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1

The energy utilization chain: Determining viable oil alternative technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the continuing debate over the limits to economic growth focusing on oil, oil technologies, and the services provided by those technologies. Since there is a growing consensus that oil production will be in short supply in the next 30 or so years, it is important to examine all viable oil alternatives. The author uses the concept of

Douglas B. Reynolds

2000-01-01

2

All digital technology as a viable alternative to cathode ray tube technology in head up display applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a migration by industry away from Cathode Ray Tubes towards solid state alternatives. In the Aerospace industry, head down displays in cockpits no longer use CRT technology and head up displays are set to follow suit. This paper describes a program of research and development that has explored the technical issues involved in producing an all digital, solid state illuminated HUD, and describes the results obtained from testing the flyable pre-production unit.

Wisely, Paul L.

2006-06-01

3

Bacteriocins - a viable alternative to antibiotics?  

PubMed

Solutions are urgently required for the growing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, might warrant serious consideration as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. These molecules exhibit significant potency against other bacteria (including antibiotic-resistant strains), are stable and can have narrow or broad activity spectra. Bacteriocins can even be produced in situ in the gut by probiotic bacteria to combat intestinal infections. Although the application of specific bacteriocins might be curtailed by the development of resistance, an understanding of the mechanisms by which such resistance could emerge will enable researchers to develop strategies to minimize this potential problem. PMID:23268227

Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

2012-12-24

4

Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

Demers, Denise

1989-01-01

5

Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO technology, its capabilities and its limitations. The paper will investigate how FSO technology has evolved to its current stage for deployment in MANs, LANs, wireless backhaul and metropolitan network extensions - applications that fall within the category of last mile. The paper will address the market, drivers and the adoption of FSO, plus provide a projection of future FSO technology, based on today's product roadmaps. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations.

Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

2001-10-01

6

Vector symbolic architectures are a viable alternative for Jackendoff's challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors, on the basis of brief arguments, have dismissed tensor networks as a viable response to Jackendoff's challenges. However, there are reasons to believe that connectionist approaches descended from tensor networks are actually very well suited to answering Jackendoff's challenges. I rebut their arguments for dismissing tensor networks and briefly compare the approaches.

Ross W. Gayler

2006-01-01

7

PsycINFO Tutorial: A Viable Instructional Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article questions the effectiveness and overall applicability of a tutorial as an instructional alternative to in-class instruction. A tutorial was developed to instruct undergraduate students in a high-enrollment psychology course, in the use of the PsycINFO database. A pretest and posttest instrument was developed to evaluate retained information. The results demonstrated that the tutorial significantly increased undergraduate students' understanding

Dorothy Persson; Carlette Washington-Hoagland

2004-01-01

8

Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the

Heinz A. Willebrand; Gerald R. Clark

2001-01-01

9

Scanning tunneling microscope lithography: a viable lithographic technology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steered beam lithography will represent an essential part of the technology to meet the future need for ultra-high resolution mask making and direct write. Conventional high voltage e-beam lithography is being developed to meet these challenges. However, there are a number of physical limitations (proximity effects, resist sensitivity) which must be overcome. To do so will prove to be extremely expensive if in fact these problems can be overcome. There are significant advantages in going to extremely low energies in e-beam lithography. Proximity effects are eliminated although the electron-optics become more exacting. The need to focus a low energy e-beam can be eliminated by maintaining a sharp tip close to a surface as in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). We have demonstrated technologically useful lithography with the STM operated with 4 - 50 V between tip and sample. Patterns have been defined in e-beam resists and by selective oxidation of semiconductor substrates under the action of the STM tip. In both cases the pattern can be transferred into the substrate with a dry etch. Sub 50 nm resolution is routine on a variety of substrates. A viable lithographic technology has been demonstrated in the research laboratory. However, several key issues must be addressed to develop a technologically viable lithography system compatible with existing microfabrication practice. These issues include: registration using the imaging properties of the STM for alignment, pattern accuracy and throughput. Advances in STM speed are described and suggestions made for improving lithographic performance with multiple sharp tips (each with an independent servo loop). The potential pay-off is high as a low voltage lithography tool will involve significantly less capital investment (and support cost) than the next generations of high voltage e-beam lithography tools.

Marrian, Christie R.; Dobisz, Elizabeth A.; Dagata, John A.

1992-07-01

10

Niobium Technological Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process-product matrix of Niobium is presented, through which the technological alternatives for Niobium are identified. It is shown that the three axes of Niobium application, steels, superalloys and metallic Niobium have a tendency to be economical ...

A. F. Sartori C. A. Baldan C. R. Dainesi D. G. Pinatti W. P. Longo

1981-01-01

11

Concentrating Solar Thermal Power: A Viable Alternative in China's Energy Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Study of low-carbon ,renewable, alternatives ,for China revealed ,that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power,was,under-emphasizedin China’s renewable,energy plan. The main,motivation,of this paper isto provide the analysis and strong arguments that CST power ,can ,be a ,viable renewable ,energy ,alternative for China to meet ,its challenges of: 1) continuing to fuel China’s economic growth, 2) narrowing regional disparity, and 3)

John Chung-Ling Chien

2009-01-01

12

Budget, economics, technology all affect alternate propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has been investigating alternate propulsion systems and alternate propulsion systems and alternate fuel systems in terms of research and development and vehicle integration. Proposed budget cuts may leave only RandD programs intact and it will be up to industry to prove the technologies to be commercially viable. All Stirling and gas turbine engine development work will

Greenberg

1981-01-01

13

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools...?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay

J. Montain; J. M. Byrne

2010-01-01

14

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

15

Imiquimod therapy for extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva: a viable non-surgical alternative.  

PubMed

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepidermal adenocarcinoma that can affect the vulval skin. Surgical excision is the gold-standard treatment, however, recurrence rates are high and extensive excisions can produce long-lasting cosmetic and functional defects. We describe one of the largest case series to-date (n = 6) on the use of topical 5% imiquimod cream as a novel treatment option and discuss our experiences. With the addition of our six cases to the literature, there are now 29 documented cases of vulval EMPD treated with 5% imiquimod cream. Of these, 50% of primary disease cases and 73% of recurrent primary disease cases have achieved clinical resolution with 5% imiquimod therapy alone. These findings suggest that imiquimod provides a viable alternative to surgical excision for vulval EMPD. However, we acknowledge that this is a simple retrospective analysis and that treatment scheduling and follow-up needs investigation in a trial setting. PMID:23815201

Sanderson, P; Innamaa, A; Palmer, J; Tidy, J

2013-07-01

16

Artificial human tissues from cord and cord blood stem cells for multi-organ regenerative medicine: viable alternatives to animal in vitro toxicology.  

PubMed

New medicinal products and procedures must meet very strict safety criteria before being applied for use in humans. The laboratory procedures involved require the use of large numbers of animals each year. Furthermore, such investigations do not always give an accurate translation to the human setting. Here, we propose a viable alternative to animal testing, which uses novel technology featuring human cord and cord blood stem cells. With over 130 million children born each year, cord and cord blood remains the most widely available alternative to the use of animals or cadaveric human tissues for in vitro toxicology. PMID:20507188

Jurga, Marcin; Forraz, Nico; McGuckin, Colin P

2010-05-01

17

Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.  

PubMed

Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

2013-08-26

18

Section 1985(3): A Viable Alternative to Title VII for Sex-Based Employment Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Section 1985(3) is shown to be an alternative to Title VII. Inadequacies of and alternatives to Title VII are noted and questions are raised concerning section 1985(3)'s application to private sex-based discrimination, the single entity rule, and whether sex discrimination is sufficiently class-based to activate section 1985(3). (AF)|

Duke, Celine Ellet

1978-01-01

19

40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.2032 Section 35.2032...2032 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Funding for innovative and alternative technologies. Projects or portions of...

2013-07-01

20

Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing, including…

Plank, Gary A.

2001-01-01

21

Is a Finance-led growth regime a viable alternative to Fordism? A preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability and desirability of a finance-led growth regime is first assessed against the historical evidence about the many alternative regimes that have been proposed as successors to Fordism. A purely hypothetical model is then built by assembling various hypotheses derived from the observation of current American trends. The imposition of financial norms, such as shareholder value, requires a new

Robert Boyer

2000-01-01

22

Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing,…

Plank, Gary A.

2001-01-01

23

Prototype Personality Diagnosis in Clinical Practice: A Viable Alternative for DSM–5 and ICD–11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that a prototype-matching approach yields diagnoses of comparable validity to the more complex diagnostic algorithms outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Furthermore, clinicians prefer prototype diagnosis of personality disorders to the current categorical diagnostic system or alternative dimensional methods. An important extension of this work was to investigate the degree to

Drew Westen; Jared A. DeFife; Bekh Bradley; Mark J. Hilsenroth

2010-01-01

24

Viable Alternative Substrate Components for Use in Nursery and Greenhouse Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peat-based container substrates are widely used for greenhouse crop production. A variety of alternative materials have been evaluated due to uncertainty over the cost and availability of Canadian peat moss. Processed whole pine trees (WPT) have been identified as a replacement for peat due to the w...

25

[Kidney transplantation, a viable alternative for end-stage kidney failure].  

PubMed

End stage renal disease patients is a serious problem all around the world. The number of patients and the cost of treatment are increasing. Kidney transplantation is the only alternative to solve the problem. In Panama, kidney transplantation is performed since 1990. At the present time 55 living related donors transplantations have been performed. It is necessary to increase the number of transplantations and to begin the cadaveric donor transplant program. PMID:10997186

Cuero, C J

26

High Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA); a Viable Alternative to Agarose Gel Electrophoresis for Mouse Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Most mouse genetics laboratories maintain mouse strains that require genotyping in order to identify the genetically modified animals. The plethora of mutagenesis strategies and publicly available mouse alleles means that any one laboratory may maintain alleles with random or targeted insertions of orthologous or unrelated sequences as well as random or targeted deletions and point mutants. Many experiments require that different strains be cross bred conferring the need to genotype progeny at more than one locus. In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products. This requires a large amount of researcher time. Additionally it is susceptible to contamination of future genotyping experiments because it requires that tubes containing PCR products be opened for analysis. Progress has been made with the genotyping of mouse point mutants because a range of new high-throughput techniques have been developed for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. Some of these techniques are suitable for genotyping point mutants but do not detect insertion or deletion alleles. Ideally, mouse genetics laboratories would use a single, high-throughput platform that enables closed-tube analysis to genotype the entire range of possible insertion and deletion alleles and point mutants. Here we show that High Resolution Melt Analysis meets these criteria, it is suitable for closed-tube genotyping of all allele types and current genotyping assays can be converted to this technology with little or no effort.

Thomsen, Nicole; Ali, Radiya G.; Ahmed, Jehangir N.; Arkell, Ruth M.

2012-01-01

27

Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?  

PubMed

In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to ?g/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants. PMID:24053940

Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

2013-08-09

28

Budget, economics, technology all affect alternate propulsion systems  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has been investigating alternate propulsion systems and alternate propulsion systems and alternate fuel systems in terms of research and development and vehicle integration. Proposed budget cuts may leave only RandD programs intact and it will be up to industry to prove the technologies to be commercially viable. All Stirling and gas turbine engine development work will be terminated if Congress agrees, which includes three or four major multi-year development contracts. Emphasis will be placed on RandD applications in vehicles, rather than on a systems approach of moving technology into testing and demonstration. The Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program will be dropped from the EandHV Program, testing programs reduced and RandD trimmed. Utilizaion of Alternative Fuels will be unchanged because the scope of the work is RandD. The article reviews ongoing research into such alternative automotive fuels as methanol, ethanol (in gasohol), methane (carried in liquefied state), and hydrogen and its storage. Alternative propulsion research reviewed includes research into diesel engines. Stirling engines, gas turbines, and electric vehicles and their storage batteries.

Greenberg, G.

1981-01-01

29

Botulinum toxin A with fissurectomy is a viable alternative to lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure.  

PubMed

Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is the gold standard surgical treatment for anal fissure. However, it carries potential complications, including fecal incontinence. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the outcome of botulinum toxin A injection coupled with fissurectomy ([BTX + FIS) versus LIS. There were 59 patients who underwent BTX + FIS or LIS over a 5-year period. LIS was performed in the standard fashion without fissurectomy. BTX + FIS entailed internal sphincter injection with 80 units of botulinum toxin A coupled with fissurectomy. Forty patients underwent LIS and 19 had BTX + FIS. The choice of operation was based on the patient's preference. Primary healing rate was 90 and 74 per cent in the LIS and BTX + FIS groups, respectively (P = 0.13). The complication rate was 10 per cent in the LIS vs 0 per cent in the BTX + FIS groups (P = 0.29). Complications of LIS included anal sepsis in one patient and flatal and/or fecal incontinence in three patients. During a mean follow up of 19 months; recurrence rate was 0 and 5 per cent in the LIS and BTX+FIS groups, respectively (P = 0.32). The results of this study demonstrate that BTX + FIS is a viable alternative to LIS for patients with chronic anal fissure and should be considered as an alternative first-line surgical therapy. PMID:19886136

Aivaz, Ohara; Rayhanabad, Jessica; Nguyen, Vincent; Haigh, Philip I; Abbas, Maher

2009-10-01

30

Alternative Energy Technologies: Fuel Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Allan J. Jacobson of the University of Houston provides an introduction to fuel cell technology. The history of fuel cells, the potential future applications of the technology, technical challenges involved and the specifics of hydrogen production are all outlined. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

Jacobson, Allan J.

2012-02-28

31

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is a dynamic process that creates and conveys a mutual understanding between two or more people. Since this process is complex and not easily taught, there exist many communication disorders ranging from a physical limitation, such as ALS, to a cognitive language disorder, such as autism. Augmentative and alternative communication systems (AACs) help people with communication disorders by providing

Gondy Leroy; Gianluca De Leo

32

Alternative energy technologies in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is imperative that Brazil consider alternative energy production and conservation techniques in order to cope with the energy crisis. Brazil imports about 650,000 bbl.\\/day of petroleum, which accounts for more than 78 percent of total consumption. Oil amounts to 50 percent of the total energy utilized in Brazil. After a brief review of the energy resources in Brazil (water

Miccolis

1977-01-01

33

Alternative technologies and social studies textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the potential of alternative technologies in social studies education, we must understand the goals\\u000a of such education, the capabilities of the technologies, and teachers’ and students’ responses to new technologies. The author\\u000a suggests that the new technologies can contribute to the goals of learning about the past, learning about democratic life\\u000a and institutions, and making students

Stephen T. Kerr

1992-01-01

34

Capacitive Deionization Technology™: An alternative desalination solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on research conducted on Capacitive Deionization Technology (CDT) as an alternative to the more conventional membrane desalination technologies like reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The main objective of the research was to develop an industrial type module and to evaluate the performance of the module for brackish water desalination. The term “industrially re-producible” refers to the fact that

T. J. Welgemoed; C. F. Schutte

2005-01-01

35

Technological feasibility of alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. energy shortage is discussed. The technology of coal gasification or liquefication, shale oil from oil shale, and geothermal energy recovery is presented in sufficient detail to show feasibility of these as energy source alternatives to petroleum crude. Technical trade publications data show that essentially all necessary process technology is known, although important improvements are possible, and have been

M. L. Zweigle

1974-01-01

36

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2013-07-01

37

Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

Perella, V.F.

1999-11-29

38

78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program AGENCY: Office of...to use the slate of applicants developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP)...

2013-05-24

39

Human Tissue in the Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of New Medicines: A Viable Alternative to Animal Models?  

PubMed Central

The pharma Industry's ability to develop safe and effective new drugs to market is in serious decline. Arguably, a major contributor to this is the Industry's extensive reliance on nonhuman biology-based test methods to determine potential safety and efficacy, objective analysis of which reveals poor predictive value. An obvious alternative approach is to use human-based tests, but only if they are available, practical, and effective. While in vivo (phase 0 microdosing with high sensitivity mass spectroscopy) and in silico (using established human biological data), technologies are increasingly being used, in vitro human approaches are more rarely employed. However, not only are increasingly sophisticated in vitro test methods now available or under development, but the basic ethically approved infrastructure through which human cells and tissues may be acquired is established. Along with clinical microdosing and in silico approaches, more effective access to and use of human cells and tissues in vitro provide exciting and potentially more effective opportunities for the assessment of safety and efficacy of new medicines.

Coleman, Robert A.

2011-01-01

40

Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology  

SciTech Connect

This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1996-05-01

41

From R&D to the mouth--a viable roadmap for the technology era.  

PubMed

This article serves as an overview of the status of dental technology as the profession approaches a new century. Its purpose is to define various ways in which dental manufacturers and marketers can better understand the thinking of the dental professional, those factors that influence their thought processes and how to use this information to develop more effective and predictive marketing strategies. With the advent of more complex and expensive dental technologies, e.g., video imaging, digitized radiology, electronic data transmission, etc., the dentist is faced with a variety of decisions relating to purchasing, implementation and costs/benefits analysis that go beyond the normal daily concerns of delivering competent dental care. It is no longer enough for a manufacturer to make a good product; successful marketing strategies must also include a means for guiding the dentist in the successful integration of these technologies into their offices. In order for dental marketers to meet the competitive demands of this advanced technology era, there must be a commitment to the development of strategic information through the use of third party, customized marketing research. Too much of the input currently used to develop marketing strategies is anecdotal, inherently biased and often not representative of the target market as a whole. It is hoped that this article will effectively challenge the reader to look at the development of dental products and services from a somewhat different, less traditional perspective and that it will provide the impetus and direction for creating better targeted and more rewarding marketing strategies. PMID:8931238

Simon, M

1996-09-01

42

Industrial technology for economic and viable encapsulation for large solar panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminated glass technology used in buildings and car windscreens is applied to the encapsulation of solar panels so as to form a glass-polyvinylbutyral-glass 'sandwich'. Based on small scale experimental panels, the following studies were made: (1) adhesion techniques; (2) structure studies to find the most suitable means for maintaining the mechanical stability of the cells; (3) types of connections for the solar panels; and (4) climatic tests and humidity resistance. Mechanical and climatic tests with the minimodules gave encouraging results, whereupon larger scale models were designed. The results obtained with these confirmed those obtained with the minimodules.

Anguet, J.; Salles, Y.

43

Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-07-01

44

A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

2001-02-01

45

Integrated Doubly Fed Electric Alternator\\/Active Filter (IDEA), a Viable Power Quality Solution, for Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to electric energy crisis and power quality concerns, a simple and low-cost variable speed integrated doubly fed electric alternator\\/active filter (IDEA) for wind energy conversion systems is proposed. The proposed IDEA is capable of simultaneously capturing maximum power of wind energy with fluctuating wind speed and improving power quality, which are achieved by canceling the most significant and

Mehdi T. Abolhassani; Prasad Enjeti; Hamid Toliyat

2008-01-01

46

Is there a viable alternative to ordinary least squares regression when security abnormal returns are the dependent variable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression analysis is often used to estimate a linear relationship between security abnormal returns and firm-specific variables.\\u000a If the abnormal returns are caused by a common event (i.e., there is “event clustering”) the error term of the cross-sectional\\u000a regression will be heteroskedastic and correlated across observations. The size and power of alternative test statistics for\\u000a the event clustering case has

Imre Karafiath

2009-01-01

47

Alternative solvents/technologies for paint stripping  

SciTech Connect

Paint stripping is a necessary part of maintenance at US Air Force Air Logistics Centers. The Waste from Air Force paint stripping operations contains toxic chemicals that require special handling and disposal at considerable cost. Solvent emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere are another source of pollution. These wastes are hazardous to the environment and to operating personnel, and are now regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency, which can impose fines for discharges that exceed the established limits. This report describes the research project titled Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping being conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Engineering and Services Center at Tyndall Air Force Base. This report also includes the results obtained in Phase 1. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Tsang, M.N.; Harris, T.L.

1990-01-01

48

Combined gas-steam turbine cycle using coal derived liquid fuel - A viable alternative to direct combustion of coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative to direct coal-combustion for electric power generation is liquefaction of coal prior to combustion in a combined gas-steam turbine plant. For optimization of the overall efficiency of the power plant, individual subsystem efficiencies must be analyzed, but the prevailing energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics is insufficient for this purpose and can be misleading. The paper presents a complete thermodynamic analysis of an 873 MWe combined gas-steam turbine cycle, which utilizes semiclean fuel from the H-Coal process.

Tabi, R.; Mesko, J. E.

49

Alternative Technology, Self-Sufficiency and the Future of Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report studies ways to improve peoples' social welfare while using fewer resources. The report addresses technological choice and research design; work, self-exploitation, and economic growth; alternative work and alternative production; practical di...

P. Read

1980-01-01

50

Comparison of different autografts for aural cartilage in aesthetic rhinoplasty: is the tragal cartilage graft a viable alternative?  

PubMed

Auricular cartilage is an important source of grafts for various reconstructive procedures such as aesthetic rhinoplasty. The purpose of this investigation was to compare tragal cartilage with auricular cartilage harvested from the concha and scapha, and describe its clinical viability, indications, and morbidity in rhinoplasty. A total of 150 augmentation rhinoplasties with a total of 170 grafts were included. The donor sites were tragus (n=136), concha (n=26), and scapha (n=8). The time needed to harvest the grafts, the donor site morbidity, and the indications for operation were recorded. The anthropometric changes to 4 auricular variables after the cartilage had been harvested were analysed and compared with those on the opposite side in 48 patients using Student's paired t-test. Intraobserver reliability was assessed using Pearson's intraclass correlation. The mean (SD) harvesting time was 27 (8) min for the concha, 4.5 (1.4) min for the tragus, and 5.7 (1.6) min for the scapha. The largest graft was taken from the concha (28×19mm), followed by the tragus (20×12mm), and the scapha (18×6mm). The grafts were placed at the following sites: tip grafts (n=123), columella struts (n=80), shield (n=20), rim (n=17), and dorsal onlay (n=15). Harvesting tragal cartilage is safe, simple, fast, and has a low morbidity, but it can affect the patient's ability to wear earphones. Tragal cartilage is a good alternative for nasal reconstruction if a graft of no longer than 20mm is required. PMID:23701830

Zinser, Max J; Siessegger, Mathias; Thamm, Oliver; Theodorou, Panangiotis; Maegele, Mark; Ritter, Lutz; Kreppel, Matthias; Sailer, Martin H; Zöller, Joachim E; Mischkowski, Robert A

2013-05-20

51

The Technology Classroom: Alternatives for Future Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the integration of technology into college and university classrooms and presents models for five levels of classroom design with increasing levels of technology, leading to a technology enhanced learning environment (TELE). A classroom modification at Brigham Young University to incorporate technology is described, and the need for…

Fawson, E. Curtis; VanUitert, D. Dean

1990-01-01

52

Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL).  

PubMed

Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45 ?m has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-?s pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1 ?m, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73 ?m were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications. PMID:22278348

Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco

2012-01-26

53

Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

Salend, Spencer J.

2009-01-01

54

Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

1981-04-01

55

Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

Amutha Rani, D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Deegan, D. [Tetronics Ltd., South Marston Business Park, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, C.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk

2008-11-15

56

Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative

Pytlinski

1992-01-01

57

New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on

Maryam Tabrizian; Sophie Lerouge; Anne Debrie; L'hocine Yahia

1997-01-01

58

Alternative energy technologies: blueprint for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confident that there is no energy crisis if domestic energy sources are developed, the author explains in this interview how many of the world's economic strains could have been avoided if the US were more self-sufficient in fuel. The energy situation is a chronic shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, but policies to stimulate alternative fuels and energy conservation can correct this.

1981-01-01

59

Methodology for Identifying Urban Transportation Technology Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reflects the view that the existing urban transportation planning process tends to ignore new transportation technologies such as personal rapid transit, automated guideway transportation, accelerated moving walkways, shared taxi. The report de...

E. W. Walbridge

1977-01-01

60

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

61

Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)…

Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

62

Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply;…

Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

63

Alternate fuels - a technology that is ready  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts by Ford Motor Co. to develop technology permitting use of non-petroleum based fuels in vehicles are described. Cars, trucks and tractors powered by ethanol and by methyl alcohol gasoline 85:15 blend are included. Changes are involved in component materials, lubricants, compression ratios, spark plug specification and carburettor and spark calibration. Studies are continuing on fuel injected engines and trucks

1985-01-01

64

Alternative food-preservation technologies: efficacy and mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulsed electric field and ultraviolet radiation are emerging preservation technologies designed to produce safe food, while maintaining its nutritional and sensory qualities. A sigmoid inactivation pattern is observed in most kinetic studies. Damage to cell membranes, enzymes or DNA is the most commonly cited cause of death of microorganisms by alternative preservation technologies.

Beatrice H. Lado; Ahmed E. Yousef

2002-01-01

65

Technology alternatives to CFC/HCFC vapor compression  

SciTech Connect

Phaseouts of CFCs and HCFCs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer have caused many developments in replacement or alternative technologies for heat pumping. Some of this effort has been of an ``evolutionary`` nature where the designs of conventional vapor compression systems were adapted to use chlorine-free refrigerants. Other alternatives are more radical departures from conventional practice such as operating above the critical point of an alternative refrigerant. Revolutionary changes in technology based on cycles sor principles not commonly associated with refrigeration have also attracted interest. Many of these technologies are being touted because they are ``ozone-safe`` or because they do not use greenhouse gases as refrigerants. Basic principles and some advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed in this paper.

Fischer, S.

