristics of TRLs limit their applicability to software products, especially Non-Developmental Item ,(NDI) software ,including Commercial-Off-The-Shelf, Government-Off-The-Shelf, and Open Source Software. These

  5. Microfluidics in silicon\\/polymer technology as a cost-efficient alternative to silicon\\/glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kalkandjiev; L. Riegger; D. Kosse; M. Welsche; L. Gutzweiler; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

    2011-01-01

    We investigate TMMF photopolymer as a cost-efficient alternative to glass for the leak-tight sealing of high-density silicon microchannels. TMMF enables low temperature sealing and access to structures underneath via lamination and standard UV-lithography instead of costly glass machining and anodic bonding. TMMF is highly transparent and has a low autofluorescence for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. As the photopolymer is

  6. An analysis of alternative technologies for the removal of ethylene from the CELSS biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of technologies were analyzed for their potential to remove ethylene from the CELSS Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). During crop production (e.g., lettuce, wheat, soybean, potato) in the BPC ethylene can accumulate in the airspace and subsequently affect plant viability. The chief source of ethylene is the plants themselves which reside in plastic trays containing nutrient solution. The main sink for ethylene is chamber leakage. The removal technology can be employed when deleterious levels (e.g., 50 ppb for potato) of ethylene are exceeded in the BPC and perhaps to optimize the plant growth process once a better understanding is developed of the relationship between exogenous ethylene concentration and plant growth. The technologies examined were catalytic oxidation, molecular sieve, cryotrapping, permanganate absorption, and UV degradation. Upon analysis, permanganate was chosen as the most suitable method. Experimental data for ethylene removal by permanganate during potato production was analyzed in order to design a system for installation in the BPC air duct. In addition, an analysis of the impact on ethylene concentration in the BPC of integrating the Breadboard Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (BSAB) with the BPC was performed. The result indicates that this unit has no significant effect on the ethylene material balance as a source or sink.

  7. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  8. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration

    E-print Network

    Dymond, R. E.

    ; buy sulfur dioxide credits on the open market; install FGD; or switch to clean coal technology such as circulating fluidized bed combustion and gasification. Current trends in utility modernization are to utilize new clean coal technologies...

  10. First pinacol coupling in emulsified water: key role of surfactant and impact of alternative activation technologies.

    PubMed

    Billamboz, Muriel; Len, Christophe

    2015-05-22

    For the first time, the influence of surfactants on the radical pinacol coupling reaction is investigated. The rate and selectivity of this reductive C-C coupling are compared under three different activation technologies: thermal activation, microwave irradiation, and sonication. The use of IgepalCO520, a neutral surfactant, led to the successful conversion of aromatic or ?,?-unsaturated aliphatic carbonyl compounds in moderate to excellent yield (55-90?%). An insight on the potential mechanism involved in the reaction is also proposed, based on microscopic observations and particle size measurement. PMID:25776253

  11. A preliminary technology assessment of alternative uses for offshore petroleum platforms 

    E-print Network

    Lawlor, Frank James

    1975-01-01

    in an imaginative but realistic manner. The method proposed by this thesis for deter- mininq this feasibility and impact is technology assessment. In 1966 the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Astronautics developed a report that called for the institution... of 2 For further description, see Garcia v. K~in , 139 Tex. 578, 164 SW 2nd 506. 3 C t TV, , T h 1 dPbll P~Ti: Th P ct TT h- nology Assessment in the Federal Government, Summary Report 1 ~1972 . Ibid. a technoloqy. It was devised as a tool...

  12. Government patent policy: An analysis of the effects of three alternative patent policies on technology of goverment inventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matousek, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of present and proposed Government patent policies on the process of technology transfer and the commercialization of inventions resulting from Government sponsored research are addressed. The function of the patent system in Government research and the value of patents resulting from government sponsored research are examined. Three alternative patent policies, title in the contractor, title in the Government, and the waiver policy, are examined in terms of their effect on the commercialization of inventions, industrial competitions, disclosure of inventions, participation of research contractors and administrative costs. Efforts to reform the present Government patent policy are also described.

  13. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils - Phase 2 Report: Screening of Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Bates, S.O.

    1989-11-01

    This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification (ISV) processes and their applicability to remediation of the Weldon Spring site based on existing information and previous PNL experience with similar wastes. Subsequent treatability tests and product analysis were conducted by PNL to further evaluate the JHCM and ISV processes. The treatability tests involved laboratory and bench-scale tests with actual raffinate sludge and uncontaminated soil from the Weldon Spring site. The vitrified product from the JHCM and ISV treatability tests was analyzed for a wide range of characteristics, including durability (leach resistance), strength, and toxicity. Both the process performance test and product quality were used to assess the two PNL vitrification technologies to determine their effectiveness, implementability, and cost. 11 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS) Volume 5: Analytical approach and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985 to 2000 time period are provided. Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasification systems.

  15. Climate and energy: a comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kellermeyer, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate were assessed. The energy technologies examined were coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focused on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emissions of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long-range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100-fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that primary particulate emissions from coal combustion constitute a small percentage of total atmospheric particulates; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO/sub 2/, which may, by about 2050, increase world temperature 2 to 3/sup 0/C, with pronounced effects on world climate; that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of an SPS may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences; and that much research in climatology is needed before potential effects can be quantitatively predicted with any confidence. Although climatic impact is an appropriate concern in formulating long-term energy policy, the level of uncertainty about it suggests that it is not currently useful as a decision criterion. 88 references.

  16. Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vega, Leticia; Meyer, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This paper summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test conducted over one year. The AWP recovered 90% of water from four crewmembers using (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater, including urine, hygiene, laundry and humidity condensate. Downstream, a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system removed large organics and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed and a 29% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attachedgrowth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume and consumable-saving design that doesn't require toxic pretreatment. This paper will explain the reasons for this and will discuss steps to optimize each subsystem to increase effluent quality from the MABRs and the FOST to advance the system.

  17. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  18. [PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  19. Alternative technologies to optical monitoring systems relating to regulatory compliance (Title V)

    SciTech Connect

    Craney, B. [BHA Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the development of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments and public awareness of environmentally safe processes, particulate emissions monitoring has become a subject of great importance to the manufacturing sector. An increasing number of monitoring devices are available, and when used in the correct applications, can accurately monitor particulate emissions. This allows identification of a system problem before emissions can reach the stack and trigger non-compliance. This paper focuses on the most widely used technologies for continuous particulate monitoring, specifically the CPM product line, which has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Technical data is presented in regard to the CPM operation as well as a case study of a CPM monitor in the asphalt industry.

  20. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  1. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  2. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  3. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  4. Alternative polymer separation technology by centrifugal force in a melted state.

    PubMed

    Dobrovszky, Károly; Ronkay, Ferenc

    2014-11-01

    In order to upgrade polymer waste during recycling, separation should take place at high purity. The present research was aimed to develop a novel, alternative separation opportunity, where the polymer fractions were separated by centrifugal force in melted state. The efficiency of the constructed separation equipment was verified by two immiscible plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; low density polyethylene, LDPE), which have a high difference of density, and of which large quantities can also be found in the municipal solid waste. The results show that the developed equipment is suitable not only for separating dry blended mixtures of PET/LDPE into pure components again, but also for separating prefabricated polymer blends. By this process it becomes possible to recover pure polymer substances from multi-component products during the recycling process. The adequacy of results was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement as well as optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:24999097

  5. Comparative recoveries of airborne fungus spores by viable and non-viable modes of volumetric collection.

    PubMed

    Burge, H P; Boise, J R; Rutherford, J A; Solomon, W R

    1977-07-29

    The suitability of viable and non-viable volumetric collectors as prevalence indicators for potentially allergenic airborne fungi was studied during 124 paired exposures of the Burkard (Hirst) spore trap and a modified, wind-oriented Andersen sampler. Overall, viable recoveries of several Cladosporium form species varied directly with microscopic spore counts (p less than or equal to 0.0001). However, as spore levels rose, culture plate data progressively underestimated prevailing concentrations (recoveries falling below 5% at levels above 500 spores/M3). Viable collections yielded low estimates of prevalence (20-40%) even at modest Cladosporium levels (less than 100 spores/M3) and substantially understated the abundance and regularity in air of several additional taxa. Spores typical of Penicillium and Aspergillus form species were not sought in spore trap deposits. Careful examination of these failed to reveal typical arthrospores or Fusarium macrospores despite substantial recoveries of corresponding growth in culture. Correlations in the occurrence patterns of arthrospore-forming and non-sporulating colonies with those of Coprinus and 'other basidiospores' (excluding Ganoderma) were noted. PMID:895829

  6. Alternative management and funding options for aeronautics programs, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research and technology will be at lower program levels with basic military research for aviation decreasing as fewer aircraft programs are initiated and the present new aircraft programs move into the prototype and production status. The key question is can industry take on the management and financing role and meet the criteria and characteristics considered essential for a viable research and technology program. The criteria for evaluating alternative approaches include an examination of the nature of the product to be provided, responsiveness to changing needs, efficiency in terms of costs, ability to provide leadership, and to provide impartial and independent evaluation of approaches, and to provide technological inputs for regulating functions.

  7. Alternatives to flat panel displays in vehicle turrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Gail

    2011-06-01

    Space is a premium in vehicle turrets. Reducing the footprint of displays inside turrets frees up space for the warfighter. Traditional military ruggedized flat panel displays cannot reside flush with the curved turret wall and consumes more space than their advertized size. The lack of turret space also makes balancing human factors difficult. To better meet the Warfighter needs, alternatives and incremental upgrades to the flat panel displays in turrets were compiled. Each alternative technology was assessed against the constraints of a turret. Benefits, issues, and predictions to implementation are summarized. Viable alternatives are being developed into suitable options.

  8. Microfluidics in silicon/polymer technology as a cost-efficient alternative to silicon/glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkandjiev, K.; Riegger, L.; Kosse, D.; Welsche, M.; Gutzweiler, L.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate TMMF photopolymer as a cost-efficient alternative to glass for the leak-tight sealing of high-density silicon microchannels. TMMF enables low temperature sealing and access to structures underneath via lamination and standard UV-lithography instead of costly glass machining and anodic bonding. TMMF is highly transparent and has a low autofluorescence for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. As the photopolymer is too thin for implementing bulky world-to-chip interfaces, we propose adhesive bonding of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) modules. All materials were tested according ISO 10993-5 and showed no cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of L929 cells. To quantify the cost efficiency of the proposed techniques, we used an established silicon/Pyrex nanoliter dispenser as a reference and replaced structured Pyrex wafers by TMMF laminates and COC modules. Thus, consumable costs, manpower and machine time related to sealing of the microchannels and implementing the world-to-chip interface could be significantly reduced. Leak tightness was proved by applying a pressure of 0.2 MPa for 5 h without delamination or crosstalk between neighboring microchannels located only 100 µm apart. In contrast to anodic bonding, the proposed techniques are tolerant to surface inhomogeneities. They enable manufacturing of silicon/polymer microfluidics at lower costs and without compromising the performance compared to corresponding silicon/glass devices.

  9. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  10. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the sample can be plated. Using a photoaffinity label would remove this step from the current assay as the label readily penetrates both live and dead bacterial cells. Secondly, the photoaffinity label can only penetrate dead bacterial spores, leaving behind the viable spore population. This would allow for rapid bacterial spore detection in a matter of hours compared to the several days that it takes for the NASA standard assay.

  11. Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    Headquarters National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of the AP2 Office are to: (1) Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials (HazMats) or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. (2) Avoid duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate HazMats through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. To achieve a substrate condition suitable for the application of a coating system, both new and old (in-situ) substrates must undergo some type of surface preparation and/or depainting operation to ensure adhesion of the new coating system. The level of cleanliness or anchor profile desired is typically a function of the type of coating to be applied and the specification being adhered to. In high performance environments, cleanliness and surface profile requirements for carbon steel (the dominant substrate for facilities, structures and equipment) dictates the use of abrasive media. Many of the abrasive media currently used across NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) installations generate large quantities of fugitive particulate emissions and waste. The high quantities of airborne dust and waste generated from these operations pose significant environmental concern. Efforts to contain emissions and the reduce quantity of waste generated have significant implications on project cost; this is often a deterrent to engaging in maintenance activities. In response to recent technological developments and NASA's and AFSPC's need to undertake environmentally conscious corrosion prevention projects, a review of the industry needs to be undertaken to evaluate surface preparation technologies (materials and processes) for embrace. This project will identify, evaluate and approve alternative surface preparation technologies for use at NASA and AFSPC installations. Materials and processes will be evaluated with the goal of selecting those processes that will improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated. This Field Evaluations Test Plan defines the field evaluation and testing requirements for validating alternative surface preparation/depainting technologies and supplements the JTP. The field evaluations will be performed at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, under the oversight of the Project Engineer. Additional field evaluations may be performed at other NASA centers or AFSPC facilities.

  12. Digial Technology Qualification Task 2 - Suitability of Digital Alternatives to Analog Sensors and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck

    2012-09-01

    The next generation reactors in the U.S. are an opportunity for vendors to build new reactor technology with advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems (control rooms, DCS, etc.). The advances made in the development of many current generation operating reactors in other parts of the world are being used in the design and construction of new plants. These new plants are expected to have fully integrated digital control rooms, computerized procedures, integrated surveillance testing with on-line monitoring and a major effort toward improving the O&M and fault survivability of the overall systems. In addition the designs are also incorporating major improvements in the man-machine interface based on lessons learned in nuclear and other industries. The above relates primarily to the scope of supply in instrumentation and control systems addressed by Chapter 7 of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) NUREG-0800 (Reference 9.5), and the associated Balance of Plant (BOP) I&C systems. This does not relate directly to the actuator and motor, breaker, initiation circuitry, valve position, etc. which is the subject of this report and normally outside of the traditional Distributed Control System (DCS), for both safety and non-safety systems. The recommendations presented in this report will be used as input to I&C research programming for the implementation of lessons learned during the early phases of new build both for large light water reactors (LWR) and also small modular reactors (SMR). This report is intended to support current research plans and provide user (vendor, owner-operator) input to the optimization of these research plans.

  13. Outsourcing information technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.A. (Planmetrics Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1994-01-15

    Although it has become almost routine in most industries, outsourcing has only emerged as a hot topic in the utility industry over the past few years. Information technology (IT) is a prime candidate for outsourcing alternatives. And while not a panacea for all utilities, the trend to consider outsourcing one or more IT functions will become increasingly important as companies struggle to cope with deregulation and competitive pressures. This article describes how to determine if outsourcing is a viable alternative for a utility, and how to determine what is to be outsourced and how to manage the contract.

  14. Thin film imaging technology on glass and plastic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nathan; A. Sazonov; S. Tao; Z. H. Gu; I. Chan; P. Servati; K. Karim; T. Charania; D. Striakhilev; Q. Ma; R. V. R. Murthy

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) technology offers a viable technological alternative for improved imaging of optical signals and high energy radiation. This paper reviews X-ray imaging technology in terms of detector operating principles, including optoelectronic characteristics, and fabrication process issues related to pixel (Schottky diode detector plus thin film transistor) integration. Recent results which describe the extension of the current fabrication

  15. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  16. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good. PMID:18096578

  17. Postoptimality analysis in the selection of technology portfolios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adumitroaie, Virgil; Shelton, Kacie; Elfes, Alberto; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for qualifying optimal technology portfolios obtained with a multi-attribute decision support system. The goal is twofold: to gauge the degree of confidence in the optimal solution and to provide the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy non-technical constraints.

  18. Survival of “pre-viable” infants in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200–499 g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200–499 g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 1985–1988 versus 1995–1999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

  19. PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

  20. Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

    1995-01-01

    The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

  1. Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2001-03-01

    In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

  2. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative. PMID:19075850

  3. The Development of a Guideline on the Sampling/Testing of Innovative/Alternative Disposal Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Disposal

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Disposal Principle Investigators Calvin P. C. Poon #12;Problem and Research Objectives Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have been implicated as a potential cause/alternative sewage disposal system which potentially use less leaching area and more efficient in pollutant removal

  4. Water-use efficiency for alternative cooling technologies in arid climates Energy and Buildings, Volume 43, Issues 23, FebruaryMarch 2011, Pages 631-638

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Water-use efficiency for alternative cooling technologies in arid climates Energy and Buildings, Volume 43, Issues 2­3, February­March 2011, Pages 631-638 Theresa Pistochini, Mark Modera 1 Water-site water use and the impact of poor water quality on their performance. While compressor-based systems do

  5. Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Public Education Campaign: Billboards According to the U.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane

    E-print Network

    and virgin soy oil. There are also plans to produce biodiesel from algae in the near future. · Fuel makes upClean Fuel Advanced Technology Public Education Campaign: Billboards · According to the U.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane (LPG) in North Carolina

  6. 'Emerging technologies for the changing global market' - Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

  7. ESTIMATION OF VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES DOWNWIND FROM A POINT SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of the Pasquill atmospheric diffusion equations for estimating viable microbial airborne cell concentrations downwind from a continuous point source is presented. A graphical method is given to estimate the ground level cell concentration given (1) microbial death ra...