1996-08-01

66

Investigation of the technology development status of alternate fuel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of the introduction of alternate fuel vehicles is to contribute to the reduction of pollution, the alternate energy for petroleum, and the energy savings. This report describes the development status of methanol, natural gas, and electric vehicles, which have high potential as alternate fuel vehicles. Characteristics of alternate fuel vehicles are compared by using the same factors on the basis of technological data. Outlines of individual alternate fuel vehicles are illustrated. Then, practicabilities of the alternate fuel vehicles are compared with each other, as for the output and energy densities, maximum output and torque of motors, power performance, specific consumption of energy, driving distance, initial cost, running cost and life cycle cost, convenience of fuel and energy supply, low pollution, and health effects.

1993-03-01

67

New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on the biofunctionality of sterilized devices. The objective of our work consists in studying bulk and surface changes in biomedical devices induced by these two sterilization techniques. Samples from PVC, Polyurethane, Polyacrylate and Polyethylene-based medical devices are subjected to 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles by Steri-Vac-3M (pure EO), Sterrad-100$TM, J&J (gas plasma + H2O2), and studied by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary results show an increasing in Oxygen/Carbon ratio by a factor of 1.3 to 4.4 between the first and tenth cycle indicating the surface oxidation by gas plasma sterilization processes. Some changes in C-C chemical bounding are associated with EO sterilization.

Tabrizian, Maryam; Lerouge, Sophie; Debrie, Anne; Yahia, L'hocine

1997-06-01

68

Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

2007-04-20

69

Alternative Energy Technologies: Their Application in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper was presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of INTA, in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1980. It deals with the possibilities of using alternative energy technologies in planned urban areas in the developing countries. The case of Mexico is used to ...

L. S. de Carmona

1980-01-01

70

Technology assessment of alternative transportation fuels. Annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An annual report is presented for a study pertaining to the technology assessment of alternative transportation fuels. This assessment involves the following tasks: evaluation of the market penetration by electric vehicles; modeling of the effects of railroad electrification; determination of the energy savings implications of having a substantial number of diesel cars in the US; development of an improved coal

1979-01-01

71

Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

Fischer, S.

1998-07-01

72

Environmental benefits of implementing alternative energy technologies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early stages of industrialization, developed nations such as the United States did not foresee the extensive damage that would be done to the global environment by continued reliance on fossil fuels. As environmentally-friendly technologies become more feasible, efforts are being made to find ways to replace fossil fuels with more environmentally-friendly alternatives. However, industrialized countries have faced difficulties

B. Buran; L. Butler; A. Currano; E. Smith; W. Tung; K. Cleveland; C. Buxton; D. Lam; T. Obler; S. Rais-Bahrami; M. Stryker; K. Herold

2003-01-01

73

Educational programs on alternative energy technology with focus on hybrid electric-drive engineering and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the educational program development of alternative energy technology at Wayne State University and specifically describes the development and implementation of a set of 2+2+2 programs in electric drive vehicle engineering and technology, including a Master's Degree in Electric-drive Vehicle Engineering (EVE), a Bachelor's Degree in Electrical Transportation Technology (ETT), and Associate's Degrees in Automotive Technology and Electronic

Chih-Ping Yeh; Caisheng Wang; Gene Liao; Simon Ng

2011-01-01

74

The heparin-glutathione test: an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test to select viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the heparin-glutathione test (HEGLUT) for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Design: A prospective study.Setting: Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia and Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad.Patient(s): Semen samples from healthy donors and patients with infertility.Intervention(s): Sperm samples were kept in culture for different periods in Ham’s F-10 medium supplemented or not

Francisco J Vendrell; Carmen Rubio; Juan J Tar??n

1998-01-01

75

Energy and Cost Saving Results for Advanced Technology Systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in...

G. D. Sagerman G. J. Barna R. K. Burns

1979-01-01

76

Outside the box: will information technology be a viable intervention to improve the quality of cancer care?  

PubMed

The use of health information technology (IT) to resolve the crisis in communication inherent within the fragmented service environment of medical care in the United States is a strategic priority for the Department of Health and Human Services. Yet the deployment of health IT alone is not sufficient to improve quality in health service delivery; what is needed is a human factors approach designed to optimize the balance between health-care users, health-care providers, policies, procedures, and technologies. An evaluation of interface issues between primary and specialist care related to cancer reveals opportunities for human factors improvement along the cancer care continuum. Applications that emphasize cognitive support for prevention recommendations and that encourage patient engagement can help create a coordinated health-care environment conducive to cancer prevention and early detection. An emphasis on reliability, transparency, and accountability can help improve the coordination of activities among multiple service providers during diagnosis and treatment. A switch in emphasis from a transaction-based approach to one emphasizing long-term support for healing relationships should help improve patient outcomes during cancer survivorship and end-of-life care. Across the entire continuum of care, an emphasis on "meaningful use" of health IT-rather than on IT as an endpoint-should help put cancer on a path toward substantive continuous quality improvement. The accompanying research questions will focus on reducing the variance between the social and technical subsystems as IT is used to improve patient outcomes across the interfaces of care. PMID:20386056

Hesse, Bradford W; Hanna, Christopher; Massett, Holly A; Hesse, Nicola K

2010-01-01

77

Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

Mackin, Thomas

2012-06-30

78

Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies.  

PubMed

Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable. PMID:18093820

Rani, D Amutha; Boccaccini, A R; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

2008-02-21

79

Storage of bovine isolated follicles: A new alternative way to improve the recovery rate of viable embryos from ovarian follicles of slaughtered cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vitality of bovine oocytes stored in isolated follicles was examined. The aim of this work was to prolong the time of in vitro manipulation of oocytes before their maturation and develop a new alternative of oocyte “capacitation” to improve the quality of in vitro produced embryos. Follicles were dissected from the ovaries of slaughtered cows; subsequently, follicles were divided

A. Pavlok; S. ?ech; M. Kubelka; M. Lopatá?ová; L. Holý; M. Jindra

2006-01-01

80

Rapid and cost-effective baculovirus sample preparation method as a viable alternative to conventional preparation for quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The increasing use of the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has generated significant interest into techniques for quantifying baculovirus stocks. One method involves the use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study investigated simplifying baculovirus sample preparation for quantitative Real Time PCR to provide an alternative to current kit-based preparation methods. To achieve this goal, combinations of freeze/thaw cycles and Triton X-100 treatment were investigated. A treatment with only Triton X-100 was found to be sufficient to provide a simple, rapid and cheap alternative to kit-based preparation methods. This study also examined other factors such as primer choice to further examine the process of baculovirus quantitation by qPCR. PMID:22406450

George, Steve; Sokolenko, Stanislav; Aucoin, Marc Gordon

2012-03-08

81

Primordial Germ Cell-Mediated Chimera Technology Produces Viable Pure-Line Houbara Bustard Offspring: Potential for Repopulating an Endangered Species  

PubMed Central

Background The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs) was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16) gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian species that cannot breed in captivity.

Wernery, Ulrich; Liu, Chunhai; Baskar, Vijay; Guerineche, Zhor; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Jorg; Wernery, Renate

2010-01-01

82

Technologies for the global discovery and analysis of alternative splicing.  

PubMed

During the past approximately 20 years, studies on alternative splicing (AS) have largely been directed at the identification and characterization of factors and mecha nisms responsible for the control of splice site selection, using model substrates and on a case by case basis. These studies have provided a wealth of information on the factors and interactions that control formation of the spliceosome. However, relatively little is known about the global regulatory properties of AS. Important questions that need to be addressed are: which exons are alternatively spliced and under which cellular contexts, what are the functional roles of AS events in different cellular contexts, and how are AS events controlled and coordinated with each other and with other levels of gene regulation to achieve cell- and development-specific functions. During the past several years, new technologies and experimental strategies have provided insight into these questions. For example, custom microarrays and data analysis tools are playing a prominent role in the discovery and analysis of splicing regulation. Moreover, several non-microarray-based technologies are emerging that will likely further fuel progress in this area. This review focuses on recent advances made in the development and application of high-throughput methods to study AS. PMID:18380341

Calarco, John A; Saltzman, Arneet L; Ip, Joanna Y; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2007-01-01

83

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

PubMed Central

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.

Fuller, Philip; Roth, Sanford

2011-01-01

84

Structural design of a national youth and sports information system using the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Stafford Beer's viable system model (VSM) offers a powerful and alternative model for both economic and social organizations to structure themselves, especially for those operating in highly turbulent environments. Recent advancements in information technology make feasible the implementation of real-time information systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the author's involvement in designing an information system

Fouzi M. Ben-Ali

2011-01-01

85

Alternative applications of atomic vapor laser isotope separation technology  

SciTech Connect

This report was commissioned by the Secretary of Energy. It summarizes the main features of atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) technology and subsystems; evaluates applications, beyond those of uranium enrichment, suggested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and a wide range of US industries and individuals; recommends further work on several applications; recommends the provision of facilities for evaluating potential new applications; and recommends the full involvement of end users from the very beginning in the development of any application. Specifically excluded from this report is an evaluation of the main AVLIS missions, uranium enrichment and purification of plutonium for weapons. In evaluating many of the alternative applications, it became clear that industry should play a greater and earlier role in the definition and development of technologies with the Department of Energy (DOE) if the nation is to derive significant commercial benefit. Applications of AVLIS to the separation of alternate (nonuranium) isotopes were considered. The use of {sup 157}Gd as burnable poison in the nuclear fuel cycle, the use {sup 12}C for isotopically pure diamond, and the use of plutonium isotopes for several nonweapons applications are examples of commercially useful products that might be produced at a cost less than the product value. Separations of other isotopes such as the elemental constituents of semiconductors were suggested; it is recommended that proposed applications be tested by using existing supplies to establish their value before more efficient enrichment processes are developed. Some applications are clear, but their production costs are too high, the window of opportunity in the market has passed, or societal constraints (e.g., on reprocessing of reactor fuel) discourage implementation.

Not Available

1991-01-01

86

Aggression Replacement Training: A Viable Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools have widely used suspension and related punitive practices, in spite of their proven ineffectiveness. This article discusses the role of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of a schoolwide positive behavior support initiative. Grounded in theory and research, ART focuses on the proactive teaching of acceptable behaviors to…

McGinnis, Ellen

2003-01-01

87

Geothermal today: a viable alternative energy resource  

SciTech Connect

A transcription of remarks made by Vane E. Suter to the Geothermal Resources Committee of the Interstate Oil Compact Commission was presented. A description of the phenomena of the creation of geothermal fields at the boundries of the large mobile crustal plates was included. The problems encountered in the development of the geothermal industry were outlined. Also, forecasts of the growth of the industry were given.

Suter, V.E.

1981-12-01

88

Impacts of alternative-engine technology on the refining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the cost and energy use impacts on the petroleum refining industry of various alternative highway vehicle engine developments. This report presents premises. methodology and results of this study. Results from this study clearly indicate that future shifts in the US automotive fuels market--specifically shifts away from gasoline demand and toward alternative fuels--holds

J. C. Dickson; F. P. Frederick; L. P. Karvelas

1982-01-01

89

Impacts of alternative-engine technology on the refining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and energy use impacts on the petroleum refining industry of various alternative highway vehicle engine developments. Results from this study clearly indicate that future shifts in the US automotive fuels market - specifically shifts away from gasoline demand and toward alternative fuels - holds the potential for large-scale savings

J. C. Dickson; F. P. Frederick; L. P. Karvelas

1981-01-01

90

An Alternative Model to Implementing Technology Integration in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Federal educational technology grant coordinators from seven small liberal arts colleges were interviewed to determine the ways in which technology had been infused in teacher education programs over the life of the grant. Substantive integration of technology had occurred in each of the schools. Traditional change models were unable to explain…

Carroll, James B.; Morrell, Patricia D.; Eifler, Karen E.

2007-01-01

91

Alternative Strategies for Preparing Middle School Technology Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher education program experimented with innovative methods for identifying potential technology teacher candidates, and with providing training methods that take advantage of candidate's existing technological expertise and experience. In this article, the authors call attention to the shortage of technology education teachers, provide a…

Ritz, John M.; Manning, M. Lee

2004-01-01

92

Online Kiosks: The Alternative to Mobile Technologies for Mobile Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development and use of online kiosks in contexts where users are away from fixed technologies. Uses a case study of a United Kingdom airport terminal to illustrate different types of kiosk applications; makes comparisons with mobile phone technologies; and considers their role in self-managed, self-service delivery of information…

Slack, Frances; Rowley, Jennifer

2002-01-01

93

THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE TO ASSESS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging field of sustainability science recognizes the important role of technologies in reaching the conditional goals of sustainable development. Research in sustainable te chnologies requires transdisciplinarity to determin e the resilience, adaptive capacity, and complexity of social-ecological syste ms to assess the potential of such technologies for increasing the carrying capacity and improving the resilience of social-eco logical systems,

ALAN C BRENT

94

Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

1986-01-01

95

Technology and alternative cancer therapies: an analysis of heterodoxy and constructivism.  

PubMed

Theories of the construction of technology are reviewed from the wider interdisciplinary conversation known as science and technology studies (STS) and from the growing field of the anthropology of science and technology. These theories are used to contribute to research situated at the intersection of the anthropology of alternative medicine and of medical technologies. Cases drawn from the research tradition on microbial theories of cancer are considered to show how unorthodox medical theories become embedded in technologies through choices in microscope design and treatment technologies. In turn, the technologies contribute to the heterodox standing of the researchers, their research, and their therapies. PMID:8979243

Hess, D J

1996-12-01

96

Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder

Bassam Mrayyan

2004-01-01

97

Economic Evaluation of Alternative Tobacco Insect Control Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four tobacco insect control technologies: predator (stilt bug) releases and selective insecticide use, selective insecticide use only, broad spectrum insecticide use, and current controls were economically evaluated. The results indicate that if predators...

P. S. Liapis

1983-01-01

98

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES NEEDING FURTHER DEVELOPMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL SOURCE REPLACEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air awarded a contract to support evaluate innovative uses of x-ray technology that has potential to replace devices currently using gamma and beta radiation in the plastics, pulp, and paper industries....

99

Beyond `The Design Process': An Alternative Pedagogy for Technology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

`The design process' as an underpinning structure for technology education is well established. A number of increasingly complex\\u000a models have been produced to describe the design process. These models have had a widespread, paradigmatic effect on the teaching\\u000a of technology education. The development and implementation of models of the design process and the influence of these on\\u000a teacher's classroom practice

Brent Mawson

2003-01-01

100

The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect

Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

2010-03-31

101

High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of ALternatives and Technology Requirements Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay miss...

C. L. Nickol L. L. Kohout M. D. Guynn T. A. Ozoroski

2007-01-01

102

Alternative control technology document: Ethylene oxide sterilization/fumigation operations  

SciTech Connect

This report presents technical information that State and local agencies can use to develop strategies for reducing VOC (i.e., EO) emissions for sterilization/fumigation facilities. The information in the document will allow planners to identify available control alternatives and evaluate the VOC reduction and cost of implementing controls. The document provides information on sterilization/fumigation processes, EO (ethylene oxide) emissions, and emission reductions, and cost associated with the application of control units. Section 2.0 presents a summary of the findings of the study. Section 3.0 provides a description of sterilization/fumigation facility operations and emission sources. Section 4.0 provides a description of alternative control techniques for the reduction of ethylene oxide emissions. Section 5.0 presents a cost analysis that includes a methodology for computing annualized equipment and operating costs. A list of contacts at various Federal agencies who are knowledgeable about sterilization/fumigation processes is presented in Appendix A.

Not Available

1989-03-01

103

INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

2000-03-01

104

Alternate Approaches to Teaching Medical Technology: The Simulated Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An evaluation of a non-traditional, self-contained Medical Laboratory Technology (MLT) program at Hudson Valley Community College is presented. This community based associate degree program has used simulated laboratories for 26 years and is seeking initial accreditation through a national accrediting agency. Until recently allied health programs…

Bauer, Sally McLaughlin; Newman, Dianna L.

105

IGCC: Opportunties for Alternative Energy Technologies in Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a state-of-the-technology for generating power and producing fuels and other chemical products using coal of other solid fuels such as petroleum coke and biomass. Given that IGCC may play a role in meeting ...

J. Ross J. Sherwell P. Fylnn

2010-01-01

106

Alternative learning technologies for students with special educational needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the introduction of modern technologies has allowed students with disabilities to achieve a greater degree of autonomy and independence, and favored a change in teaching that has become an increasingly “inclusive education”, focusing on special educational needs and, above all, on their hidden potential. The increasing number of students with special education needs at the university level

Enrico Giliberti; Matteo Corradini; Giacomo Guaraldi; Fabio Bertarelli; Elisabetta Genovese

2011-01-01

107

The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect

This article identifies and describes five alternative cooling technologies (magnetic, thermionic, thermoacoustic, thermoelectric, and thermotunnel) and qualitatively assesses the prospects of each technology relative to vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. Assessment of the alternatives was based on the theoretical maximum % of Carnot efficiency, the current state of development, the best % of Carnot efficiency currently achieved, developmental barriers, and the extent of development activity. The prospect for each alternative was assigned an overall qualitative rating based on the subjective, composite view of the five characteristics.

Brown, Daryl R.; Stout, Tyson E.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas

2012-12-01

108

Environmental aspects of alternative energy technologies for California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: cost-benefit analysis of energy impacts on biological, geophysical, and social environments; impacts of soft and transition technologies such as solar heat, on-site\\/central wind systems, waste\\/farm biomass systems, geothermal heat\\/electricity, hydroelectric dams, and fluidized-bed coal burners; observations on increased efficiency; and needs for further work. An appendix on biomass includes discussions of environmental impacts associated with

J. P. Holdren; G. Morris; G. Tanenbaum

1978-01-01

109

Alternatives to low-temperature poly-Si technology in active matrix displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) technology as an active matrix (AM) in flat panel displays (FPDs) has been a struggle and remains costly. The situation motivates companies to investigate alternative AM technologies. Some projects try to relieve the low temperature constraint by switching the substrate material to a metal foil. Some companies try simply to make the most out of

James S. Flores

2001-01-01

110

EPA engineering issue: Technology alternatives for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil and sediment  

SciTech Connect

The document is intended to familiarize On-scene Coordinators (OSCs) and Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) with issues important to the successful selection of technology alternatives available for the remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with PCBs at Superfund sites. The primary purpose of the report is to provide OSCs and RPMs with information on established, demonstrated, and emerging technology alternatives for remediating PCB-contaminated soil and sediment. The secondary purpose is to provide basic information on characteristics of PCBs, regulations governing PCB remediation, sampling and data collection methods applicable to PCB contamination, analytical methods and technologies used to quantify PCB contamination, treatability studies, and sources of further information.

Davila, B.; Whitford, K.W.; Saylor, E.S.

1993-10-01

111

Access to augmentative and alternative communication: new technologies and clinical decision-making.  

PubMed

Children with severe physical impairments require a variety of access options to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and computer technology. Access technologies have continued to develop, allowing children with severe motor control impairments greater independence and access to communication. This article will highlight new advances in access technology, including eye and head tracking, scanning, and access to mainstream technology, as well as discuss future advances. Considerations for clinical decision-making and implementation of these technologies will be presented along with case illustrations. PMID:22543893

Fager, Susan; Bardach, Lisa; Russell, Susanne; Higginbotham, Jeff

2012-01-01

112

Study predicts aggressive new service industry for alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

More than 298 million tons of hazardous waste are generated in the US each year, says a new study which predicts that worries about safe drinking water and government moves to curtail land dumps will result in a $13 billion-a-year industry by 1994 for commercial handlers who recycle, recover, reduce, or treat materials. Hazardous Waste Resource Recovery in the US (number1618), a 193-page analysis by Frost and Sullivan, points out that almost 250,000 sites will be generating toxic waste by the turn of the decade - from large chemical plants to the local golf course (waste pesticides) or photo processor (spent solvents). And that's not counting the average US household, which between garden chemicals, paints, pool chemicals, used motor oil, antifreeze, and other compounds generates at least 10 lbs. a year of hazardous waste. Frost and Sullivan identifies the wastes most urgently in need of alternatives at present as organics (commonly solvents or pesticides); aqueous waste with heavy metal contaminants (primarily from the metals industries); and cyanide wastes (metal extraction from ores, removing petroleum contaminants, and making synthetic fibers.

Not Available

1987-04-01

113

Technological Impacts and Determinism in Technology Education: Alternate Metaphors from Social Constructivism  

Microsoft Academic Search

of technology education. The notion of technological impacts is simple to com- prehend and has permitted the field to interpret technology in the context of society and culture, but it has also contributed to a simplistic and inflexible view of the relationship between technology and society. The expression \\

John R. Pannabecker

114

[Hardening and softening phenomena in beans: technological alternatives].  

PubMed

The effect of accelerated hardening and soaking solutions on cooking time and microstructure of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. Two varieties (Canario and Mayocoba) were grown in the same location. Three hardening procedures were used: 1) End A. Soaking in acetate buffer, pH = 4.0 at 37 degrees C for 5 hs, 2) End B. Storage at 37 degrees C, 100% RH for 28 days and, 3) End C storage at 13-33 degrees C, 76% RH for 120 days. The salt solutions used for soaking were: Soln 1 (1% NaCl+0.75% NaHCO3) and Soln 2 (0.75% NaHCO3). Cooking times were determined using a Mattson bean cooker. In both varieties, the three hardening procedures decreased (38-50%) cotyledons water holding capacity and increased significantly (2-4 times) cooking times. During soaking in salt solutions hardened beans reached maximum water absorption in four hours. Soaking in salt solutions decreased drastically (2.6-10.6 times) cooking times. Fresh, hardened and softened seeds were examined by light microscopy, observing ultrastructural differences among them. The methods used in this research might well represent the central components of an industrial technological procedure for the utilization of hardened beans. PMID:1342167

Palma-Tirado, M L; Reyes-Moreno, C; Cárabez-Trejo, A; Montes-Rivera, R; Paredes-López, O

1992-09-01

115

Potential for using alternative energy technologies in group central heating systems in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide a description of the stock of Swedish group centrals and to determine the different factors which must be taken into account when considering alternative energy technologies in existing group centrals. This work is part of a larger effort that should eventually lead to an evaluation of the potential for using alternative energy sources in group central heating systems.

Olsson, S.

1983-01-01

116

Alternative technologies for refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Final report, October 1991-December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and commercial refrigeration. A fundamental criterion for the selection of the alternative refrigeration technologies to be assessed was that they be environmentally safe. The study was conducted in three phases: a survey of U.S. patents, system modeling, and a technology assessment. Each refrigeration application was defined by a set of thermal source and sink temperatures. The U.S. patent survey was conducted from 1918 to the present. A method was developed for classifying refrigeration technologies found during the survey.

Gauger, D.C.; Shapiro, H.N.; Pate, M.B.

1995-05-01

117

Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case studies document is intended for use by regulators, facility owners and operators, consultants, academics, and stakeholder associated with solid waste, hazardous waste, and mixed waste alternative landfill cover projects. The purpose of the case...

2003-01-01

118

Screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to investigate potential remedial alternatives for the cleanup of agent-contaminated soils. The chemical agents of concern include levinstein mustard, lewisite, sarin, and VX. This investigation has been initially divided into three phases: (1) a literature search to determine what, if any, previous studies have been conducted; (2) a technologies-screening critique of remedial technologies as alternatives to incineration; and (3) an investigation of promising alternatives on RMA soil at the laboratory and bench-scale levels. This paper summarizes the document produced as a result of the technologies screening. The purpose of the document was to determine the applicability of 25 technologies to remediation of agent-contaminated soil for a general site. Technologies were critiqued on the basis of applicability to soil type, applicability to the agents of concern at RMA, applicability to other types of contaminants, cost of the treatment, current status of the technology, and residuals produced.

Shem, L.M.; Ballou, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Besmer, M.G. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

119

Chemical Technology and Economics in Environmental Perspectives. Task II. Investigation of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons in Selected Aerosol Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several aerosol propellant applications of chlorofluorocarbons were examined to identify existing and technologically feasible alternatives. Associated cost factors were also considered. Interested parties brought these chlorofluorocarbon applications to ...

T. W. Lapp H. Gadberry G. L. Lelso R. O. Welch F. Hoffmeister

1978-01-01

120

Dispersion Modeling to Compare Alternative Technologies for Odor Remediation at Swine Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of 18 alternative technologies for reducing odor dispersion at and beyond the boundary of swine facilities was assessed in conjunction with an initiative sponsored through agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. The trajectory and spatial distribution of odor emitted at each facility were modeled at 200 and

Susan S. Schiffman; Brevick G. Graham; C. Mike Williams; Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Juha Siikamaki; Viney Aneja; S. Arya; D.-S. Kim; Ian Rumsey; H. L. Arkinson; H. Semunegus; K. S. Bajwa; D. A. Dickey; L. A. Stefanski; L. Todd; K. Mottus; W. P. Robarge; Carsten Skjøth; Thomas Ellermann; Ole Hertel; Steen Gyldenkærne; Mette Mikkelsen; Chris Henry; Peter Watts; Peter Nicholas; Yael Laor; Jacek Koziel; Lingshuang Cai; Uzi Ravid; Stephen Goetz; Yang Zhang; Chris Occhipinti; William Showers; Dev Niyogi; Linda Geiser; Anne Ingersoll; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Scott Copeland; Stefania Korontzi; Jessica McCarty; Christopher Justice; Semra Tuncel; Nur Oztas; M. Erduran

2008-01-01

121

Stressors and Family Supports: Families with Children Using Augmentative & Alternative Communication Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A statewide (Pennsylvania) survey examined stressors and family supports of 59 families with children (ages 3 through 12) who use augmentative and alternative technology. The Parenting Stress Index and the Family Support Scale revealed that both parents perceived child-related variables of acceptance and demand as stressful but that mothers and…

Jones, Sheila Dove; Angelo, Dianne H.; Kokoska, Stephen M.