  8. Alternative Energy COLLEGE of ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Alternative Energy technology COLLEGE of ENGINEERING AlternativeEnergyTechnologyProgram Collegeof program and alternative energy technology master's degree program t One of 23 U.S. PACE institutions to a alternative energy technology degree. The EDGE program trains engineering students in the entrepreneurial

  9. Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the Permafrost Darkness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana A. Vishnivetskaya; Tatiana A

    2009-01-01

    This review represents an overview of the existence, distribution and abundance of the photoautotrophic microorganisms in\\u000a the deep subsurface permafrost of the Northeast Russia and McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The morphology, growth rate, spectral\\u000a properties, phylogenetic position of the viable permafrost green algae and cyanobacteria have been studied. Viable photoautotrophs\\u000a were represented by unicellular green algae and filamentous cyanobacteria with

  10. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  11. The Role of Instrumentation and Controls Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

    2010-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

  12. The Role of Instrumentation and Control Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight A Clayton; Richard Thomas Wood

    2011-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the

  13. Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhash Mallah; N. K. Bansal

    2010-01-01

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian

  14. Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

    2002-02-01

    The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

  15. ImpACT: An Alternative to Technology Readiness Levels for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Smith II; Wilson Boulevard

    2004-01-01

    The use of Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) as a tool in assessing acquisition and development program risk has steadily increased over the past several years. There is considerable evidence to support the utility of using TRLs as part of a risk assessment, but there are some difficulties in using TRLs with software, especially Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software technology and products. These

  16. Impact of alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles on oil demand in the United States up to 2030

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mazraati; Haithem Shelbi

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe increasingly high oil consumption in US road transportation sector, coupled with its significant contribution to greenhouse gases emission, resulted in the implementation of many policies geared towards addressing both challenges. Aiming to enhance the US energy security, the Energy Policy Act encourages the use of alternative fuels and has set forth the requirements for the acquisition of alternative fuels

  17. GBFEL-TIE (Ground-Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) sample survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, T.J.; Doleman, W.H.

    1988-09-30

    Three locations on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are under consideration as alternatives for the proposed Ground-Based Free-Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE). The study conducted jointly by Prewitt and Associates, Inc., and the Office of Contract Archeology, was designed to provide input into the GBFEL-TIE Draft Environmental Impact Statement concerning the potential impact of the proposed project on cultural resources in each of the alternatives. The input consists of a series of predictions based on data gathered from two sources: (1) a cultural resource sample survey (15%) of two alternatives conducted as part of this study, and (2) from a previous survey of the third alternative. A predictive model was devleoped and applied using these data that estimated the potential impact of the GBFEL-TIE facility on the cultural resources within each alternative. The predictions indicate that the NASA alternatives, by far, the least favorable location for the facility followed by the Orogrande and Stallion Alternatives.

  18. Enhancement of viable Campylobacter detection by chemotactic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wisessombat, Sueptrakool; Kittiniyom, Kanokwan; Srimanote, Potjanee; Wonglumsom, Wijit; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of chemotactic stimuli on motility ability of viable Campylobacter to pass through a 0.45 microm pore size filter in viscous condition were investigated. Reference strains including C. jejuni ATCC 33291, C. coli MUMT 18407, C. lari ATCC 43675, and C. upsaliensis DMST 19055 were used. The initial numbers of artificially-inoculated viable cells per g of chicken meat were approximately 10 to 10(4). Constituents of mucin plus bile (1:1), varieties of amino acids, and sodium salts were added into a soft-agar-coated membrane filter and incubated at both 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 24h. The drop plate method was used to determine numbers of viable Campylobacter at 6, 12, 18, and 24h. After 6h, constituents of mucin plus bile at the concentrations of 1, 5, and 10% demonstrated significant increases in numbers of viable cells (p<0.05). The numbers of the organisms at 42 degrees C were higher than those at 37 degrees C. In contrast, no significant difference in cell numbers was observed by adding amino acids or sodium salts. In addition, the role of starvation on chemotactic responses was also studied. Starved cells showed lower chemotactic response than non-starved cells. This method permitted rapid detection of viable thermophilic Campylobacter. PMID:20561959

  19. Impact of Alternative Energy Prices, Tenure Arrangements and Irrigation Technologies on a Typical Texas High Plains Farm 

    E-print Network

    Petty, J. A.; Lacewell, R. D.; Hardin, D. C.; Whitson, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    and new technology. The model includes a Fortran sub-routine that adjusts irrigation factors each year based on the linear programming solution of the previous year. After calculating new pumping energy requirements, well yield, and pumping lift...

  20. Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

    1985-01-01

    Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

  1. HF RFID versus UHF RFID--Technology for Library Service Transformation at City University of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Steve H.; Tai, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Since libraries first used RFID systems in the late 1990s, more and more libraries have identified the advantages of the technology. With advances in HF and UHF RFID, both alternatives are now viable in library applications. While some librarians are still skeptical towards UHF RFID as unproven in the library arena, the City University of Hong…

  2. Abstract--Nanobundle network transistors (NBTs) have emerged as a viable, higher performance alternative to poly-

    E-print Network

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    by an Analytical Model Ninad Pimparkar P a P*, Jing Guo P b P and M. A. Alam P a P a PSchool of Electrical.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 VDS (V) IT (mA) VG increasing VG VTH (a) 0 0.5 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 (b) LC / LS Current(mA) IB (Eq. 1) Isat (Eq. 2) ID (Eq. 3) IT (Eq. 4) 10 0 10 1 10 2 10

  3. The nickel-zinc battery - A viable alternative for vehicle powering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Petrocelli; J. H. Kennedy

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the analytical and hardware development work conducted at Yardney on the nickel-zinc battery system for structured on-road transportation. Realization of design targets for a nickel-zinc couple capable of increased energy density for range extension and of elevated power density for improved acceleration and gradeability is discussed. A simplified technical-economic analytical model is described whereby two types of

  4. Is Antioxidant Therapy a Viable Alternative for Mild Cognitive Impairment? Examination of the Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Laure Ancelin; Yves Christen; Karen Ritchie

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic interventions for the prodromal stages of dementia are currently being sought with a view to delaying if not preventing disease onset. Uncertainty as to whether cognitive disorder in a given individual will progress towards dementia and adverse drug side effects has led to hesitancy on the part of drug regulators to instigate preventive pharmacotherapies. In this context, antioxidant therapies

  5. Manipulative Materials in the Primary Level Mathematics Lesson: Are There Viable Alternatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Karen Silliman

    The reality of classroom practices raises a question worth investigation: Are there programs that do not rely on the use of manipulatives that might provide successful mathematics instruction? This paper investigated achievement differences between students in three mathematics programs ranging from a strict manipulative focus to an abstract,…

  6. Mechanically-Fastened FRP (MF-FRP)-A Viable Alternative for Strengthening RC Members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Bank

    ABSTRACT: A method for strengthening reinforced concrete members using mechanical fasteners has re-cently been developed. The strengthening is obtained by attaching FRP strips, having high bearing and longi-tudinal strengths, to concrete elements using many closely spaced steel Power Actuated (PA) fastening \\

  7. Preemptive and salvage harvesting of New England forests: when doing nothing is a viable alternative.

    PubMed

    Foster, David R; Orwig, David A

    2006-08-01

    One unexpected consequence of natural disturbances in forested areas is that managers often initiate activities that may impose greater ecosystem impacts than the disturbances themselves. By salvage logging areas affected by windstorms or other impacts, by harvesting host trees in advance of insect infestation or disease, or by preemptively harvesting forests in an attempt to improve their resilience to future disturbances and stresses, managers initiate substantial changes in the ecosystem structure and function. Much of this activity is undertaken in the absence of information on the qualitative and quantitative differences between disturbance impacts and harvesting. To provide insight for such decisions we evaluated the ecosystem consequences of two major disturbance processes in New England (US.A.)--intense windstorms and invasive pests and pathogens-and contrasted them with impacts from preemptive and salvage harvesting. Despite dramatic physical changes in forest structure resulting from hurricane impacts and insect infestation, little disruption of biogeochemical processes or other ecosystem functions typically follows these disturbances. Indeed, the physical and organic structures produced by these disturbances are important natural features providing habitat and landscape heterogeneity that are often missing due to centuries of land use. From an ecosystem perspective there are strong arguments against preemptive and salvage logging or the attempt through silvicultural means to improve the resistance or resilience of forests to disturbance and stress. There are often valid motivations for salvage or preemptive logging including financial considerations, human safety, and a desire to shape the long-term composition and resource-production characteristics of forests. Nonetheless, there are many ecological benefits derived from leaving forests alone when they are affected or threatened by disturbances and pest and pathogen outbreaks. PMID:16922213

  8. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-12-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:24922183

  9. The New China Syndrome: Delayed Return as a Viable Alternative to the "Brain Drain" Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul

    This paper examines the "brain drain" phenomenon particularly in the context of Chinese students studying in the United States and the People's Republic of China's attempts to respond. An opening section critiques the "brain drain" notion arguing that it is an inadequate construct for the actual flow of personnel and ideas between industrialized…

  10. Distance Learning as a Viable Staff Development Alternative for Behavioral Healthcare Direct Support Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, James G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experiment utilized three groups of direct service staff to explore the effectiveness of three methods of training and an optional survey was offered after the study. The researcher used a counterbalance design. Three courses developed by an independent distance learning company were utilized to provide the learning experience. Each…

  11. A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

  12. Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria Jenny A. Lichter,, M. Todd, 2008 The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding

  13. Fort Osage School District Works toward Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Administrators at Fort Osage School District in Independence, Missouri, feel it is their responsibility to provide students with a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Based on Dr. Robert Marzano's model, district leaders set out to alter their curriculum so that it could be taught adequately in the time allotted for instruction. They wanted to…

  14. Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

    A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

  15. Original article The ability to enter into an avirulent viable

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is widespread among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from salmon, patients and environment Toril LINDBA¨ CK 1-culturable organisms and the risk of consuming viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Listeria monocytogenes is unknown. We, when the VBNC state is induced by starvation, is negligible. Listeria monocytogenes / VBNC / ATP / m

  16. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS (SUMMARY OF PHASE I AND PHASE II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted in two phases. n the first phase, a synthetic soil matrix was prepared as a theoretical composite of Superfund soils nationwide. n the second phase, soils from actual Superfund sites were treated. hree treatment technologies were evaluated in both phases:...

  17. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Boing; D. R. Henley; W. J. Manion; J. W. Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific

  18. The Role of Technology and Computer-Based Instruction in a Disadvantaged Alternative School's Culture of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Watson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    New approaches to instruction are increasingly being advocated to meet the needs of diverse learners. Educational researchers have identified the further development and application of computer-based instruction technologies for managing differentiated learning for all students as essential for shifting to a learner-centered paradigm of…

  19. Teaching and Technology Transfer as Alternative Revenue Streams: A Primer on the Potential Legal Implications for UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the UK pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to…

  20. Black Holes or Frozen Stars? A Viable Theory of Gravity without Black Holes

    E-print Network

    I. Schmelzer

    2012-10-30

    Do observations of black hole candidates rule out alternative theories of gravity without horizon formation? This depends on the existence, viability and reasonableness of alternative theories of gravity without black holes. Here a theory of gravity without black hole horizon formation is presented. The gravitational collapse stops shortly before horizon formation and leaves a stable frozen star. In the limit $\\Xi, \\Upsilon\\to 0$ the Einstein equations of GR are recovered, and the frozen stars become observationally indistinguishable from GR black holes. The theory therefore provides a counterexample to recent claims that observational evidence from black hole candidates "all but requires the existence of a horizon". The theory presented here shares its equations with RTG. Nonetheless, as is shown, there remain important conceptual and physical differences. In particular, some serious problems of RTG are not present in the theory proposed here. So it can be argued that the theory is a physically viable and conceptually sound alternative to GR.

  1. Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, pattie

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and selecting alternative materials and technologies that have the potential to reduce the identified HazMats and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), while incorporating sound corrosion prevention and control technologies, is a complicated task due to the fast pace at which new technologies emerge and rules change. The alternatives are identified through literature searches, electronic database and Internet searches, surveys, and/or personal and professional contacts. Available test data was then compiled on the proposed alternatives to determine if the materials meet the test objectives or if further)laboratory or field-testing will be required. After reviewing technical information documented in the PAR, government representatives, technical representatives from the affected facilities, and other stakeholders involved in the process will select the list of viable alternative coatings for consideration and testing under the project's Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes and Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both prepared by ITB. Test results will be reported in a Joint Test Report upon completion oftesting. The selection rationale and conclusions are documented in this PAR. A cost benefit analysis will be prepared to quantify the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coating processes, however, some initial cost data has been included in this PAR. For this coatings project, isocyanates, as found in aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes, were identified as the target HazMat to be eliminated. Table 1-1 lists the target HazMats, the related process and application, current specifications, and affected programs.

  2. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

  3. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Mr. Michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruth, Mr. Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Andress, Mr. David [David Andress & Associates, Inc.; Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Joseck, Fred [U.S. Department of Energy; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. Department of Energy; Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  4. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  5. Enumeration of Viable Bacteria in the Marine Pelagic Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARMAND BIANCHI; ANDLAURA GIULIANO

    1996-01-01

    The low percentage of living bacteria commonly obtained when comparing viable counts with total direct counts in seawater could be due more to inappropriate techniques for appreciating the growth ability of living cellsthantounadaptedcultureconditions.Themost-probable-numbercountsinfilteredseawaterculturesand the microscopic counts of 4*,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained aggregate-forming units grown on black polycarbonatefilters appeared significantly correlated to the direct counts. Both these techniques show that in the superficial

  6. Survey of viable airborne fungal propagules in French wine cellars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joël Simeray; Danielle Mandin; Mariette Mercier; Jean-Pierre Chaumont

    2001-01-01

    A study was carried out of the viable airbornemycological flora of 12 wine cellars in the Arboisregion in France. Results show that there wereconsiderable variations in the quantities ofpropagules: from 57 to 2547 CFU m-3. There was arelatively large number of species (48), which aremore frequently recovered from certain cellar types.The most common were Cladosporium sphaerospermum,Aspergillus versicolor, A. restrictus, Penicilliumglabrum,

  7. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje J. Baeumner; Barbara Leonard; John McElwee; Richard A. Montagna

    2004-01-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and

  8. Development of isoindoline nitroxides for EPR oximetry in viable systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shen; S. Bottle; N. Khan; O. Grinberg; D. Reid; A. Micallef; H. Swartz

    2002-01-01

    Nitroxides are widely used as biophysical probes to study molecular motion, intracellular oxygen, pH, transmembrane potential,\\u000a and cellular redox metabolism, etc. They may be rapidly metabolized to hydroxylamines by cells, which limits their use in\\u000a viable systems. In this study, we have characterized relevant properties in cells of several isoindoline nitroxides that have\\u000a been prepared to have different physicochemical properties:

  9. Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: louis.lineage@msa.hinet.net, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-01

    We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ? 10{sup ?66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup ?33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup ?24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup ?9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.

  10. Use of a voice and video internet technology as an alternative to in-person urgent care clinic visits.

    PubMed

    Brunett, Patrick H; DiPiero, Albert; Flores, Christine; Choi, Dongseok; Kum, Hayley; Girard, Donald E

    2015-06-01

    SummaryThis study aimed to determine the feasibility of patient-initiated online Internet urgent care visits, and to describe patient characteristics, scope of care, provider adherence to protocols, and diagnostic and therapeutic utilization. A total of 456 unique patients were seen via Internet-based technology during the study period, generating 478 consecutive total patient visits. Of the 82 patients referred for an in-person evaluation, 75 patients (91.5%) reported to the clinic as instructed. None of the 82 patients recommended for in-person evaluation required an emergency department referral, hospital admission or urgent consultative referral. We conclude that real-time online primary and urgent care visits are feasible, safe and potentially beneficial in increasing convenient access to urgent and primary care. PMID:25697491

  11. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering eng.wayne.edu STEERING YOUR WAY INTO A HIGH or registration questions, call (313) 577-3716 or e-mail aet@wayne.edu. Alternative Energy Technology College Energy Technology (AET) curriculum is designed to be a premier program in alternative energy research

  12. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-05-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  13. Genetic algorithms and the search for viable string vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Rizos, John

    2014-08-01

    Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 1010 models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 105 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

  14. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. PMID:22417362

  15. Evaluation of Two SiGe HBT Technologies for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    E-print Network

    Ullán, M

    2008-01-01

    As previously reported, silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technologies promise several advantages over CMOS for the front-end readout electronics for the ATLAS upgrade. Since our last paper, we have evaluated the relative merits of the latest generations of IBM SiGe HBT BiCMOS technologies, the 8WL and 8HP platforms. These 130nm SiGe technologies show promise to operate at lower power than CMOS technologies and would provide a viable alternative for the Silicon Strip Detector and Liquid Argon Calorimeter upgrades, provided that the radiation tolerance studies at multiple gamma and neutron irradiation levels, included in this in

  16. KNUDSEN CELL REACTOR FOR CATALYST RESEARCH RELATED TO HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen has been identified as a viable sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Hydrogen as an energy source is ecologically feasible, socially desirable, and with continued research and development promises to become economically viable. The faculty advisors listed...