1999-01-01

122

Improving the Design of Augmentative and Alternative Technologies for Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

If children with significant communication disabilities are to attain the power of language, literacy, and communication early in their development, they must have access to appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. AAC technologies for young children should (a) be highly appealing, capturing, and sustaining of their interest; (b) be seamlessly integrated into all aspects of daily living; (c) provide

Janice C. Light; Kathryn D. R. Drager

2002-01-01

123

Processing technologies: an alternative for cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruits and cladodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus pear has become an important fruit crop in many semi-arid lands of the world. The fruit and the young cladodes (‘nopalitos’) have commonly been consumed fresh, but the last decade's research studies on cactus pear processing have produced another alternative which prevents damage to the fruit and, in spite of technological characteristics that make processing a challenge (high

Carmen Saenz

2000-01-01

124

Implementation of alternative energy technologies in Nepal: towards the achievement of sustainable livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative energy technologies (AETs) (such as biogas plants, micro-hydro plants, solar photovoltaic systems and improved cooking stoves) have been deployed in Nepal with a view to provide efficient energy services. The AETs, which are friendly to the environment, have a potential to increase social and economic opportunities at the local level and help in improving people's livelihood. They are especially

Ishara Mahat

2004-01-01

125

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology: An alternative means of power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption in the world is increasing, as well as the demand for efficient and quality electric power supply that ensures a greener environment. Consequently, the deployment of renewable energy sources has become imperative. The use of renewable resources like hydropower, solar and wind cannot be possible without electric transmission lines. High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC), though an established technology

Chijioke Joe-Uzuegbu; Gloria Chukwudebe

2011-01-01

126

Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

Ko, G.; Simmons, III, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C. A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M. D.

2008-01-01

127

Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are…

Oliver, M.

2011-01-01

128

Good collaterals predict viable myocardium.  

PubMed

The authors undertook this study to see whether highly developed coronary collaterals at an area shed by a totally occluded coronary artery predicts myocardial viability. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a totally occluded coronary artery has been debated since its introduction. It is recommended to search for viable myocardium before opening a totally occluded coronary artery; however, there is no practical yet sensitive method of assessing myocardial viability in the catheterization laboratory. Forty-seven consecutive patients (12 women, 25.5%; 35 men, 74.5%), each with 1 totally occluded coronary artery, were prospectively enrolled to the study. After the diagnostic coronary angiography, all patients underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography to determine viable myocardium at the territory of the totally occluded coronary artery, and the status of angiographic coronary collaterals was assessed. Patients were then divided into 2 groups according to the presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of viable myocardium by stress echocardiography. Eighteen patients (38.3%) had viable myocardium (Group A) in the area shed by the totally occluded coronary artery and 29 patients (61.7%) had nonviable myocardium (Group B). The incidences of significant coronary collateral circulation to the viable (Group A) and nonviable (Group B) areas were 66.7% (12 patients) and 20.7% (6 patients), respectively (p = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent factors for viable myocardium, and only significant coronary collateral circulation was found to be an independent factor for the detection of viable myocardium (p = 0.006, OR 16.7, 95% CI 2.25 to 124.4). The sensitivity and specificity of good collateral circulation for the detection of viable myocardium were 75% and 65.7%, respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of the good coronary collateral circulation in detecting viable myocardium were 75% and 79%, respectively. The authors conclude that good coronary collaterals have a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the prediction of viability as shown by dobutamine echocardiography, and only by assessing the coronary collateral circulation can one decide for percutaneous coronary revascularization, if not for coronary artery bypass surgery. PMID:18024937

Kumbasar, Deniz; Akyürek, Omer; Dincer, Irem; Atmaca, Yusuf; Kiliçkap, Mustafa; Erol, Cetin; Oral, Dervis

129

On determining specifications and selections of alternative technologies for airport checked-baggage security screening.  

PubMed

Federal law mandates that every checked bag at all commercial airports be screened by explosive detection systems (EDS), explosive trace detection systems (ETD), or alternative technologies. These technologies serve as critical components of airport security systems that strive to reduce security risks at both national and global levels. To improve the operational efficiency and airport security, emerging image-based technologies have been developed, such as dual-energy X-ray (DX), backscatter X-ray (BX), and multiview tomography (MVT). These technologies differ widely in purchasing cost, maintenance cost, operating cost, processing rate, and accuracy. Based on a mathematical framework that takes into account all these factors, this article investigates two critical issues for operating screening devices: setting specifications for continuous security responses by different technologies; and selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. For continuous security responses, specifications or thresholds are used for classifying threat items from nonthreat items. By investigating the setting of specifications on system security responses, this article assesses the risk and cost effectiveness of various technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. The findings provide the best selection of image-based technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. Our study suggests that two-device systems outperform single-device systems in terms of both cost effectiveness and accuracy. The model can be readily extended to evaluate risk and cost effectiveness of multiple-device systems for airport checked-baggage security screening. PMID:18076497

Feng, Qianmei

2007-10-01

130

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16

131

Technology and School Social Work Services: Introducing Technology in an Alternative School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public school system, one of the largest human service institutions in our nation, is continuously engaged in a struggle to balance the needs of a growing and diverse population with continuing threats of budget cuts. Under these conditions, it becomes even more critical that school social workers understand and appreciate the role of technology in delivering and evaluating services.

Bhavana A. Pahwa

2003-01-01

132

Are offshore power plants realistic. [Alternative to nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore fossil-fueled electric power plants offer a positive alternative to nuclear proliferation, a viable technology for providing electricity to coastal cities. Such plants combine new technology from the offshore oil industry with efficient power generation techniques, are cheaper than nuclear plants, and could burn coal or solid waste or a mixture of both. Offshore power plants could utilize ocean water

Adler

1976-01-01

133

Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production  

SciTech Connect

The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process has been developed combining initial dry milling of corn with subsequent solvent extraction of protein and conversion of starch to syrup. Based on laboratory studies of the alternative process, the water removal load is less than half of that for wet milling and a full scale plant using the alternative technology should require 30% less energy than a corresponding wet milling facility. Further developmental work is in progress on a pilot plant scale to allow process optimization and to afford more accurate evaluations of the energy requirements of the proposed process.

Russell, M.H.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-01-01

134

Good Collaterals Predict Viable Myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors undertook this study to see whether highly developed coronary collaterals at an area shed by a totally occluded coronary artery predicts myocardial viability. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a totally occluded coronary artery has been debated since its introduction. It is recommended to search for viable myocardium before opening a totally occluded coronary artery; however, there is no

Deniz Kumbasar; Ömer Akyürek; Irem Dincer; Yusuf Atmaca; Mustafa K?l?çkap; Çetin Erol

2007-01-01

135

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application,

W. L. Foutz; J. E. Rogers; J. D. Mather

2008-01-01

136

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn

1997-01-01

137

ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

DADO MA

2008-07-31

138

Genome Engineering with TAL-Effector Nucleases and Alternative Modular Nuclease Technologies.  

PubMed

Over three years following the discovery of the TAL code, artificial TAL effector DNA binding domains have emerged as the premier platform for building site-specific DNA binding polypeptides for use in biological research. Here, we provide an overview of TAL effector and alternative modular DNA binding domain (mDBD) technologies, focusing on their use in established and emerging architectures for building site-specific endonucleases for genome engineering applications. We also discuss considerations for choosing TAL effector/mDBD or alternative nuclease technologies for genome engineering projects ranging from basic laboratory gene editing of cultured cell lines to therapeutics. Finally, we highlight how the rapid pace of development of mDBD-based, such as monomeric TALENs (I-TevI-TAL), and more recently RNA-guided nucleases (CRISPR-Cas9) has led to a transition in the field of genome engineering towards development of the next generation of technologies aimed at controlling events that occur after targeted DNA breaks are made. PMID:23888878

Scharenberg, Andrew M; Duchateau, Philippe; Smith, Julianne

2013-08-01

139

Industrial coal gasification: technology, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of coal into low Btu gas is a viable alternative to fuel oil and natural gas. The conversion of coal into a low BTU gas is becoming a more attractive alternative to natural gas and fuel oil in the industrial community. With the time proven technology of fixed bed gasifiers, the wide range of applications and the large fuel

1984-01-01

140

Chemical Technology and Economics in Environmental Perspectives. Task . Investigation of Alternatives for Selected Aerosol Propellants and Related Applications of Chlorofluorocarbons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several aerosol propellant and related applications of fluorocarbons were examined to identify existing and technologically feasible alternatives. Associated cost factors were also considered. Interested parties brought these fluorocarbon applications to ...

T. W. Lapp G. L. Kelso L. Breed H. Gadberry T. Milne

1977-01-01

141

Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-07-01

142

Viable but Not Cultivable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A well-studied, long-term survival mechanism employed by Gram-positive bacteria is formation of endospores. For Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria, the assumption has been that a survival state does not exist. However, a dormancy state has been described for Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria and designated as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) strategy of nonspore-forming cells. A variety of environmental\\u000a factors are involved in induction of the

Rita Colwell

143

A Preliminary Study: Do Alternative Certification Route Programs Develop the Necessary Skills and Knowledge in Assistive Technology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A large number of special education teachers in the United States are prepared in alternative certification programs and insufficient empirical information exists regarding their knowledge of assistive technology. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of alternatively licensed special education teachers' knowledge,…

Bell, Sherry Mee; Cihak, David F.; Judge, Sharon

2010-01-01

144

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehi...

M. Q. Wang

1997-01-01

145

Individual Characteristics and Stated Preferences for Alternative Energy Sources and Propulsion Technologies in Vehicles: A Discrete Choice Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric

Andreas Ziegler

2010-01-01

146

Alternatives to low-temperature poly-Si technology in active matrix displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) technology as an active matrix (AM) in flat panel displays (FPDs) has been a struggle and remains costly. The situation motivates companies to investigate alternative AM technologies. Some projects try to relieve the low temperature constraint by switching the substrate material to a metal foil. Some companies try simply to make the most out of a-Si:H technology. Another strategy is to replace silicons as the TFT channel material. Examples include CdSe and even an organic material like pentacene. When crystalline silicon is considered best, engineers consider how to replace excimer laser annealing (ELA) and its cost. A prominent example is the effort at MIT, which printed devices with a kind of 'semiconductor ink'. The best prospects for inexpensive AM backplanes may be plastic transistors and c-Si block assembly. Current leaders of AM technology, a-Si:H and ELA- LTPS, might still end up offering better overall performance, but their costs will probably be higher.

Flores, James S.

2001-04-01

147

Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks  

SciTech Connect

A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-02-01

148

Economic feasibility study for new technological alternatives in wastewater treatment processes: a review.  

PubMed

The concept of sustainability involves the integration of economic, environmental, and social aspects and this also applies in the field of wastewater treatment. Economic feasibility studies are a key tool for selecting the most appropriate option from a set of technological proposals. Moreover, these studies are needed to assess the viability of transferring new technologies from pilot-scale to full-scale. In traditional economic feasibility studies, the benefits that have no market price, such as environmental benefits, are not considered and are therefore underestimated. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new methodology to assess the economic viability of wastewater treatment technologies that considers internal and external impacts. The estimation of the costs is based on the use of cost functions. To quantify the environmental benefits from wastewater treatment, the distance function methodology is proposed to estimate the shadow price of each pollutant removed in the wastewater treatment. The application of this methodological approach by decision makers enables the calculation of the true costs and benefits associated with each alternative technology. The proposed methodology is presented as a useful tool to support decision making. PMID:22339025

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

2012-01-01

149

Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. PMID:22366515

Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

2012-02-16

150

Is the digitization of laparoscopic movement using accessible alternative technologies possible?  

PubMed

It is widely documented that laparoscopic surgeons require training, and an objective evaluation of the training that they receive. The most advanced evaluation systems integrate the digitization of the movement of laparoscopic tools. A great number of these systems, however, do not permit the use of real tools and their high cost limits their academic impact. Likewise, it is documented that new and accessible systems need to be developed. The aim of this article is to explore the possibility of digitizing the movement of laparoscopic tools in a three-dimensional workspace, using accessible alternative technology. Our proposal uses a commercial Wii video game control in conjunction with a program for determining kinematic variables during the execution of a recognition task. PMID:21718209

Lorias Espinoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez Gnecchi, José Antonio; Martínez, Arturo Minor

2011-07-01

151

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies for foam building insulations  

SciTech Connect

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) have been used as blowing agents in foam insulation, as the working fluids in cooling and refrigeration equipment, and as solvents in general and precision cleaning applications since their introduction in the 1930s. The number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s, but in the mid-1980s it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric zone and that they are the primary cause of the CFCs have also been found to be second only to carbon dioxide as a factor causing increased greenhouse warming. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of those alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential building insulation, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. This paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to building insulation. In general the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact, lifetime equivalent C0{sub 2} emissions (TEWI). Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-01-01

152

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies for foam building insulations  

SciTech Connect

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) have been used as blowing agents in foam insulation, as the working fluids in cooling and refrigeration equipment, and as solvents in general and precision cleaning applications since their introduction in the 1930s. The number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s, but in the mid-1980s it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric zone and that they are the primary cause of the CFCs have also been found to be second only to carbon dioxide as a factor causing increased greenhouse warming. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of those alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential building insulation, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. This paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to building insulation. In general the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact, lifetime equivalent C0{sub 2} emissions (TEWI). Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-09-01

153

Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

1995-12-01

154

Assessing the Impact of Alternative Voting Technologies on Multi-Party Elections: Design Features, Heuristic Processing and Voter Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the influence of alternative voting technologies on electoral outcomes in multi-party systems. Using data\\u000a from a field experiment conducted during the 2005 legislative election in Argentina, we examine the role of information effects\\u000a associated with alternative voting devices on the support for the competing parties. We find that differences in the type\\u000a of information displayed and how

Gabriel KatzR; R. Michael Alvarez; Ernesto Calvo; Marcelo Escolar; Julia Pomares

2011-01-01

155

Synchronous Reluctance Machines-A Viable Alternative for AC Drives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although design of the variable reluctance (switched reluctance( type of synchronous machine has experienced intense activity in recent years, relatively little effort has been expended on improving the torque capability of the synchronous reluctance type of motor drive. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, it appears that substantial improvements can be made in the design of such motor

T. A. Lipo

1991-01-01

156

A Viable Alternative: Rural Volunteer Emergency Medical Coordinators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A pilot project to assess the usefulness of rural volunteer Emergency Medical Coordinators (EMC's) was initiated in 36 rural Georgian towns of less than 2,000 population. An EMC program was established in those 36 rural towns that had no physician or ambulance service, to provide a rapid response to accidental injuries in order to maintain life…

Kishbaugh, Darlene; And Others

157

The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2008-01-01

158

Is Narrative a Viable Alternative to Scientific Discourse?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 3 decades or so, English and its related disciplines of Rhetoric and Composition have adopted new tools of research--tools other than the traditional ones of narrative and description. These other tools are empirical or scientific, those that are common to the social sciences, including experiments, case studies, surveys, and…

Silk, Christine Murphy

159

A flexible finite-horizon alternative to long-run restrictions with an application to technology shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies using long-run restrictions question the validity of the technology-driven real business cycle hypothesis. We propose an alternative identi cation that maximizes the contribution of technology shocks to the forecast-error variance of labor productivity at a long, but finite, horizon. In small-sample Monte Carlo experiments, our identification outperforms standard long-run restrictions by significantly reducing the bias in the short-run

Neville Francis; Michael T. Owyang; Jennifer E. Roush; Riccardo DiCecio

2010-01-01

160

Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There will be differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available 'practical'. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

1992-07-01

161

The Effect of Using Alternative Assessment Activities on Students' Success and Attitudes in Science and Technology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design with control group was used in this study, in which the impact of alternative assessment activities on students' academic achievement levels and attitudes were explored by employing these activities in the unit "Electricity in Our Lives" of the Science and Technology Course. The research was…

Kirikkaya, Esma Bulus; Vurkaya, Gurbet

2011-01-01

162

Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios

Amit Kumar; S. C Bhattacharya; H. L Pham

2003-01-01

163

Approaches to Technology in Biology and Chemistry Classes: An Alternative Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for extending the definition of "technology" in education to include much more than just computers, and for recognizing the dangers of using technology for its entertainment purposes. Two conceptions of the proper use of technology in science classrooms are offered: (1) technology as tool; and (2) technology as topic. Specific…

Jervis, Charles K.

164

Technology assessment of alternative fuels by CO 2 fixation use in passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative fuel vehicles were investigated as a possible mitigation measure to reduce CO2 emissions. Fuel economies of several alternative cars were compared, and integrated CO2 emissions from fuel mining to consumption in Japan were calculated. The alternative fuel vehicles we investigated were methanol, compressed natural gas, electric, hydrogen, hybrid (internal combustion engine and motor), and fuel cell vehicles.Our calculations showed

Yukio Yanagisawa

1997-01-01

165

Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment. Volume 1: Summary of central station technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technologies selected for the detailed characterization were: solar technology; terrestrial photovoltaic (200 MWe); coal technologies; conventional high sulfur coal combustion with advanced fine gas desulfurization (1250 MWe), and open cycle gas turbine combined cycle plant with low Btu gasifier (1250 MWe); and nuclear technologies: conventional light water reactor (1250 MWe), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (1250 MWe), and magnetic fusion reactor (1320 MWe). A brief technical summary of each power plant design is given.

1980-08-01

166

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-01-01

167

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-12-31

168

Towards viable computer systems: a set theory interpretation of ecological dependence within Beer's self-organizing viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is research articulating a novel technology progressing resource management within self-organizing systems. Examining both Cybernetic and Autonomic Computing techniques we evolve a set-theory oriented, atomically-derived, emergent model that reflects an algorithmic decomposition of Beer's recursive, multi-agent Viable System Model, pertinent by its composition of multiple and independent entities, sharing one or more objectives. Integrated management promotes each sub-system as

R. J. Thompson; A. G. Laws; D. J. Reilly; A. Taleb-bendiab; David Llewellyn-jones

2009-01-01

169

Historical London through the Lens of Technology A Facilitative Learning Approach as Authentic Alternative for Teaching the History of Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a unique course developed by a multidisciplinary team of faculty from the College of Applied Science at the University of Cincinnati. The course provides an opportunity for Honors Program students to develop an appreciation for the strong inter-relationship between technology and society by exploring the history and developing technology of four structures in London: the Tower of

Eric Inglert; Kathleen Ossman

2005-01-01

170

High Frequency Alternator, Power Frequency Conversion (HFA-PFC) technology for Lightweight Tactical Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes Variable Speed High Frequency Alternators for diesel engine gen-sets with variable speeds in the range of from 600 RPM to 3, 600 RPM and High Frequency Alternators for gas turbine gen-sets with variable speeds in the range of from ...

P. Shapiro S. Shapiro

1995-01-01

171

Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies has been conducted. The alternative technologies are coal-gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Fusion was not included in this preliminary work but will be a part of the final evaluation based on available research, to identify a suitable assessment methodology, and to identify data deficiencies. The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts at comparative or single-technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research. (WHK)

Newsom, D.E.; Wolsko, T.D.

1980-04-01

172

Technology S-curves in renewable energy alternatives: Analysis and implications for industry and government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plotting the performance of a technology against the money or effort invested in it most often yields an S-shaped curve: slow initial improvement, then accelerated improvement, then diminishing improvement. These S-curves can be used to gain insight into the relative payoff of investment in competing technologies, as well as providing some insight into when and why some technologies overtake others

Melissa A. Schilling; Melissa Esmundo

2009-01-01

173

Stressors and Family Supports: Families with Children Using Augmentative & Alternative Communication Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statewide survey was conducted in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Assistive Technology Center of Harrisburg to identify the stressors and family supports of 59 families with young children between the ages of 3 and 12 years who use AAC technology and technology services. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyze the data. Parenting Stress Index results revealed both fathers

Sheila Dove Jones; Dianne H. Angelo; Stephen M. Kokoska

1999-01-01

174

Technologie Industrielle d'Encapsulation Economique et Fiable pour Panneaux Solaires de Grandes Dimensions. Rapport Final (Industrial Technology of an Economical and Viable Process for the Encapsulation of Large Size Solar Panels).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The various experiments carried out show that the technology of laminated glass employed in the building and car industries may be applied, if suitably modified, to the encapsulation of solar panels. The behavior of the panels in field tests has been sati...

J. Anguet Y. Salles

1983-01-01

175

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Back Pain II. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 194.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Back and neck pain are important health problems with serious societal and economic implications. Conventional treatments have been shown to have limited benefit in improving patient outcomes. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies offer a...

A. Furlan A. Gross A. Tsertsvadze F. Yazdi M. Van Tulder

2010-01-01

176

Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

1981-04-01

177

A quarter-micron interconnection technology using Al-Si-Cu\\/TiN alternated layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel interconnection structure using Al-Si-Cu\\/TiN alternated layers has been investigated as a quarter-micron interconnection candidate for 256 MDRAM. A TiN\\/Al-1%Si-0.5%Cu\\/TiN\\/Al-1%Si-0.5%Cu\\/TiN\\/Ti layered film structure was designed for both electro- and stress-migration-resistant interconnections. This alternated layer structure has extremely high endurances in terms of mechanical hardness, tensile strength, and electromigration lifetime

T. Kikkawa; H. Aoki; E. Ikawa; J. Drynan

1991-01-01

178

Viable Palatini-f(R) cosmologies with generalized dark matter  

SciTech Connect

We study the formation of large-scale structure in universes dominated by dark matter and driven to accelerated expansion by f(R) gravity in the Palatini formalism. If the dark matter is cold, practically all of these models are ruled out because they fail to reproduce the observed matter power spectrum. We point out that if the assumption that dark matter is perfect and pressureless at all scales is relaxed, nontrivial alternatives to a cosmological constant become viable within this class of modified gravity models.

Koivisto, Tomi [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland, and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki University, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2007-08-15

179

Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

NONE

1996-09-01

180

Lecturers' Attitudes Towards the use of Technology: Alternative Strategies for Faculty Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the last two decades of this age of globalization we are living, technological advancement remarked every aspect of our lives significantly and especially the developments in the information technologies has revolutionized the teaching and learning centered activities as well as the research related activities in higher education. Apart from…

Hacifazlioglu, Ozge; Sacli, Oser Asim; Yengin, Ilker

2007-01-01

181

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. III. Fossil energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews both innovative fossil energy sources (tar sands, oil shale, and unconventional natural gas), and more established technologies that are being considered as suppliers of gaseous and liquid fuels (that is, coal gasification and liquefaction). Potential health and safety issues related to the technologies are discussed, although the absence of commercial-scale facilities in the United States restricts the

P. J. Walsh; E. L. Etnier; A. P. Watson

1981-01-01

182

Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies

Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

2009-01-01

183

Technological Minimalism: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Course Design and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of minimum levels of technology, or technological minimalism, for Web-based multimedia course content. Highlights include cost effectiveness; problems with video streaming, the use of XML for Web pages, and Flash and Java applets; listservs instead of proprietary software; and proper faculty training. (LRW)

Lorenzo, George

2001-01-01

184

Outsourcing information technology  

SciTech Connect

Although it has become almost routine in most industries, outsourcing has only emerged as a hot topic in the utility industry over the past few years. Information technology (IT) is a prime candidate for outsourcing alternatives. And while not a panacea for all utilities, the trend to consider outsourcing one or more IT functions will become increasingly important as companies struggle to cope with deregulation and competitive pressures. This article describes how to determine if outsourcing is a viable alternative for a utility, and how to determine what is to be outsourced and how to manage the contract.

Gordon, K.A. (Planmetrics Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-01-15

185

Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto

G. A. McCoy; J. Kerstetter; J. K. Lyons

1993-01-01

186

Educational Technology and Cost Reduction in Higher Education: Five Alternative Futures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scenarios depicting both positive and negative alternative futures were prepared to serve as a source of ideas in this study of ways to improve education with less money. Included in this third volume are (1) a disaster scenario based on piecemeal, reacti...

R. G. Stakenas R. A. Kaufman

1977-01-01

187

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX CONTROL: ALTERNATE FUELS AND FLUIDIZED-BED COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effect of alternate fuels and fluidized coal combustion in controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The current trend in energy use in the U.S. is toward greater use of coal and coal derived fuels, and on ensuring that these fuels are produced an...

188

Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process

M. H. Russell; G. T. Tsao

1981-01-01

189

Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

2009-01-01

190

Electric vehicles - an alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto

G. A. McCoy; J. K. Lyons

1993-01-01

191

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Back Pain Utilization Report. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 177.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This systematic review was undertaken to evaluate which complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are being used for persons with back pain in the United States. A total of 103 publications were evaluated; of these 29 did not present CAM ther...

A. Gross J. Busse J. Gagnier K. Walker M. Bhandari P. Raina P. L. Santaguida

2009-01-01

192

A comparison of alternative technologies to decarbonize Canada's passenger transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a full systems model of Canada's economy, six alternative scenarios to de-carbonize the personal passenger vehicle fleet are compared to a business as usual non de-carbonized scenario in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, trade disposition of energy commodities, and the physical resources required for energy production. Three scenarios are analyzed to compare the impacts of increasing either ethanol 85,

Paul A. Steenhof; Bertram C. McInnis

2008-01-01

193

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

Not Available

1992-10-01

194

The iPad and mobile technology revolution: benefits and challenges for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication.  

PubMed

The iPad and other mobile technologies provide powerful new tools to potentially enhance communication for individuals with developmental disabilities, acquired neurogenic disorders, and degenerative neurological conditions. These mobile technologies offer a number of potential benefits, including: (a) increased awareness and social acceptance of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), (b) greater consumer empowerment in accessing AAC solutions, (c) increased adoption of AAC technologies, (d) greater functionality and interconnectivity, and (e) greater diffusion of AAC research and development. However, there remain a number of significant challenges that must be addressed if these benefits are to be fully realized: (a) to ensure the focus is on communication, not just technology, (b) to develop innovative models of AAC service delivery to ensure successful outcomes, (c) to ensure ease of access for all individuals who require AAC, and, (d) to maximize AAC solutions to support a wide variety of communication functions. There is an urgent need for effective collaboration among key stakeholders to support research and development activities, and to ensure the successful implementation of mobile technologies to enhance communication outcomes for individuals who require AAC and their families. PMID:23705813

McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

2013-06-01

195

Hospital adoption of medical technology: an empirical test of alternative models.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study examines hospital motivations to acquire new medical technology, an issue of considerable policy relevance: in this case, whether, when, and why hospitals acquire a new capital-intensive medical technology, magnetic resonance imaging equipment (MRI). STUDY DESIGN. We review three common explanations for medical technology adoption: profit maximization, technological preeminence, and clinical excellence, and incorporate them into a composite model, controlling for regulatory differences, market structures, and organizational characteristics. All four models are then tested using Cox regressions. DATA SOURCES. The study is based on an initial sample of 637 hospitals in the continental United States that owned or leased an MRI unit as of 31 December 1988, plus nonadopters. Due to missing data the final sample consisted of 507 hospitals. The data, drawn from two telephone surveys, are supplemented by the AHA Survey, census data, and industry and academic sources. PRINCIPAL FINDING. Statistically, the three individual models account for roughly comparable amounts of variance in past adoption behavior. On the basis of explanatory power and parsimony, however, the technology model is "best." Although the composite model is statistically better than any of the individual models, it does not add much more explanatory power adjusting for the number of variables added. CONCLUSIONS. The composite model identified the importance a hospital attached to being a technological leader, its clinical requirements, and the change in revenues it associated with the adoption of MRI as the major determinants of adoption behavior. We conclude that a hospital's adoption behavior is strongly linked to its strategic orientation.

Teplensky, J. D.; Pauly, M. V.; Kimberly, J. R.; Hillman, A. L.; Schwartz, J. S.

1995-01-01

196

Technology evaluation of sequencing batch reactors  

SciTech Connect

The results of an evaluation of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology used at several wastewater treatment plants is described. Experiences of the owners, operating personnel, and consulting engineers associated with these facilities are described. SBRs are a viable and cost-effective alternative to conventional continuous-flow technologies. The inherent advantages include equalization, ideal settling, simple operation, compact layout, and perhaps economies in cost (capital and O and M). 20 references.

Arora, M.L.; Barth, E.F.; Umphres, M.B.

1985-08-01

197

Control technology alternatives and costs for compliance: elemental phosphorus plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On April 6, 1983, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act limiting airborne polonium-210 emissions for calciner operations at domestic elemental phosphorus plants to 1 Ci/yr. To evaluate the effect of the proposed standard, physical and chemical properties of polonium through plant processes assessed. Results indicate that polonium is volatilized from phosphate ore during calcining and, for the most part, deposited on fine particulates leaving the process. Projected emissions for each elemental phosphorus plant were determined using available data, and the uncertainty associated with each estimated release was evaluated. After taking into account this uncertainty, two plants were determined to exceed the proposed limiting standard for airborne polonium emissions. One plant was found in borderline compliance. Emission control alternatives are proposed for the three plants. Cost estimates associated with each proposed alternative are provided.

Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.; Redding, R.T.; deLesdernier, D.L.; Horton, W.F.

1983-12-01

198

Discharge Characteristics and Technology Development of Alternating-Current Plasma Display Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of luminosity-modulation switching principles in matrix displays showed that an AC-PDP (alternating-current plasma display panel) can produce 30 to 50-inch diagonal displays of superior motionpicture quality and of a low price. Comparison with a process plasma and a thermonuclear fusion plasma showed that an AC-PDP plasma in each cell has extremely low degrees of ionization, uniformity, and steadiness. The

Keizo Suzuki

2003-01-01

199

Alternative treaty monitoring approaches using ultra-low background measurement technology  

SciTech Connect

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty includes a network of stations and laboratories for collection and analysis of radioactive aerosols. Alternative approaches to IMS operations are considered as a method of enhancing treaty verification. Ultra-low background (ULB) detection promises the possibility of improvements to IMS minimum detectable activities (MDAs) well below the current approach, requiring MDAp30 mBq/m3 of air for 140Ba, or about 106 fissions per daily sample.

Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Fast, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Seifert, Allen

2009-05-01

200

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. III. Fossil energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews both innovative fossil energy sources (tar sands, oil shale, and unconventional natural gas), and more established technologies that are being considered as suppliers of gaseous and liquid fuels (that is, coal gasification and liquefaction). Potential health and safety issues related to the technologies are discussed, although the absence of commercial-scale facilities in the United States restricts the discussion to health effects information derived from related processes. The available epidemiological and carcinogenic studies give cause for concern. The study of the health and environmental impacts of the emerging fossil fuel technologies will be important for quantification of adverse effects and rectification of problems before commitment to large-scale commercialization occurs.

Walsh, P. J.; Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

1981-11-01

201

Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

202

Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1991-12-31

203

Hip resurfacing: a technology reborn  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the concept of hip resurfacing. Much of this interest has stemmed from the work of McMinn in the West Midlands. Hip resurfacing is now emerging as a viable alternative to conventional hip replacement. In this article, we discuss the conceptual advantages offered by hip resurfacing and review the early clinical results and the ongoing clinical concerns regarding this technology.

Cutts, Steven; Carter, Paul B

2006-01-01

204

Environmental and safety aspects of alternative nuclear power technologies. Fusion power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of environmental and safety issues associated with advanced nuclear power technologies is being conducted by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs. Part of this effort has been devoted to a review of fusion power systems. In the past several years, progress in fusion power research and development has led to the production of conceptual power plant designs for

B. J. Mann

1976-01-01

205

Technology Transfer and Innovation Initiatives in Strategic Management: Generating an Alternative Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper taps the strategic management discipline to inform our understanding of technology transfer and innovation (TTI) initiatives. With special focus on the UK Foresight programme it considers the impacts that the resource-based and core competence approaches to strategy can have on understanding the nature and effectiveness of TTI…

Major, E.

2003-01-01

206

Technological Alternatives to Paper-Based Components of Team-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have been using components of team-based learning (TBL) in two undergraduate courses at the University of Texas for several years: an educational psychology survey course--Cognition, Human Learning and Motivation--and Introduction to Statistics. In this chapter, they describe how they used technology in classes of fifty to seventy…

Robinson, Daniel H.; Walker, Joshua D.

2008-01-01

207

Policy vs. Consumer Pressure: Innovation and Diffusion of Alternative Bleaching Technologies in the Pulp Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, concern over dioxin in both paper products and wastewater led to the development of techniques that reduced the use of chlorine in the pulp industry. Both regulatory and consumer pressure motivated this change. We use patent data to examine the evolution of two completing bleaching technologies in five major paper-producing countries, both of

David Popp; Tamara Hafner; Nick Johnstone

2007-01-01

208

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and

A. P. Watson; E. L. Etnier

1981-01-01

209

Impact of alternative electricity generation technologies on the Scottish economy: an illustrative input—output analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

UK energy policy is at a critical juncture, with major changes in the electricity generation mix in prospect. In Scotland, significant reductions in electricity-generating capacity are expected as coal- and nuclear-powered stations close, and renewable technologies provide a growing share of total electricity. Despite these radical changes, there has as yet been no assess- ment of the likely implications for

G Allan; P G McGregor; J K Swales; K Turner

2007-01-01

210

The Story of Crownpoint Institute of Technology and Its Alternative Livestock Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To foster economic growth in the Navajo communities served by Crownpoint Institute of Technology, an initiative developed networks among educational, industrial, and nonprofit organizations. By promoting the sharing of knowledge between Navajo medicine men and veterinarians, Crownpoint has developed high quality training, employment, and small…

VanAlstine, Matthew; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami; Sanchez, Timothy

2002-01-01

211

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels; status, successes and problems of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion can be used for energy production or incineration for almost any material containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur in a combustible form, whether it be in the form of a solid, liquid, slurry or gas. The technology's fuel flexibility arises from the fact that the fuel is present in the combustor at a low level and is burnt

E. J Anthony

1995-01-01

212

An Alternative Approach to Development and Diffusion of Technology for Dry Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological variability in dry regions is quite high at a short distance. Developing technologies at the research stations which are suitable for different ecological niches will require a very large number of well dispersed research stations. In addition it will require large facilities for on farm research. Even after that, it is unlikely that scientist will be able to develop

Anil K. Gupta

213

Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising

Raghvendra R. Gejji

1993-01-01

214

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the treatment works. Self-sustaining incineration...based on the conventional concept of treatment (by...criteria. Inherent in the concept of advancement of technology...a full, operational scale under the circumstances...operation on a smaller scale. The risk must...

2010-07-01

215

Technology-Based Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a growing need to implement an alternative and viable solution in U.S. K-12 schools that will address the ever-growing gap that the rapidly growing English language learner (ELL) population presents. This article examines various technology-based solutions, and their potential impact. The systematic implementation of these…

White, Erin L.; Gillard, Sharlett

2011-01-01

216

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Comparison and evaluation of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CTAS compared and evaluated various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for industrial cogeneration applications. The principal aim of the study was to provide information needed by DOE to establish research and development (R&D) funding priorities for advanced-technology systems that could significantly advance the use of coal or coal-derived fuels in industrial cogeneration. Steam turbines, diesel engines, open-cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, closed-cycle gas turbines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and thermionics were studied with technology advancements appropriate for the 1985-2000 time period. The various advanced systems were compared and evaluated for a wide diversity of representative industrial plants on the basis of fuel energy savings, annual energy cost savings, emissions savings, and rate of return on investment (ROI) as compared with purchasing electricity from a utility and providing process heat with an on-site boiler.

1984-08-01

217

The use of alternative technologies to develop malolactic fermentation in wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the malolactic fermentation, bioconversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid, is a difficult and time-consuming process that does not always proceed favorably under the natural conditions of wine. Traditional fermentations are used worldwide to produce high-quality wines, although delay or failure is not an unusual outcome. During recent years several technologies have been proposed to induce biological

S. Maicas

2001-01-01

218

Alternative Learning Arenas - Pedagogical Challenges to Mobile Learning Technology in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

ICT-implementation in education has mostly been aimed at enhancing learning informal arenas-the classroom. However, accepting that learning does not only forego in the formal learning arenas, it is proposed that mobile technology can be used as a bridge between the formal and informal learning arenas. The question is whether the bridge between school and other arenas open or closed-is there

Louise Mifsud

2002-01-01

219

Alternative technology and quality of life: An exploratory survey of British Columbia smallholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade there has occurred a significant demographic shift in North American society as rural areas become repopulated by urban-to-rural migration. Part of this migratory flow is the smallholding movement, families and individuals practicing near subsistence agriculture on small parcels of land. Central to the ideology of smallholding are the notions of simple living and technological self-reliance through

Merlin B. Brinkerhoff; Jeffrey C. Jacob

1984-01-01

220

Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

Batzias, Dimitris F.

2012-12-01

221

A potential impact of computer technology on students' alternative conceptions and explanatory style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact a computer simulation may have on the process of altering learners' conceptions and explanatory styles in a specific science learning situation. For the investigation of the conceptualization process, it is assumed that children come to understand science through a process in which they question and modify their own alternative conceptions. Further, since science frequently depends on conceptions that cannot be derived from direct observation, successful teaching strategies frequently utilize activities and tools that facilitate constructions of conceptions that are more abstract than those previously relied upon by students prior to their school experience. A computer simulation may provide a unique learning tool for this purpose by bridging a gap between abstract conception and direct experience in situations where laboratory reconstructions are not possible or feasible. For the investigation of explanatory style, it is assumed that students who tend to attribute success and failure in learning to themselves also tend to be interested in learning. Students who are inclined to see themselves as responsible for their own success or failure have an optimistic explanatory style. Students inclined to see external factors as responsible have a helpless explanatory style. Conceptualization, specifically, conceptualization of friction and gravity, is assessed by a variation of the Interview-about-Instances technique. Explanatory style is measured by Crandall's Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale for Conceptualization of Friction and Gravity. The study targets fifth and sixth grade students in a suburban setting. Quantitative Analysis indicates that the effective utilization of the software Sir Isaac Newton's Games improves student conceptualization of friction and gravity, and prevents drops toward a less optimistic explanatory style. Also shown is a tendency for students with more accurate conceptions of friction and gravity to have a more optimistic explanatory style. Qualitative analysis supports previous alternative conceptions research, and also suggests that some students may change conceptions greatly in a relatively short period of time.

Swan, Ralph E.

222

Teachers' technological readiness for online professional development: evidence from the US e-Learning for Educators initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although online professional development (OPD) is recognised as a viable alternative to face-to-face professional development, there are some obstacles to the delivery of effective OPD. This study examines one such obstacle, teachers' technological readiness for OPD participation. In particular, this study examines six research questions regarding the technological readiness of US elementary and secondary educators who participate in OPD. The

Todd D. Reeves; Zhushan Li

2012-01-01

223

Energy technology perspectives: conservation, carbon dioxide reduction and production from alternative sources  

SciTech Connect

The book contains 13 papers from the symposium on carbon dioxide reduction metallurgy 2009 and 14 papers from the symposium TMS 2009 annual and exhibition: Energy conservation in metals extraction and materials processing II. Papers include: Recent developments in carbon dioxide capture materials and process for energy industry; Reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in steel industry based on LCA methodology; Enhanced energy efficiency and emission reduction through oxy-fuel technology in the metals industry; Mechanism and application of catalytic combustion of pulverized coal; and Oxyfuel-energy efficient melting.

N. Neelameggham; R. Reddy; C. Belt; E. Vidal (eds.) [Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

224

Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils - Phase 2 Report: Screening of Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification (ISV) processes and their applicability to remediation of the Weldon Spring site based on existing information and previous PNL experience with similar wastes. Subsequent treatability tests and product analysis were conducted by PNL to further evaluate the JHCM and ISV processes. The treatability tests involved laboratory and bench-scale tests with actual raffinate sludge and uncontaminated soil from the Weldon Spring site. The vitrified product from the JHCM and ISV treatability tests was analyzed for a wide range of characteristics, including durability (leach resistance), strength, and toxicity. Both the process performance test and product quality were used to assess the two PNL vitrification technologies to determine their effectiveness, implementability, and cost. 11 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

Koegler, S.S.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Bates, S.O.

1989-11-01

225

Climate and energy: a comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate were assessed. The energy technologies examined were coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focused on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emissions of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long-range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100-fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that primary particulate emissions from coal combustion constitute a small percentage of total atmospheric particulates; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO/sub 2/, which may, by about 2050, increase world temperature 2 to 3/sup 0/C, with pronounced effects on world climate; that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of an SPS may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences; and that much research in climatology is needed before potential effects can be quantitatively predicted with any confidence. Although climatic impact is an appropriate concern in formulating long-term energy policy, the level of uncertainty about it suggests that it is not currently useful as a decision criterion. 88 references.

Kellermeyer, D.A.

1980-01-01

226

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01

227

Illinois Institute of Technology Report: IITB52 Antifoamer for Alternative Salt Processes  

SciTech Connect

The attached report is a summary of the work performed by Dr. Darsh Wasan, Dr. Alex Nikolov, and their researchers at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) during FY01. IIT developed the IITB52 antifoam for SRTC in FY00 to minimize the foam produced during precipitation, washing and concentration of cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate precipitate. The IITB52 antifoam has been very successful during continuous processing (prototypical of plant operation). However, there were several key issues where SRTC needed the experience and knowledge of IIT to resolve. As a result a subcontract was set up with Dr. Wasan and Dr. Alex Nikolov during FY01. This subcontract requested IIT to perform the basic research necessary to understand the foaming mechanism and explain the effectiveness of the IITB52 antifoam agent in the Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP).

Lambert, D.P.

2001-06-27

228

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space.  

PubMed

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency. PMID:11543506

Mileikowsky, C; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Gladman, B; Horneck, G; Lindegren, L; Melosh, J; Rickman, H; Valtonen, M; Zheng, J Q

2000-06-01

229

Alternative energy resources; A Kenyan perspective  

SciTech Connect

Kenya's heavy dependence on petroleum has had an adverse effect on its economy, making it difficult to achieve its development goals. Furthermore, the use of fossil fuels is accompanied by emissions of large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere - a process that is enhancing the greenhouse effect and subsequent global warming and climate change. This article gives an analysis of the Kenya's current energy scene and discusses its alternative energy resources. Although renewable energies are at present not viable substitutes for oil, the development and exploitation of these energy resources will not only reinforce conservation measures but also promote new trends in technology development.

Othieno, H. (Appropriate Technology Workshops, P.O. Box 59997, Nairobi (KE))

1992-10-01

230

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and maintenance. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas occurs near all geothermal sites and wherever organic matter decomposes anaerobically. Respiratory damage has occurred to laborers in geothermal fields, while farm workers have been fatally overcome when employed near agitating liquid manure systems. However, the most frequent and severe of reported injuries to geothermal workers is dermal exposure to caustic sludges produced by H2S abatement systems. Principal health and safety considerations of biomass pathways are directly related to the diffuse nature of solar energy fixation by photosynthesis and subsequent transfer to animal food chains. Since the potential fuel is in an unconcentrated form, cultivation, harvest, and transport are necessarily laborintensive. Thus, a significant potential for occupational injuries and fatalities exists. Of all biomass systems evaluated, direct burning of solid fuels presents the greatest public health risk. Data are presented to characterize the population at risk and the frequency and severity of injuries.

Watson, A. P.; Etnier, E. L.

1981-07-01

231

New technologies for the use of alternative fuels in European district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

In Europe, district heating systems with cogeneration are used extensively. In the United States, old district heating systems, using primarily steam for heat transfer, are losing in the competition to cheaper fuels. However, in both Europe and the United States, a shift has taken place in recent years to reduce the use of fossil fuels and start using renewable sources such as wood paste, peat, municipal solid waste, agricultural biomass, geothermal energy and energy extraction from waste water, solar assistance and thermal storage, low peak hydroelectric power, and cooling water from nuclear plants. In the United States, renewed interest has arisen in district heating and cooling, including the use of hot water systems and research in the use of renewable sources of energy. Cogeneration for district heating and cooling is by itself a form of energy conservation as the fuel efficiency of a power plant is raised from a level of often less than 30% to 80% or more. Combined with retrofitting buildings with superinsulation on a community-wide basis, and with new technologies and efficiencies gained with the use of low temperature, low pressure hot water, and chilled water from seasonal storage systems, district heating provides a reliable and economical energy source for modern cities. Multifuel equipment offers a choice of energy production strategies and increases fuel efficiency in community-wide systems.

Kainlauri, E.O.

1985-01-01

232

Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

233

Digial Technology Qualification Task 2 - Suitability of Digital Alternatives to Analog Sensors and Actuators  

SciTech Connect

The next generation reactors in the U.S. are an opportunity for vendors to build new reactor technology with advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems (control rooms, DCS, etc.). The advances made in the development of many current generation operating reactors in other parts of the world are being used in the design and construction of new plants. These new plants are expected to have fully integrated digital control rooms, computerized procedures, integrated surveillance testing with on-line monitoring and a major effort toward improving the O&M and fault survivability of the overall systems. In addition the designs are also incorporating major improvements in the man-machine interface based on lessons learned in nuclear and other industries. The above relates primarily to the scope of supply in instrumentation and control systems addressed by Chapter 7 of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) NUREG-0800 (Reference 9.5), and the associated Balance of Plant (BOP) I&C systems. This does not relate directly to the actuator and motor, breaker, initiation circuitry, valve position, etc. which is the subject of this report and normally outside of the traditional Distributed Control System (DCS), for both safety and non-safety systems. The recommendations presented in this report will be used as input to I&C research programming for the implementation of lessons learned during the early phases of new build both for large light water reactors (LWR) and also small modular reactors (SMR). This report is intended to support current research plans and provide user (vendor, owner-operator) input to the optimization of these research plans.

Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck

2012-09-01

234

Gravitational Waves in Viable Modified Gravity Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our recent work [1] on gravitational waves in viable f(R) models. We concentrate on the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. We show that in both cases, the mass of the scalar mode is order of 10-33eV when it propagates in vacuum. In the presence of matter density, such as galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. In particular, it becomes almost infinity so that the scalar mode of gravitational wave for the exponential model disappears like the ACDM, whereas it can be as low as 10-24eV in the Starobinsky model, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10-9 Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes in space.

Geng, C. Q.

2012-09-01

235

Viable Supersymmetry and Leptogenesis with Anomaly Mediation  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_B-L. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1)_B-L and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu

2005-01-13

236

Viable supersymmetry and leptogenesis with anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand-unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1){sub Y} and U(1){sub B-L}. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1){sub B-L} and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2004-10-01

237

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids. PMID:23165716

Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

2012-12-01

238

COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)  

SciTech Connect

COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

Not Available

1990-09-01

239

Chemical technology and economics in environmental perspectives. Investigation of alternatives for selected aerosol propellants and related applications of chlorofluorocarbons. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aerosol propellant and related applications of fluorocarbons were examined to identify existing and technologically feasible alternatives. Associated cost factors were also considered. Interested parties brought these fluorocarbon applications to the attention of an interagency work group (EPA, FDA, and CPSC) as being possible 'essential uses' of these substances. The applications examined under the task were: flying insect insecticides, other

T. W. Lapp; G. L. Kelso; L. Breed; H. Gadberry; T. Milne

1977-01-01

240

Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

241

The SOLAR Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

1984-01-01

242

The SOLAR Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)|

Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

1984-01-01

243

Models of Governance - A Viable Systems Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a framework for examining governance issues spanning the corporate, public and nonprofit sectors that draws on existing frames-in-use, and that reflects the systemic communality apparent within varied attempts to describe and effect change in governance. The paper surveys alternative conceptualisations of governance that have surfaced in the academic and practitioner literature and draws attention to the cybernetic

John Davies

2002-01-01

244

Effect of inductive power technology systems on battery-electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

As battery-electric vehicle technology advances as a viable alternative to internal combustion engine vehicles, consumer acceptance becomes a critical factor for the future of these vehicles, with driving range and vehicle cost being the preeminent parameters of concern. Unique to battery-electric vehicles is the direct inverse relationship between these parameters. Battery pack costs often account for over one half of

Andre Lorico; Joachim Taiber; Tamer Yanni

2011-01-01

245

Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon

Jyotirmay Mathur; Narendra Kumar Bansal; Hermann.-Joseph Wagner

2003-01-01

246

Manganese carbonyl fluorides: are they viable molecules?  

PubMed

The mononuclear Mn(CO)(5)X and binuclear Mn(2)(CO)(8)(?-X)(2) manganese carbonyl halides have long been known for the halogens Cl, Br, and I. However, the corresponding manganese carbonyl fluorides (X = F) remain unknown. The structures and thermochemistry of such manganese carbonyl fluorides and their decarbonylation products have now been investigated using density functional theory. In all cases singlet structures were found to have lower energies than the corresponding triplet structures. The expected octahedral structure is predicted for Mn(CO)(5)F. Decarbonylation of Mn(CO)(5)F is predicted to give trigonal bipyramidal Mn(CO)(4)F with equatorial fluorine. Further, decarbonylation gives tetrahedral Mn(CO)(3)F. All of the binuclear Mn(2)(CO)(n)F(2) structures (n = 8, 7, 6) are predicted to have a central Mn(2)F(2) unit with two bridging F atoms, a non-bonding Mn···Mn distance of ~3.1 Å, and exclusively terminal CO groups. The thermochemistry of these manganese carbonyl fluorides indicates that they are viable species. This suggests that the failure to date to synthesize the simple manganese carbonyl fluorides arises from a lack of a suitable synthetic method rather than from the instability of the desired products. PMID:22491522

Deng, Jianming; Li, Qian-shu; Xie, Yaoming; King, R Bruce

2012-04-11

247

GBFEL-TIE (Ground-Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) sample survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Three locations on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are under consideration as alternatives for the proposed Ground-Based Free-Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE). The study conducted jointly by Prewitt and Associates, Inc., and the Office of Contract Archeology, was designed to provide input into the GBFEL-TIE Draft Environmental Impact Statement concerning the potential impact of the proposed project on cultural resources in each of the alternatives. The input consists of a series of predictions based on data gathered from two sources: (1) a cultural resource sample survey (15%) of two alternatives conducted as part of this study, and (2) from a previous survey of the third alternative. A predictive model was devleoped and applied using these data that estimated the potential impact of the GBFEL-TIE facility on the cultural resources within each alternative. The predictions indicate that the NASA alternatives, by far, the least favorable location for the facility followed by the Orogrande and Stallion Alternatives.

Seaman, T.J.; Doleman, W.H.

1988-09-30

248

Hydrofluoropolyethers: Another alternative to CFCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorinated fluids are widely used because of their unique properties: They are chemically and biologically inert, nontoxic, stable, nonflammable, and miscible in most solvents. However, because many of these fluids cause ozone-depleting and global-warming effects, one must search for viable alternatives. A recent CHEMTECH article described the properties of perfluorinated ethers as alternative refrigerants. Here the authors describe hydrofluoropolyethers (HFPEs),

M. Visca; R. Silvani; G. Marchionni

1997-01-01

249

Empowering System Developers through Alternate Methods and Technologies: Testing the Efficacy of GDSS (Group Decision Support Systems)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial changes are occurring in systems development. In response, attempts are being made to empower system developers through technology. The predominant response being CASE. Even if CASE were an accepted enabling technology, it is not a sufficient technology. CASE focuses on the technical aspects of system development work. System developers need complementary technology to help with the social aspects. Eventually

Bernard Glasson; Doug Atkinson; Vanessa Chang; Alma Whiteley

1994-01-01

250

Alternatives to Animal Use in Research and Testing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perspectives, policy issues, and options for Congressional action that relate most directly to the development and implementation of alternatives to animal use in research and testing are addressed in this report. Testimonies and reports include those from the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Institute of Health, and the Food and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

251

The chiropractic market segment: a viable market opportunity for M.D.'s?  