  17. Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

  18. Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

    2010-03-01

    Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem. Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation of PMA treatment and to evaluate the suitability of the method by applying the following samples: (1) pure cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Alcaligenes faecalis; (2) pond water samples spiked with heat-killed E. coli O157:H7 and E. aerogenes; (3) anaerobic sludge samples exposed to increasing heat stress; and (4) selected natural samples of estuarine sediment and lake mud. Results from the first two experiments show that PMA treatment cannot efficiently suppress dead cells from PCR amplification when the targeted gene is as short as 190 bp, however, the two-step nested PCR can overcome this problem. The last two experiments indicate the method that PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR is useful for viable cells detection in microbial ecology. PMID:20024544

  19. New perspectives on viable microbial communities in low-biomass cleanroom environments

    PubMed Central

    Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; La Duc, Myron T; Bargoma, Emilee; Benardini, James N; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2013-01-01

    The advent of phylogenetic DNA microarrays and high-throughput pyrosequencing technologies has dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of detection of distinct microbial lineages in mixed microbial assemblages. Despite an expanding array of approaches for detecting microbes in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of these cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. In this study, pre-PCR propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was coupled with downstream pyrosequencing and PhyloChip DNA microarray analyses to better understand the frequency, diversity and distribution of viable bacteria in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms. Sample fractions not treated with PMA, which were indicative of the presence of both live and dead cells, yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial pyrosequences. In contrast, only 1% to 10% of all of the pyrosequencing reads, arising from a few robust bacterial lineages, originated from sample fractions that had been pre-treated with PMA. The results of PhyloChip analyses of PMA-treated and -untreated sample fractions were in agreement with those of pyrosequencing. The viable bacterial population detected in cleanrooms devoid of spacecraft hardware was far more diverse than that observed in cleanrooms that housed mission-critical spacecraft hardware. The latter was dominated by hardy, robust organisms previously reported to survive in oligotrophic cleanroom environments. Presented here are the findings of the first ever comprehensive effort to assess the viability of cells in low-biomass environmental samples, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation. PMID:23051695

  20. New perspectives on viable microbial communities in low-biomass cleanroom environments.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; La Duc, Myron T; Bargoma, Emilee; Benardini, James N; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2013-02-01

    The advent of phylogenetic DNA microarrays and high-throughput pyrosequencing technologies has dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of detection of distinct microbial lineages in mixed microbial assemblages. Despite an expanding array of approaches for detecting microbes in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of these cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. In this study, pre-PCR propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was coupled with downstream pyrosequencing and PhyloChip DNA microarray analyses to better understand the frequency, diversity and distribution of viable bacteria in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms. Sample fractions not treated with PMA, which were indicative of the presence of both live and dead cells, yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial pyrosequences. In contrast, only 1% to 10% of all of the pyrosequencing reads, arising from a few robust bacterial lineages, originated from sample fractions that had been pre-treated with PMA. The results of PhyloChip analyses of PMA-treated and -untreated sample fractions were in agreement with those of pyrosequencing. The viable bacterial population detected in cleanrooms devoid of spacecraft hardware was far more diverse than that observed in cleanrooms that housed mission-critical spacecraft hardware. The latter was dominated by hardy, robust organisms previously reported to survive in oligotrophic cleanroom environments. Presented here are the findings of the first ever comprehensive effort to assess the viability of cells in low-biomass environmental samples, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation. PMID:23051695

  1. Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Rani, D Amutha; Cheeseman, C R; Deegan, D; Wise, M; Boccaccini, A R

    2009-01-30

    This review describes the current status of waste treatment using thermal plasma technology. A comprehensive analysis of the available scientific and technical literature on waste plasma treatment is presented, including the treatment of a variety of hazardous wastes, such as residues from municipal solid waste incineration, slag and dust from steel production, asbestos-containing wastes, health care wastes and organic liquid wastes. The principles of thermal plasma generation and the technologies available are outlined, together with potential applications for plasma vitrified products. There have been continued advances in the application of plasma technology for waste treatment, and this is now a viable alternative to other potential treatment/disposal options. Regulatory, economic and socio-political drivers are promoting adoption of advanced thermal conversion techniques such as thermal plasma technology and these are expected to become increasingly commercially viable in the future. PMID:18499345

  2. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  3. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  4. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  5. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  6. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  7. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  8. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli)?·?g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity. PMID:24257838

  9. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  10. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  11. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  12. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  13. Is self-sufficiency financially viable and ethically justifiable?--a commercial viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Christie, R B

    1994-12-01

    Manufacturers of blood products have to maintain the highest possible standards for plasma screening and good manufacturing practices to ensure maximum purity and viral safety. The private sector companies have much experience in implementing and complying with national and international regulations. These requirements involve considerable cost in the areas of (1) plasma collection facilities, (2) research and clinical research, (3) manufacture, and (4) quality control. Total self-sufficiency would mean the loss of many existing resources. An alternative would be a collaboration between the public and private sectors to meet the needs of all patients who require plasma derived products. The current definition of self-sufficiency suggests that it is not financially viable. PMID:7795138

  14. Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Viable Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Large-Volume Water Samples with Wound Fiberglass Cartridge Filters and Reverse Transcription-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kaucner, Christine; Stinear, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    We recently described a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for detecting low numbers of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts spiked into clarified environmental water concentrates. We have now modified the assay for direct analysis of primary sample concentrates with simultaneous detection of viable C. parvum oocysts, Giardia cysts, and a novel type of internal positive control (IPC). The IPC was designed to assess both efficiency of mRNA isolation and potential RT-PCR inhibition. Sensitivity testing showed that low numbers of organisms, in the range of a single viable cyst and oocyst, could be detected when spiked into 100-?l packed pellet volumes of concentrates from creek and river water samples. The RT-PCR was compared with an immunofluorescence (IF) assay by analyzing 29 nonspiked environmental water samples. Sample volumes of 20 to 1,500 liters were concentrated with a wound fiberglass cartridge filter. Frequency of detection for viable Giardia cysts increased from 24% by IF microscopy to 69% by RT-PCR. Viable C. parvum oocysts were detected only once by RT-PCR (3%) in contrast to detection of viable Cryptosporidium spp. in four samples by IF microscopy (14%), suggesting that Cryptosporidium species other than C. parvum were present in the water. This combination of the large-volume sampling method with RT-PCR represents a significant advance in terms of protozoan pathogen monitoring and in the wider application of PCR technology to this field of microbiology. PMID:9572946

  15. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control. PMID:16673791

  16. Alternative Technologies for Information Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, J. A.; Dei Rossi, J. A.

    The paper concerns some of the economic considerations inherent in designing user services that incorporate various communication systems. It describes three such services considered important in providing information to the biomedical community comprised of practicing physicians and those engaged in teaching and research, as well as other…

  17. Alternative Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Kerri L.

    2004-01-01

    Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

  18. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  19. Towards Viable Cosmological Models of Disformal Theories of Gravity

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Sakstein

    2014-12-17

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth-forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  20. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  1. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. PMID:25552560

  2. Stepwise changes in viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae cells.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Shinoda, Sumio

    2015-05-01

    Many bacterial species are known to become viable but nonculturable (VBNC) under conditions that are unsuitable for growth. In this study, the requirements for resuscitation of VBNC-state Vibrio cholerae cells were found to change over time. Although VBNC cells could initially be converted to culturable by treatment with catalase or HT-29 cell extract, they subsequently entered a state that was not convertible to culturable by these factors. However, fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of live cells in this state, from which VBNC cells were resuscitated by co-cultivation with HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Ultimately, all cells entered a state from which they could not be resuscitated, even by co-cultivation with HT-29. These characteristic changes in VBNC-state cells were a common feature of strains in both V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups. Thus, the VBNC state of V. cholerae is not a single property but continues to change over time. PMID:25664673

  3. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  4. Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  5. Viable Options: Intensive Supervision Programs for Juvenile Delinquents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Barton; Jeffrey A. Butts

    1990-01-01

    The Wayne County Juvenile Court in Detroit, Michigan, recently developed and evaluated three in-home, intensive supervision programs as alternatives to commitment for adjudicated delinquents. More than 500 youths were randomly assigned to either intensive supervision or a control group that was committed to the state for placement. The evaluation found the in-home programs to be as effective as commitment for

  6. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    SciTech Connect

    Eingorn, Maxim [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter {gamma}, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|{>=}2.3x10{sup 4}. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k{yields}{infinity}. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p{sub 0}=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p{sub 1}=-(1/2){epsilon} in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

  7. Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy

    E-print Network

    Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy storage technologies and what the future may hold for multi-scale storage applications Presented by: Dave Lucero, Director Alternative Energy · Industry initiatives · Technology · Energy Storage Market · EaglePicher initiatives · Summary #12

  8. An approach to designing viable and sustainable telehealth services.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth can be viewed as an intervention in the established and stable clinician-patient system with outcomes that are not always predictable. The success of a new telehealth service depends far more on changing the clinicians and patient's expectations and patterns of behaviour than on technology. Success in telehealth projects is critically dependent on understanding how the new telehealth offering changes the distinct value proposition for each of the parties - clinicians, patients and administrators. As with any intervention, design is the key to ensuring more predictable outcomes. An approach to the design of telehealth services is described that takes a holistic view of telehealth by acknowledging the multiple and interdependent dimensions of telehealth services (clinical process change, clinical risk and governance, adoption and change management, clinician and patient experience, operational sustainability, support, and least of all, technology). The approach draws on current themes in design including 'design thinking' and service design. PMID:23823297

  9. Designing viable business models for context-aware mobile services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark De Reuver; Timber Haaker

    2009-01-01

    Technologies of 3G and beyond open up new opportunities to develop and commercialize context-aware services that utilize information like user location and social context. Although initial expectations were high, the adoption and diffusion of context-aware services have thus far been limited. Existing literature points to failing business models to explain part of the disappointing uptake. However, most authors focus on

  10. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Enslin; Ronald Hamaoui; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Ghaith Haddad; Khalid Rustom; Rick Stuby; Mohammad Kuran; Evlyn Mark; Ruba Amarin; Hussam Alatrash; Ward Isaac Bower; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the

  11. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

  12. Making silicon nitride film a viable gate dielectric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Ma

    1998-01-01

    To extend the scaling limit of thermal SiO2 in the ultrathin regime when the direct tunneling current becomes significant, members of this author's research team at Yale University, in collaboration with the Jet Process Corporation, embarked on a program to explore the potential of silicon nitride as an alternative gate dielectric. In this paper, high-quality silicon nitride (or oxynitride) films

  13. Innovative Technologies and a Technology Selection Roadmap for Optimization of Pipeline Inspection and Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past five years, a multitude of new inspection technologies have emerged as viable sources of pipeline condition data. Furthermore, many of these new technologies provide quantitative (versus qualitative) data that can significantly improve diagnostic and predictive capab...

  14. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  15. Alternative Energy Evaluation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scevola, Misty

    This document from Misty Scevola serves as an assessment of student knowledge of alternative energy technologies. This document would be useful for instructors looking to expand their students' knowledge of alternative energy and sustainability. The document is intended to be used twice: once before learning about the concepts outlined, and once after the class has been completed. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  16. Soil washing technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  17. The effect of different characteristics of the diluent on the viable count of certain psychrophilic bacteria 

    E-print Network

    Patel, Sudhir Desaibhai

    1965-01-01

    . 2bs offset ef tbs three diluents oa tho viable count of cultures p 10 ~ y-ll, snd y&1 Sawn in ?utrient broth at 25 end lcC is ahoun in pharos 4, 5, snd d. with culture p 10 decreases in viable population vere obsor vod iu Standard Hotbeds bufder...

  18. technology can be considered commercially viable, such as the low operating temperature

    E-print Network

    Zettl, Alex

    . 7, 77 (1982). 6. X. A. Shen, E. Chiang, R. Kachru, ibid. 19, 1246 (1994). 7. T. Mossberg, R. Kachru, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 527 (1986)]. 9. R. Yano, M. Mitsunaga, N. Uesugi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1884 (1991

  19. Barriers and Facilitators to the Use of High-Technology Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Susan; Enderby, Pam; Evans, Philippa; Judge, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been a rapid growth in recent years of available technologies for individuals with communication difficulties. Research in the area is currently underdeveloped with practitioners having a limited body of work on which to draw to guide the process of intervention. Concerns have been raised that this newly developed technology

  20. Ratiometric optical PEBBLE nanosensors for real-time magnesium ion concentrations inside viable cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Edwin J; Brasuel, Murphy; Behrend, Caleb; Philbert, Martin A; Kopelman, Raoul

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents the development and characterization of a highly selective magnesium fluorescent optical nanosensor, made possible by PEBBLE (probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) technology. A ratiometric sensor has been developed by co-immobilizing a dye that is sensitive to and highly selective for magnesium, with a reference dye in a matrix. The sensors are prepared via a microemulsion polymerization process, which entraps the sensing components inside a polymer matrix. The resultant spherical sensors are approximately 40 nm in diameter. The Coumarin 343 (C343) dye, which by itself does not enter the cell, when immobilized in a PEBBLE is used as the magnesium-selective agent that provides the high and necessary selectivity over other intracellular ions, such as Ca2+, Na+, and K+. The dynamic range of these sensors was 1-30 mM, with a linear range from 1 to 10 mM, with a response time of <4 s. In contrast to free dye, these nano-optodes are not perturbed by proteins. They are fully reversible and exhibit minimal leaching and photobleaching over extended periods of time. In vitro intracellular changes in Mg2+ concentration were monitored in C6 glioma cells, which remained viable after PEBBLE delivery via gene gun injection. The selectivity for Mg2+ along with the biocompatibility of the matrix provides a new and reliable tool for intracellular magnesium measurements. PMID:14572044

  1. Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1. PMID:21602375

  2. Viable Three-Dimensional Medical Microwave Tomography: Theory and Numerical Experiments.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qianqian; Meaney, Paul M; Paulsen, Keith D

    2010-02-01

    Three-dimensional microwave tomography represents a potentially very important advance over 2D techniques because it eliminates associated approximations which may lead to more accurate images. However, with the significant increase in problem size, computational efficiency is critical to making 3D microwave imaging viable in practice. In this paper, we present two 3D image reconstruction methods utilizing 3D scalar and vector field modeling strategies, respectively. Finite element (FE) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms are used to model the electromagnetic field interactions in human tissue in 3D. Image reconstruction techniques previously developed for the 2D problem, such as the dual-mesh scheme, iterative block solver, and adjoint Jacobian method are extended directly to 3D reconstructions. Speed improvements achieved by setting an initial field distribution and utilizing an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) FDTD are explored for 3D vector field modeling. The proposed algorithms are tested with simulated data and correctly recovered the position, size and electrical properties of the target. The adjoint formulation and the FDTD method utilizing initial field estimates are found to be significantly more effective in reducing the computation time. Finally, these results also demonstrate that cross-plane measurements are critical for reconstructing 3D profiles of the target. PMID:20352084

  3. Viable Three-Dimensional Medical Microwave Tomography: Theory and Numerical Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qianqian; Meaney, Paul M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional microwave tomography represents a potentially very important advance over 2D techniques because it eliminates associated approximations which may lead to more accurate images. However, with the significant increase in problem size, computational efficiency is critical to making 3D microwave imaging viable in practice. In this paper, we present two 3D image reconstruction methods utilizing 3D scalar and vector field modeling strategies, respectively. Finite element (FE) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms are used to model the electromagnetic field interactions in human tissue in 3D. Image reconstruction techniques previously developed for the 2D problem, such as the dual-mesh scheme, iterative block solver, and adjoint Jacobian method are extended directly to 3D reconstructions. Speed improvements achieved by setting an initial field distribution and utilizing an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) FDTD are explored for 3D vector field modeling. The proposed algorithms are tested with simulated data and correctly recovered the position, size and electrical properties of the target. The adjoint formulation and the FDTD method utilizing initial field estimates are found to be significantly more effective in reducing the computation time. Finally, these results also demonstrate that cross-plane measurements are critical for reconstructing 3D profiles of the target. PMID:20352084