PubMed

Physicians have traditionally paid closer attention to the competition from other medical practitioners, but have ignored competition arising from "alternative therapies" such as hypnosis, acupuncture, or chiropractic. The purpose of this article is to survey the market segment served by one such unconventional practitioner, i.e., chiropractors, with the intention of determining its likelihood as a viable market to be pursued by M.D.'s. PMID:10116304

Hanna, N; Kizilbash, A H; Wagle, J

1991-01-01

252

Survival of “pre-viable” infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200–499 g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200–499 g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 1985–1988 versus 1995–1999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

2005-01-01

253

Is Exercise a Viable Treatment for Depression?  

PubMed Central

Depression is a common disorder that is associated with compromised quality of life, increased health care costs, and greater risk for a variety of medical conditions, particularly coronary heart disease. This review examines methods for assessing depression and discusses current treatment approaches. Traditional treatments include psychotherapy and antidepressant medications, but such treatments are not effective for all patients and alternative approaches have recently received increased attention, especially the use of aerobic exercise. This review examines evidence that exercise is effective in improving depressive symptoms among patients with major depression and offers practical suggestions for helping patients initiate and maintain exercise in their daily lives.

Blumenthal, James A.; Smith, Patrick J.; Hoffman, Benson M.

2013-01-01

254

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live\\/dead cells. In non-viable cells

Jola M. Pisz; John R. Lawrence; Alexis N. Schafer; Steven D. Siciliano

2007-01-01

255

Impact of alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles on oil demand in the United States up to 2030  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe increasingly high oil consumption in US road transportation sector, coupled with its significant contribution to greenhouse gases emission, resulted in the implementation of many policies geared towards addressing both challenges. Aiming to enhance the US energy security, the Energy Policy Act encourages the use of alternative fuels and has set forth the requirements for the acquisition of alternative fuels

Mohammad Mazraati; Haithem Shelbi

2011-01-01

256

HF RFID versus UHF RFID--Technology for Library Service Transformation at City University of Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since libraries first used RFID systems in the late 1990s, more and more libraries have identified the advantages of the technology. With advances in HF and UHF RFID, both alternatives are now viable in library applications. While some librarians are still skeptical towards UHF RFID as unproven in the library arena, the City University of Hong…

Ching, Steve H.; Tai, Alice

2009-01-01

257

Use of Ethidium Monoazide and PCR in Combination for Quantification of Viable and Dead Cells in Complex Samples  

PubMed Central

The distinction between viable and dead cells is a major issue in many aspects of biological research. The current technologies for determining viable versus dead cells cannot readily be used for quantitative differentiation of specific cells in mixed populations. This is a serious limitation. We have solved this problem by developing a new concept with the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) in combination with real-time PCR (EMA-PCR). A dynamic range of approximately 4 log10 was obtained for the EMA-PCR viable/dead assay. Viable/dead differentiation is obtained by covalent binding of EMA to DNA in dead cells by photoactivation. EMA penetrates only dead cells with compromised membrane/cell wall systems. DNA covalently bound to EMA cannot be PCR amplified. Thus, only DNA from viable cells can be detected. We evaluated EMA-PCR with the major food-borne bacterium Campylobacter jejuni as an example. Traditional diagnosis of this bacterium is very difficult due to its specific growth requirements and because it may enter a state where it is viable but not cultivable. The conditions analyzed included detection in mixed and natural samples, survival in food, and survival after disinfection or antibiotic treatment. We obtained reliable viable/dead quantifications for all conditions tested. Comparison with standard fluorescence-based viable/dead techniques showed that the EMA-PCR has a broader dynamic range and enables quantification in mixed and complex samples. In conclusion, EMA-PCR offers a novel real-time PCR method for quantitative distinction between viable and dead cells with potentially very wide application.

Rudi, Knut; Moen, Birgitte; Dr?mtorp, Signe Marie; Holck, Askild L.

2005-01-01

258

Evaluation of alternatives for best available technology treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated wastewater at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) C-400 Decontamination Facility generates aqueous solutions that originate in drum washing, machine parts and equipment cleaning, and other decontamination processes. The chemical composition of the waste depends on the particular operation involved. In general, the waste contains uranyl, fluoride, carbonate, and nitrate ions, plus soaps, detergents, secondary contaminants, and particulate matter. The uranium content is rather variable ranging between 0.5 and 30 g/l. The main contaminants are fluoride, technetium, uranium, and other heavy metals. The plan included (1) a literature search to support best available technology (BAT) evaluation of treatment alternatives, (2) a quality assurance/quality control plan, (3) suggestion of alternative treatment options, (4) bench-scale tests studies of the proposed treatment alternatives, and (5) establishment of the final recommendation. The following report records the evaluation of items (1) to (3) of the action plan for the BAT evaluation of alternatives for the treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated wastewater at the PGDP C-400 treatment facility. After a thorough literature search, five major technologies were considered: (1) precipitation/coprecipitation, (2) reverse osmosis, (3) ultrafiltration, (4) supported liquid membranes, and (5) ion exchange. Biosorption was also considered, but as it is a fairly new technology with few demonstrations of its capabilities, it is mentioned only briefly in the report. Based on C-400's requirements and facilities, the precipitation/coprecipitation process appears to be the best suited for use at the plant. Four different treatment options using the precipitation/coprecipitation technology are proposed. Bench-scale studies of the four options are suggested. 37 refs.

Del Cul, G.D.; Osborne, P.E.; Beck, D.E.

1991-01-01

259

Comparing the alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal's future growth in power generation hinges upon the cost and availability of natural gas. As gas prices rise, coal gasification and other technologies become viable options. The electric power generation business has undergone two momentous changes over the last decade. The first is the deregulation and resulting competition in power generation. This is one of the most important events

R. L Dickenson; A. Karp; D. R. Simbeck

1993-01-01

260

An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

Hong, Sunggye

2012-01-01

261

Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

1995-01-01

262

Method to Obtain Intact, Viable Protoplasts from Pollen Grains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to and has among its objects the provision of a novel method to obtain intact, viable plant protoplasts from within the cell walls of mature pollen grains. Intact, viable protoplasts are obtained readily and in good quantity ...

M. L. Weaver

1987-01-01

263

Evaluation of alternatives for best available technology treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated solutions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Decontamination Facility generators aqueous solutions that originate in drum washing, machine parts and equipment cleaning, and other decontamination processes. In general, the waste contains uranyl, fluoride, carbonate, and nitrate ions, in addition to soaps, detergents, secondary contaminants, and particulate matter. The main contaminants are fluoride, technetium, uranium, and other heavy metals. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, the releases of radioactive materials must be as low as reasonably achievable and be below the derived concentration guide limits. To comply with the DOE order, an action plan was formulated. The action plan included a literature search to support best available technology evaluation of treatment alternatives, a quality assurance/quality control plan, suggestion of alternative treatment options, bench-scale test studies of the proposed treatment alternatives, and establishment of the final recommendation. Five major technologies were considered: precipitation/coprecipitation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, supported liquid membranes, and ion exchange. Biosorption was also briefly considered. Based on C-400's requirements and facilities, the precipitation/coprecipitation process appears to be the best suited for use at the plant. Four different treatment options using the precipitation/coprecipitation technology were proposed. Bench-scale studies of all four options were suggested. Options 1 and 2 represent a combination of lime-softening and iron coprecipitation. Laboratory test evaluations were initiated and the results involving Options 1 and 2 reported here. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Del Cul, G.D.

1991-02-01

264

Solar technology applications to enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

One possible near-term application for solar thermal technologies is the production of steam which could be pumped underground to increase the amount of petroleum which could be recovered from an oil field. This work compares 2 types of solar thermal technologies - solar troughs and central receivers - with conventional means of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to determine, first, if solar technologies offer a viable EOR option and, second, how they compare with other steam-drive EOR alternatives. It analyzes these options from the technical, economic, institutional, and environmental perspectives. The work concludes that solar EOR is not an economically attractive alternative, largely due to existing technical uncertainties; possible environmental benefits do not appear to be a driving consideration; finally, tax incentives rather than government demonstration programs would seem to be the most effective means of encouraging solar EOR technology. 44 references.

Deleon, P.; Brown, K.C.

1982-01-01

265

ALTERNATIVE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE TRANS ACID CONTENTS OF FOOD OILS: INTERESTERIFICATION, PLANT BREEDING, AND PRESSURE CONTROLLED HYDROGENATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative processing strategies to reduce trans acid contents of food oils include interesterification, genetic and plant breeding for triglyceride and fatty acid composition and pressure controlled hydrogenation. This paper will review research in these areas. Random interesterification of liqu...

266

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide.  

PubMed

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live/dead cells. In non-viable cells EMA intercalates into the DNA which prevents amplification by PCR. We adapted and evaluated the EMA technique for soil, elemental sulfur and river biofilm samples. Quantitative PCR determined that EMA suppressed 99.99% of E. coli LKI gfp+ signal in non-viable cultures and 100.00% when the cultures were added to soil samples. The same technique was also successful at suppressing DNA amplification from spiked non-viable cells in elemental sulfur samples by 100.00%, but not in three Saskatchewan River biofilms. In sub Antarctic soil, EMA-Q-PCR was used to detect the prevalence of a functional gene, amoA, and this was closely correlated to nitrification activity measurements. The ability of EMA to differentiate between viable and non-viable populations in soil was confirmed by the similarity of the 16S rRNA denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis DNA fingerprint of EMA treated soil and the 16S rRNA cDNA fingerprint of non-EMA treated soil. The EMA technique effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable spiked controls, closely mirrored activity assays and yielded community composition profiles similar to rRNA techniques. The use of EMA in soil effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable organism DNA, however it was not effective in biofilm samples and EMA partially inhibited amplification of viable organism DNA in elemental sulfur samples. PMID:17963903

Pisz, Jola M; Lawrence, John R; Schafer, Alexis N; Siciliano, Steven D

2007-10-25

267

Rebound peer review: a viable recourse for aggrieved authors?  

PubMed

Scholarly peer review represents the linchpin of academic publishing. Recognized benefits of the peer review system are manifold. Critics raise several valid concerns that deserve attention. Several studies show that the current peer review system lacks robustness and is subject to bias in favor of well-established research groups and "mainstream" theories. Hypotheses that harmonize with that of the leaders in the field are more likely to be accepted for publication in prestigious journals than heretic or radical ones. Then, there is the risk posed by the potentially unscrupulous reviewer. Alternatives to traditional peer review have been tried but the outcomes fall much short of expectations. Postreview rejection can be equally frustrating for the author and editor particularly when they are victims of limitations of the blinded forms of review. To provide recourse for authors who felt that their work has been rejected not because of the quality of science but because of the constraints of the peer review system, ARS introduces a rebound track for peer review ( www.liebertpub.com/ars ). The rebound peer review track is a two-tier process that represents a hybrid of partially blinded and open peer review systems. The goal is to make sure that every author has the opportunity to rescue their rejected work which they feel may have been victimized by the glitches of the current peer review system. I invite affected authors to make full use of this experimental mechanism so we know whether the rebound peer review should prevail as a viable recourse. PMID:22098370

Sen, Chandan K

2011-12-07

268

Alternativ Transportteknologi: Reduserte CO2-Utslipp fra Transportsektoren (Alternative Transport Technology: Reduced CO2 Emissions from the Transport Sector).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose is to shed light on how new transport technology can make a contribution to reducing transport-specific and overall CO2-emissions in Norway. An important question is whether the use of eco-friendly transport technology can reduce the socio-eco...

T. Jensen

1998-01-01

269

Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

NONE

1995-06-01

270

Minimum viable populations: Is there a 'magic number' for ...  

Treesearch

Description: Establishing species conservation priorities and recovery goals is often enhanced by extinction risk estimates. ... To inform conservation policy, recent studies have revived the concept of the minimum viable population (MVP), the ...

271

Teaching and Technology Transfer as Alternative Revenue Streams: A Primer on the Potential Legal Implications for UK Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the UK pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to…

Van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James

2005-01-01

272

The effect of alternative approaches to design instruction (structural or functional) on students’ mental models of technological design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to examine the relationship between alternative approaches towards problem solving\\/design teaching (structural or functional), students' mental modeling of the design process, and the quality of their solutions to design tasks. The structural approach emphasizes the need for an ordered and systematic learning of the design process stages, while the functional approach emphasizes the teaching and study of

David Mioduser; Osnat Dagan

2007-01-01

273

EXAMINATION AND COMPARISON OF EXISTING HALON ALTERNATIVES AND NEW SUSTAINABLE CLEAN AGENT TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPRESSING CONTINUOUSLY ENERGIZED FIRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results from testing the effectiveness of halon alternatives in extinguishing a tire scenario representing continuously energized electrical equipment. Three likely modes of failure in telecommunications facilities have been identified and three fire tests to examine these scenarios have been developed.' Objectives of this study were to replicate and verify that extinguishment could be accomplished using HFC-227ea

David M. Smith; Richard Niemann; Gordon Bengtson

274

Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the Permafrost Darkness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review represents an overview of the existence, distribution and abundance of the photoautotrophic microorganisms in\\u000a the deep subsurface permafrost of the Northeast Russia and McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The morphology, growth rate, spectral\\u000a properties, phylogenetic position of the viable permafrost green algae and cyanobacteria have been studied. Viable photoautotrophs\\u000a were represented by unicellular green algae and filamentous cyanobacteria with

Tatiana A. Vishnivetskaya; Tatiana A

2009-01-01

275

Presentation and Briefing Materials on Advanced Combustion Technology Including Principle Alternate Fuels, Intermittent Combustion Engines and Residue and Waste Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

US Department of Energy research programs aimed at conserving petroleum, natural gas and coal through the development of more efficient combustion technologies, the substitution of synthetic and refuse-derived fuels for fossil fuels, and the improvement o...

1978-01-01

276

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (Ctas). Volume 6: Computer Data. Part 1: Coal-Fired Nocogeneration Process Boiler, Section a.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from th...

W. F. Knightly

1980-01-01

277

AC 2007-1614: A DELPHI STUDY TO PROJECT THE FUTURE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AND ITS IMPLICATION TO ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The future of energy supplies in our world is largely in question. It is widely accepted that the world’s inhabitants cannot continue to depend on traditional, non-renewable, fuels as they harm the environment,and are in limited supply. Researchers and research organizationsworldwide have committed,themselves to the research and development,of alternative energies and its storage and must put out a similar

David Rouch; Adam Stienecker

2007-01-01

278

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

279

Membrane technology comes of age  

SciTech Connect

Membrane technology has come of age for industry, paralleling the increased pressures to recover products, recycle wastewater and minimize the volume, costs and liability associated with waste disposal. But, the conventional microfiltration/ultrafiltration/nanofiltration/reverse-osmosis breakout is only a starting point in determining whether membrane technology is a viable alternative in any given application. Membranes are distinguished not only by their pore size and molecular weight break-off points, but by their configurations and materials of construction. The efficiency of a particular membrane design relies, first and foremost, on an accurate understanding of the goals and objectives of the system. As waste disposal becomes an increasingly difficult and costly operation, the search for ways to recover usable products, recycle process liquids, and reduce the amounts of waste requiring disposal intensifies. For many of those goals, membrane technology offers options that are effective, dependable and increasingly cost-effective.

Dietrich, J.A. [Metcalf and Eddy Inc., Tampa, FL (United States)

1995-07-01

280

Modelling Energy Technology and Policy1 Role of alternative fuels and drive systems in the transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced supply security and CO2 policies can result in substantial changes in the transportation fuel market by 2050, even at oil prices of 29 to 35 USD\\/bbl. IEA analysis suggests that synfuels from coal, natural gas and biomass can become technologically and economically feasible substitutes for oil refinery products, while energy efficiency measures have the potential to reduce oil demand

Dolf Gielen; Lew Fulton; Jacek Podkanski; Giorgio Simbolotti; Fridtjof Unander

281

UPDATE/ADDITIONS TO CURRENT OUST PUBLICATION: "HOW TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES: A GUIDE FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN REVIEWERS"  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance manual is comprised of several chapters, each of which describes in detail alternative cleanup technologies for underground storage tank sites. Each chapter provides diagrams and tables to aide in determining whether a particular technology may be applicable for cl...

282

The emergence of doing "nothing" as a viable paradigm design.  

PubMed

Resting state fMRI has become widely accepted as a viable technique for investigating functional connectivity of the human brain. I review from a personal perspective the events of the first 8-10 years after the initial report of resting state functional connectivity, focusing on the events that led to eventual acceptance of the method. During this time there were important studies, both in MRI and other modalities, that were critical to the eventual acceptance of the resting state as a viable research tool in fMRI. PMID:22245648

Lowe, Mark J

2012-01-08

283

The VSM toolbox: Software for the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning and using the viable system model (VSM) are both facilitated by good software. This paper reports on software developed to support expert users in storing, managing, and retrieving the data associated with large-scale VSM studies. The software also seems to help novice users in learning to apply the VSM. To stereotype the software somewhat, it is a graphics-interface dbms

Barry Clemson

1994-01-01

284

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

1995-11-14

285

Fort Osage School District Works toward Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators at Fort Osage School District in Independence, Missouri, feel it is their responsibility to provide students with a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Based on Dr. Robert Marzano's model, district leaders set out to alter their curriculum so that it could be taught adequately in the time allotted for instruction. They wanted to…

Technology & Learning, 2007

2007-01-01

286

A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

287

Singularity Phenomena in Viable f(R) Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curvature singularity in viable f(R) gravity models is examined when the background density is dense. This singularity could be eliminated by adding the R(2) term in the Lagrangian. Some of cosmological consequences, in particular the source for the scalar mode of gravitational waves, are discussed.

Lee, C.; Geng, C.; Yang, L.

2012-08-01

288

Problem-based learning: a viable approach in leadership development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of the paper is to investigate problem-based learning (PBL) as a viable approach in leadership development. It identifies several key factors, strategies and possible outcomes associated with this new approach to training. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reflective inquiry through storytelling was employed as a research tool to gather rich qualitative data from two PBL trainers and 18 senior

Roland K. Yeo

2007-01-01

289

Induction and Resuscitation of Viable Nonculturable Arcobacter butzleri Cells?  

PubMed Central

Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4°C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition.

Fera, M. T.; Maugeri, T. L.; Gugliandolo, C.; La Camera, E.; Lentini, V.; Favaloro, A.; Bonanno, D.; Carbone, M.

2008-01-01

290

Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

291

Sensitive Rapid Detection Method for Viable Bacterial Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rapid sensitive method for the detection of viable bacterial cells is described in which P32 as inorganic orthophosphate is used to label the cells. Factors affecting the uptake of P32 by cells as well as the sensitivity of the method have been explored...

R. A. MacLeod M. Light L. A. White J. F. Currie

1966-01-01

292

A new method for obtaining viable cells from dermal infiltrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental contact dermatitis has been induced in 2,4 dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) sensitized guinea pigs. The developing dermal infiltrate was excised and the infiltrating cells were obtained by mechanical extraction alone as well as by the combination with collagenase and elastase treatment. The most viable cells appeared in the elastase and mechanically extracted samples and the least in those subjected to mechanical

L. Molnár; J. M. Baló-Banga; J. Leibinger; K. Kiraly

1979-01-01

293

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01

294

Total Viable Count of Microorganisms in the Infected Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating the total viable count of microorganisms in the infected dental pulp is described. The count obtainable using blood agar, tomato juice agar, or Sabouraud's agar solid media is about 106 per tooth. Anaerobes are more numerous than aerobes counted on the blood agar plates. It may be possible to apply this technique for evaluating the efficacy

E. S. Akpata

1974-01-01

295

The New China Syndrome: Delayed Return as a Viable Alternative to the "Brain Drain" Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the "brain drain" phenomenon particularly in the context of Chinese students studying in the United States and the People's Republic of China's attempts to respond. An opening section critiques the "brain drain" notion arguing that it is an inadequate construct for the actual flow of personnel and ideas between industrialized…

Pedersen, Paul

296

Is Antioxidant Therapy a Viable Alternative for Mild Cognitive Impairment? Examination of the Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic interventions for the prodromal stages of dementia are currently being sought with a view to delaying if not preventing disease onset. Uncertainty as to whether cognitive disorder in a given individual will progress towards dementia and adverse drug side effects has led to hesitancy on the part of drug regulators to instigate preventive pharmacotherapies. In this context, antioxidant therapies

Marie-Laure Ancelin; Yves Christen; Karen Ritchie

2007-01-01

297

Novel curing agents: Thermal radical initiators as viable alternatives to peroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable 1-pack coating systems are gaining importance at the expense of short-potlife 2-pack formulations. Two processes can initiate the cure mechanism: the action of heat and the action of UV-light. The use of heat has traditionally been the more popular process, as UV-curing still requires some investment and process modification on the part of customers willing to enter this market.

Katia Studer; Peter Nesvadba; Tunja Jung; Johannes Benkhoff; Karin Powell; Caroline Lordelot

2008-01-01

298

Management of non-united neck femur fracture by valgus osteotomy--a viable alternative.  

PubMed

Management of non-united neck femur fracture in young patients is still a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. In this study 35 patients with non-united fracture neck femur were treated by valgus osteotomy and fixation with dynamic hip screw over a period of 4 years. Union was achieved in 30 patients (86%) after an average period of 20 weeks. Among them avascular necrosis of femoral head was seen in 4 patients. Average limb length shortening in the affected limb after union was 1 cm. Valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy and fixation by dynamic hip screw is an effective, cheap and relatively easy method for treatment of non-united fracture neck femur in young patients. PMID:23785918

Ghosh, Bappaditya; Bhattacharjya, Bijoy; Banerjee, Kallol; Bera, Amiya Kumar

2012-11-01

299

Mucosal flap approximation in microlaryngeal surgery: Fibrin glue as a viable alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Fibrin glue is a biodegradable tissue adhesive that mimics the final step of the coagulation cascade through the activation of fibrinogen by thrombin, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot. Fibrin glue can be used to hold tissue edges in approximation. During microlaryngeal surgery, atraumatic reapproximation of mucosal flaps is beneficial in achieving an acceptable functional result. In

Shepherd Green Pryor; Eric J. Moore; Nicolas E. Maragos; Kofi Derek Owusu Boahene

2004-01-01

300

Recycled Aggregates a Viable Alternative for the Norwegian Building and Construction Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is still conducted at a relatively low level in Norway. The building and construction industry, however, have recently published action a plan by which no more than 30% of C&D waste will be placed in landfills by the year 2005. Even though this is relatively low compared to other European countries, it

J. Mehus; G. Petkovic; C. J. Engelsen; J. Karlsen; B. Lillestøl

301

Evaluation of Sampling Alternatives for Bioaerosols. Phase 2: Viable Microorganism Sampling Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was undertaken of the relative sampling efficiencies of eight bioaerosol samplers. Each was individually challenged with a bioaerosol of either Bacillus-subtilis or Escherichia-coli. The samplers were evaluated under controlled conditions in a hor...

P. A. Jensen G. N. Davis W. F. Todd

1991-01-01

302

More care at home: the challenge of creating viable community alternatives to nursing home care.  

PubMed

Creating a national long-term care (LTC) delivery "infrastructure"--one that would make home-based care more accessible to people with extensive needs--will be a major undertaking. It will require new service organizations that have the authority to provide and coordinate an appropriate array of services. Medicaid Managed Long-Term Care (MLTC) and the Programs of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) offer two promising examples of what the service organizations of the future might look like. The history of how these plans developed illuminates challenges that others will encounter. Further expansion of these types of organizations requires resolution of resource, staffing, and operational issues. PMID:16447852

Hokenstad, Alene

2005-01-01

303

The GAD Approach as an Alternative to Create Viable Housing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing is a basic need after food. Generally, low-income people living in developing countries are still barred access to legal housing process. Whereas in developed countries both women and men participate in housing provision, in developing countries it is in fact still male \\

Adiyanti Sutandyo-Buchholz

304

Peer Mentoring--Is a Virtual Form of Support a Viable Alternative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online…

Smailes, Joanne; Gannon-Leary, Pat

2011-01-01

305

Why ventilation is not a viable alternative to a complete smoking ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

homes where smoking occurs typically range from less than 1 µg\\/m3 to over 10 µg\\/m3. Concentrations in offices where people smoke typically range from near zero to over 30 µg\\/m3. Levels in restaurants, and especially bars, tend to be even higher, and concentrations in confined spaces such as cars can be higher still. Measurements of ETS-associated RSPs in homes where

D. Kotzias; O. Geiss; P. Leva; A. Bellintani; A. Arvanitis; S. Kephalopoulos

306

Biocatalyst-adsorbant systems: a viable alternative to proteolytic processes in solution.  

PubMed

Proteolytic biocatalysts were adsorbed and stabilized using alumina as a support medium. Two biocatalyst-adsorbant systems were prepared with different physical characteristics of the adsorbant: alumina powder and alumina pearls. Direct adsorption onto the support medium has the main advantage, over other fixation methods, that preliminary steps are not required for a good interaction between the support and the biocatalyst. Proteases were adsorbed and stabilized without modifying or sterically hindering their active sites. Parameters affecting adsorption (pH, temperature, ionic strength) were varied so as to optimize adsorption conditions. Operational viability of the immobilized biocatalysts was demonstrated, taking into account the rate of desorption, resistance to microbial attack, and stability during storage. Desorption in water was studied in batch and continuous-flow processes, at various flow rates. The systems also proved to be resistant to microorganisms. Tests for stability during storage found the systems' activity remained constant after 60 days, and they performed better than biocatalysts in solution. Proteolysis of a solution of g per litre of azocasein was carried out in continuous-flow and batch modes, using our biocatalyst-adsorbant systems we prepared. In all cases, free amino group concentrations were around 2.5 times greater after treatment with biocatalyst-adsorbants than they were in the starting solution. PMID:12375811

Furtado, Shirley; Cantera, Ana M B

2002-08-01

307

Is repositioning of drugs a viable alternative in the treatment of tuberculosis?  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem because of the scarcity of new antibiotics effective against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistance is particularly worrying in tuberculosis (TB), since the causative bacteria have become resistant to almost all available first- and second-line drugs and resistance is a threat to achieving control of the disease. Development of new drugs is a lengthy and costly endeavour. This is a particular problem for antibiotics, usage of which is likely to be of limited duration, and is even more true of antibiotics whose use is restricted to the treatment of a disease, such as TB, that is considered to be 'poverty related', and for which the return on the investment is seen as non-attractive. In spite of this, there is an emerging pipeline of new drugs under development that hopefully will bring new anti-TB drugs to the market in the near future. The strategy of drug repurposing, finding new uses for existing approved medicines, has seen unexpected success in other medical areas. More than one blockbuster drug has originated from this strategy. And in the field of TB, there have been several examples in recent years of this approach leading to the use of drugs for which there is undeniable evidence of efficacy in the treatment of the disease, the best example being the fluoroquinolones, which were not developed originally to treat TB. This article reviews some examples of repurposing of drugs in the treatment of TB, newer candidates for repurposing for which there is already preliminary evidence of activity and possible new options that merit further investigation. PMID:23075693

Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi

2012-10-16

308

Peer Mentoring--Is a Virtual Form of Support a Viable Alternative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online…

Smailes, Joanne; Gannon-Leary, Pat

2011-01-01

309

Ecotourism: A Viable Alternative for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the history and current status of ecotourism and its role in economic development and natural resource management. It focuses on the role of private, commercial-sector organizations. Several specific examples of ecotourism are discuss...

1992-01-01

310

Do-it-yourself milk recording as a viable alternative to supervised milk recording in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 The Irish Cattle Breeding Federation, Shinagh House, Bandon, Co. Cork 3 Dairygold AI & Farm Services, Mallow, Co. Cork The objective of the current study was to determine the feasibility of do-it-yourself (DIY) milk recording in commercial Irish dairy herds as well as the accuracy of predicting 24-h milk production and somatic cell count from part-day samples. The data

Martin Burke; Donagh Berry; Mary O'Keeffee; Pat O'Connor

2006-01-01

311

Pulsatile impeller heart: a viable alternative to a problematic diaphragm heart.  

PubMed

The impeller blood pump with its simplicity has many advantages compared with the diaphragm pump, but the nonpulsatile property has limited its applications. To make the impeller pump pulsatile, many investigations have been made in vain because of resulting haemolysis. The author has succeeded in producing a pulsatile blood flow with a centrifugal pump, by means of the streamlined design of the impeller. The vane and shroud coincide with the blood stream surface in the pump, to eliminate the turbulence and stasis of the blood flow, which are the main factors in haemolysis and thrombosis. The pulsatility of the blood pressure and flow rate is achieved by changing the rotating speed of the impeller periodically, by introducing a square wave form voltage into the motor coil. The velocity variation of the blood cells due to the changing rotating speed of the impeller is minimized by using twisted impeller vanes, thus reducing the additional Reynolds shear, which causes the additional haemolysis in the pump. In vitro testing demonstrated that the haemolysis index of the pulsatile impeller pump is slightly higher than that of the author's nonpulsatile impeller pump but clearly less than that of other pulsatile blood pumps. The in vivo evaluations indicated that no blood damage occurred and that all haematological and biochemical data kept within a normal range during left ventricular assist experiments in calves for up to 11 days. A pulsatile impeller total heart has been developed. Two pumps are located on both sides of and driven by a d.c. motor. As the motor changes its rotating speed periodically, the left and right pumps eject the blood simultaneously, and the volume equilibrium of both pumps is achieved naturally. Acute biventricular assist experiments in pig confirmed that the device caused no blood damage. PMID:8771040

Qian, K X

1996-01-01

312

Performed and preferred participation in science and technology across Europe: Exploring an alternative idea of "democratic deficit".  

PubMed

Republican ideals of active scientific citizenship and extensive use of deliberative, democratic decision making have come to dominate the public participation agenda, and academic analyses have focused on the deficit of public involvement vis-à-vis these normative ideals. In this paper we use latent class models to explore what Eurobarometer survey data can tell us about the ways in which people participate in tacit or in policy-active ways with developments in science and technology, but instead of focusing on the distance between observed participation and the dominant, normative ideal of participation, we examine the distance between what people do, and what they themselves think is appropriate in terms of involvement. The typology of citizens emerging from the analyses entails an entirely different diagnosis of democratic deficit, one that stresses imbalance between performed and preferred participation. PMID:23825243

Mejlgaard, Niels; Stares, Sally

2012-06-14

313

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Fourth quarterly report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map fades-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and Implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Technical progress for this quarter is described.

Baroni, M.

1994-01-25

314

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-09-30

315

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

Baroni, M.R.

1994-04-30

316

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Part 2. Included in Part 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-12-21

317

The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.  

PubMed

The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now. PMID:24096395

Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

2013-09-01

318

Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

Knightly, W. F.

1980-05-01

319

Alternative SO sub 2 and NO sub x emission reduction technologies for stationary sources: A comparative analysis  

SciTech Connect

Emission control of acid rain precursors is currently the subject of intense debate on Capitol Hill. Numerous bills have been introduced which call for substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from operating utility and industrial boilers. The primary focus of the debates is on the cost, applicability and potential market impacts of emissions control options available to achieve the desired reductions. These topics are also the focus of a report in preparation for the 1990 Assessment of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). This paper summarizes some of the abatement technology information for utility boilers contained in the NAPAP report. First the major provisions in the proposed acid rain legislation are summarized and the emission reduction options potentially applicable to the utility boiler population discussed. This is followed by discussion of the retrofit issues for utility boilers and a synopsis of the applicability and cost of retrofit emission control options. Since the focus of the current proposed legislation is on near-term reduction requirements for utility boilers, this paper emphasizes retrofit control options. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Emmel, T.E. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-01-01

320

Enumeration of Viable Bacteria in the Marine Pelagic Environment  

PubMed Central

The low percentage of living bacteria commonly obtained when comparing viable counts with total direct counts in seawater could be due more to inappropriate techniques for appreciating the growth ability of living cells than to unadapted culture conditions. The most-probable-number counts in filtered seawater cultures and the microscopic counts of 4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained aggregate-forming units grown on black polycarbonate filters appeared significantly correlated to the direct counts. Both these techniques show that in the superficial and intermediate water masses, the living cells may constitute an important (frequently higher than 20%) but highly variable part of the total populations. These viable counts appear more realistic than the conventional CFU counts, which provide only 0.001 to 0.2% of the total counts.

Bianchi, A.; Giuliano, L.

1996-01-01

321

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed.

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H.; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.

2011-01-01

322

Alternative wastewater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative wastewater systems have been developed not only to broaden the wastewater disposal technology but also to offer efficient alternatives to conventional sewers, septic tanks, sludge disposal, and water pollution problems. Economic tradeoffs are achieved using sewage grinders and small?diameter pressure sewers which require increased energy but permit development in hilly or rocky terrain. Vacuum sewers offer water conservation

Rein Laak; Roger E. Machmeier

1982-01-01

323

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with\\u000a intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when\\u000a the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem.\\u000a Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation

Jian-Fei Luo; Wei-Tie Lin; Yong Guo

2010-01-01

324

Formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2012-12-26

325

Production of viable pigs from fetal somatic stem cells.  

PubMed

Fetal somatic stem cells (FSSCs) are a novel type of somatic stem cells that have recently been discovered in primary fibroblast cultures from pigs and other species. The goal of the present study was to produce viable piglets from FSSCs. NT complexes were prepared from both FSSCs and porcine fetal fibroblasts (pFF) to permit comparison of these two donor cell types. FSSCs from isolated attached colonies were compared with pFF in their ability to form blastocysts upon use in NT. Fusion and cleavage rates were similar between the two groups, while blastocyst rates were significantly higher when using pFF as donor cells. FSSCs of three different size categories derived from dissociation of spheroids yielded similar results. The use of FSSCs of 15-20 microm in size yielded similar cleavage and blastocyst rates as fetal fibroblasts. In the final experiment NT complexes produced from FSSCs were transferred to foster mothers. After transfer to prepubertal gilts, three of seven recipients established pregnancies and delivered seven piglets, of which three piglets were viable and showed normal development. Results for the first time demonstrate that FSSCs are able to produce cloned embryos, and that pregnancies can be established and viable piglets can be produced. PMID:17907947

Hornen, Nadine; Kues, Wilfried A; Carnwath, Joseph W; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Petersen, Björn; Hassel, Petra; Niemann, Heiner

2007-01-01

326

Television and Our Children. A Report of the Activities of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two major objectives of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project were to determine the extent of the influence of violence in children's television and to determine if children's interest in prosocial programming makes it a viable alternative t...

D. Mainse

1976-01-01

327

Carbon dioxide-based copolymers: environmental benefits of PPC, an industrially viable catalyst.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide-based copolymers utilize the green house gas CO(2) and can be applied in research and industry. Here we focus on industrially viable CO(2)-based catalysts in China and beyond. Poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC), an alternating copolymer of CO(2) and propylene oxide, is one of the emerging low-cost biodegradable plastics. We describe the thermal and mechanical performances of as-polymerized PPC, where amorphous state, low glass transition temperature, and biodegradability are the three main properties. We also describe modification of the PPC, the so-called toughening and strengthening at high temperature, and plasticizing at low temperature, including incorporation of a third monomer unit by chemical terpolymerization, and introduction of special intermolecular interactions or crystallizable components by physical blending. The fast development in catalyst design and performance improvement for PPC has created new chances for industry. In particular, high molecular weight PPC from rare earth ternary catalyst is becoming an economically viable biodegradable plastic with tens of thousands of tons produced per year, providing a new solution to overcome the problem of high cost in biodegradable plastics. PMID:21058318

Qin, Yusheng; Wang, Xianhong

2010-11-01

328

Molecular approaches to the investigation of viable dinoflagellate cysts in natural sediments from estuarine environments.  

PubMed

Molecular methods offer an efficient alternative to microscopic identification of dinoflagellate cysts in natural sediments. Unfortunately, amplification of DNA also detects the presence of dead cells and is not a reliable indication of cyst viability. Because mRNA transcripts are more labile than DNA, the presence of specific transcripts may be used as a proxy for cyst viability. Here, we evaluate mRNA detection capabilities for identification of viable cysts of the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, in natural sediment samples. We targeted transcripts for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, cytochrome b (COB), and Tags 343 and 277, recently identified by serial analysis of gene expression. Expression was confirmed in laboratory cultures and compared with natural sediment samples. Three of the transcripts were detected in sediments by RT-PCR. The fourth transcript, for COB, was not detected in sediments, perhaps because of down-regulation of the gene in anoxic conditions. Our results suggest that methods targeting specific mRNA transcripts may be useful for detection of viable cysts in natural sediment samples. In addition, dinoflagellate cysts, which sustain extended periods of anoxia, may provide an important source of data for studies of anoxia tolerance by microbial eukaryotes. PMID:15817113

Coyne, Kathryn J; Craig Cary, S

329

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative energy sources and technologies can play a vital role

Denis Kouroussis; Shahram Karimi

2006-01-01

330

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones  

PubMed Central

Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), progesterone (P4) and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A)) essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20) was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013), as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant). Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071), but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure remains unknown.

2011-01-01

331

Viable f(R) gravity and future cosmological evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the so-called viable modified gravities is analyzed. This kind of gravity theories are characterized by a well behavior at local scales, where General Relativity is recovered, while the modified terms become important at the cosmological level, where the late-time accelerating era is reproduced, and even the inflationary phase. In the present work, the future cosmological evolution for one of these models is studied. A transition to the phantom phase is observed. Furthermore, the scalar-tensor equivalence of f(R) gravity is also considered, which provides important information concerning this kind of models.

Sáez-Gómez, Diego

2013-02-01

332

Viable butNonculturable Bacteria inDrinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes,Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Streptococcus faecalis, Micro- coccusflavus, Bacillus subtilis, andPseudomonas strains L2and719were tested fortheability togrow and maintain viability indrinking water.Microcosms were employed inthestudy tomonitor growthandsurvival byplate counts, acridine orangedirect counts(AODC),anddirect viable counts(DVC).Plate countsdropped belowthedetection limit within 7daysforallstrains exceptthose ofBaciUus andPseudomonas. Inall cases, theAODC didnotchange. TheDVC alsodidnotchange exceptthattheDVC,on average, were ca. 10-fold lower thantheAODC. Bacteria initially presented withadequate nutrient

RITAR. COLWELL

1991-01-01

333

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

334

Alternative Reproductive Technologies: Implications for Children and Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (May 21, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A hearing was held for the purpose of receiving testimony about alternative reproductive technologies and their implications for children, families, and society. Testimony provided: (1) a comparison of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer, and trends in in vitro fertilization; (2) a summary of definitions, statistics, and the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

335

Evaluation of the technological characteristics and bread-making quality of alternative wheat cereals in comparison with common and durum wheat.  

PubMed

The growing sensibility toward those foods that are characterized by natural and healthy features has raised the interest toward alternative wheat cereals. This research was carried out to compare the technological characteristics and the bread-making quality of Khorasan wheat, type Kamut and spelt (cv. Forenza), to those of common (cv. Rio) and durum wheat (cv. Norba). The results obtained show that both Forenza and Kamut gave an acceptable bread-making performance. A certain variability affected flour characteristics (protein content, carotenoid pigments and alveograph indices) over the 2 years of experimentation, due to environmental effects. This reflected on the corresponding breads but the statistical analysis indicated that, on the whole, Kamut bread was characterized by a high content of carotenoid pigments. Regarding sensory properties (profiled by means of 11 descriptors of visual appearance, texture, odor and flavor) and loaf volumes, breads from Forenza and Kamut appeared different from each other but similar to those obtained from Rio and Norba grown in the same environment, respectively. PMID:21421673

Pasqualone, A; Piergiovanni, A R; Caponio, F; Paradiso, V M; Summo, C; Simeone, R

2011-03-18

336

COMPLEAT (community-oriented model for planning least-cost energy alternatives and technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The community-oriented model for planning least-cost energy alternatives and technologies (COMPLEAT) is an electric utility planning model designed to be principally used by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

1990-09-01

337

Alternate technologies for MRS design  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to evaluate candidate MRS concepts and to recommend the two most preferred concepts. The eight concepts studied are: metal cask (stationary and transportable); concrete cask (silo); concrete cask-in-trench; field drywell; tunnel drywell; open cycle vault; closed cycle vault; and tunnel rack vault. To achieve a more equitable comparison of the concepts, conceptual design analyses were performed for the candidate concepts using a common set of specified design requirements selected with consideration of the MRS mission. Using this normalized conceptual design information, the MRS concepts were evaluated and compared on the basis of their relative performance on seven criteria: flexibility, concept maturity, cost, environmental impacts, safety and licensing, socioeconomic impacts, and siting requirements. These seven criteria were judged to form a reasonable and complete basis for the evaluation of MRS concepts' ability to satisfy the MRS mission requirements. 5 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

Smith, R.I.; Triplett, M.B.; Ashton, W.B.; Kelly, W.S.

1984-01-01

338

The use of laser-welded titanium framework technology: a case report for the totally edentulous patient.  

PubMed

Laser-welded technology has become a viable alternative to the conventional lost wax-casting technique in the field of implant dentistry. Studies have demonstrated the predictable nature of laser-welded titanium frameworks for endosseous implants in the partial and totally edentulous patient. A standardized impression and fabrication procedure is required for an accurate and predictable superstructure. More long-term studies are needed for more widespread acceptance and usage by dental practitioners. PMID:16447902

Jackson, Brian J

2005-01-01

339

GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

1991-11-01

340

Production of viable cultures of Flavobacterium psychrophilum: approach and control.  

PubMed

Although the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a major source of concern in salmonid hatcheries, few studies have been conducted on its pathogenicity. Difficulties are often experienced when trying to control or quantify standard procedures for in vitro culture of the bacterium. Plate enumeration and counting chamber enumeration combined with epifluorescent microscopy with fluorescent dyes determined that no more than 25% of the bacterial cells present in the cultures were able to produce colonies on agar media. This was strongly dependent upon different medium components. Tryptone-enriched Anacker and Ordal medium proved more suitable than tryptone-yeast extract-salts with skimmed milk. Adding horse serum and trace elements in controlled proportions offered the most reproducible results. Viable but nonculturable forms were apparently not responsible for the difficulties in production of F. psychrophilum, but the cells were highly susceptible to osmotic conditions. Improvements in the media and careful handling of the bacteria in isotonic suspension media resulted in predictable production of viable bacteria and allowed an absorbance/colony-forming-units relation curve to be established. PMID:10422696

Michel, C; Antonio, D; Hedrick, R P

1999-06-01

341

Substrata mechanical stiffness can regulate adhesion of viable bacteria.  

PubMed

The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation remain unclear, though nearly all studies have focused on the role of physical and chemical properties of the material surface. Given the large monetary and health costs of medical-device colonization and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding of material properties that can limit bacterial adhesion and viability. Here we employ weak polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) thin films comprised of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), assembled over a range of conditions, to explore the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of material surfaces controlling adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and subsequent colony growth. Although it is increasingly appreciated that eukaryotic cells possess subcellular structures and biomolecular pathways to sense and respond to local chemomechanical environments, much less is known about mechanoselective adhesion of prokaryotes such as these bacteria. We find that adhesion of viable S. epidermidis correlates positively with the stiffness of these polymeric substrata, independently of the roughness, interaction energy, and charge density of these materials. Quantitatively similar trends observed for wild-type and actin analogue mutant Escherichia coli suggest that these results are not confined to only specific bacterial strains, shapes, or cell envelope types. These results indicate the plausibility of mechanoselective adhesion mechanisms in prokaryotes and suggest that mechanical stiffness of substrata materials represents an additional parameter that can regulate adhesion of and subsequent colonization by viable bacteria. PMID:18452330

Lichter, Jenny A; Thompson, M Todd; Delgadillo, Maricela; Nishikawa, Takehiro; Rubner, Michael F; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

2008-05-02

342

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem. Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation of PMA treatment and to evaluate the suitability of the method by applying the following samples: (1) pure cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Alcaligenes faecalis; (2) pond water samples spiked with heat-killed E. coli O157:H7 and E. aerogenes; (3) anaerobic sludge samples exposed to increasing heat stress; and (4) selected natural samples of estuarine sediment and lake mud. Results from the first two experiments show that PMA treatment cannot efficiently suppress dead cells from PCR amplification when the targeted gene is as short as 190 bp, however, the two-step nested PCR can overcome this problem. The last two experiments indicate the method that PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR is useful for viable cells detection in microbial ecology. PMID:20024544

Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

2009-12-19

343

Viable but nonrecoverable stage of Salmonella enteritidis in aquatic systems.  

PubMed

An environmental isolate (13- 1BB ) of Salmonella enteritidis serogroup C1 was inoculated into sterile Potomac River water microcosms to observe survival and culturability of the organism by employing acridine orange direct count, fluorescent antibody direct count, direct viable count, plate count on veal infusion agar and xylose lysine decarboxylase agar, and indirect enumeration by the most-probable-number method (MPN), using media selective for Salmonella. Loss of culturability on laboratory media was observed within 48 h. However, cultures could be "resuscitated" and cultured on solid media, following addition of nutrients to the microcosms . Cells, resuscitated 4 days after apparent "die-off" (0 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL) using plate count techniques, yielded numbers of cfu in the same order of magnitude as had been observed before the onset of nutrient limitation. Microscopic techniques for direct viable counting indicated that viability is maintained for as long as 60 days after depletion of nutrients, although attempts to culture these cells, by addition of nutrient, after 21 days yielded apparently sterile plates. Thus, longer periods of "dormancy" appear to require conditions other than simple nutrient addition for resumption of cell growth and division. PMID:6372975

Roszak, D B; Grimes, D J; Colwell, R R

1984-03-01

344

Clinical and sonographic management of viable hydatid liver cysts  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to review our 18-year experience in the treatment of viable hydatid liver cysts (HLCs) with double percutaneous aspiration and ethanol injection (D-PAI) and to provide indications for the clinical management of HLCs. Materials and methods From January 1989 to December 2007, 127 patients (100 males; 13–80 years) with 184 viable HLCs (137 univesicular, 47 multivesicular; 2.8–20 cm) underwent D-PAI. Results Ultrasonography (US) showed complete disappearance of 125/184 (68%) cysts; in the remaining 59 cases, an inactive solid (37 cases, 20%) or liquid pattern (22 cases, 12%) was observed with volume decreases of 50–80%. The final US pattern was unmodified during the follow-up in 96.8%. Local recurrences were observed in 5 patients (3.9%): 4 patients with 8 multivesicular cysts and 1 patient with a bilocular cyst (with a solid pattern on US) that ruptured into the biliary tree 2 years after the procedure and disappeared after endoscopic sphincterectomy. The mortality rate was 0.8%, and the overall morbidity was 8.6%. The mean hospital stay was 2.9 days. The time of healing for smaller cysts (<5 cm) was shorter than that of large cysts (?5 cm) (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our long-term results confirm the high effectiveness of D-PAI in the treatment of HLCs. These results suggest that multilocular cysts require closer follow-up than unilocular cysts.

Giorgio, A.; de Stefano, G.; Di Sarno, A.; Liorre, G.; Scognamiglio, U.; Iaquinta, S.; Mariniello, A.; Giorgio, V.; de Stefano, M.; Perrotta, A.

2008-01-01

345

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...

2009-07-01

346

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...

2008-07-01

347

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...

2010-07-01

348

An online listserv for nurse practitioners: a viable venue for continuous nursing professional development?  

PubMed

This study reports the results of a qualitative study involving a large and longstanding online nurse listserv in the United States. A sample of 27 critical care and advanced-practice nurse practitioners was interviewed using semi-structured individual interviews. This study found evidence that participation in an online listserv offers a viable avenue for the continuous professional development of nurses by providing nurses the opportunity to make more informed decisions about their professional practice and keeping abreast with up-to-date changes in their specialty areas when they shared knowledge with one another. Follow-up interviews with 10 nurses who frequently shared their knowledge revealed six motivators that helped promote knowledge sharing: (a) reciprocity, (b) collectivism, (c) personal gain, (d) respectful environment, (e) altruism, and (f) technology. Implications for sustaining knowledge sharing in an online listserv are discussed. The finding will inform educators and administrators who support continuing education and professional development of healthcare professionals. PMID:17881096

Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

2007-09-18

349

Intestinal stem cells remain viable after prolonged tissue storage.  

PubMed

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are responsible for renewal of the epithelium both during normal homeostasis and following injury. As such, they have significant therapeutic potential. However, whether ISCs can survive tissue storage is unknown. We hypothesize that, although the majority of epithelial cells might die, ISCs would remain viable for at least 24 h at 4 °C. To explore this hypothesis, jejuna of C57Bl6/J or Lgr5-LacZ mice were removed and either processed immediately or placed in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 °C. Delayed isolation of epithelium was performed after 24, 30, or 48 h storage. At the light microscope level, despite extensive apoptosis of villus epithelial cells, small intestinal crypts remained morphologically intact for 30 h and ISCs were identifiable via Lgr5-LacZ positivity. Electron microscopy showed that ISCs retained high integrity for 24 h. When assessed by flow cytometry, ISCs were more resistant to degeneration than the rest of the epithelium, including neighboring Paneth cells, with higher viability across all time points. Cultured isolated crypts showed no loss of capacity to form complex enteroids after 24 h tissue storage, with efficiencies after 7 days of culture remaining above 80 %. By 30 h storage, efficiencies declined but budding capability was retained. We conclude that, with delay in isolation, ISCs remain viable and retain their proliferative capacity. In contrast, the remainder of the epithelium, including the Paneth cells, exhibits degeneration and programmed cell death. If these findings are recapitulated in human tissue, storage at 4 °C might offer a valuable temporal window for the harvesting of crypts or ISCs for therapeutic application. PMID:23820734

Fuller, Megan K; Faulk, Denver M; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Mahe, Maxime M; Stout, Kara M; von Furstenberg, Richard J; Smith, Brian J; McNaughton, Kirk K; Shroyer, Noah F; Helmrath, Michael A; Henning, Susan J

2013-07-03

350

Improved Direct Viable Count Procedure for Quantitative Estimation of Bacterial Viability in Freshwater Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct viable count (DVC) procedure was developed which clearly and easily discriminates the viability of bacterial cells. In this quantitative DVC (qDVC) procedure, viable cells are selectively lysed by spheroplast formation caused by incubation with antibiotics and glycine. This glycine effect leads to swollen cells with a very loose cell wall. The viable cells then are lysed easily by

DAISAKU YOKOMAKU; NOBUYASU YAMAGUCHI; MASAO NASU

2000-01-01

351

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

2010-01-01

352

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

2009-01-01

353

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

2013-01-01

354

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise...tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

2013-01-01

355

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise...tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

2010-01-01

356

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise...tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

2009-01-01

357

Systemism: the alternative to individualism and holism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three radical worldviews and research approaches are salient in social studies: individualism, holism, and systemism. Individualism focuses on the composition of social systems, whereas holism focuses on their structure. Neither of them is adequate, one because all individuals are interrelated and two because there are no relations without relata. The only cogent and viable alternative is systemism, according to which

Mario Bunge

2000-01-01

358

Characterization of Exposure to Low Levels of Viable Penicillium chrysogenum Conidia and Allergic Sensitization Induced by a Protease Allergen Extract from Viable P. chrysogenum Conidia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous evidence by our laboratory has shown that mice inoculated with viable Penicillium chrysogenum conidia or spores at levels comparable to those found in contaminated buildings induced spore antigen-specific allergic responses. We proposed that mice exposed to low levels of viable P. chrysogenum conidia would not develop allergic symptoms. We also hypothesized that the symptoms induced by high numbers

Christopher J. Schwab; J. Danny Cooley; Trevor Brasel; Cynthia A. Jumper; Suzanne C. Graham; David C. Straus

2003-01-01

359

Is viability still viable after the STICH trial?  