  4. Alternative fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rezendes

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in reviewing programs in Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand to encourage the use of alternative fuels, GAO found that each country was able, to some extent, to get motorists to use alternative fuels, although not without problems and setbacks. GAO also found remarkable consistency in the experiences and lessons reported. GAO testified that the experiences of

  5. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  6. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A Viable Functional Lung Imaging Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output. PMID:17890035

  7. Environment and Alternative Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Rajni

    Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

  8. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  9. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  10. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  11. Quality Alternative Certification Programs in Special Education Ensure High Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda D.; McCabe, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Market driven alternative routes to teaching have evolved into a quality program option and not just an answer to the teacher shortage. Alternative certification is a viable means of recruiting, training, and certifying those who have a bachelor's degree and a strong desire to enter the field of teaching. California has been a leader in the…

  12. ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS AS VIABLE ALTERNATIVES TO CHROMATE CONVERSION COATING PRETREATMENTS FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND TESTING METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Zarras; N. Anderson; A. Guenthner; N. Prokopuk; R. L. Quintana; S. A. Hawkins; C. Webber; L. Baldwin; J. D. Stenger-Smith; J. He; D. E. Tallman

    NAVAIR-WD has successfully synthesized a new electroactive (EAP) polymer (2,5-bis(N-methyl-N- hexylamino)phenylene vinylene), BAM-PPV in high yield and purity. Several EAPs (doped and undoped) have been shown to inhibit and retard the corrosion of steel and aluminum alloys in various environments. BAM-PPV has also been characterized using advanced spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques (NMR, FT-IR, TMA, DSC and TGA) to determine

  13. Behaviour and welfare of broiler breeders fed qualitatively restricted diets during rearing: Are there viable alternatives to quantitative restriction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sandilands; B. J. Tolkamp; C. J. Savory; I. Kyriazakis

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether feeding female broiler breeders on qualitatively, rather than quantitatively, restricted diets during rearing could improve their welfare while also achieving desired growth rates. There were six treatments, each with four replicate pens of 12 birds. From 1 to 20 weeks of age, birds in a control treatment (T1) received a quantitatively restricted amount of a standard

  14. Loop Unrolling Minimisation in the Presence of Multiple Register Types: a Viable Alternative to Modulo Variable Expansion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    pipelining. In fact, un- rolling the loop allows us to avoid introducing unnecessary move and spill Variable Expansion (MVE) [1] used with soft- ware pipelining (SWP) may sacrifice the register optimality (MAXLIVE) and in general may lead to unnecessary spills or move operations negating the benefits of SWP

  15. Warm Humid Climate: Methodology to Study Air Temperature Distribution: Mobile Phones Base Stations as Viable Alternative for Fixed Points 

    E-print Network

    Araujo, V.; Costa, A.; Labaki, L.

    2006-01-01

    : • in first place was the safety for the equipment (since they are terrestrial enclosed with restricted access to the company grantee's employees - VSE- Claro) • the standardization possibility in the exhibition of the equipments, since all the towers...

  16. Passive immunotherapy - a viable treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Keonwoo

    2014-11-01

    Passive immunotherapy is one of the most exciting and extensively researched areas in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) today, harbouring the potential to become the first disease-modifying treatment for the disease. The interest in immunotherapy as a treatment stemmed from the significant dangers of toxic side-effects and major obstacles in selectivity for currently pursued therapies against amyloid beta (A?) proteins and neurofibrillary tangles. Passive immunotherapy especially, has received much limelight, seen as having the potential to be the safer alternative to active immunisation which encountered a significant setback with the notorious AN-1972 trial in which 6% of the vaccinated patients developed meningoencephalitis. At present, passive immunisation research in animal models have exclusively focused on targeting A? proteins, a widely accepted pathology of AD. Following on from this, the preliminary results of phase II trials of three distinct passive immunisation strategies were demonstrated at the 2008 International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease (ICAD). The three therapeutic strategies each targeted the N-terminal of A?, the central epitope or utilised a polyclonal approach. The results demonstrated potential as well as caution. Efficacy was undoubtedly present but not to the extent that was hoped and side-effects, most notably vasogenic oedema occurred in the N-terminal targeting antibody, bapineuzimab. Lessons have been learnt by identifying the possible cause of the problems and have been taken on board to nurture the proven efficacious results. Key points to be addressed currently are dosage of the agent to ensure that high enough concentrations enter the central nervous system to be available to cause effect and early enough time of administration to cause effect. The results of the efficacy and safety phase III trials and the development of newer passive immunotherapeutic agents addressing the problems are eagerly awaited in the hope of finally yielding a disease modifying therapy of AD. PMID:25413550

  17. Improved Direct Viable Count Procedure for Quantitative Estimation of Bacterial Viability in Freshwater Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yokomaku, Daisaku; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2000-01-01

    A direct viable count (DVC) procedure was developed which clearly and easily discriminates the viability of bacterial cells. In this quantitative DVC (qDVC) procedure, viable cells are selectively lysed by spheroplast formation caused by incubation with antibiotics and glycine. This glycine effect leads to swollen cells with a very loose cell wall. The viable cells then are lysed easily by a single freeze-thaw treatment. The number of viable cells was obtained by subtracting the number of remaining cells after the qDVC procedure from the total cell number before the qDVC incubation. This improved procedure should provide useful information about the metabolic potential of natural bacterial communities. PMID:11097948

  18. Near Real-Time Quantitation of Viable Microorganisms for Planetary Protection and Crew Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, N. R.

    2015-03-01

    For planetary protection and crew health, the knowledge of when minimal acceptable levels of microbial contamination are exceeded is critical. We have developed an instrument and procedures to detect as few as one viable organism under 1 hour.

  19. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini and Miklos Porkolab

    E-print Network

    , dc and/or pulsed magnetic fields are required for plasma initiation, ohmicSuperconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini and Miklos Porkolab Executive Summary Magnet systems are the ultimate

  20. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-14

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

  1. Solar System Constraints on a Cosmologically Viable $f(R)$ Theory

    E-print Network

    Yousef Bisabr

    2009-12-02

    Recently, a model $f(R)$ theory is proposed \\cite{recent} which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  2. Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION-AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE CELLS

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION- AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE) and spread with an ethanol-flamed glass rod. Cool glass rod on agar plat before spreading. Incubate the five

  3. Harvesting strategies for conserving minimum viable populations based on World Conservation

    E-print Network

    Tufto, Jarle

    that is too high. Keywords: threshold harvesting; minimum viable population size; stochasticity; Ursus arctos is the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos) population, which was persecuted for several centuries mainly due to its

  4. Alternative calcination development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  5. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerz, D. A.

    1987-12-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

  6. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Biocides on the Viable Masses and Matrices of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms?

    PubMed Central

    Toté, K.; Horemans, T.; Berghe, D. Vanden; Maes, L.; Cos, P.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria and matrix are essential for the development of biofilms, and assays should therefore target both components. The current European guidelines for biocidal efficacy testing are not adequate for sessile microorganisms; hence, alternative discriminatory test protocols should be used. The activities of a broad range of biocides on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were evaluated using such in vitro assays. Nearly all selected biocides showed a significant decrease in S. aureus biofilm viability, with sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid as the most active biocides. Only hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite showed some inhibitory effect on the matrix. Treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilms was roughly comparable to that of S. aureus biofilms. Peracetic acid was the most active on viable mass within 1 min of contact. Isopropanol ensured a greater than 99.999% reduction of P. aeruginosa viability after at least 30 min of contact. Comparable to results with S. aureus, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide markedly reduced the P. aeruginosa matrix. This study clearly demonstrated that despite their aspecific mechanisms of action, most biocides were active only against biofilm bacteria, leaving the matrix undisturbed. Only hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite were active on both the biofilm matrix and the viable mass, making them the better antibiofilm agents. In addition, this study emphasizes the need for updated and standardized guidelines for biofilm susceptibility testing of biocides. PMID:20363795

  8. Evaluation of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR to detect viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook; Lee, Man-Ho; Kim, Bog-Soon

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated whether propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is suitable for detecting viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. PMA-qPCR was effective in determining the viability of M. fortuitum compared with qPCR based on the membrane integrity. However, with a mild chlorine concentration, PMA-qPCR as an alternative method was not applicable due to a large gap between loss of culturability and membrane integrity damage. In ozonation, PMA-qPCR was able to differentiate between viable and injured mycobacteria, and the results were similar to those obtained by the culture method. Interestingly, PMA-qPCR was successful in monitoring the viability after UV disinfection due to the long UV exposure needed to effectively inactivate M. fortuitum. The findings of the present study suggested that the characteristics of disinfectants and the M. fortuitum resistance to disinfectants play critical roles in determining the suitability of PMA-qPCR for evaluating the efficacy of disinfection methods. PMID:26143168

  9. ATP as a biomarker of viable microorganisms in clean-room facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasthuri Venkateswaran; Noriaki Hattori; Myron T. La Duc; Roger Kern

    2003-01-01

    A new firefly luciferase bioluminescence assay method that differentiates free extracellular ATP (dead cells, etc.) from intracellular ATP (viable microbes) was used to determine the viable microbial cleanliness of various clean-room facilities. For comparison, samples were taken from both clean-rooms, where the air was filtered to remove particles >0.5 ?m, and ordinary rooms with unfiltered air. The intracellular ATP was

  10. Biosensor for the specific detection of a single viable B. anthracis spore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet A. Hartley; Antje J. Baeumner

    2003-01-01

    A simple membrane strip-based biosensor for the detection of viable B. anthracis spores was developed and combined with a spore germination procedure as well as a nucleic acid amplification reaction to identify as little as one viable B. anthracis spore in less than 12 h. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from the anthrax toxin activator (atxA) gene

  11. Alternating Current Circuit Jee-Hwan Ryu

    E-print Network

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    Korea University of Technology and Education Example ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) I I dttIdtti T i wtIti T rms 707 of Technology and Education EFS161 Korea University of Technology and Education (Direct Current) #12;Korea University of Technology and Education (Alternating Current) Korea University of Technology

  12. Alternating Hemiplegia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and balance and gait problems continue. Over time, walking unassisted becomes difficult or impossible. What research is being done? The NINDS supports research on paralytic disorders such as alternating hemiplegia, with the goals of learning more about these disorders and finding ways to ...

  13. Axion alternatives

    E-print Network

    I. Antoniadis; A. Boyarsky; Oleg Ruchayskiy

    2006-06-29

    If recent results of the PVLAS collaboration proved to be correct, some alternative to the traditional axion models are needed. We present one of the simplest possible modifications of axion paradigm, which explains the results of PVLAS experiment, while avoiding all the astrophysical and cosmological restrictions. We also mention other possible models that possess similar effects.

  14. Framework for Validation and Implementation of In Vitro Toxicity Tests: Report of the Validation and Technology Transfer Committee of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Dickens; Oliver Flint; Stephen D. Gettings; Richard N. Hill; Robert L. Lipnick; Kevin J. Renskers; June A. Bradlaw; Robert A. Scala; Bellina Veronesi; Sidney Green; Neil Wilcox; Rodger Curren

    1993-01-01

    In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. However, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coordinate, or evaluate these activities. A framework capable of fostering the validation of new methods is essential for

  15. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples. PMID:16896650

  16. Recovery of Viable Bacteria from Probiotic Products that Target Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Jeffrey A.; Popp, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic therapy has predominantly been directed toward promoting and maintaining intestinal health. In recent years, however, probiotic regimens that target oral health have appeared on the market. These regimens are often delivered in the form of lozenges. Despite the oral health claims made by the manufacturers of these products, there is little independent evidence in the literature to support such claims. In theory, probiotic organisms can be beneficial by several different means including direct inhibition of pathogens and boosting of the host immune response, with the underlying assumption that these mechanisms require a critical number of viable organisms. In this study, five brands of probiotics marketed for oral health were tested for the recovery of viable bacteria. For only one brand could viable bacteria be recovered within one log of the manufacturer’s stated starting amount of bacteria. Nearly a billion viable bacteria could be recovered from a lozenge of this brand. The other brands claimed similar starting amounts of bacteria at the time of manufacture but at least a three-log drop off was observed in the amount of viable bacteria recovered from those products. Refrigeration of the probiotics significantly improved the recovery for one brand, but recoveries for all but one brand remained below the recommended daily dosage for probiotic regimens. It is concluded that probiotic brands differ significantly in the quantities of bacteria that remain viable with most failing to meet recommended dosage targets. PMID:24015157

  17. Technologies Technologies

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    .delbos@univ-bpclermont.fr UFR Sciences et Technologies Université Blaise Pascal 24 avenue des Landais BP 80026 63171 AUBIERE Sciences et Technologies Université Blaise Pascal 24 avenue des Landais BP 80026 63171 AUBIERE Cedex Tel Corpusculaire ­ IN2P3 UFR Sciences et Technologies Université Blaise Pascal 24 avenue des Landais BP 80026 63171

  18. Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

  19. ["Non-solvent shock agglomeration"--the technology of a new alternative method for determination of ibuprofen. 6. Stability of s(+)-ibuprofen].

    PubMed

    Möller, T; Korsatko, W

    2000-06-01

    Due to its low melting range approx. 53 degrees C optically pure ibuprofen can be regarded as problematic in a pharmaceutic-technological sense. With regard to the non-solvent shock agglomeration method this means that the process and product temperatures must strictly be kept in the range of 10 K above the melting point of the substance. Higher temperatures can induce degradation of S(+)ibuprofen. During storage under stress conditions (31 degrees C for a period of 18 months) ibuprofen shows extreme stability independent of its optical activity. Racemic ibuprofen is inert to the influence of light; in individual cases optically pure substance containing an increased level of impurities can show slight degradation tendencies. The thermal and photo stability of ibuprofen is independent of the preparation technology. For comparison, conventional, fluid bed granulated, briquetted and from organic solvents especially recrystallised and optically active substances were investigated besides the shock agglomerated substances. PMID:10907254

  20. INVESTMENT PLAN for the Alternative and

    E-print Network

    INVESTMENT PLAN for the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (Program). This legislation authorizes and vehicle types to help meet the state's alternative fuel use, and petroleum reduction goals in a manner

  1. Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Alternative Energy- New Directions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers new directions for alternative energy such as thermoacoustics, thermoelectrics, magnetocalorics, sun heat thermochemical storage, liquid metal batteris and fusion. Each technology is described in depth and useful graphics are included to illustrate the material. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  2. Fibrotic sequelae in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis: histopathological aspects in BALB/c mice infected with viable and non-viable paracoccidioides brasiliensis propagules.

    PubMed

    Cock, A M; Cano, L E; Vélez, D; Aristizábal, B H; Trujillo, J; Restrepo, A

    2000-01-01

    Patients with paracoccidioidomycosis often present pulmonary fibrosis and exhibit important respiratory limitations. Based on an already established animal model, the contribution of viable and non-viable P. brasiliensis propagules to the development of fibrosis was investigated. BALB/c male mice, 4-6 weeks old were inoculated intranasally either with 4x10(6) viable conidia (Group I), or 6. 5x10(6) fragmented yeast cells (Group II). Control animals received PBS. Six mice per period were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72h (initial) and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post-challenge (late). Paraffin embedded lungs were sectioned and stained with H&E, trichromic (Masson), reticulin and Grocot&tacute;s. During the initial period PMNs influx was important in both groups and acute inflammation involving 34% to 45% of the lungs was noticed. Later on, mononuclear cells predominated. In group I, the inflammation progressed and granulomas were formed and by the 12th week they fussed and became loose. Thick collagen I fibers were observed in 66.6% and 83.3% of the animals at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Collagen III, thick fibers became apparent in some animals at 4 weeks and by 12 weeks, 83% of them exhibited alterations in the organization and thickness of these elements. In group II mice, this pattern was different with stepwise decrease in the number of inflammatory foci and lack of granulomas. Although initially most animals in this group had minor alterations in thin collagen I fibers, they disappeared by the 4th week. Results indicate that tissue response to fragmented yeast cells was transitory while viable conidia evoked a progressive inflammatory reaction leading to granuloma formation and to excess production and/or disarrangement of collagens I and III; the latter led to fibrosis. PMID:10810319

  3. Evaluating Importance Ratings as an Alternative to Mental Models in Predicting Driving Crashes and Moving Violations

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Jennifer Nicole

    2012-07-16

    The present study investigated the extent to which importance ratings (i.e., a measure of perceived importance for driving-related concepts) are a viable alternative to traditional mental model assessment methods in predicting driving performance...

  4. careersIN APPLIED MATHEMATICS ...alternatives to academia for STEM majors

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    careersIN APPLIED MATHEMATICS ...alternatives to academia for STEM majors Society for Industrial of the design of experiments. · Is ethanol a viable solution for the world's dependence on fossil fuels? Can

  5. Evaluating Importance Ratings as an Alternative to Mental Models in Predicting Driving Crashes and Moving Violations 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Jennifer Nicole

    2012-07-16

    The present study investigated the extent to which importance ratings (i.e., a measure of perceived importance for driving-related concepts) are a viable alternative to traditional mental model assessment methods in predicting driving performance...

  6. Plain Talk about Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    Testing is a technology, a socially mediated, value-laden endeavor. Technologies embody trade-offs between what is desired and real-world constraints of cost, time, thought, and energy. Although alternative assessments offer exciting prospects for middle schools, these new forms must not be misused or naively accepted as defensible, consummate…

  7. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  8. Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) Quantum Dots: Potential Alternatives for Display Technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Haizheng; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Xian-Gang; Hu, Xiangmin; Huang, Hailong; Han, Junbo; Zou, Bingsuo; Dong, Yuping

    2015-04-28

    Organometal halide perovskites are inexpensive materials with desirable characteristics of color-tunable and narrow-band emissions for lighting and display technology, but they suffer from low photoluminescence quantum yields at low excitation fluencies. Here we developed a ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy to fabricate brightly luminescent and color-tunable colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) quantum dots with absolute quantum yield up to 70% at room temperature and low excitation fluencies. To illustrate the photoluminescence enhancements in these quantum dots, we conducted comprehensive composition and surface characterizations and determined the time- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra. Comparisons between small-sized CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots (average diameter 3.3 nm) and corresponding micrometer-sized bulk particles (2-8 ?m) suggest that the intense increased photoluminescence quantum yield originates from the increase of exciton binding energy due to size reduction as well as proper chemical passivations of the Br-rich surface. We further demonstrated wide-color gamut white-light-emitting diodes using green emissive CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots and red emissive K2SiF6:Mn(4+) as color converters, providing enhanced color quality for display technology. Moreover, colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 quantum dots are expected to exhibit interesting nanoscale excitonic properties and also have other potential applications in lasers, electroluminescence devices, and optical sensors. PMID:25824283

  9. Enumeration of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh waters by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count.

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, P R; Tamplin, M L; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

    1987-01-01

    A field trial to enumerate Vibrio cholerae O1 in aquatic environments in Bangladesh was conducted, comparing fluorescent-antibody direct viable count with culture detection by the most-probable-number index. Specificity of a monoclonal antibody prepared against the O1 antigen was assessed and incorporated into the fluorescence staining method. All pond and water samples yielded higher counts of viable V. cholerae O1 by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count than by the most-probable-number index. Fluorescence microscopy is a more sensitive detection system than culture methods because it allows the enumeration of both culturable and nonculturable cells and therefore provides more precise monitoring of microbiological water quality. PMID:3324967

  10. Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed. PMID:24555722

  11. High-speed civil transport issues and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1992-01-01

    A strawman program plan is presented, consisting of technology developments and demonstrations required to support the construction of a high-speed civil transport. The plan includes a compilation of technology issues related to the development of a transport. The issues represent technical areas in which research and development are required to allow airframe manufacturers to pursue an HSCT development. The vast majority of technical issues presented require flight demonstrated and validated solutions before a transport development will be undertaken by the industry. The author believes that NASA is the agency best suited to address flight demonstration issues in a concentrated effort. The new Integrated Test Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility is considered ideally suited to the task of supporting ground validations of proof-of-concept and prototype system demonstrations before night demonstrations. An elaborate ground hardware-in-the-loop (iron bird) simulation supported in this facility provides a viable alternative to developing an expensive fill-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator. Drygen's SR-71 assets, modified appropriately, are a suitable test-bed for supporting flight demonstrations and validations of certain transport technology solutions. A subscale, manned or unmanned flight demonstrator is suitable for flight validation of transport technology solutions, if appropriate structural similarity relationships can be established. The author contends that developing a full-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator is the best alternative to ensuring that a positive decision to develop a transport is reached by the United States aerospace industry.

  12. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  13. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    E-print Network

    Truernit, Elisabeth; Haseloff, Jim

    2008-06-23

    not stained. Non-viable cells are stained selectively The root cap, consisting of columella and lateral root cap, gation zone of the root (Figure 2) [6]. Cells at the end of the lateral root cap die, thus exposing the root epidermis [6]. The enhancer-trap line... Figure 2 SYTOX orange staining of non-viable lateral root cap cells. (A) to (D) Enhancer-trap line Q0171 expressing GFP (green) in the columella (c) and lateral root cap (lrc). (A), (C) Overlay projection image of Q0171 stained with propidium iodide...

  14. Arctic gypsum endoliths: a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, L. A.; Mykytczuk, N. C. S.; Omelon, C. R.; Johnson, H.; Whyte, L. G.; Slater, G. F.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme environmental conditions such as those found in the polar regions on Earth are thought to test the limits of life. Microorganisms living in these environments often seek protection from environmental stresses such as high UV exposure, desiccation and rapid temperature fluctuations, with one protective habitat found within rocks. Such endolithic microbial communities, which often consist of bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens, are small-scale ecosystems comprised of both producers and consumers. However, the harsh environmental conditions experienced by polar endolithic communities are thought to limit microbial diversity and therefore the rate at which they cycle carbon. In this study, we characterized the microbial community diversity, turnover rate and microbe-mineral interactions of a gypsum-based endolithic community in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic. 16S/18S/23S rRNA pyrotag sequencing demonstrated the presence of a diverse community of phototrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae and fungi. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the viable microbial membranes, as phospholipid fatty acids and glycolipid fatty acids, confirmed the diversity observed by molecular techniques and indicated that present-day atmospheric carbon is assimilated into the microbial community biomass. Uptake of radiocarbon from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s into microbial lipids was used as a pulse label to determine that the microbial community turns over carbon on the order of 10 yr, equivalent to 4.4 g C m-2 yr-1 gross primary productivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs indicated that mechanical weathering of gypsum by freeze-thaw cycles leads to increased porosity, which ultimately increases the habitability of the rock. In addition, while bacteria were adhered to these mineral surfaces, chemical analysis by micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) spectroscopy suggests little evidence for microbial alteration of minerals, which contrasts with other endolithic habitats. While it is possible that these communities turn over carbon quickly and leave little evidence of microbe-mineral interaction, an alternative hypothesis is that the soluble and friable nature of gypsum and harsh conditions lead to elevated erosion rates, limiting microbial residence times in this habitat. Regardless, this endolithic community represents a microbial system that does not rely on a nutrient pool from the host gypsum cap rock, instead receiving these elements from allochthonous debris to maintain a more diverse and active community than might have been predicted in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic.

  15. Buprenorphine Outpatient Outcomes Project: can Suboxone be a viable outpatient option for heroin addiction?

    PubMed Central

    Sittambalam, Charmian D.; Vij, Radhika; Ferguson, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid dependence treatment traditionally involves methadone clinics, for which dispensing schedules can be cumbersome. Buprenorphine, a partial agonist of the mu receptor and antagonist of the kappa receptor, is a potential outpatient alternative to methadone. Funded by a grant from the State of Maryland's Community Health Resources Commission (CHRC), the Buprenorphine Outpatient Outcomes Project (BOOP) evaluates the outcome of Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone) treatment on abstinence from heroin use, rates of emergency room visits and hospitalizations, legal issues, and quality of life. Methods Active heroin users were recruited between June 2007 and June 2010 and induction therapy with Suboxone was instituted during hospitalization. Once discharged, patients were followed as outpatients for maintenance treatment and counseling. Data were collected from electronic medical records, Maryland state legal records, and SF-36® Health Surveys regarding several parameters and patients were categorized according to duration of treatment with Suboxone into one of three groups: <1 month, 1–3 months, and >3 months. Results A total of 220 participants were included in the study. The age range of participants was 18–67 years with most being African American males. Eighty-three (38%) remained in the study for at least 1 month, with 37 of the 83 (45%) remaining in treatment for >3 months. Ten of the 37 (27%) never relapsed after their longest period of abstinence from heroin. During the first year after initiating treatment with Suboxone, hospitalization and emergency room visit rates for all 220 participants decreased by 45 and 23%, respectively, as compared to the year prior to starting treatment. The number of legal charges for drug possession decreased from 70 to 62. Anecdotally, the quality of life seemed to improve in those who were treated with Suboxone for longer periods of time and received regular counseling. Conclusion Overall, Suboxone is an effective treatment method for heroin addiction and is a viable outpatient therapy option. Individualized treatment plans and counseling must be implemented for maximum benefits to be seen. Retention of patients for a long duration of therapy was difficult, but for those who did remain, benefits were seen in overall health, abstinence from heroin use, cognition, and quality of life. PMID:24765257

  16. Enrolment Rates into Parenting Programs using a Clinically Viable Recruitment Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Matthey; Pandora Patterson; Natalie Mutton; Kirsten Kreutzfeldt

    2006-01-01

    Studies of parenting programs often have enrolment rates of 20% or more of the targeted parents. These rates are usually from funded research projects, and may not equate to enrolment rates in programs using clinically viable recruitment strategies without large specialist funding. Two studies were conducted to explore the enrolment rates of parents in group parenting programs. The first investigated

  17. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1

    E-print Network

    on the magnetic configuration, dc and/or pulsed magnetic fields are required for plasmaSuperconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1 , Leslie Bromberg1 , Peter J. Lee2 , David C. Larbalestier2 , Introduction Magnet systems

  18. Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt

    E-print Network

    Voigt, Thiemo

    Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt Swedish Institute of Computer Science {adam,alonso,thiemo}@sics.se Abstract-- The TCP/IP protocol suite, which has that are intended to enable the use of TCP/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared

  19. Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt

    E-print Network

    Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt Swedish:23 ISSN 1100-3154 ISRN:SICS-T­2003/23-SE Abstract The TCP/IP protocol suite, which has proven itself to enable the use of TCP/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared context

  20. Agouti signaling protein stimulates cell division in "viable yellow" (A vy/a) mouse liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced linear growth, hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis are well-known characteristics of "viable yellow" agouti Avy/- mice (1); however, the functional basis for this aspect of the phenotype is unknown. In the present study, we ascertained whether agouti signaling protein (ASIP) levels in Avy/a or a...

  1. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  2. Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University vibrations Thermoelectrics: What they do and how they work m m m m k k k 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0.00001 0 with thermoelectric devices. VTH TC Figure 3: Visualizing a thermoelectric device Thermoelectrics are devices which

  3. ESTIMATION OF DOWNWIND VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES FROM A WET COOLING TOWER - INCLUDING SETTLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, reuse of municipal waste water as the coolant in drift-producing cooling towers at electrical generating plants has become increasingly common. A hueristic model is presented that can be used to estimate the concentrations of viable airborne microbes in the drift...

  4. An isothermal absorptiometric assay for viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Hattori, Daisuke; Tokunaga, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yusuke

    2013-10-15

    A simple and rapid isothermal absorptiometric assay for detection of viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) was studied. The absorbance of DCPIP decreased at 600 nm because of a redox reaction occurring between DCPIP and the surface membrane of viable microbes and was inversely proportional to the viable cell density. The redox reaction was found not only with bacteria, but also with yeast and a mixture of bacteria and yeast. In this assay, the influence of light scattering and absorption caused by microbial cells and coexisting substances in the sample was excluded by a time difference method. The assay required only 10 min for one incubation mixture, and highly repeatable results from three consecutive measurements were obtained by isothermal incubation for specific times at 30 °C using a thermostable three-cuvette-stir system. Thus, the cell density of microbial cell suspensions or growth medium was successfully determined, and a practical lower detection limit for food inspection was obtained at 10?-10? cfu/ml. Single-cell effects on DCPIP reduction were evaluated and compared between species. Consequently, this assay is expected to be a useful tool for the rapid measurement of viable microbes as a preliminary assay for the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point program. PMID:23871996

  5. METHIONINE UPTAKE AND CYTOPATHOGENICITY OF VIABLE BUT NONCULTURABLE SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE TYPE 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pathogenic strain of Shigella dysenteriae Type 1 was selected for study to elucidate the physiology and potential pathogenicity of organisms In the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state In the environment. tudies in our laboratory have shown that S. dysenteriae Type 1 survives ...

  6. Birth of viable puppies derived from breeding cloned female dogs with a cloned male

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Park; S. G. Hong; J. T. Kang; H. J. Oh; M. K. Kim; H. J. Kim; D. Y. Kim; G. Jang; B. C. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of production of viable cloned dogs by somatic cell nucleus transfer, great concern has been given to the reproductive abilities of these animals (Canis familiaris). Therefore, we investigated reproductive activity of cloned dogs by (1) performing sperm analysis using computer-assisted sperm analysis and early embryonic development, (2) assessing reproductive cycling by measuring serum progesterone (P4) levels and

  7. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706

  8. FAILURE OF VIABLE NONCULTURABLE CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI TO COLONIZE THE CECUM OF NEWLY HATCHED LEGHORN CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni cells entered the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state upon suspension in reverse osmosis water. Viability was determined with tetrazolium violet. VBNC cells suspended in water for 7, 10, or 14 days were given, by gastric gavage, to day-of-hatch leghorn chickens. The ceca of...

  9. Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia JR32 by Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL STEINERT; LEVENTE EMODY; RUDOLF AMANN; JORG HACKER

    1997-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an aquatic bacterium and is responsible for Legionnaires' disease in humans. Free-living amoebae are parasitized by legionellae and provide the intracellular environment required for the replication of this bacterium. In low-nutrient environments, however, L. pneumophila is able to enter a non- replicative viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. In this study, L. pneumophila Philadelphia I JR 32 was

  10. USE OF PLUME DISPERSION MODELLING FOR VIABLE AEROSOLS FROM AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictions of the emissions of airborne total viable particle (TVP) concentrations from sewage are of concern due to possible adverse human health effects. Two types of modelling approaches were explored: dispersion modelling such as the Gaussian plume dispersion model and stati...

  11. Toward a zero-carbon energy policy in Europe: defining a viable solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Christopher; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2010-04-15

    The present pace of carbon emission is not sustainable. Human societies need to react and to change. A rational responsive policy to deliver the required carbon emission reduction can be delineated if the key objective parameters are identified and addressed. This article attempts to lay the groundwork for a viable carbon energy policy for Europe. (author)

  12. Electrical detection of germination of viable model Bacillus anthracis spores in microfluidic biochips{{

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    Electrical detection of germination of viable model Bacillus anthracis spores in microfluidic microfluidic biochips. We used Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores as the model organism. During germination in microfluidic and BioMEMS devices. Introduction Bacillus anthracis has long been identified as the causative

  13. Breaking Through the Bottleneck Transportation to Make Stewart a Viable New York Airport

    E-print Network

    leased an isolated airport 97 kilometers north of the city--Stewart International (SWF). Due to Stewart's distance from Manhattan however, airlines are hesitant to shift operations to SWF without a noticeable makes SWF a more viable air travel choice to passengers and airlines alike. Keywords - airport

  14. Exemplifying Attack Identification and Analysis in a Novel Forensically Viable Syslog Model

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    that will validate and authenticate syslogs for computer forensic analysis. Syslogs are often smoking guns [9 of course the syslog files can be made to be legally admissible. Computer forensics, a relatively new fieldExemplifying Attack Identification and Analysis in a Novel Forensically Viable Syslog Model Steena

  15. Heterologous surface display on lactic acid bacteria: non-GMO alternative?

    PubMed

    Zadravec, Petra; Štrukelj, Borut; Berlec, Aleš

    2015-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are food-grade hosts for surface display with potential applications in food and therapy. Alternative approaches to surface display on LAB would avoid the use of recombinant DNA technology and genetically-modified organism (GMO)-related regulatory requirements. Non-covalent surface display of proteins can be achieved by fusing them to various cell-wall binding domains, of which the Lysine motif domain (LysM) is particularly well studied. Fusion proteins have been isolated from recombinant bacteria or from their growth medium and displayed on unmodified bacteria, enabling heterologous surface display. This was demonstrated on non-viable cells devoid of protein content, termed bacteria-like particles, and on various species of genus Lactobacillus. Of the latter, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741 was recently shown to be particularly amenable for LysM-mediated display. Possible regulatory implications of heterologous surface display are discussed, particularly those relevant for the European Union. PMID:25880164

  16. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finstein, M. S.; Strom, P. F.; Hogan, J. A.; Cowan, R. M.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  17. Winter safflower, a potential alternative crop for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dryland cropping system in the Pacific Northwest is dominated by a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system that occupies more than 90% of the dryland hectares. Success in finding a viable alternative crop has been limited because the annual precipitation in this region varies from less than 1...