PubMed

Stunning and hibernation represent two different forms of tissue viability identifiable in acute coronary syndromes and chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy, respectively. Functional recovery occurs spontaneously with myocardial stunning, while it generally follows revascularization in case of hibernating myocardium. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is an accurate modality for identifying myocardial stunning and provides important information on ventricular remodelling after both systemic thrombolysis and primary angioplasty. In patients with conservatively treated infarction, the prognostic significance of viability by dobutamine stress echocardiography correlates with residual pump function. Substantial contractile reserve is predictive of favourable outcome in patients with poor but not in those with preserved or slightly reduced left ventricular function. Non-invasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery allows to distinguish between necrotic and stunned myocardium and predicts ventricular remodelling following primary angioplasty. Resting echocardiographic examination can provide information on hibernating myocardium. In particular, systolic thickening <7 mm, restrictive filling pattern, and high end-systolic volume are predictive of no viability. Compared with nuclear imaging, dobutamine stress echocardiography is more specific for predicting functional recovery, less expensive, more generally available and radiation-free. A large body of evidence collected over the years demonstrates the favourable prognostic impact of revascularizing extensive myocardial territories which are found viable at dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The prognostic implications of viability-guided revascularization have been clearly established in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, the prognostic value of myocardial viability has been questioned by the results of the STICH trial that did not demonstrate any advantage of survival in the patients with a large extent of myocardial viability undergoing revascularization. Is the end of a paradigm that deeply influenced clinical practice so far or just a neutral result that can be ignored due to the several limitations of study design? In the present review, we will address the main advantages and limitations of ultrasounds for the evaluation of myocardial viability and try to demonstrate that viability is still viable. PMID:22080451

Cortigiani, Lauro; Bigi, Riccardo; Sicari, Rosa

2011-11-11

360

Pattern of growth in viable f(R) cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of linear perturbations in metric f(R) models of gravity and identify a potentially observable characteristic scale-dependent pattern in the behavior of cosmological structures. While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic Lambda Cold Dark Matter, the differences in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to be seen with future weak lensing surveys. While working in the Jordan frame, we perform an analytical study of the growth of structures in the Einstein frame, demonstrating the equivalence of the dynamics in the two frames. We also provide a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the dynamics of an effective dark energy fluid with a nonzero shear. We find that the growth of structure in f(R) is enhanced, but that there are no small scale instabilities associated with the additional attractive ''fifth force.'' We then briefly consider some recently proposed observational tests of modified gravity and their utility for detecting the f(R) pattern of structure growth.

Pogosian, Levon [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Silvestri, Alessandra [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

2008-01-15

361

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01

362

Viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) by adding vectorlike matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the flavor changing neutral current and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the nonthermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the big-bang nucleosynthesis era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vectorlike quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem à la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2005-04-01

363

Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models  

SciTech Connect

A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

1982-04-01

364

A viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the NMSSM by adding vector-like matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the FCNC and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the non-thermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the BBN era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z_3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vector-like quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-12-14

365

Colourful male guppies produce faster and more viable sperm.  

PubMed

In guppies (Poecilia reticulata) precopulatory sexual selection (via female choice) and post-copulatory selection (via sperm competition) both favour males with relatively high levels of carotenoid (orange) pigmentation, suggesting that colourful males produce more competitive ejaculates. Here we test whether there is a positive association between male orange pigmentation and sperm quality. Our analysis of sperm quality focused on sperm swimming speeds (using CASA: computer-assisted sperm analysis to estimate three parameters of sperm velocity in vitro), sperm viability (proportion of live sperm per stripped ejaculate) and sperm lengths. We found that males with relatively large areas of orange pigmentation had significantly faster and more viable sperm than their less ornamented counterparts, suggesting a possible link between dietary carotenoid intake and sperm quality. By contrast, we found no relationship between sperm length (head length and total sperm length) and male phenotype. These findings, in conjunction with previous work showing that highly ornamented male guppies sire higher quality offspring, suggest that female preference for colourful males and sperm competition work in concert to favour intrinsically higher quality males. PMID:16910988

Locatello, L; Rasotto, M B; Evans, J P; Pilastro, A

2006-09-01

366

Oral vitamin D, still a viable treatment option for psoriasis.  

PubMed

Vitamin D as a topical treatment has become one of the mainstays for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Oral vitamin D on the other hand has for the most part become a forgotten option. But a review of the literature on oral vitamin D as a treatment for psoriasis reveals that this treatment is efficacious. The main side effect of this therapy is hypercalcemia, which appears to be easily monitored and avoidable with proper dosing and monitoring. The literature also suggests a correlation between low levels of serum vitamin D in this patient population associated with increased severity of disease involvement. In addition, oral vitamin D improves psoriatic arthropathy. Moreover, vitamin D has been proven to have many health benefits such as prevention of cancer, improved cardiovascular health among many others. Psoriatic patients as a population are at increased risk of developing adverse health complications such as cardiovascular disease, and oral vitamin D may prove to be of benefit in this population. Oral vitamin D is inexpensive and easily available. It is still a viable option and should not be forgotten as a possible treatment for psoriasis. PMID:22103655

Kamangar, Faranak; Koo, John; Heller, Misha; Lee, Eric; Bhutani, Tina

2012-01-21

367

Viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) by adding vectorlike matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the flavor changing neutral current and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the nonthermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the big-bang nucleosynthesis era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z{sub 3} symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vectorlike quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo (Japan); Kitano, Ryuichiro [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2005-04-01

368

The Heating of the ICM: Energy Crisis and Viable Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray observations indicate that non-gravitational processes play a key role in the thermodynamics of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM). The effect of non-gravitational processes is imprinted in the ICM as an entropy minimum, whose effects are visible in the Luminosity-Temperature relation and in the Entropy-Temperature relation. However, the X-ray emission alone cannot discriminate between different mechanisms and sources of heating. There are no answers at present to the following questions: how much non-gravitational energy per baryons is present in the ICM? When was this energy injected? Which are the sources of heating? The embarrassment in front of these questions is amplified by the fact that the most viable sources of heating, SNae and stellar winds, seem to be inefficient in bringing the ICM to the observed entropy level. We may call it the energy crisis. Here we review the main aspects of this crisis, listing possible solutions, including other sources, like AGNs and Radio Galaxies, or other mechanisms, like large scale shocks and selective cooling.

Tozzi, P.

369

Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.  

SciTech Connect

Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2011-09-01

370

Viable cells are a requirement for in vitro cartilage calcification.  

PubMed

It is a common belief that chondrocyte death must precede calcification in the growth plate. To challenge this dogma, cell devitalization was induced in an in vitro model that mimics in situ cartilage calcification. Chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells, plated in micromass culture, differentiate to form a cartilaginous matrix which mineralizes in the presence of inorganic or organic phosphate. The mineral formed resembles physiologic mineral in crystal size, composition, and distribution. Killing cells by water lysis, ethanol fixation, freeze-thawing, trypsinization, or impairing their function by oligomycin treatment prior to the time at which mineralization commenced, prevented mineral deposition. In contrast, devitalizing cells by any of these techniques after mineralization commenced resulted in dystrophic calcification (excessive, randomly distributed mineral of larger than physiologic crystal size). Based on analyses of 45Ca uptake, FT-IR microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, it is concluded that the presence of viable cells is obligatory for physiologic cartilage calcification in the differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture system. PMID:8852573

Boskey, A L; Doty, S B; Stiner, D; Binderman, I

1996-03-01

371

Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

1980-11-01

372

Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2012-07-07

373

Outsourcing Alliances: A Strategic Alternative for IT Capable Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

While previous research has focused on choosing between insourcing or outsourcing, no systematic attempt has been made to find a viable alternative for IT capable companies, which need to realize optimum value from their IT capabilities. This study reviews the IT outsourcing and strategic management literature and identifies outsourcing alliances as a strategic alternative to the traditional arms-length outsourcing for

Theophanis C. Stratopoulos; Mihir A. Parikh

374

The Post Keynesian alternative for the Russian economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on Post Keynesian economics as an alternative perspective on the modern Russian economy. Neoclassical foundations of the radical market reforms in the former USSR are analyzed, and their perilous effects on economy and population are demonstrated. Post Keynesianism is treated as a viable and coherent alternative to neoclassical orthodoxy. The contribution to this body of thought

Soltan S. Dzarasov

2010-01-01

375

Alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

Not Available

1991-07-01

376

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

377

Augmentative & Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

Murphy, Patti

2007-01-01

378

Making silicon nitride film a viable gate dielectric  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend the scaling limit of thermal SiO2 in the ultrathin regime when the direct tunneling current becomes significant, members of this author's research team at Yale University, in collaboration with the Jet Process Corporation, embarked on a program to explore the potential of silicon nitride as an alternative gate dielectric. In this paper, high-quality silicon nitride (or oxynitride) films

T. P. Ma

1998-01-01

379

Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium using viable cryopreserved cells.  

PubMed

Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) may have potential clinical application for the surgical treatment of RPE-specific retinal degeneration, including age-related macular degeneration. The feasibility of an RPE storage bank has been investigated by experimenting with transplantation using viable, cryopreserved RPE cells. Fresh and cultured fetal human and bovine RPE cells were cryopreserved in 90% fetal bovine serum containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. The viability of the cells before and after cryopreservation was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion test, microculture tetrazolium assay (MTA), tissue culture, and transplantation after cryopreservation. The origin of RPE cells before and after cryopreservation was assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and indirect ELISA of RPE-marker protein using cytokeratin for cultured fetal human RPE cells and by immunocytochemistry of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CR-ALBP) for cultured bovine RPE cells. Freshly isolated and cryopreserved uncultured bovine RPE cells were transplanted by posterior transscleral approach into the subretinal spaces of adult albino rabbits and 23-day-old Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats with a 33 gauge Hamilton syringe. Following surgery, artificial retinal blebs were confirmed by fundus examination. Morphologic examination was performed postoperatively by light and electron microscopy in albino rabbits and by light microscopy in RCS rats up to 3 mo. Control subretinal injections using vehicle solution also were performed in RCS rats. Cultured fetal human and bovine RPE cells after cryopreservation were found to be viable, based on the results of trypan blue dye exclusion test, MTA, tissue culture, and transplantation. Expression and reexpression of cytokeratin intermediate filaments in cultured fetal human RPE were demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and indirect ELISA before and after cryopreservation. Immunocytochemistry of CRALBP before and after cryopreservation in uncultured bovine RPE cells disclosed expression and reexpression of RPE cell marker protein. No uncultured fetal human RPE cells showed proliferation in tissue culture after cryopreservation. In rabbits, light and electron microscopy disclosed xenografted RPE cells residing on Bruch's membrane of the host retina. No sign of graft vs. host reaction was observed. No morphologic difference was noted between the fresh and 10-day-old cryopreserved RPE cells in situ following transplantation at day 25. In RCS rats, subretinal injection of 3-wk-old cryopreserved bovine RPE cells partially rescued photoreceptor cells locally at the transplanted area observed at 3 mo postoperatively. The retinal photoreceptors at the inferior hemisphere of the transplanted eye and the eye injected with vehicle solution showed no rescue effect. We found that cryopreserved cultured fetal human RPE cells and uncultured and cultured bovine RPE cells can be used for RPE transplantation studies. The ability to create an RPE storage bank as a source of donor cells may result in several clinical advantages. PMID:9142447

Durlu, Y K; Tamai, M

380

Lysis of Viable Rumen Bacteria in Bovine Rumen Fluid  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus bovis and Butyrivibrio sp. were labeled with thymidine-methyl-3H, washed, and resuspended in rumen fluid or rumen fluid fractions obtained from Holstein and Jersey cows fed alfalfa hay once daily. Factors affecting the lytic activity found in untreated rumen fluid were examined. Day to day variation and differences before and after feeding were observed for the same cow. There were also differences between cows on the same day. For a given rumen fluid, the rate of release of label was roughly proportional to the number of labeled cells present over a 100-fold range in concentration. Removal of protozoa largely abolished the lytic action of fresh rumen fluid for S. bovis, but some soluble lytic activity remained. Mixed rumen protozoa added to media containing labeled S. bovis caused label to appear in solution. In a sample of rumen fluid containing 4.3 × 104 protozoa/ml 5.2% of the S. bovis population were destroyed by protozoa per hr. The mean rate of destruction for 12 runs on whole rumen fluid was 8.7% per hr with a standard deviation of 6.05. Parallel experiments with Butyrivibrio indicated that soluble lytic factors were more important for this organism. They could be destroyed by autoclaving and were generated when viable rumen bacteria were resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The lysis of S. bovis and Butyrivibrio, at equal cell densities, by mixed rumen protozoa was compared in 30% rumen fluid media, and Butyrivibrio appeared to be more readily lysed than S. bovis.

Jarvis, B. D. W.

1968-01-01

381

Alternative Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs promoting…

Stefonek, Tom; And Others

1991-01-01

382

Viability PCR, a Culture-Independent Method for Rapid and Selective Quantification of Viable Legionella pneumophila Cells in Environmental Water Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR-based methods have been developed to rapidly screen for Legionella pneumophila in water as an alternative to time-consuming culture techniques. However, these methods fail to discriminate between live and dead bacteria. Here, we report a viability assay (viability PCR (v-PCR)) for L. pneumophila that combines ethidium monoazide bromide with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The ability of v-PCR to differentiate viable

Pilar Delgado-Viscogliosi; Lydie Solignac; Jean-Marie Delattre

2009-01-01

383

EXPERT SYSTEMS: A VIABLE TOOL FOR SMALL BUSINESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the current term in decision support methodologies is Artificial Intelligence (AI). The search for AI, particularly in potential business applications, targets techniques which collectively result in expert systems. Expert systems technology, while still lacking many of the characteristics of true human expertise, can make the skills of an expert available to a broad population of people who do

Vivek Shah; Joan C. Roderick

384

The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each…

Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

2011-01-01

385

Messenger RNA-based RT-PCR detection of viable Salmonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our study was to investigate whether certain regions in the rpoD gene of Salmonella were suited for the RT-PCR detection of viable Salmonella cells. We performed RT-PCR on RNA extracted from viable, and heat- or ethanol-killed Salmonella cells. Using RT-PCR, RNA was easily detected in viable cells. For the heat-killed cells mRNA was undetectable after 1h when

Nancy Rijpens; Geert Jannes; Lieve Herman

2002-01-01

386

Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1.

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-01-01

387

Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.  

PubMed

This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries. PMID:10809004

Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

2000-03-01

388

Viable Three-Dimensional Medical Microwave Tomography: Theory and Numerical Experiments.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional microwave tomography represents a potentially very important advance over 2D techniques because it eliminates associated approximations which may lead to more accurate images. However, with the significant increase in problem size, computational efficiency is critical to making 3D microwave imaging viable in practice. In this paper, we present two 3D image reconstruction methods utilizing 3D scalar and vector field modeling strategies, respectively. Finite element (FE) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms are used to model the electromagnetic field interactions in human tissue in 3D. Image reconstruction techniques previously developed for the 2D problem, such as the dual-mesh scheme, iterative block solver, and adjoint Jacobian method are extended directly to 3D reconstructions. Speed improvements achieved by setting an initial field distribution and utilizing an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) FDTD are explored for 3D vector field modeling. The proposed algorithms are tested with simulated data and correctly recovered the position, size and electrical properties of the target. The adjoint formulation and the FDTD method utilizing initial field estimates are found to be significantly more effective in reducing the computation time. Finally, these results also demonstrate that cross-plane measurements are critical for reconstructing 3D profiles of the target. PMID:20352084

Fang, Qianqian; Meaney, Paul M; Paulsen, Keith D

2010-02-01

389

Pressfit technology for 3-D molded interconnect devices (MID) - A lead-free alternative to solder joints - challenges and solutions concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous trend in electronics production towards new substrate materials, the development of the third dimension by molded interconnect devices (3-D MID) and the constantly rising integration of functions and miniaturization of electronic products leads to new challenges for interconnection technology. Compared to interconnections established by solder materials the pressfit technology offers many advantages. Most important is that no temperature

M. Eisenbarth; K. Feldmann

2002-01-01

390

Field technologies for the measurement of PCBs  

SciTech Connect

The collaborative effort between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Energy (DOE), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents a viable team to administer, plan, execute, and report on demonstrations of commercially available field characterization and monitoring technologies. This effort is part of the EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. One of the overriding goals of this effort is to develop regulatory-accepted and cost effective alternatives to conventional fixed laboratory analyses through the identification and evaluation of innovative, field technologies. A technology demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques will occur during July 22 through 30, 1997. The demonstration will be conducted at a DOE site (ORNL) where there is a substantial repository of PCB-contaminated materials from multiple DOE sites. Technology developers with PCB monitoring instrumentation will be evaluated. These instruments will include field portable gas chromatographs with surface acoustic wave and electron capture detectors, and field analysis kits, such as immunoassay and ion specific electrode kits. These instruments are suitable for the quantification of PCBs in a variety of matrices. Soil and surface samples will be evaluated during the demonstration. The demonstration will focus on the current DOE-Oak Ridge analytical needs to support Toxic Substance and Control Act (TSCA) decisions, while allowing developers to showcase the features of their technologies.

Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carden, D.M. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Operations Office; Billets, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). National Exposure Research Lab.

1997-08-01

391

Treatment of Acute Seizures: Is Intranasal Midazolam a Viable Option?  

PubMed Central

Seizures in the pediatric population commonly occur, and when proper rescue medication is not administered quickly, the risk of neurologic compromise emerges. For many years, rectal diazepam has been the standard of care, but recent interest in a more cost-effective, safe alternative has led to the investigation of intranasal midazolam for this indication. Although midazolam and diazepam are both members of the benzodiazepine class, the kinetic properties of these 2 anticonvulsants vary. This paper will review available data pertaining to the efficacy, safety, cost, and pharmacokinetics of intranasal midazolam versus rectal diazepam as treatment for acute seizures for children in the prehospital, home, and emergency department settings.

Humphries, Lesley K.; Eiland, Lea S.

2013-01-01

392

Rapid thermal processing of ion implanted silicon as a viable solar cell technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the past quarter was to find the optimal pre-process heat treatment for enhancing minority carrier lifetime. The silicon substrates were both n- and p-type and had varied oxygen concentration and process induced defects. Pre-process heat treatments include traditional furnace thermal cycling and low thermal budget rapid thermal process (RTP). The rapid thermal process was performed in Ar, while furnace annealing had either N2 or O2 ambients. Chemical etch-pit delineation, x-ray topography and FTIR techniques were used to determine the bulk gettering and oxygen precipitation for the heat-treated Si substrates. Minority carrier generation lifetime and the change of oxygen content were measured before and after heat treatment.

Rozgonyi, G. A.

1986-01-01

393

Fluidized bed incineration of solid wastes and sludges : Viable technology for energy and environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of experimental combustion tests carried out in a fluidized bed pilot plant burning different types of refuse (municipal solid wastes, refuse derived fuels, agro-industrial wastes) are presented. The reactor is an atmospheric-bubbling-fluidize...

N. Brunetti F. Ciampa C. De Cecco S. Zuccotti

1992-01-01

394

Developing technologies for bioacoustic vocal profiling as a viable component of integrative medical diagnostics and treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 20+ years the pioneering field of Human Bioacoustics, which includes voice spectral analysis, has begun to model the frequencies and architecture of human vocalizations to identify the innate mathematical templates found within the various system of the human body. Using the idea that the voice is a holographic representation of health and wellness, these non-invasive techniques are being advanced to the extent that a computerized Vocal Profile, using a system of Frequency Equivalents, can be used to accurately quantify, organize, interpret, define, and extrapolate biometric information from the human voice. This information, in turn, provides the opportunity to predict, direct, and maintain intrinsic form and function. This novel approach has provided an accumulation of significant data but until recently has been without an efficient biological framework of reference. The emerging Mathematical Model being assembled through Human Bioacoustic research likely has the potential to allow Vocal Profiling to be used to predict and monitor health issues from the very first cries of a newborn through the frequency foundations of disease and aging.

Edwards, Sharry K.

2005-04-01

395

Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter ?, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|?2.3×104. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k??. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p0=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p1=-(1/2)? in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

2011-02-01

396

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations.  

PubMed

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier studies did not focus on the fractions of airborne allergenic fungi with respect to the total airborne fungal load. To fill these knowledge gaps, volumetric paired assessments of airborne viable and non-viable fungi were performed in five outdoor sampling stations during two consecutive years in a rural agricultural area of India. Samples were collected at 10-day intervals by the Burkard Personal Slide Sampler and the Andersen Two-Stage Viable Sampler. The data on the concentrations of total and individual fungal types from five stations and 2 different years were analyzed and compared by statistical methods. The allergenicity of the prevalent airborne viable fungi was estimated by the skin-prick tests of >100 rural allergy patients using the antigenic fungal extracts from isolates collected with the Andersen sampler. The ranges of total fungal spore concentration were 82-2365 spores per cubic meter of air (spores/m3) in the first sampling year and 156-2022 spores/m3 in the second sampling year. The concentration ranges of viable fungi were 72-1796 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) in the first sampling year and 155-1256 CFU/m3 in the second sampling year. No statistically significant difference was observed between the total spore data of the 2 years, however, the data between five stations showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between stations and years with respect to the concentration of viable fungi. When the data of individual allergenic fungal concentrations were compared between stations and years, no statistically significant difference was observed in all cases except for Aspergillus japonicus and Rhizopus nigricans, which showed significant difference in case of stations and years, respectively. The ratios between the total fungal spores collected by the Burkard sampler and the viable fungi collected by the Andersen sampler from all sampling stations ranged between 0.29 and 7.61. The antigenic extracts of eight prevalent viable airborne fungi (A. flavus, A. japonicus, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia pallescens, Fusarium roseum, and R. nigricans) demonstrated >60% positive reactions in the skin prick test. These selected allergenic fungi collectively represented 31.7-63.2% of the total airborne viable fungi in different stations. The study concluded that: (i) a rich fungal airspora existed in the rural study area, (ii) to achieve representative information on the total airborne fungal spores of an area, the monitoring in multiple sampling stations is preferable over a single sampling station; for viable fungi, however, one station can be considered, (iii) the percentage of airborne fungal viability is higher in rural agricultural areas, and (iv) approximately 52% of the viable airborne fungi in the rural study area were allergenic. PMID:15142771

Adhikari, Atin; Sen, Moon M; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati; Chanda, Sunirmal

2004-06-29

397

An approach to designing viable and sustainable telehealth services.  

PubMed

Telehealth can be viewed as an intervention in the established and stable clinician-patient system with outcomes that are not always predictable. The success of a new telehealth service depends far more on changing the clinicians and patient's expectations and patterns of behaviour than on technology. Success in telehealth projects is critically dependent on understanding how the new telehealth offering changes the distinct value proposition for each of the parties - clinicians, patients and administrators. As with any intervention, design is the key to ensuring more predictable outcomes. An approach to the design of telehealth services is described that takes a holistic view of telehealth by acknowledging the multiple and interdependent dimensions of telehealth services (clinical process change, clinical risk and governance, adoption and change management, clinician and patient experience, operational sustainability, support, and least of all, technology). The approach draws on current themes in design including 'design thinking' and service design. PMID:23823297

Taylor, Paul R

2013-01-01

398

Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

Goerz, D. A.

1987-12-01

399

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

400

Designing viable business models for context-aware mobile services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies of 3G and beyond open up new opportunities to develop and commercialize context-aware services that utilize information like user location and social context. Although initial expectations were high, the adoption and diffusion of context-aware services have thus far been limited. Existing literature points to failing business models to explain part of the disappointing uptake. However, most authors focus on

Mark De Reuver; Timber Haaker

2009-01-01

401

Waste-heat steam generation is economically viable in ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Generation of electric power by turbine-driven generators serviced by waste heat boilers is not a blue sky dream. It is time-proven technology, employing time-proven equipment-equipment that is expected to run uninterrupted in fouryear cycles. This equipment and its control are made right here in the U.S. The equipment is very simple to operate and maintain. This article describes the applications of ceramics in this industry.

McMann, F.C.; Marshall, R.W.