  18. Full-Timing: A Housing Alternative for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail; Null, Roberta

    Full-timing, living year-round in a recreational vehicle, may be a viable housing alternative for older people. Full-timers can enjoy life in recreational vehicles that are modern, convenient, and well-built. Full-timing can be as expensive or as economical as the individual circumstances are. The economic benefits of full-timing increase when the…

  19. Viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 revert to a cultivable state in the human intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Colwell; P. Brayton; D. Herrington; B. Tall; A. Huq; M. M. Levine

    1996-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 can enter a state in which they remain viable but are non-culturable. Presumably, such bacteria can be pathogenic if they retain the capacity to proliferate in the human intestine following ingestion. Two groups of volunteeers were given inocula containing viable but non-culturable V. cholerae O1 of the attenuated vaccine strain CVD 101 (viable CVD 101 organisms readily

  20. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  1. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Aliev, Ali; Baughman, Ray

    2015-03-01

    There is a large promise for thermophones in high power sonar arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding aerogel-like carbon nanotube sheets demonstrate the best performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large size freestanding carbon nanotube sheets and other even more exotic materials published recently, hampers the field. We present here new alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly and cost effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanoscale materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  2. The breaking point of modern processor and platform technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarp, Sverre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Leduc, Julien; Nowak, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    This work is an overview of state of the art processors used in High Energy Physics, their architecture and an extensive outline of the forthcoming technologies. Silicon process science and hardware design are making constant and rapid progress, and a solid grasp of these developments is imperative to the understanding of their possible future applications, which might include software strategy, optimizations, computing center operations and hardware acquisitions. In particular, the current issue of software and platform scalability is becoming more and more noticeable, and will develop in the near future with the growing core count of single chips and the approach of certain x86 architectural limits. Other topics brought forward include the hard, physical limits of innovation, the applicability of tried and tested computing formulas to modern technologies, as well as an analysis of viable alternate choices for continued development.

  3. Estimating downwind concentrations of viable airborne microorganisms in dynamic atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, B; Mohr, A J

    1987-01-01

    A Gaussian plume model has been modified to include an airborne microbial survival term that is a best-fit function of laboratory experimental data of weather variables. The model has been included in an algorithm using microbial source strength and local hourly mean weather data to drive the model through a summer- and winter-day cycle. For illustrative purposes, a composite airborne "virus" (developed using actual characteristics from two viruses) was used to show how wind speed could have a major modulating effect on near-source viable concentrations. For example, at high wind speeds such as those occurring during the day, or with short travel times, near-source locations experience high viable concentrations because the microorganisms have not had time to become inactivated. As the travel time increases, because of slow wind speed or longer distances, die-off modulation by sunshine, relative humidity, temperature, etc., potentially becomes increasingly predominant. PMID:3662508

  4. Skin penetration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs out of a lipophilic vehicle: influence of the viable epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wenkers, B P; Lippold, B C

    1999-12-01

    The skin penetration of 10 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was investigated after application in the lipophilic vehicle light mineral oil. The skin permeabilities and maximum fluxes, which were calculated from the concentration decreases of the applied solutions in the steady state phases, were correlated with physicochemical parameters, mainly the vehicle solubilities and the partition coefficients of the model drugs according to the Fickian diffusion laws. The objective of the study was to characterize the barrier function of the stratum corneum and the viable epidermis and to predict their influences on the skin permeabilities and the maximum fluxes of the NSAIDs by model equations. The permeability of the human skin for NSAIDs applied in a lipophilic vehicle is a function of their hydrophilicity, while the maximum flux is primarily dependent on their vehicle solubilities. The viable epidermis was found to represent the decisive resistance to the drug transport. PMID:10585230

  5. Larvae of the pteropod Cavolinia inflexa exposed to aragonite undersaturation are viable but shell-less

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Comeau; G. Gorsky; S. Alliouane; J.-P. Gattuso

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the Mediterranean pteropod Cavolinia inflexa were maintained at controlled pHT values of 8.1, 7.82 and 7.51, equivalent, respectively, to pCO2 levels of 380, 857 and 1,713 ?atm. At pHT 7.82, larvae exhibited malformations and lower shell growth, compared to the control condition. At pHT 7.51, the larvae did not make shells but were viable and showed a normal

  6. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marlise I.; Scott-Anne, Kathleen M.; Gregoire, Stacy; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque-biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for isolation of DNA and RNA from in vivo formed plaque-biofilms to analyze the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque-biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and S. mutans population via qPCR and specific primers; the same samples were also analyzed by colony forming unit (CFU) counting. In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via RT-qPCR. The viable population of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P<0.001; r>0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque-biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P=0.0022, r=0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (>7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analyzed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of the disease dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. PMID:22958384

  7. Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Alfaro; Natalia Suarez; Carmen Oñate; Jose L. Perez-Gracia; Ivan Martinez-Forero; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; Inmaculada Rodriguez; Guiomar Perez; Elixabet Bolaños; Asis Palazon; Miguel Fernandez de Sanmamed; Aizea Morales-Kastresana; Alvaro Gonzalez; Ignacio Melero

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs.

  8. Isolation, characterization, and recovery of small peptide phage display epitopes selected against viable malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Spear, M A; Breakefield, X O; Beltzer, J; Schuback, D; Weissleder, R; Pardo, F S; Ladner, R

    2001-07-01

    Phage display techniques rely on nearly random oligonucleotide sequences inserted into the protein III filament binding protein of an Escherichia coli filamentous phage M13 to generate a library of phage that express more than 10(7) different peptides. Phage that expresses a sequence having high affinity for a specific molecule, cell, or tissue can then be isolated through selective binding and recovery. Selected phage cannot only be used as gene transfer vectors in themselves, but the small peptide epitopes can be sequenced and potentially recombined into the attachment proteins of viral vectors, or used by themselves to target other therapeutic agents and diagnostic imaging radiolabels. Most phage display selections are carried out against purified and/or fixed protein targets, raising concerns as to the relevance of the selected epitopes. We have selected phage from the CMTI library against viable U87-MG human malignant glioma cells using a derivation of biopanning. The library, which initially contained phage expressing 2x10(7) different epitope sequences, collapsed after four rounds of selection such that 42% of recovered clones expressed a consensus sequence. Selective binding to viable adherent U87-MG cells was subsequently demonstrated under physiologic conditions at 167% (+/-27%) unselected phage using a novel, viable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. In comparison, there was no difference in binding to control 9L rat gliosarcoma, PANC-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, T98-MG human malignant glioma, or AST-4 human malignant glioma cells of selected compared to unselected phage. Using polymerase chain reaction, the epitope was recovered with flanking unique restriction sites for recombination into a herpes simplex virus type-1 vector. This study demonstrates and discusses optimized methodologies for using phage display to target viable cells. PMID:11498772

  9. Optimization and control of perfusion cultures using a viable cell probe and cell specific perfusion rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason E. Dowd; Anthea Jubb; K. Ezra Kwok; James M. Piret

    2003-01-01

    Consistent perfusion culture production requires reliable cell retention and control of feed rates. An on-line cell probe\\u000a based on capacitance was used to assay viable biomass concentrations. A constant cell specific perfusion rate controlled medium\\u000a feed rates with a bioreactor cell concentration of ?5 106 cells mL-1. Perfusion feeding was automatically adjusted based on the cell concentration signal from the

  10. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, L. L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's (1975) gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester (1975) to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the post-Newtonian approximation framework.

  11. Novel Electrical Method for Early Detection of Viable Bacteria in Blood Cultures?

    PubMed Central

    Puttaswamy, Sachidevi; Lee, Byung Doo; Sengupta, Shramik

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel electrical method for detecting viable bacteria in blood cultures that is 4 to 10 times faster than continuous monitoring blood culture systems (CMBCS) like the Bactec system. Proliferating bacteria are detected via an increase in the bulk capacitance of suspensions, and the threshold concentration for detection is ?104 CFU/ml (compared to ?108 CFU/ml for the Bactec system). PMID:21471337

  12. Interdigitated microelectrode (IME) impedance sensor for the detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liju Yang; Yanbin Li; Carl L Griffis; Michael G Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Interdigitated microelectrodes (IMEs) were used as impedance sensors for rapid detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium in a selective medium and milk samples. The impedance growth curves, impedance against bacterial growth time, were recorded at four frequencies (10Hz, 100Hz, 1kHz, and 10kHz) during the growth of S. typhimurium. The impedance did not change until the cell number reached 105?106CFUml?1. The greatest

  13. Banking of non-viable skin allografts using high concentrations of glycerol or propylene glycol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qizhi Huang; David E. Pegg; John N. Kearney

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the kinetics of the current glycerol banking method for the preservation of non-viable\\u000a skin allografts; to improve it with respect to efficiency and microbial safety; and to investigate the possibility of using\\u000a propylene glycol in place of glycerol to provide a more rapid process. Skin grafts were preserved in 98% v\\/v glycerol

  14. Elimination of harmonic induced viable bifurcations with TCSC for ac-fed electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varan, Metin; Uyarog˜lu, Y?lmaz

    2012-11-01

    AC-fed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are known with their unbalanced, excessively nonlinear and time varying load characteristics. The nonlinear oscillations produced by EAF operation cause several problems to interconnected feed system. Injection of harmonics/interharmonics and rising flicker effects on the feed system are two of major problems produced by EAF. These nonlinear effects result into quasistatic changes in the feed system parameters (L - R) . In last decade many studies have been reported that such quasistatic changes in the feed system parameters result in viable bifurcation formations which strictly cause sudden and drastic changes on system behaviors. This paper presents an analytical control procedure to eliminate viable bifurcation points on L - I and R - I curves that cause sudden resonant peak arc currents. After control procedure, stability margins of EAF are extended into larger levels and viable bifurcation points on the feed system parameter have been eliminated. During study, possible roles of small parameter changes of uncontrolled EAF around bifurcation points and controlled EAF have been traced over time series analysis, phase plane analysis and bifurcation diagrams. A wide collection of useful dynamic analysis procedures for the exploration of studied arc furnace dynamics have been handled through the AUTO open-source algorithms.

  15. Mice carrying a complete deletion of the talin2 coding sequence are viable and fertile

    SciTech Connect

    Debrand, Emmanuel; Conti, Francesco J.; Bate, Neil; Spence, Lorraine; Mazzeo, Daniela; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Monkley, Susan J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Critchley, David R., E-mail: drc@le.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking talin2 are viable and fertile with only a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Talin2 null fibroblasts show no major defects in proliferation, adhesion or migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a colony of talin2 null mice is difficult indicating an underlying defect. -- Abstract: Mice homozygous for several Tln2 gene targeted alleles are viable and fertile. Here we show that although the expression of talin2 protein is drastically reduced in muscle from these mice, other tissues continue to express talin2 albeit at reduced levels. We therefore generated a Tln2 allele lacking the entire coding sequence (Tln2{sup cd}). Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice were viable and fertile, and the genotypes of Tln2{sup cd/+} intercrosses were at the expected Mendelian ratio. Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice showed no major difference in body mass or the weight of the major organs compared to wild-type, although they displayed a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Moreover, Tln2{sup cd/cd} mouse embryo fibroblasts showed no obvious defects in cell adhesion, migration or proliferation. However, the number of Tln2{sup cd/cd} pups surviving to adulthood was variable suggesting that such mice have an underlying defect.

  16. Tapered-slit membrane filters for high-throughput viable circulating tumor cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Tae; Doh, Il; Cho, Young-Ho

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents tapered-slit membrane filters for high-throughput viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation. The membrane filter with a 2D array of vertical tapered slits with a gap that is wide at the entrance and gradually decreases with depth, provide minimal cell stress and reduce 82.14% of the stress generated in conventional straight-hole filters. We designed two types of tapered-slit filters, Filters 6 and 8, respectively, containing the tapered slits with outlet widths of 6 ?m and 8 ?m at a slit density of 34,445/cm(2) on the membrane. We fabricated the vertical slits with a tapered angle of 2 ° on a SU8 membrane by adjusting the UV expose dose and the air gap between the membrane and the photomask during lithography. In the experimental study, the proposed tapered-slit filter captured 89.87% and 82.44% of the cancer cells spiked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and diluted blood (blood: PBS?=?1:4), respectively, at a sample flow rate of 5 ml per hour, which is 33.3 times faster than previous lateral tapered-slit filters. We further verified the capability to culture on chip after capturing: 72.33% of cells among the captured cells still remained viable after a 5-day culture. The proposed tapered-slit membrane filters verified high-throughput viable CTC isolation capability, thereby inaugurating further advanced CTC research for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:25790944

  17. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Darrington, C; Tiao, N; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A

    2013-02-01

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia, were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined with the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25); 33 cats were seropositive. Hearts of all 36 cats were homogenized, digested in pepsin, and bioassayed in mice. Feces were examined for T. gondii oocysts by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from heart of 26 by bioassay in mice and from 25 seropositive and 1 seronegative cats. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from feces (oocysts) by bioassay in mice. In total, viable T. gondii was isolated from 27 of the 36 cats, and these isolates were designated TgCatEt1 to TgCatEt27. The high prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in feces of 8 (19.4%) of 36 cats is of high epidemiologic significance. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. PMID:22924928

  18. Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021. The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula. PMID:22260437

  19. Enhanced detection of ischemic but viable myocardium by the reinjection of thallium after stress-redistribution imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasken Dilsizian; Thomas P. Rocco; Nanette M. T. Freedman; Martin B. Leon; Robert O. Bonow

    1990-01-01

    The identification of ischemic but viable myocardium by thallium exercise scintigraphy is often imprecise, since many of the perfusion defects that develop in ischemic myocardium during exercise do not fill in on subsequent redistribution images. We hypothesized that a second injection of thallium given after the redistribution images were taken might improve the detection of ischemic but viable myocardium. We

  20. A DEXTRAN SWIM-UP PROCEDURE FOR SEPARATION OF HIGHLY MOTILE AND VIABLE RAM SPERMATOZOA FROM SEMINAL PLASMA

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    a selection of highly motile and viable ram spermatozoa free of semen plasma. Semen collected from 3 rams overELSEVIER A DEXTRAN SWIM-UP PROCEDURE FOR SEPARATION OF HIGHLY MOTILE AND VIABLE RAM SPERMATOZOA individual motility, membrane integrity and resistance to a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Semen samples

  1. Spatial patterns of viable spore deposition of the corn ear rot pathogen, Gibberella zeae, in first-year corn fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Schmale III; Gary C. Bergstrom; Denis A. Shah

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the spatial patterns of viable spore deposition of Gibberella zeae in two years (2003 and 2004) within corn fields lacking corn or cereal debris at Aurora, New York, USA. Viable airborne spores of G. zeae were collected inside corn canopies at the levels of silks and tassels on Petri plates containing a selective medium. Spores were sampled over

  2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  4. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This teaching guide is designed to help teachers develop lesson plans around nine chapters provided in the student textbook. Chapters focus on energy use, energy demand, energy supply, principles of electric power generation, today's generating options, future generating options, electricity storage and delivery, environmental concerns, and making…

  5. Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. biodiesel production is presently estimated at 800 million gallons annually, and this fuel is no longer a research curiosity - it is entering the nation’s fuel infrastructure. Some estimates are that production will reach nearly twice that value in the next 10 to 12 years. This would stress a...

  6. Methanol demand and supply: new technological alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, P.A.C.; Rodgers, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The future demand, supply, and pricing of MeOH are discussed. The projected demand for MeOH and its major derivitives (AcOH, HCHO, and Me tert-Bu) ether is evaluated. Coal and natural gas are compared as feedstocks for MeOH manufacture. The economic feasibility of coal-based plants is highly sensitive to the uncertainties in the price natural gas will reach in a decontrolled environment. Foreign sources of natural gas could become a major competitive factor in MeOH supplies and a deterrent in the construction of very expensive coal-based plants.

  7. Identifying viable regulatory and innovation pathways for regenerative medicine: a case study of cultured red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Mittra, J; Tait, J; Mastroeni, M; Turner, M L; Mountford, J C; Bruce, K

    2015-01-25

    The creation of red blood cells for the blood transfusion markets represents a highly innovative application of regenerative medicine with a medium term (5-10 year) prospect for first clinical studies. This article describes a case study analysis of a project to derive red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells, including the systemic challenges arising from (i) the selection of appropriate and viable regulatory protocols and (ii) technological constraints related to stem cell manufacture and scale up to clinical Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standard. The method used for case study analysis (Analysis of Life Science Innovation Systems (ALSIS)) is also innovative, demonstrating a new approach to social and natural science collaboration to foresight product development pathways. Issues arising along the development pathway include cell manufacture and scale-up challenges, affected by regulatory demands emerging from the innovation ecosystem (preclinical testing and clinical trials). Our discussion reflects on the efforts being made by regulators to adapt the current pharmaceuticals-based regulatory model to an allogeneic regenerative medicine product and the broader lessons from this case study for successful innovation and translation of regenerative medicine therapies, including the role of methodological and regulatory innovation in future development in the field. PMID:25094050

  8. Validation of the Soleris NF-TVC method for determination of total viable count in a variety of foods.

    PubMed

    Mozola, Mark; Gray, R Lucas; Feldpausch, Jill; Alles, Susan; McDougal, Susan; Montei, Carolyn; Sarver, Ron; Steiner, Brent; Cooper, Christine; Rice, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of the Soleris Non-fermenting-Total Viable Count (NF-TVC) automated growth-based method for semiquantitative detection of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in a variety of food products. A probability of detection (POD) statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using reference dilution plating procedures. Nine naturally contaminated food products were tested, with Soleris testing performed at three or four threshold levels for each food. Using the POD model, all Soleris test results were in statistical agreement with the reference plating procedures with the exception of a single threshold level in two trials with black pepper, and a single threshold level in the independent laboratory trial with cheesecake. Results of ruggedness testing showed that the Soleris method produced accurate results even when minor variances in operating parameters, including sample volume and incubation temperature, were introduced. Results of the internal and independent laboratory validation studies showed that the Soleris NF-TVC method can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional dilution plating procedures for evaluation of microbial counts at threshold levels, while saving 24 h or more in analysis time. PMID:23767366

  9. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  10. Alternative Nuclear Paths To 2050

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Vera; Evelyne Bertel; Geoffrey Stevens

    he circumstances surrounding nuclear power worldwide and the importance that may be given to issues affecting its future development point toward very different alternative paths over the next 50 years. Economic deregulation, lack of competitiveness in some countries, negative public perception and concerns about waste issues suggest that nuclear power might decrease progressively with a potential phase-out of the technology

  11. Alternative energy sources. Part B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manassah

    1981-01-01

    This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future

  12. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  13. Press-to-zirconia: a case study utilizing cad/cam technology and the wax injection method.

    PubMed

    Helvey, Gregg A

    2006-10-01

    Computer technology is increasingly becoming an effective tool in restorative dentistry. Whether chairside or laboratory-fabricated, computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) engineering has become widely accepted in the fabrication of dental restorations. Zirconia has been successfully used in medical therapy and is now considered a viable alternative to metal as a substrate in single- and multiple-unit fixed restorations. Proper tooth preparation and handling of this material is essential for a successful outcome. This presentation will discuss how CAD/CAM systems can utilize zirconia frameworks to provide treatment of a maxillary anterior restoration. PMID:17139944

  14. Parasite Antigen in Serum Predicts the Presence of Viable Brain Parasites in Patients With Apparently Calcified Cysticercosis Only

    PubMed Central

    Zea-Vera, Alonso; Cordova, Erika G.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Pretell, E. Javier; Castillo, Yesenia; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Gabriël, Sarah; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Dorny, Pierre; Garcia, Hector H.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Computed tomography (CT) remains the standard neuroimaging screening exam for neurocysticercosis, and residual brain calcifications are the commonest finding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than CT but is rarely available in endemic regions. Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay uses antibody detection for diagnosis confirmation; by contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection (Ag-ELISA) detects circulating parasite antigen. This study evaluated whether these assays predict undetected viable cysts in patients with only calcified lesions on brain CT. Methods.?Serum samples from 39 patients with calcified neurocysticercosis and no viable parasites on CT were processed by Ag-ELISA and EITB. MRI was performed for each patient within 2 months of serologic testing. Conservatively high ELISA and EITB cutoffs were used to predict the finding of viable brain cysts on MRI. Results.?Using receiver operating characteristic–optimized cutoffs, 7 patients were Ag-ELISA positive, and 8 had strong antibody reactions on EITB. MRI showed viable brain cysts in 7 (18.0%) patients. Patients with positive Ag-ELISA were more likely to have viable cysts than Ag-ELISA negatives (6/7 vs 1/32; odds ratio, 186 [95% confidence interval, 1–34 470.0], P < .001; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 96.9%, positive likelihood ratio of 27 to detect viable cysts). Similar but weaker associations were also found between a strong antibody reaction on EITB and undetected viable brain cysts. Conclusions.?Antigen detection, and in a lesser degree strong antibody reactions, can predict viable neurocysticercosis. Serological diagnostic methods could identify viable lesions missed by CT in patients with apparently only calcified cysticercosis and could be considered for diagnosis workup and further therapy. PMID:23788241

  15. A direct viable count method for the enumeration of attached bacteria and assessment of biofilm disinfection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, F. P.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the adaptation of an in situ direct viable count (in situ DVC) method in biofilm disinfection studies. The results obtained with this technique were compared to two other enumeration methods, the plate count (PC) and conventional direct viable count (c-DVC). An environmental isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae Kp1) was used to form biofilms on stainless steel coupons in a stirred batch reactor. The in situ DVC method was applied to directly assess the viability of bacteria in biofilms without disturbing the integrity of the interfacial community. As additional advantages, the results were observed after 4 h instead of the 24 h incubation time required for colony formation and total cell numbers that remained on the substratum were enumerated. Chlorine and monochloramine were used to determine the susceptibilities of attached and planktonic bacteria to disinfection treatment using this novel analytical approach. The planktonic cells in the reactor showed no significant change in susceptibility to disinfectants during the period of biofilm formation. In addition, the attached cells did not reveal any more resistance to disinfection than planktonic cells. The disinfection studies of young biofilms indicated that 0.25 mg/l free chlorine (at pH 7.2) and 1 mg/l monochloramine (at pH 9.0) have comparable disinfection efficiencies at 25 degrees C. Although being a weaker disinfectant, monochloramine was more effective in removing attached bacteria from the substratum than free chlorine. The in situ DVC method always showed at least one log higher viable cell densities than the PC method, suggesting that the in situ DVC method is more efficient in the enumeration of biofilm bacteria. The results also indicated that the in situ DVC method can provide more accurate information regarding the cell numbers and viability of bacteria within biofilms following disinfection.

  16. From Homochiral Clusters to Racemate Crystals: Viable Nuclei in 2D Chiral Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Johannes; Parschau, Manfred; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2015-07-01

    The quest for enantiopure compounds raises the question of which factors favor conglomerate crystallization over racemate crystallization. Studying nucleation and crystal growth at surfaces with submolecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is a suitable approach to better understand intermolecular chiral recognition. Racemic heptahelicene on the Ag(100) surface shows a transition from homochiral nuclei to larger racemic motifs, although the extended homochiral phase exhibits higher density. The homochiral-heterochiral transition is explained by the higher stability of growing nuclei due to a better match of the molecular lattice to the substrate surface. Our observations are direct visual proof of viable nuclei. PMID:26069901

  17. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with more »ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.« less

  18. Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria: Gene expression in planktonic and biofilm cells.

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T

    2011-08-01

    Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria are common in nutrient poor and/or stressed environments as planktonic cells and biofilms. This article discusses approaches to researching VBNC bacteria to obtain knowledge that is lacking on their gene expression while in the VBNC state, and when they enter into and then recover from this state, when provided with the necessary nutrients and environmental conditions to support growth and cell division. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins, global gene expression, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and sequencing by synthesis coupled with data on cell numbers, viability and species present are central to understanding the VBNC state. PMID:21616099

  19. Alternative Careers for Graduates of LIS Schools: The North American Perspective--An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weech, Terry L.; Konieczny, Alison M.

    2007-01-01

    Schools of Library and Information Science (LIS) have often promoted alternative careers as a marketing tool and some students enrol in LIS schools specifically to explore alternative careers. The literature on LIS career patterns continues to suggest that those non-traditional careers are desirable and viable alternatives. Yet the survey research…

  20. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Robles, Raquel O; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yongsheng; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-05-26

    Thermophones are highly promising for applications such as high-power SONAR arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets provide the most attractive performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large-size freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets and other even more exotic materials recently investigated hampers the field. We describe alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high-energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanostructured materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. We demonstrate that the heat capacity of aerogel-like nanostructures can be extracted by a thorough analysis of the sound pressure spectra. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high-power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed. PMID:25748853

  1. Quantifying viable Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes simultaneously in raw shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohuan; Liu, Haiquan; Lou, Yang; Xiao, Lili; Liao, Chao; Malakar, Pradeep K; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    A novel TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR method combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was firstly developed for the simultaneous quantification of viable Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes in raw shrimp. The optimization of PMA concentration showed that 100 ?M was considered optimal to effectively inhibit 10(8) CFU/mL dead cells of both bacteria. The high specificity of this method was confirmed on tests using 96 target and non-target strains. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(1)-10(2) CFU/g of each strain on the artificially contaminated shrimp, and its amplification efficiencies were up to 100 and 106 % for V. parahaemolyticus and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Furthermore, this assay has been successfully applied to describe the behavior of these two pathogens in raw shrimps stored at 4 °C. In conclusion, this PMA TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR technique, where the whole procedure takes less than 5 h, provides an effective and rapid tool for monitoring contamination of viable V. parahaemolyticus and L. monocytogenes in seafood, improving seafood safety and protecting public health. PMID:26048473

  2. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  3. Matter power spectra in viable f (R) gravity models with massive neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Shen, Jia-Liang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable f (R) theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, ?m?, is allowed in the viable f (R) models than that in the ?CDM one. We obtain the constraints on the neutrino masses by using the CosmoMC package with the modified MGCAMB. Explicitly, we get ?m? < 0.451 (0.214) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model, while the corresponding one for the ?CDM model is ?m? < 0.200 eV. Furthermore, by treating the effective number of neutrino species Neff as a free parameter along with ?m?, we find that Neff =3.78-0.84+0.64 (3.47-0.60+0.74) and ?m? =0.533-0.411+0.254 (< 0.386) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model.

  4. The determination of viable counts in probiotic cultures microencapsulated by spray-coating.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Tompkins, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    An assessment of various methods to determine viable counts (CFU) in freeze-dried and dried microencapsulated (ME) probiotic cultures was carried out. Microencapsulation was done by spray-coating of dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 or Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15708 cultures with fat. Rehydration of the ME powders was incomplete when they were added to water and gently agitated. As a result analytical methods based on vortexing of rehydrated ME cultures and which did not incorporate a high-shear homogenization (HSH) step underestimated the viable counts. The CFU of ME cultures were identical when methods using either blender or generator probes high-shear homogenization (HSH) were carried out. Furthermore HSH reduced the variability of the CFU results of both free-cell and ME cultures by a factor of three. The addition of an emulsifier (Tween 80) in the rehydrating medium to dissolve fat did not improve CFU counts when generator probes were used for HSH. The presence of fat in the ME product, or when added to the rehydration medium, improved CFU counts of B. longum but not of L. rhamnosus. PMID:20832691

  5. Real time PCR quantification of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples treated with propidium monoazide.

    PubMed

    de Assunção, Thiago Milech; Batista, Eraldo L; Deves, Candida; Villela, Anne Drumond; Pagnussatti, Vany Elisa; de Oliveira Dias, Ana Christina; Kritski, Afrânio; Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago

    2014-07-01

    Diagnostic methods of TB, nowadays, are prone to delay in diagnosis, increased false negative results and are not sensitive to many forms of paucibacillary disease. The aims of this study were to implement a quantitative nucleic acid-based diagnostic test for paucibacillary tuberculosis, enabling the identification and quantification of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). The intergenic region of the single-copy inhA-mabA gene was chosen as the target region for design of primers and probes conjugated with fluorophores. The construction of synthetic DNA flanking the target region served as standards for absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Using the intercaling dye, propidium monoazide, we were able to discriminate between viable and dead cells of M. tuberculosis. The diagnosis method showed a broad sensitivity (96.1%) when only compared to samples of smear-positive sputum and ROC analyses shows that our approach performed well and yielded a specificity of 84.6% and a sensitivity of 84.6% when compared to M. tuberculosis colony-forming units counting. PMID:24863654

  6. Short communication: Viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in retail artisanal Coalho cheese from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, A C S; Schwarz, D G G; Carvalho, I A; Rocha, B B; De Carvalho Castro, K N; Silva, M R; Moreira, M A S

    2014-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis and it potentially plays a role in Crohn's disease. In humans, the main route of transmission of MAP might be the intake of contaminated milk and dairy products. Considering that MAP has already been detected in many types of cheese in different counties, and that Coalho cheese is an important dairy product in northeastern Brazil, the aim of this study was to report the first detection of MAP in retail Coalho cheese in Brazil by PCR and culture. Of 30 retail Coalho cheese samples, 3 (10%) amplified fragments of a similar size to that expected (626 bp) were obtained and viable MAP was recovered by culture from 1 (3.3%) sample. The DNA from the positive culture sample was sequenced and showed 99% identity with the insertion sequence IS900 deposited in GenBank. It was possible to identify the presence of MAP-specific DNA in the analyzed samples for the first time in Brazil, and to recover viable cells from retail Coalho cheese. PMID:24797534

  7. Exploring the Switchgrass Transcriptome Using Second-Generation Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Niranjani J.; Bryant, Douglas W.; Mockler, Todd C.; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Background Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial grass and widely popular as an important bioenergy crop. To accelerate the pace of developing high yielding switchgrass cultivars adapted to diverse environmental niches, the generation of genomic resources for this plant is necessary. The large genome size and polyploid nature of switchgrass makes whole genome sequencing a daunting task even with current technologies. Exploring the transcriptional landscape using next generation sequencing technologies provides a viable alternative to whole genome sequencing in switchgrass. Principal Findings Switchgrass cDNA libraries from germinating seedlings, emerging tillers, flowers, and dormant seeds were sequenced using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, generating 980,000 reads with an average read length of 367 bp. De novo assembly generated 243,600 contigs with an average length of 535 bp. Using the foxtail millet genome as a reference greatly improved the assembly and annotation of switchgrass ESTs. Comparative analysis of the 454-derived switchgrass EST reads with other sequenced monocots including Brachypodium, sorghum, rice and maize indicated a 70–80% overlap. RPKM analysis demonstrated unique transcriptional signatures of the four tissues analyzed in this study. More than 24,000 ESTs were identified in the dormant seed library. In silico analysis indicated that there are more than 2000 EST-SSRs in this collection. Expression of several orphan ESTs was confirmed by RT-PCR. Significance We estimate that about 90% of the switchgrass gene space has been covered in this analysis. This study nearly doubles the amount of EST information for switchgrass currently in the public domain. The celerity and economical nature of second-generation sequencing technologies provide an in-depth view of the gene space of complex genomes like switchgrass. Sequence analysis of closely related members of the NAD+-malic enzyme type C4 grasses such as the model system Setaria viridis can serve as a viable proxy for the switchgrass genome. PMID:22479570

  8. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  9. The role of technology in telecom expansion in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jhunjhunwala; B. Ramamurthi; T. A. Gonsalves

    1998-01-01

    It is not viable to expand the telecom network in India substantially at the prevalent level of per-line investment. However, systems based on new technologies, many developed in India, promise to more than halve the investment required. This article looks at the telecom scenario, the new technologies, the Indian products based on these technologies, and the cost reductions they promise.

  10. ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

  11. GRANT SOLICITATION Alternative and Renewable Fuel

    E-print Network

    GRANT SOLICITATION PON-12-606 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area - Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure http://www.energy.ca.gov/contracts/index.html State of California RENEWABLE HYDROGEN SET-ASIDE D

  12. Institutional alternatives to the rural hospital

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Jon B.; Moscovice, Ira S.; Wellever, Anthony L.; Wingert, Terence D.

    1990-01-01

    An important aspect of the ongoing debate on rural health policy is how to deliver inpatient care in sparsely populated rural areas. One alternative is to create a new classification of rural inpatient facility that would deliver more limited services than available in a rural hospital, have more flexibility in staffing requirements, and possibly be reimbursed differently. The support of the Health Care Financing Administration for the concept of a limited service rural hospital is critical, since such a facility would not be financially viable without Medicare payment. Several organizational and public policy issues that merit consideration in the design and implementation of institutional alternatives to rural hospitals are discussed, including licensure and certification, scope of services, personnel, quality assurance, and payment. PMID:10113274

  13. [Quality of commercial inoculants for soybean crop in Argentina: concentration of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Benintende, S

    2010-01-01

    In view of the inoculant production technology available, quality control is a necessary tool to improve soybean inoculants commercialized in Argentina. In 1988, the Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (Argentina) created a quality control service for soybean crop inoculants to offer to farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of soybean crop inoculants for seven cropping seasons and to contrast these results with those from previous investigations conducted in our country. This work was developed using 128 inoculant samples from 30 different trade names. The analyzed variables were: inoculant label information, number of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants. Twenty per cent of the labels showed defects that did not comply with the Argentine legislation. The detected problems in inoculant labels were related to lot numbers or the expiry date, which lacked, was easy to remove or not visible. Eighty seven per cent of the analyzed inoculants were formulated in liquid carriers. Seventy six per cent of the samples had a number of rhizobia above 10(8) CFU/g or ml, the minimum quantity required by the legislation. Thirty per cent of the analyzed inoculants had contaminants and their presence was related to low rhizobia counts, as shown in a correspondence analysis. The relationship between liquid inoculants and the absence of contaminants was expressed. It can be concluded from the comparison of results found in this investigation with those in previous works published on Argentinean inoculants, that inoculant quality has been improved, although the situation is far from ideal. Adequate manufacturing and commercialization controls are necessary to ensure product quality. PMID:20589336

  14. Microarray-based detection of genetic heterogeneity, antimicrobial resistance, and the viable but nonculturable state in human pathogenic Vibrio spp.