1984-03-01

402

The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional partnership is led by a STARS member college or university with partners such

Teresa Dahlberg; Tiffany Barnes; Kim Buch; Audrey Rorrer

2011-01-01

403

Viable plastics recycling from end-of-life electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of end-of-life (EOL) electronic products represent more than one million tons of engineering thermoplastics. The economically and environmentally sound recovery of engineering thermoplastics from EOL electronics is a challenge to the sustainability of electronics manufacturing. In this paper, we review the technologies to separate and identify pure post-consumer plastics from EOL electronics, which are followed by the comparison of

Xiuli Qu; Julie Ann Stuart Williams; Edward R. Grant

2006-01-01

404

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the

Johan Enslin; Ronald Hamaoui; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Ghaith Haddad; Khalid Rustom; Rick Stuby; Mohammad Kuran; Evlyn Mark; Ruba Amarin; Hussam Alatrash; Ward Isaac Bower; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

2012-01-01

405

The care of the pre-viable and questionably viable infant – A midwife and a neonatal nurse dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to stimulate debate and suggest areas of perinatal and neonatal practice which could be usefully reviewed. There are legal and ethical constraints on current practice and arguably this is not always in the best interest of the neonate. Given that current technology has limits we need to be realistic as to the success of our current

Doreen Crawford; Moira McLean

2010-01-01

406

Framework for Validation and Implementation of In Vitro Toxicity Tests: Report of the Validation and Technology Transfer Committee of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. However, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coordinate, or evaluate these activities. A framework capable of fostering the validation of new methods is essential for

Michael S. Dickens; Oliver Flint; Stephen D. Gettings; Richard N. Hill; Robert L. Lipnick; Kevin J. Renskers; June A. Bradlaw; Robert A. Scala; Bellina Veronesi; Sidney Green; Neil Wilcox; Rodger Curren

1993-01-01

407

Framework for Validation and Implementation of In vitro Toxicity Tests: Report of the Validation and Technology Transfer Committee of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and application of in vitro alternatives designed to reduce or replace the use of animals, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend in toxicology. The proliferation of new methods is sti...

A. M. Goldberg J. M. Frazier D. Brusick S. T. Gettings R. N. Hill

1993-01-01

408

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated

Baroni

1993-01-01

409

Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)|

Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

2002-01-01

410

Alternative Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an alternative method of assessment, students create portfolios by submitting monthly entries that demonstrate and expand their understanding of science concepts. Teachers can also use the portfolios to assess the success of their teaching practices an

Valdez, Penelope S.

2001-11-01

411

Domestic energy alternatives  

SciTech Connect

These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now.

Greenberger, L.S.; Rodgers, L.M.; Whiteaker, J.J.

1991-01-15

412

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

2008-09-09

413

Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies -- High Voltage Arc Discharge. ... High voltage electrical impulse. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/safepracticesforfoodprocesses

414

HIGH PREVALENCE OF VIABLE TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION IN MARKET WEIGHT PIGS FROM A FARM IN MASSACHUSETTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ingestion of uncooked infected meat is considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and little is known of the prevalence of viable T. gondii in meat used for human consumption in the U.S. In the present study, viable T. gondii was isolated from 51 of 55 of ...

415

Industrial viable process of making nanoparticles of various shapes and interior structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years, we attempted to develop industrial viable processes which were of significance in manufacturing the nanoparticles in good quality and large volume. Our effort relied on the self-assembly concepts of block macromolecules in solutions to prepare particles with a hard core made of crosslinked plastics and a soft shell made of low Tg elastomer. Depending on the type and microstructure of the copolymers, the solvent concentration and other process parameters chosen, a variety of shell-core nano-particles of different shapes (spheres, hollow spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, linear and branched strings, disks and etc.) and sizes (5-100 nm diameter) were reproducibly synthesized. Scale-up studies led to an optimization of the manufacturing process and the production of nanoparticles in large quantities for various product application efforts. The unique performance of those nanoparticles as performance tuning additives and novel rubber reinforcing elements was explored in rubber compounds. This review describes the synthesis methods used to produce the polymer nanoparticles, the technology to modify the particles through functionalization, the means to optimize their performance for specific applications, and the methods to use those particles in rubber compounds. Collaborators: Victor J. Foltz, Kurasch Jessica, Chenchy J. Lin, Jeff Magestrelli, Sandra Warren, Alberto Scuratti, James E. Hall, Jim Krom, Mindaugas Rackaitis, Michael W. Hayes, Pat Sadhukhan, Georg G. A. Bohm

Wang, Xiaorong

2008-03-01

416

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Fourth quarterly report, [October 1, 1993December 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map fades-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and Implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (COâ). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation

Baroni

1994-01-01

417

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (COâ) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation

Baroni

1993-01-01

418

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (COâ). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation

Baroni

1994-01-01

419

Alternative Energy Sources for Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies...

1988-01-01

420

Some considerations in the evaluation of concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW (low-level radioactive waste) disposal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop information needed to evaluate the long-term performance of concrete and reinforced concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal methods. The capability to carry out such an evaluation is required for licensing a site which employs one of these alternative methods. The basis for achieving the study objective was the review and analysis of the literature on concrete and its properties, particularly its durability. In carrying out this program characteristics of concrete useful in evaluating its performance and factors that can affect its performance were identified. The factors are both intrinsic, i.e., associated with composition of the concrete (and thus controllable), and extrinsic, i.e., due to external environmental forces such as climatic conditions and aggressive chemicals in the soil. The testing of concrete, using both accelerated tests and long-term non-accelerated tests, is discussed with special reference to its application to modeling of long-term performance prediction. On the basis of the study's results, conditions for acceptance are recommended as an aid in the licensing of disposal sites which make use of alternative methods.

MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

1987-01-01

421

Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

Not Available

1993-10-01

422

Culturing with trehalose produces viable endothelial cells after cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Dimethylsulfoxide, the most commonly employed cryoprotectant for cells, has well documented cytotoxic effects in patients. Among the compounds available that may provide protection to cells and tissues during preservation with less cytotoxicity is trehalose. Some animals, such as brine shrimp and tardigrades, accumulate trehalose during periods of extreme environmental stress. In this study, experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of culturing a bovine endothelial cell line (ATCC #CCL-209) in the presence of trehalose prior to preservation by freezing. A number of factors were shown to contribute to cell retention of metabolic activity and proliferative potential including cell culture time with trehalose and the solution conditions during cryopreservation. Using an optimized protocol consisting of 24 h of cell culture with 0.2 M trehalose followed by cryopreservation with 0.2-0.4 M trehalose in sodium bicarbonate buffered Eagles minimum essential medium at pH 7.4 resulted in 87±4% post-preservation cell metabolic activity expressed as relative fluorescence based upon reduction of resazurin to resorufin. This new method provides an alternative preservation strategy to the more classical preservation methods employing dimethylsulfoxide available for cells and tissues. PMID:22366172

Campbell, Lia H; Brockbank, Kelvin G M

2012-02-15

423

Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

2012-12-03

424

Viable thermionic emission from graphene-covered metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermionic emission from monolayer graphene grown on representative transition metals, Ir and Ru, is characterized by low-energy electron microscopy. Work functions were determined from the temperature dependence of the emission current and from the electron energy spectrum of emitted electrons. The high-temperature work function of the strongly interacting system graphene/Ru(0001) is sufficiently low, 3.3 +/- 0.1 eV, to have technological potential for large-area emitters that are spatially uniform, efficient, and chemically inert. The thermionic work functions of the less strongly interacting system graphene/Ir(111) are over 1 eV larger and vary substantially (0.4 eV) between graphene orientations rotated by 30°.

Starodub, E.; Bartelt, N. C.; McCarty, K. F.

2012-04-01

425

Alternative calcination development status report  

SciTech Connect

The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

Boardman, R.D.

1997-12-01

426

[Alternative medicine].  

PubMed

In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

Mitello, L

427

Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01

428

Controlled Release of Protein from Viable Lactococcus lactis Cells ?  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the lactococcal CsiA protein affects the cell wall integrity of growing cells and leads to leakage of intracellular material. This property was optimized and exploited for the targeted release of biologically active compounds into the extracellular environment, thereby providing a new delivery system for bacterial proteins and peptides. The effects of different levels of CsiA expression on the leakage of endogenous lactate dehydrogenase and nucleic acids were measured and related to the impact of CsiA expression on Lactococcus lactis cell viability and growth. A leakage phenotype was obtained from cells expressing both recombinant and nonrecombinant forms of CsiA. As proof of principle, we demonstrated that CsiA promotes the efficient release of the heterologous Listeria bacteriophage endolysin LM4 in its active form. Under optimized conditions, native and heterologous active-molecule release is possible without affecting cell viability. The ability of CsiA to release intracellular material by controlled lysis without the requirement for an external lytic agent provides a technology for the control of both the extent of lysis and its timing. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of this novel approach for applications including product recovery in industrial fermentations, food processing, and medical therapy.

Stentz, Regis; Bongaerts, Roy J.; Gunning, A. Patrick; Gasson, Mike; Shearman, Claire

2010-01-01

429

Alternative Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost their ability to use glucose ( ... are unlawful. Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is a plant ... that may have positive effects on cells within the brain and the body. Ginkgo biloba ...

430

Alternative Conceptualizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

1992-01-01

431

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)|

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

432

Ocean Energy Technology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Ocean Energy Technology (DOE\\/ OET) Program was instituted to develop options for extracting and distributing significant amounts of ocean energy in a reliable, environmentally acceptable and cost-effective manner. Since it's inception in 1974, the program originally emphasized the identification of the most viable ocean energy options and determination of their resource potential. Ocean current devices,

W. Richards

1983-01-01

433

Alternate transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect

Existing hydroprocessing technology can convert raw coal and shale oil liquids into acceptable transportation fuels. The compositional problems of the presence of nitrogen compounds and the low hydrogen content can be treated by fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, middle distillate hydrotreating and catalytic reforming to produce high-octane gasoline and stable distillate fuels. Significant synthetic fuels production of 1,000,000 bbl/day in the U.S. by 1990 is ambitious but achievable. Ethanol made from food crops such as corn or sugarcane is a viable gasoline blending component with excellent octane quality and could have a significant market in an unleaded premium gasoline with 10% ethanol. The high-octane quality of methanol made from the gasification of coal, wood, or municipal waste can be used to maximum advantage with specially designed engines that can deal with methanol's low volumetric and gravimetric heat contents and with its incompatibility with fuel system materials normally used with hydrocarbon fuels. The resources and technology of oil shale, tar sands, and coal are discussed briefly.

Handel, G.M.; Newhall, H.K.; Reed, E.M.

1980-01-01

434

Alternatives to petroleum-based biocides for protecting hardwood lumber and manufactured products. Transferring technologies for industry No. 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report addresses the current and prospective mechanisms for developing environmentally responsible treatments for wood products that prevent stain, decay, and insect damage. The author examines various aspects of the problem and current prevention techniques, including an extended discussion of the attributes and shortcomings of six treatments reviewed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, in An Efficacy Review of Control Measures for Potential Pests of Imported Soviet Timber. The portion of the report labeled Uncommercialized Technologies presents the new, uncommercialized technologies discovered through this project. They include: guayule shrub-derived wood preservative; biological control strategies; tannins derived from tree bark; insect-specific toxins from arthropod and vertebrate venoms; and natural biocidal repellents.

Murdoch, C.W.

1993-03-30

435

Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS) study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek®) was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml) was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. Results Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2–52 ?g) than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58–577 ?g) and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97%) for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. Conclusion We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.

2012-01-01

436

Electrochemically deposited sol-gel-derived silicate films as a viable alternative in thin-film design.  

PubMed

Sol-gel-derived silicate films were electrochemically deposited on conducting surfaces from a sol consisting of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). In this method, a sufficiently negative potential is applied to the electrode surface to reduce oxygen to hydroxyl ions, which serves as the catalyst for the hydrolysis and condensation of TMOS. The electrodeposition process was followed by the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetry. The electrodeposited films were characterized for their surface morphology, porosity, and film thickness using atomic force microscopy, electrochemical probe techniques, surface area and pore size analysis, and profilometry. The electrodeposited films were found to have a completely different surface structure and to be significantly rougher relative to spin-coated films. This is likely due in part to the separation of the gelation and evaporation stages of film formation. The electrodeposited films were found to be permeable to simple redox molecules, such as ruthenium(III) hexaammine and ferrocene methanol. Film thickness can be easily varied from < 75 nm to > 15 microm by varying the electrode potential from -600 mV to more than -1000 mV, respectively. The electrodeposition process was further applied for the electroencapsulation of redox molecules and organic dyes within the silicate network. Cyclic voltammograms for the gel-entrapped ferrocene methanol (FcCH2OH) and ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) exhibited the characteristic redox behavior of the molecules. The electroencapsulation of organic dyes in their "native" form proved to be more difficult because these species typically contain reducible functionalities that change the structure of the dye. PMID:14710818

Deepa, P N; Kanungo, Mandakini; Claycomb, Greg; Sherwood, Peter M A; Collinson, Maryanne M

2003-10-15

437

Environmentally Based Assessment Practices: Viable Alternatives to Standardized Assessment for Assessing Emergent Literacy Skills in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological validity is an important construct in the assessment of young children. The argument is made that using environmentally based assessment practices as well as understanding the child's ecology will help assure that assessments are carried out in an ecologically valid manner. The discussion focuses on play-based assessment, curriculum-based assessment, and dynamic assessment. Each of these approaches is based on

S. Kenneth Thurman; Marie C. McGrath

2008-01-01

438

Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.  

PubMed

The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals. PMID:23565221

Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

2013-04-02

439

Meat alternatives — market developments and health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing range of food ingredients is used in the manufacture of meat alternative products reflecting technological and innovative developments and consumer demand for high quality meat alternative products. This article reviews the market size and market drivers for such products, the key technological developments to date, the nutritional value, health benefits and potential contribution to public health of such

Michele J Sadler

2004-01-01

440

Discrimination of viable from non-viable gram-negative bacterial pathogens in airborne particles using propidium monoazide-assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

The presence of bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) has been of considerable concern from the public health standpoint. Conventional culture-based methods are tedious, time consuming and are unable to quantify stressed viable but non-culturable (VBNC) populations of these pathogens. This study reports the optimization, validation and application of a new and rapid quantitative method for enumeration of four live potential Gram-negative bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila) in PM of biomass burning origin. This method makes use of an intercalating dye (propidium monoazide, PMA) in conjunction with real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis following DNA extraction from PM samples for distinguishing viable from non-viable potential bacterial pathogens. This method was not affected by the complex matrix of the environmental samples, nor by any PCR inhibition effects. The number of viable pathogens ranged from 0 to 8×10(4) gene copies/m(3) in PM. With the exception of A. hydrophilia, all the three pathogens were found to be present in PM. The correlation between the counts obtained using the PMA-qPCR (modified qPCR) and those from the culture-based method was very high with R(2)~1.0 and p value<0.0001. PMID:23428754

Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2013-02-19

441

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

442

Alternative energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

Todd, R. W.

1982-04-01

443

Tethered capsule endoscopy, a low-cost and high-performance alternative technology for the screening of esophageal cancer and Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer is currently the fastest growing cancer in the United States. To help combat the recent rise in morbidity, our laboratory has developed a low-cost tethered capsule endoscope system (TCE) aimed at improving early detection of esophageal cancer. The TCE contains a resonant fiberoptic laser scanner (1.6 mm O.D.) which fits into 6.4-mm easy-to-swallow capsule at the distal tip. The tethered portion contains a single mode optical fiber multiplexed to three laser diodes at the proximal end. This design offers two main advantages over current endoscope technology. First, because of its small size, the TCE can be swallowed with minimal patient discomfort, thereby obviating sedation. Second, by imaging via directed laser light, the TCE is strategically positioned to employ several burgeoning laser-based diagnostic technologies, such as narrow-band, hyperspectral, and fluorescence imaging. It is believed that the combination of such imaging techniques with novel biomarkers of dysplasia will greatly assist in identifying precancerous conditions such as Barrett's esophagus (BE). As the probe is swallowed, the fiber scanner captures high resolution, wide-field color images of the gastroesophageal junction (500 lines at 0.05-mm resolution) currently at 15-Hz frame rate. Video images are recorded as the capsule is slowly retracted by its tether. Accompanying software generates panoramic images from the video output by mosaicing individual frames to aid in pattern recognition. This initial report describes the rationale for the unique TCE system design, results from preliminary testing in vitro and in vivo, and discussion on the merits of this new platform technology as a basis for developing a low-cost screening program for esophageal cancer. PMID:18334395

Seibel, Eric J; Carroll, Robert E; Dominitz, Jason A; Johnston, Richard S; Melville, C David; Lee, Cameron M; Seitz, Steven M; Kimmey, Michael B

2008-03-01

444

Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

Johnston, P.A.

2002-01-14

445

Comparison of Analytical Methods for the Measurement of Non-Viable Biological PM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a preliminary research effort to develop a methodology for the measurement of non-viable biologically based particulate matter (PM), analyzing for mold, dust mite, and ragweed antigens and endotoxins. Using a comparison of analytical me...

M. Y. Menetrez K. K. Foarde D. S. Ensor

2000-01-01

446

RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL VIABLE AND CULTURABLE CELLS TO EPIPHYTIC POPULATIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

The accuracy of the plate count method used routinely for enumeration of viable bacterial populations in natural environments is limited by the culturability of the target population. he method was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. iable populatio...

447

Viable control for uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems described by differential inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will study the viable control problem for a class of uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems described by a differential inclusion. The goal is to construct a feedback control such that all trajectories of the system are viable in a map. Moreover, for any initial states no viable in the map, under the feedback control, all solutions of the system are steered to the map with an exponential convergence rate and viable in the map after a finite time T. In this case, an estimate of the time T of all trajectories attaining the map is given. In the nanomedicine system, an example inspired from cerebral embolism and cerebral thrombosis problems illustrates the use of our main results.

Chen, Jia-Wen; Huang, Jen-Fen; Lo, Leonard Y.

2006-03-01

448

Two-aged Silvicultural Treatments in Lodgepole Pine Stands Can Be Economically Viable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economically viable silvicultural options are critical for management activities that provide wood products, reduce forest fuels, improve forest health, and enhance wildlife habitat. The Tenderfoot Research Project was developed in the late 1990s to evalu...

D. A. Bomquist S. J. Martin W. W. McCaughey

2006-01-01

449

Assessment of Bioaerosol Sampling Techniques for Viable Legionella pneumophila by Ethidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella pneumophila causes severe pneumonia and Pontiac fever in humans. Rapid and sensitive bioaerosol monitoring techniques for viable L. pneumophila are unavailable. Coupled with a newly developed viable assay called ethidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (EMA-qPCR), this study applies EMA-qPCR to aerobiology for the first time to evaluate the effects of the method of sampling (all-glass impinger (AGI-30), BioSampler, and

Ching-Wen Chang; Fang-Chen Chou

2011-01-01

450

Immunological resistance to L1210 leukemia induced by viable L1210\\/DTIC cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent, drug-induced antigenic alterations, not detectable in parental cells and transmissible after the withdrawal of treatment with the drug, have been obtained in mouse lymphoma. Viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, because they are rejected by syngeneic animals and carry L1210-associated TAA, can elicit host resistance to a subsequent inoculum of parental L1210. Mice challenged with viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, following rejection, were more

A. Nicolin; F. Veronese; O. Marelli; A. Goldin

1980-01-01

451

Correlation of direct viable counts with heterotrophic activity for marine bacteria.  

PubMed

Viable-bacteria counts, heterotrophic activity, and substrate responsiveness of viable bacteria have been used to measure microbial activity. However, the relationship between these parameters is not clear. Thus, the direct viable count (DVC) method was used to analyze seawater samples collected from several different geographical locations. Samples collected from offshore waters of the South China Sea and western Pacific Ocean yielded DVC that indicated the presence of surface and subsurface peaks of viable, substrate-responsive bacteria which could be correlated with turnover rates of amino acids obtained by using uniformly C-labeled amino acids. DVC were always less than total viable counts (acridine orange direct counts), and the DVC subsurface peak occurred close to and within the chlorophyll a zone, suggesting algal-bacterial interactions within the layer. For comparison with the open-ocean samples, selected substrates were used to determine the response of viable bacteria present in seawater samples collected near an ocean outfall of the Barceloneta Regional Waste Treatment Plant, Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The number of specific substrate-responsive bacteria at the outfall stations varied depending on the substrate used and the sampling location. Changes in the population size or physiological condition of the bacteria were detected and found to be associated with the presence of pharmaceutical waste. PMID:16347454

Kogure, K; Simidu, U; Taga, N; Colwell, R R

1987-10-01

452

Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives.  

PubMed

As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined. PMID:11542677

Finstein, M S; Strom, P F; Hogan, J A; Cowan, R M

1999-01-01

453

Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identifying and selecting alternative materials and technologies that have the potential to reduce the identified HazMats and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), while incorporating sound corrosion prevention and control technologies, is a complicated task d...

2011-01-01

454

Alternate materials for alternate fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an extensive investigation of five different crystalline engineering thermoplastics and their reactions to various alternate fuels. The investigation covered acetal copolymer, nylon 6/6, polyphenylene sulfide, PBT polyester, and liquid crystal polymer. These five base resins were used in unfilled, glass fiber reinforced, impact modified, glass/mineral reinforced, and long-glass fiber reinforced grades. All of the materials were tested in ASTM reference Fuel C (50% toluene, 50% iso-octane), Auto-oxidized (sour gas), and Aggressive fuel with M25, M50, and M85 at 60{degrees} and 121{degrees} C. This study was undertaken due to the automotive industry's shift towards alternate fuels and higher operating temperatures.

Not Available

1992-04-01

455

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus popilliae conforming to the...

2009-07-01

456

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus popilliae conforming to the...

2010-07-01

457

Alternative Practice Dental Hygiene in California: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

This study examines the development of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice in California through an analysis of archival documents, stakeholder interviews, and two surveys of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice. Designing, testing and implementing a new practice model for dental hygienists took 23 years. Today, registered dental hygienists in alternative practice have developed viable alternative methods for delivering preventive oral health care services in a range of settings with patients who often have no other source of access to care.

MERTZ, ELIZABETH; GLASSMAN, PAUL

2012-01-01

458

Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

Kevin L Kenney

2011-09-01

459

Steamflooding As an Alternative EOR Process for Light Oil Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to stimulate consideration of steamflooding as a viable alternative to chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques in shallow, light-oil reservoirs. A highly implicit steamflood reservoir simulator was used to predict steamflood performance of a typical shallow oil reservoir. For this study, non-uniform oil saturations were created by simulating a waterflood prior to initiating each steam injection case.

Edward Hanzlik

1981-01-01

460

Alternative Career Paths in Physical Education: Sport Management. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prior to the late 1960s, physical education professional preparation programs in the United States were principally concerned with preparing coaches of sport and teachers of physical education. However, in recent decades, the field has spawned a number of alternative career tracks of which none has proven to be more viable than sport management.…

Stier, William F., Jr.

461

Online Peer Review: An Alternative to Face-to-Face?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether online peer review can be a worthwhile alternative to face-to-face peer review. It was conducted in two pre-college English-as-a-Second-Language writing classes at a community college to examine students' responses in both modes of peer review, and to see whether online peer review could become a viable option.…

DiGiovanni, Elaine; Nagaswami, Girija

2001-01-01

462

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-04-01

463

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

464

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

465

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-12-31

466

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2000-10-01

467

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-07-01

468

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-02-03

469

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-09-30

470

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-06-30

471

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

472

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

NONE

1999-10-01

473

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-01-02

474

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-09-30

475

Designing Opportunities for Transformation with Emerging Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author argues that technology use in education has focused on combating instructional problems and inefficiencies. While technology use for such purposes is viable and important, the author proposes that practitioners and researchers in this field utilize emerging technologies as a means to provide opportunities for…

Veletsianos, George

2011-01-01

476

Alternative Careers for Graduates of LIS Schools: The North American Perspective--An Analysis of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schools of Library and Information Science (LIS) have often promoted alternative careers as a marketing tool and some students enrol in LIS schools specifically to explore alternative careers. The literature on LIS career patterns continues to suggest that those non-traditional careers are desirable and viable alternatives. Yet the survey…

Weech, Terry L.; Konieczny, Alison M.

2007-01-01

477

Arctic Gypsum Endoliths: a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme environmental conditions such as those found in the polar regions on Earth are thought to test the limits of life. Microorganisms living in these environments often seek protection from environmental stresses such as high UV exposure, desiccation and rapid temperature fluctuations, with one protective habitat found within rocks. Such endolithic microbial communities, which often consist of bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens, are small-scale ecosystems comprised of both producers and consumers. However, the harsh environmental conditions experienced by polar endolithic communities are thought to limit microbial diversity and the rate at which they cycle carbon. In this study, we characterized the microbial community diversity, turnover, and microbe-mineral interactions of a gypsum-based endolithic community in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic. 16S/18S rRNA pyrotag sequencing demonstrated the presence of a diverse community of phototrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, algae and fungi. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the viable microbial membranes, as phospholipid fatty acids and glycolipid fatty acids, confirmed the diversity observed by molecular techniques and indicated that atmospheric carbon is assimilated into the microbial community biomass. Uptake of radiocarbon from atmospheric radioweapons testing during the 1960s into microbial lipids was used as a pulse label to determine that the microbial community turns over carbon on the order of 10 yr, equivalent to 4.4 g C m-2 yr-1 gross primary productivity. SEM micrographs indicated that mechanical weathering of gypsum by freeze-thaw cycles leads to increased porosity, which ultimately increases the habitability of the rock. In addition, while bacteria were adhered to these mineral surfaces there was little evidence for microbial alteration of minerals, which contrasts with other gypsum endolithic habitats. While it is possible that these communities turn over carbon quickly and leave little evidence of microbial-mineral interaction, an alternative hypothesis is that the soluble and friable nature of the gypsum and harsh conditions lead to elevated erosion rates, limiting microbial residence times in this habitat. Regardless, this endolithic community represents a microbial system that does not rely on a nutrient pool from the host gypsum cap rock, instead receiving these elements from allochthonous debris to maintain a more diverse and active community than might have been predicted in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic.

Ziolkowski, L. A.; Mykytczuk, N. C. S.; Omelon, C. R.; Johnson, H.; Whyte, L. G.; Slater, G. F.

2013-02-01