    PubMed

    Vora, Gary J; Meador, Carolyn E; Bird, Michele M; Bopp, Cheryl A; Andreadis, Joanne D; Stenger, David A

    2005-12-27

    The morbidity and mortality associated with Vibrio-mediated waterborne diseases necessitates the development of sensitive detection technologies that are able to elucidate the identity, potential pathogenicity, susceptibility, and viability of contaminating bacteria in a timely manner. For this purpose, we have designed a single multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously amplify 95 diagnostic regions (encompassing species/serogroup-specific, antimicrobial resistance, and known toxin markers) and combined it with a long oligonucleotide microarray to create a platform capable of rapidly detecting and discriminating the major human pathogenic species from the genus Vibrio: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. mimicus. We were able to validate this strategy by testing 100 geographically and temporally distributed isolates and observed an excellent concordance between species- and serotype-level microarray-based identification and traditional typing methods. In addition to accurate identification, the microarray simultaneously provided evidence of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements, such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim constins and class I integrons, and common toxin (ctxAB, rtxA, hap, hlyA, tl, tdh, trh, vvhA, vlly, and vmhA) and pathogenicity (tcpA, type III secretion system) genes that are associated with pathogenic Vibrio. The versatility of this method was further underscored by its ability to detect the expression of known toxin and virulence genes from potentially harmful viable but nonculturable organisms. The results suggest that this molecular identification method provides rapid and definitive information that would be of value in epidemiological, environmental, and health risk assessment surveillance. PMID:16354840

  15. Determination of total viable count (TVC) in chicken breast fillets by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopic transforms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-02-15

    Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and different spectroscopic transforms were investigated for their potential in detecting total viable counts in raw chicken fillets. A laboratory-based pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was utilized to acquire images of raw chicken breast fillets and the resulting reflectance images were corrected and transformed into hypercubes in absorbance and Kubelka-Munck (K-M) units. Full wavelength partial least regression models were established to correlate the three spectral profiles with measured bacterial counts, and the best calibration model was based on absorbance spectra, where the correlation coefficients (R) were 0.97 and 0.93, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.37 and 0.57 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. To simplify the models, several wavelengths were selected by stepwise regression. More robustness was found in the resulting simplified models and the model based on K-M spectra was found to be excellent with an indicative high ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.02. The correlation coefficients and RMSEs for this model were 0.96 and 0.40 log10 CFU per gram as well as 0.94 and 0.50 log10 CFU per gram for calibration and cross validation, respectively. Visualization maps produced by applying the developed models to the images could be an alternative to test the adaptability of a calibration model. Moreover, multi-spectral imaging systems were suggested to be developed for online applications. PMID:23598014

  16. Pipe Explorer{sup {trademark}} system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been used to transport various characterizing sensors into piping systems that have been radiologically contaminated. DOE`s nuclear facility decommissioning program must characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand-held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Various measuring difficulties, and in some cases, the inability to measure threshold surface contamination values and worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of traditional survey approaches. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system provides a viable alternative.

  17. Technology Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of technology. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Material is divided into four sections.…

  18. Business Technology Accounting Technology

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    Business Technology Accounting Technology Computer Support option Administrative Management College of Technology marketing purposes only) #12;Accounting Technology All types of organizations need a financial staff; therefore, the job opportunities in Accounting Technology are endless in all types

  19. Scribable multi-walled carbon nanotube-silicon nanocomposites: a viable lithium-ion battery system.

    PubMed

    Epur, Rigved; Ramanathan, Madhumati; Datta, Moni K; Hong, Dae Ho; Jampani, Prashanth H; Gattu, Bharat; Kumta, Prashant N

    2015-02-28

    A novel electrode fabrication technique involving a manual scribing action of vertically aligned silicon coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (VASCNTs) on a copper foil have been developed as a viable approach to Li-ion battery electrodes. The scribed electrodes were prepared without the use of any conductive additives and binders, and they were directly assembled in a coin cell. These 'binder-less' scribed Si-CNT electrodes exhibited a very high discharge capacity in excess of 3000 mA h g(-1) and a low first cycle irreversible loss (FIR) (19%). In addition, the electrodes also showed good cyclability with capacity retention of 76% at the end of 50 cycles corresponding to a fade rate of 0.48% loss per cycle rendering the technique attractive for suitable Li-ion applications. PMID:25628146

  20. Semidirect Restorations in Multidisciplinary Treatment: Viable Option for Children and Teenagers.

    PubMed

    Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Frizzera, Fausto; da Silva, Monica Barros; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Due to the esthetic necessity required nowadays, the multidisci-plinar treatment became a fundamental step in the restoration success. When the patient exhibits dental agenesis of one or more elements, he can show difficulty in social interactions. The age of the patient is a limiting factor to esthetic procedures, however, it should be evaluated as a real indicative with each case. The utilization of semi-direct restorations is a viable option due the cost, esthetic and improvement of physical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to present a case detailing the confection and cementation of anterior semi-direct restorations aimed at an anatomic reestablish-ment associated with integrated treatment with periodontics and orthodontics. PMID:26067730

  1. Demands on Intranets — Viable System Model as a Foundation for Intranet Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2006-06-01

    The number of Intranets increases in organizations but their potential to support viability is not fully exploited. The cybernetic model, the Viable System Model, has not been connected to the Intranet concept before. Characteristics of the VSM, such as highlighting the importance of production, monitoring of production units through Early Warning Systems, autonomy and empowerment, are used as patterns and a base for de-signing essential parts and/or functions of an Intranet. The result is a brief description of functions vital to the operational parts of organizations. Examples are Early Warning Systems, control systems, "gate-keepers," amplifying and damping information to and from the organization and "agents" supporting search abilities on an Intranet.

  2. [Detection of viable metabolically active yeast cells using a colorimetric assay].

    PubMed

    R?zicka, F; Holá, V

    2008-02-01

    The increasing concern of yeasts able to form biofilm brings about the need for susceptibility testing of both planktonic and biofilm cells. Detection of viability or metabolic activity of yeast cells after exposure to antimicrobials plays a key role in the assessment of susceptibility testing results. Colorimetric assays based on the color change of the medium in the presence of metabolically active cells proved suitable for this purpose. In this study, the usability of a colorimetric assay with the resazurin redox indicator for monitoring the effect of yeast inoculum density on the reduction rate was tested. As correlation between the color change rate and inoculum density was observed, approximate quantification of viable cells was possible. The assay would be of relevance to antifungal susceptibility testing in both planktonic and biofilm yeasts. PMID:18318392

  3. Al adjuvants can be tracked in viable cells by lumogallion staining.

    PubMed

    Mile, Irene; Svensson, Andreas; Darabi, Anna; Mold, Matthew; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2015-07-01

    The mechanism behind the adjuvant effect of aluminum salts is poorly understood notwithstanding that aluminum salts have been used for decades in clinical vaccines. In an aqueous environment and at a nearly neutral pH, the aluminum salts form particulate aggregates, and one plausible explanation of the lack of information regarding the mechanisms could be the absence of an efficient method of tracking phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants and thereby the intracellular location of the adjuvant. In this paper, we want to report upon the use of lumogallion staining enabling the detection of phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants inside viable cells. Including micromolar concentrations of lumogallion in the culture medium resulted in a strong fluorescence signal from cells that had phagocytosed the aluminum adjuvant. The fluorescence appeared as spots in the cytoplasm and by confocal microscopy and co-staining with probes presenting fluorescence in the far-red region of the spectrum, aluminum adjuvants could to a certain extent be identified as localized in acidic vesicles, i.e., lysosomes. Staining and detection of intracellular aluminum adjuvants was achieved not only by diffusion of lumogallion into the cytoplasm, thereby highlighting the presence of the adjuvant, but also by pre-staining the aluminum adjuvant prior to incubation with cells. Pre-staining of aluminum adjuvants resulted in bright fluorescent particulate aggregates that remained fluorescent for weeks and with only a minor reduction of fluorescence upon extensive washing or incubation with cells. Both aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate, two of the most commonly used aluminum adjuvants in clinical vaccines, could be pre-stained with lumogallion and were easily tracked intracellularly after incubation with phagocytosing cells. Staining of viable cells using lumogallion will be a useful method in investigations of the mechanisms behind aluminum adjuvants' differentiation of antigen-presenting cells into inflammatory cells. Information will be gained regarding the phagosomal pathways and the events inside the phagosomes, and thereby the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants could be resolved. PMID:25896212

  4. Guided self-assembly of block-copolymer for CMOS technology: a comparative study between grapho-epitaxy and surface chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oria, Lorea; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Alaitz; Chevalier, Xavier; Alduncin, Juan A.; Mecerreyes, David; Tiron, Raluca; Gaugiran, Stephanie; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2011-04-01

    Recent progress in Block Copolymer lithography has shown that guided self-assembly is a viable alternative for pushing forward the resolution limits of optical lithography. The main two self assembly methods considered so far have been the surface chemical modification, which is based on the chemical modification of a brush grafted to the silicon, and the grapho-epitaxy, which is based on creating topographic patterns on the surface. We have tested these two approaches for the 22 nm node and beyond CMOS technology, using PS-PMMA block copolymers synthesized by RAFT (Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer) polymerization.

  5. Power electronics and alternative energy generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P Lyons; Vlatko Vlatkovic

    2004-01-01

    Growth in alterative energy generation technologies and markets will have a major impact on the development of power electronics in the future. The paper discusses some of these implications, and outlines the technological and performance challenges for power electronic systems in alternative energy applications.

  6. An Approach to Examining Technical Alternatives

    E-print Network

    ­ Some Methods of Technology Selection · Cost-Benefit Analysis · The Role of Probability · Risk · Current Leader Office of Naval Research 29 April 2004 #12;The Bait · Systems engineering provides a method for examining alternatives. Mr. King will discuss the application of technological forecasting, engineering

  7. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Malkow, Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.

  8. Alternative Energy Options for Antarctic Stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Steel; Antoine Guichard

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique problems of designing an alternative energy system for the Australian and French Antarctic research stations and the possible options that can be pursued to obtain a clean, efficient, safe and reliable energy system. The adoption of the alternative systems will rely on the further technological and commercial development of equipment

  9. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  10. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  11. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hall

    1985-01-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep

  12. HOW TO ACCESS TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATTIC (Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center) is an on-line computer database and repository for information on remediation and treatment technologies. t contains several of EPA's technology databases, including the Treatment Technology Database, the RREL (Risk Redu...

  13. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status, potential, and research requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Neenan, B.; Feinberg, D.; Hill, A.; McIntosh, R.; Terry, K.

    1986-08-01

    Although numerous options for the production of fuels from microalgae have been proposed, our analysis indicates that only two qualify for extensive development - gasoline and ester fuel. In developing the comparisons that support this conclusion, we have identified the major areas of microalgae production and processing that require extensive development. Technology success requires developing and testing processes that fully utilize the polar and nonpolar lipids produced by microalgae. Process designs used in these analyses were derived from fragmented, preliminary laboratory data. These results must be substantiated and integrated processes proposed, tested, and refined to be able to evaluate the commercial feasibility from microalgae. The production of algal feedstocks for processing to gasoline or ester fuel requires algae of high productivity and high lipid content that efficiently utilize saline waters. Species screening and development suggest that algae can achieve required standards taken individually, but algae that can meet the integrated requirements still elude researchers. Effective development of fuels from microalgae technology requires that R and D be directed toward meeting the integrated standards set out in the analysis. As technology analysts, it is inappropriate for us to dictate how the R and D effort should proceed to meet these standards. We end our role by noting that alternative approaches to meeting the feasibility targets have been identified, and it is now the task of program managers and scientists to choose the appropriate approach to assure the greatest likelihood of realizing a commercially viable technology. 70 refs., 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  14. Use of spray-cooling technology for development of microencapsulated capsicum oleoresin for the growing pig as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics: a study of release using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Meunier, J-P; Cardot, J-M; Manzanilla, E G; Wysshaar, M; Alric, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained release microspheres of capsicum oleoresin as an alternative to in-feed additives. Two spray-cooling technologies, a fluidized air bed using a spray nozzle system and a vibrating nozzle system placed on top of a cooling tower, were used to microencapsulate 20% of capsicum oleoresin in a hydrogenated, rapeseed oil matrix. Microencapsulation was intended to reduce the irritating effect of capsicum oleoresin and to control its release kinetics during consumption by the animal. Particles produced by the fluidized air bed process (batch F1) ranged from 180 to 1,000 microm in size. The impact of particle size on release of capsaicin, the main active compound of capsicum oleoresin, was studied after sieving batch F1 to obtain 4 formulations: F1a (180 to 250 microm), F1b (250 to 500 microm), F1c (500 to 710 microm), and F1d (710 to 1,000 microm). The vibrating nozzle system can produce a monodispersive particle size distribution. In this study, particles of 500 to 710 microm were made (batch F2). The release kinetics of the formulations was estimated in a flow-through cell dissolution apparatus (CFC). The time to achieve a 90% dissolution value (T90%) of capsaicin for subbatches of F1 increased with the increase in particle size (P < 0.05), with the greatest value of 165.5 +/- 13.2 min for F1d. The kinetics of dissolution of F2 was slower than all F1 subbatches, with a T90% of 422.7 +/- 30.0 min. Nevertheless, because CFC systems are ill suited for experiments with solid feed and thus limit their predictive values, follow-up studies were performed on F1c and F2 using an in vitro dynamic model that simulated more closely the digestive environment. For both formulations a lower quantity of capsaicin dialyzed was recorded under fed condition vs. fasting condition with 46.9% +/- 1.0 vs. 74.7% +/- 2.7 for F1c and 32.4% +/- 1.4 vs. 44.2% +/- 2.6 for F2, respectively. This suggests a possible interaction between capsaicin and the feed matrix. Moreover, 40.4 +/- 3.9% of the total capsaicin intake in F2 form was dialyzed after 8 h of digestion when feed had been granulated vs. 32.4 +/- 1.4% when feed had not been granulated, which suggests that the feed granulation process could lead to a partial degradation of the microspheres and to a limitation of the sustained release effect. This study demonstrates the potential and the limitations of spray-cooling technology to encapsulate feed additives. PMID:17468425

  15. Transitioning to a Hydrogen Future: Learning from the Alternative...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    technologies at the local level (technology advocates). Phase I-Literature Review A literature search for topics related to lessons learned in alternative fuels deployment...

  16. Translational bioinformatics in the cloud: an affordable alternative

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    With the continued exponential expansion of publicly available genomic data and access to low-cost, high-throughput molecular technologies for profiling patient populations, computational technologies and informatics are becoming vital considerations in genomic medicine. Although cloud computing technology is being heralded as a key enabling technology for the future of genomic research, available case studies are limited to applications in the domain of high-throughput sequence data analysis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the computational and economic characteristics of cloud computing in performing a large-scale data integration and analysis representative of research problems in genomic medicine. We find that the cloud-based analysis compares favorably in both performance and cost in comparison to a local computational cluster, suggesting that cloud computing technologies might be a viable resource for facilitating large-scale translational research in genomic medicine. PMID:20691073

  17. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and the paper machine white water system, broke recovery systems...install and operate a clean condensate alternative technology with...concentrations in the pulping process water used within the clean condensate alternative affected...

  18. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and the paper machine white water system, broke recovery systems...install and operate a clean condensate alternative technology with...concentrations in the pulping process water used within the clean condensate alternative affected...

  19. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and the paper machine white water system, broke recovery systems...install and operate a clean condensate alternative technology with...concentrations in the pulping process water used within the clean condensate alternative affected...

  20. Progress in supersonic cruise technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program identified significant improvements in the technology areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, noise reduction, takeoff and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. These improvements, when combined in a large supersonic cruise vehicle, offer a far greater technology advance than generally realized. They offer the promise of an advanced commercial family of aircraft which are environmentally acceptable, have flexible range-payload capability, and are economically viable. These same areas of technology have direct application to smaller advanced military aircraft and to supersonic executive aircraft. Several possible applications will be addressed.